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Voltageandcurrentdivision

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VOLTAGE AND CURRENT DIVISION


Click or Tap the Example circuits below to invoke TINACloud and select the Interactive DC mode to Analyze them
Online.
Get a low cost access to TINACloud to edit the examples or create your own circuits

USING IMPEDANCE AND ADMITTANCE

SUPERPOSITION IN AC CIRCUITS

WehavealreadyshownhowtheelementarymethodsofDCcircuitanalysiscanbeextendedandusedinACcircuitstosolve
forthecomplexpeakoreffectivevaluesofvoltageandcurrentandforcompleximpedanceoradmittance.Inthischapter,we'll
solvesomeexamplesofvoltageandcurrentdivisioninACcircuits.
Example 1
Find the voltages v1(t) and v2(t), given that vs(t)=110cos(250t).

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Click/tapthecircuitabovetoanalyzeonlineorclickthislinktoSaveunderWindows
Let's rst obtain this result by hand calculation using the voltage division formula.
The problem can be considered as two complex impedances in series: the impedance of the resistor R1, Z1=R1 ohms
(which is a real number), and the equivalent impedance of R2 and L2 in series, Z2 = R2 + j L2.
Substituting the equivalent impedances, the circuit can be redrawn in TINA as follows:

Note that we have used a new component, a complex impedance, now available in TINA v6. You can dene the frequency
dependence of Z by means of a table that you can reach by double clicking the impedance component. In the rst row of
the table you can dene either the DC impedance or a frequency independent complex impedance (we have done the
latter here, for the inductor and resistor in series, at the given frequency).
Using the formula for voltage division:
V1 = Vs*Z1 / (Z1 + Z2)
V2 = Vs*Z2 / (Z1 + Z2)
Numerically:
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Z1 = R1 = 10 ohms
Z2 = R2 + j L = 15 + j 2** 50*0.04 =15 + j 12.56 ohms
V1= 110*10/ (25+j12.56) = 35.13-j17.65 V = 39.31 e -j26.7 V
V2= 110*(15+j12.56)/ (25+j12.56) = 74.86+j17.65 V = 76.92 e j 13.3 V
The time function of the voltages:
v1(t) = 39.31 cos (t - 26.7) V
v2(t) = 76.9 cos (t + 13.3) V
Let'schecktheresultwithTINAusingAnalysis/ACAnalysis/Calculatenodalvoltages
V1

V2

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Nextlet'schecktheseresultswithTINA'sInterpreter:
{Solution by TINA's Interpreter}
f:=50;
om:=2*pi*f;
VS:=110;
v1:=VS*R1/(R1+R2+j*om*L2);
v2:=VS*(R2+j*om*L2)/(R1+R2+j*om*L2);
v1=[35.1252-17.6559*j]
v2=[74.8748+17.6559*j]
abs(v2)=[76.9283]
radtodeg(arc(v2))=[13.2683]
abs(v1)=[39.313]

radtodeg(arc(v1))=[26.6866]
Note that when using the Interpreter we did not have to declare the values of the passive components. This is because
we are using the Interpreter in a work session with TINA in which the schematic is in the schematic editor. TINA's
Interpreter looks in this schematic for the denition of the passive component symbols entered into the Interpreter
program.
Finally,let'suseTINA'sPhasorDiagramtodemonstratethisresult.Connectingavoltmetertothevoltagegenerator,selecting
theAnalysis/ACAnalysis/PhasorDiagramcommand,settingtheaxes,andaddingthelabels,willyieldthefollowingdiagram.
NotethatView/VectorlabelstylewassettoAmplitudeforthisdiagram.

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The diagram shows that Vs is the sum of the phasors V1 and V2, Vs = V1 + V2.
By moving the phasors we can also demonstrate that V2 is the dierence between Vs and V1, V2 = Vs V1.

This gure also demonstrates the subtraction of vectors. The resultant vector should start from the tip of the second
vector, V1.
In a similar way we can demonstrate that V1 = Vs V2. Again, the resultant vector should start from the tip of the second
vector, V1.

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Of course, both phasor diagrams can be considered as a simple triangle rule diagram for Vs = V1 + V2 .
ThephasordiagramsabovealsodemonstrateKirchhoff'svoltagelaw(KVL).
AswehavelearnedinourstudyofDCcircuits,theappliedvoltageofaseriescircuitequalsthesumofthevoltagedrops
acrosstheserieselements.ThephasordiagramsdemonstratethatKVLisalsotrueforACcircuits,butonlyifweusecomplex
phasors!
Example 2
In this circuit, R1 represents the DC resistance of the coil L; together they model a real world inductor with its loss
component. Find the voltage across the capacitor and the voltage across the real world coil.
L = 1.32 h, R1 = 2 kohms, R2 = 4 kohms, C = 0.1 F, vS(t) = 20 cos (t) V, f = 300Hz.

Click/tapthecircuitabovetoanalyzeonlineorclickthislinktoSaveunderWindows
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V2

Solving by hand using voltage division:

= 13.91 e j 44.1 V
and
v1(t) = 13.9 cos (t + 44) V

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= 13.93 e -j 44.1 V

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= 13.93 e -j 44.1 V

and
v2(t) = 13.9 cos(t - 44.1) V
Notice that at this frequency, with these component values, the magnitudes of the two voltages are nearly the same, but
the phases are of opposite sign.
Once again, let's have TINA do the tedious work by solving for V1 and V2 with the Interpreter:
{Solution by TINA's Interpreter!}
om:=600*pi;
V:=20;
v1:=V*(R1+j*om*L)/(R1+j*om*L+replus(R2,(1/j/om/C)));
abs(v1)=[13.9301]
180*arc(v1)/pi=[44.1229]
v2:=V*(replus(R2,1/j/om/C))/(R1+j*om*L+replus(R2,(1/j/om/C)));
abs (v2)=[13.9305]
180*arc(v2)/pi=[-44.1211]

And nally, take a look at this result using TINA's Phasor Diagram. Connecting a voltmeter to the voltage generator,
invoking the Analysis/AC Analysis/Phasor Diagram command, setting the axes, and adding the labels will yield the
following diagram (note that we have set View/Vector label style to Real+j*Imag for this diagram):

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Example3
ThecurrentsourceiS(t)=5cos(t)A,theresistorR=250mohm,theinductorL=53uH,andthefrequencyf=1kHz.Find
thecurrentintheinductorandthecurrentintheresistor.

Click/tapthecircuitabovetoanalyzeonlineorclickthislinktoSaveunderWindows

IR

IL

Using the formula for current division:


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iR(t) = 4 cos (t + 37.2) A


Similarly:

iL(t) = 3 cos(t - 53.1)


AndusingtheInterpreterinTINA:
{Solution by TINA's Interpreter}
om:=2*pi*1000;
is:=5;
iL:=is*R/(R+j*om*L);
iL=[1.8022-2.4007*j]
iR:=is*j*om*L/(R+j*om*L);
iR=[3.1978+2.4007*j]
abs(iL)=[3.0019]

radtodeg(arc(iL))=[-53.1033]
abs(iR)=[3.9986]
radtodeg(arc(iR))=[36.8967]
Wecanalsodemonstratethissolutionwithaphasordiagram:

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The phasor diagram shows that the generator current IS is the resultant vector of the complex currents IL
and IR. It also demonstrates Kirchho's current law (KCL), showing that the current IS entering the upper
node of the circuit equals the sum of IL and IR, the complex currents leaving the node.
Example 4
Determine i0(t), i1(t) and i2(t). The component values and the source voltage, frequency, and phase are given on the
schematic below.

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i0

i1

i2

In our solution, we will use the principle of current division. First we nd the expression for the total current i0:

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I0M = 0.315 e j 83.2 A and i0(t) = 0.315 cos (t + 83.2) A


Then using current division, we nd the current in the capacitor C:

I1M = 0.524 e j 91.4 A and i1(t) = 0.524 cos(t + 91.4) A


And the current in the inductor:

I2M = 0.216 e-j 76.6 A and i2(t) = 0.216 cos(t - 76.6) A


With anticipation, we seek conrmation of our hand calculations using TINA's Interpreter.
{Solution by TINA's Interpreter}
V:=10;
om:=2*pi*1000;
I0:=V/((1/j/om/C1)+replus((1/j/om/C),(R+j*om*L)));
I0=[37.4671m+313.3141m*j]
abs(I0)=[315.5463m]
180*arc(I0)/pi=[83.1808]
I1:=I0*(R+j*om*L)/(R+j*om*L+1/j/om/C);
I1=[-12.489m+523.8805m*j]
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I1=[-12.489m+523.8805m*j]

Voltageandcurrentdivision

abs(I1)=[524.0294m]
180*arc(I1)/pi=[91.3656]
I2:=I0*(1/j/om/C)/(R+j*om*L+1/j/om/C);
I2=[49.9561m-210.5665m*j]
abs(I2)=[216.4113m]
180*arc(I2)/pi=[-76.6535]
{Control: I1+I2=I0}

abs(I1+I2)=[315.5463m]
AnotherwayofsolvingthiswouldbetofirstfindthevoltageacrosstheparallelcompleximpedanceofZLRandZC.Knowing
thisvoltage,wecouldfindthecurrentsi1andi2bythendividingthisvoltagefirstbyZLRandthenbyZC.Wewillshownextthe
solutionforvoltageacrosstheparallelcompleximpedanceofZLRandZC.Wewillhavetousethevoltagedivisionprincipal
alongtheway:

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VRLCM = 8.34 e j 1.42 V


and
IC = I1= VRLCM*jC = 0.524 e j 91.42 A
and hence
iC (t) = 0.524 cos (t + 91.4) A.

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