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# HBS Toolkit

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## Black-Scholes Option Calculator

Contents
Introduction
Valuation Inputs
Valuation Outputs
Implied Volatility

This sheet
Input area for Black-Scholes Option Premia and "Greeks" Calculator
Results sheet for Black-Scholes Option Premia and "Greeks" Calculator
Calculate Implied Volatility Using Excel's Goal Seek and Put/Call Premia

Directions
This workbook contains two functional sections, "Valuation" and "Implied Volatility," described below.
Valuation -- Calculate Option Premia and Other "Greeks" using Black-Scholes Model
This spreadsheet uses the Black-Scholes option pricing formula to value European calls
and puts. To value an option, enter the following information in the gray cells:
Unadjusted stock price: the current stock price.
Annual dividend yield: the expected annual dividend as a percentage of current stock price.
(For European options on stocks paying discrete dividends,
enter as the "unadjusted stock price" the current stock price less the present value
of the certain discrete dividends to be paid over the life of the option, and leave the
"dividend yield" cell equal to zero. However, the "Greeks" will not be calculated
correctly in this situation.)
Exercise price: the strike or exercise price of the option
Risk-free rate: the yield on a zero-coupon instrument with a maturity equal to the
maturity of the option. Specify the compounding frequency assumed by this interest rate.
Time to expiration (years): the time until the option expires, in years. You can use
the box underneath the primary input area to convert a start and end date into a
maturity in years.
Volatility: the volatility of the underlying stock, expressed on an annualized basis.
The model will display the adjusted stock price (the current stock price adjusted for the
effect of dividends), the option premium, delta, gamma, rho, theta, and vega, as well as
the intermediate calculations of d1, d2, and N(d1). For explanations of these variables,
see John C. Hull, Introduction to Futures & Options Markets (NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1995), ch.
11, 14.
Implied Volatility -- Calculate Implied Volatility using Black-Scholes Model
This spreadsheet uses the Black-Scholes option pricing formula to calculate the implied
volatility of an underlying stock based on the market valuation of European calls or puts
on the stock. Enter the same information as for the "Valuation" spreadsheet, except
instead of entering volatility, enter either the call or the put premium. Then click the
appropriate button on the right side of the screen, and the model will calculate the
implied volatility based on your inputs.

## Note About Using Internet Explorer

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## Harvard Business School, Case Software 2-296-704

This worksheet was prepared by Professor Peter Tufano and Research Associate Cameron
Poetzscher as the basis for class discussion rather than to illustrate either effective or ineffective
Copyright 1996, 1999 President and Fellows of Harvard College

INTRODUCTION

## Black Scholes Option Calculator

Calculator inputs

VALUATION
INPUTS

Stock price \$

100.00

European style

5.00%

Call

Put

95.238

11.582

Exercise price \$

100.00

Option delta

0.5925

-0.3599

## Risk Free Rate

7.253

10.00%

Compounding interval

## Time to expiration (years)

1.00

Option rho

47.67

-43.24

Volatility (annualized)

25.0%

Option theta

-6.18

-2.16

Gamma

0.0145

d1

0.3111

Vega

36.1999

d2

0.0611

N'(d1)

0.3801

Start Date

01/01/95

End Date

12/31/95

Years

1.00

## Copyright 1996, 1999 President and Fellows of Harvard College

E41:

Use this box to calculate the time to expiration, then enter the result above.

F15:

## The current price of the stock.

F17:

The dividend yield calculated as annual dividends paid divided by current share price.

F19:

The stock price adjusted for any dividends that are expected to be paid between now and the maturity of the option.

F21:

Also called the Strike Price, this is the share price at which the holder of an option is able to buy (with a call) or to sell (with a put)
the underlying security.

F23:

## Enter interest rate with periodic compounding.

The equivalent continuously compounded interest rate will be used in the subsequent calculations.

F27:

F29:

## Annualized standard deviation of stock price returns.

H19:

The "fair value" price of the option, as calculated by the model, given the assumptions.

H21:

The change in option value (in dollars) when the stock price increases by \$1

H27:

The change in option value (in cents) when interest rates increase by 1%

H29:

## The change in option value when time to expiration decreasesby 1 year.

H33:

How much the option delta changes when the stock price increases by \$1.

H35:

The change in option value (in cents) when volatility increases by 1%.

J33:

An intermediate calculation.

J35:

An intermediate calculation.

J37:

An intermediate calculation.

## Black Scholes Option Calculator

IMPLIED
VOLATILITY

Calculator inputs
Stock price

\$100.00

10.00%

## Market price of call

\$11.73

Risk-free rate

10.00%

Compounding frequency

\$82.64

## Exercise price \$ 100.00

Market price of put

\$7.10

2.00

24.6%

d1

0.2007

d2

-0.1466

\$11.73

\$10.96

G15:

G19:

G21:

## Enter interest rate with periodic compounding.

The equivalent continuously compounded interest rate will be used in the subsequent calculations.

G36:

An intermediate calculation.

I32:

The implied volatility is the annualized volatility that matches the Black-Scholes "fair value" price with the observed price
offered by the market.

K15:

The stock price adjusted for any dividends that are expected to be paid between now and the maturity of the option.

K17:

Also called the Strike Price, this is the share price at which the holder of an option is able to buy (with a call) or to sell (with a
put) the underlying security.

K19:

K23:

## The number of years until the option expires or matures.

K36:

An intermediate calculation.

sample1

Page 7

sample1

100
0.05

100

11.73

7.1

0.1

Page 8