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General Studies PDF

General Studies : History

Introduction to Ancient History and Indus Valley Civilization
Archaeologist divided Indian History in Five Phases :
Paleolithic Age(old stone age):

500000 BC to 8000 BC.

Homo sapiens first appeared in the last of this phase and the Palaeolithic man belonged
to the Negrito race.

Sir Robert Bruce Foot discovered the first Palaeolithic stone tool in the Indian subcontinent near Madras in 1863 A.D. The discovery of Indian Pre-history got a boost after
the Yale-Cambridge expedition in 1935 under De Terra and Patterson.

No Family, Agriculture and fire.

Paleolithic men used tools which are made up of Quartz (stone).

Mesolithic Age(middle stone age):

8000 BC to 6000 BC.

In this age, climate changes brought about changes in the fauna and flora and made it
possible for human beings to move to new areas.

Temporary marriage and animal domestication.

Worship of Yoni.

Cave Paintings

Animal headed human figures also appear.

This is also the period when we find evidence of carefully burying the dead, which shows
the beginning of belief in life after death.

Neolithic Age(New stone age):

In the world context, the Neolithic age began around 9000 B.C. but in the Indian context
it began in 7000 B.C. Mehrgarh in Baluchistan is the only site belonging to that period.

Regular Neolithic attributes have

Invention of wheel for pottery making and transportation

Permanent marriages.

Agriculture for subsistence.

Chalcolithic Age(copper age):

The end of the Neolithic period saw the use of metals of which copper was the first. A
culture based on the use of stone and copper arrived called the Chalcolithic phase
meaning the stone-copper phase.

Indus valley civilization or Bronze Age came under this time period.

Iron Age: 1000 BC to till now

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Indus Valley Civilization:







i.Single room barracks just




(Harappa is

below the walls of the citadels

situated in

for the labourers and factory



district of

ii.Discovery of a red sandstone


male torso and Stone symbols


of female genitals.





i.A college, a multi-pillared

(it lies in Larkana

assembly hall.

district of Sind

ii.The Great Bath


iii.A bronze dancing girl

iv.A seal with a picture
suggesting Pashupati





i.Inkpot, footprint of elephant


and dog
ii.only site without citadel(high





i.The town planning in Lothal

was different from that of
Harappa and Mohenjodaro.
ii.The city was divided into six
sections 1.A ship designed on
a seal. And 2.A terracotta ship.





i.Buildings at Ropar were made

mainly of stone and soil.
ii.There is also an evidence of
burying a dog below the

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human burial



i.Divided into three parts:

Lower, middle and upper. This
site is made up of stones.



i.A ploughed field was the

most important discovery of
the early excavations
ii.Burials in a rectangular grave
and Burials in a circular grave.




i.Terracotta wheels, toys

ii.Biggest Site of Indus Valley

MAGDHA. (1200 BC TO 321 BC)



(600 BC TO 413 BC)

A contemporary of Buddha, he conquered Anga(east Bihar) to gain

control over the trade routes with the southern states.


Bimbisaras son who killed his father and seizedthe throne.

Annexed Vaishali and Kosala


He shifted capital from Rajagriha to Patliputra.


Shishu Naga

He was the viceroy of Banaras who founded Shishunaga Dynasty

The most famous event was, the capital was shiftedto Vaishali.

Kala Ashok

Second Buddhist council held during his rein



It is considered first of the non-Kshatriya


Bhadrasal or

Alexander attacked India during the reign of


Dhana Nanda



i.Chandragupta Maurya was the founder of Mauryan dynasty. Also known

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as Sandrocottus(kind towards friends) by Greek scholars.

ii.According to the Jain work Parishista-parvan, Chandragupta converted
to Jainism in the end years of his life and went to south near
Sravanbelgolawith his Guru Bhadrabahu.
iii.Megasthenes a famous Greek Historian travelled during his rein.


Bindusara did not make any territorial conquest and towards the time of
his death he joined the Ajivika sect


i.Ashoka (273-232 B.C.) had served as governor of

ii.Taxila and Ujjain previously.
iii.He used Brahmi ,Kharoshthi, Aramic and Greek in his inscriptions.
iv.He sent his son Mahindra and daughter Sanghmitra to Cylon(Sri
v.His empire covered the whole territory from Hindukush to Bengal and
extended over to Afghanistan, Baluchistan and the whole of Indiawith the
exception of a small area in the farthest south comprising of Kerela
vi.Ashoka died in 232 B.C. and with him departed theglory of Mauryan


Became blind after some time


He split the kingdom and made Tashila his capital


Unified the kingdom.


Last king of Mauryan dynasty.




He killed Bridrath


i.He was the hero of KalidasMalavikagnimitram.

ii.Patanjalis classic Mahabhaya written at his time.

Buddhism and Jainism


Buddhism is the middle way of wisdom and compassion. It stands for three pillars: a) Buddha
its founder; b) Dhamma his teachings and c) Sangha order of Buddhist monks and nuns.
Five Great Events of Buddhas Life and their Symbols:

Birth Lotus and bull

Great renunciation Horse
Nirvana Bodhi tree
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First Sermon Dharmachakra or wheel
Parinirvana or death Stupa
About Budha:

Also known as Sakyamuni (the Sage of the Sakyas), Jina (the Victorious) or Tathagata
(one who has reached the truth).

Born in 563 B.C. on the Vaishakha Poornima Day at Lumbini (near Kapilavastu) in

His father Suddhodana was the Saka ruler.

His mother was Mahamaya but he was brought up by his stepmother Gautami.
Buddha was married at 16 to Yashodhara and enjoyed married life for 13 years and had
a son named Rahula.

After seeing an old man, a sick man, a corpse and an ascetic, he decided to become a

First guru was Alarakalama, next was Udraka Ramputra. He later joined five asceticsKandana, Vappa, Bhadiya, Mohanama and Assagi.

Attained Nirvana at Gaya, age 35.

Delivered the fi rst sermon at Sarnath at Deer Parkwhere his five disciples had settled.
His first sermon is called Dharmachakrapravartan or Turning of the Wheel of Law.

Attained Mahapurinirvana at Kushinagar(U.P).

Eight Fold Path:

Right Faith

Right Effort

Right Thought

Right Speech

Right Action

Right Remembrance

Right Livelihood

Right Concentration

Jainism was founded by Rishabhanath, the first Tirthankara.

There were 24 Tirthankara (Prophets or Gurus) and all of them were Kshatriyas.
Rishabhanaths reference is also there in the Rigveda. But there is no historical basis
for the first 22 Tirthankaras. Only the last two are historical personalities.

The 23rd TirthankaraParshwanath (symbol: snake) was the son of King Ashvasena
of Benaras. His main teachings were: Non-injury, Non-lying, Nonstealing, Non-possession.

The 24th and the last Tirthankara was Vardhman Mahavira (symbol: lion). He added
celibacy to his main teachings.
About Vardhman Mahavira:
He was born in Kundagram (district Muzaffarpur, Bihar) in 599 B.C.

His father Siddhartha was the head of Jnatrika clan.His mother was Trishla, sister of

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Lichchhavi PrinceChetak of Vaishali.

Mahavira was related to Bimbisara.

Married to Yashoda and had a daughter named

Priyadarsena, whose husband Jamali became hisfi rst discipline.

In the 13th year of his asceticism, outside the townof Jrimbhikgrama, he attained
supreme knowledge

At the age of 72, he attained death at Pava, nearPatna in 527 B.C.

Division in Jainism:
1) Bhadrabhan( Rule of Nudity)Digambaras
2) Sthulbhadra( Wear a white garment)Svetambaras
Teachings of Mahavira:
Rejected the authority of Vedas and sacrifice.
Refused to deny the importance of God. God was placed lower than Jina.
Three ratnas are given: 1) Right Faith 2) Right Knowledge 3) Right Conduct.

Muslim Empire
First Muslim invader was Muhammad bin-Kasim .When he attacked India Dahir was the King at
that time.(712 AD).
Mahmud of Ghazni (997-1030):
He was also known as But-Shikan(destroyer of the image) seventeen plundering expeditions
between 1000 and 1027 into northIndia.
He defeated Jaipalain First battle of Warhind(1002 AD) and Anandpala in Second battle of
Warhind(1008 AD).
Muhammad Ghori (Shahabuddin Muhammad):
In AD 1173 Shahabuddin Muhammad (AD 11731206) also called Muhammad of Ghor ascended
the throne of Ghazni.
He died in 1206 AD. Qutu I Din-Aibak took the crown from him and founded Delhi Sultanate.
Qutub I Din Aibak


Razia Sultan




i.Aibak was the first

i.After the death of Aibak,

independent Muslim ruler

his son Aram Shah

of Northern India and the

become the king of Delhi

founder of Delhi Sultanate.


She was succeeded

the name of Balban

Due to his generosity he

ii.But Aram Shah was

by Nasiruddin

become new king in

was knownas Lakh

incapable ruler. iii.The



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i.Only women
ii.Muslim emperor.

i.One of the Turkish
chiefs, Ulugh Khan,
known in history by

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Turkish chiefs of Delhi

ii.He laid the foundation of

invited the governor of

ii.He started the

Qutub Minar in Delhi ,

Badayun (son-in-law of

ceremony of

after the name of famous

Qutbuddin Aibak)


sufisant Khwaja Qutbuddin

Iltutmish to come to

and paibos(kissing of


the monarchsfeet) in

iv.He introduced Silver

the court.

tanka and copper jital.

v.He started Iqtadari
1)Jalaluddin Khalji

2)Alauddin Khalji :

3) Nasiruddin Khusru

(1290 96):

shah :

i.JalaluddinKhalji laid the

i.AlauddinKhalji was Jalaluddins ambitious

foundation of the Khalji

nephew and son-in-law.


ii.Built Mosque in Rameshwaramand

ii.He ascended the throne

ContructedAllaiDarwaza on QutubMinar.

at the age of 70 years.

iii.Started Chehra and Daag sytem and

Ghazi Malik killed him

Renamed Chittor as Khizrabad.

Ghazi maik or

Muhammad Bin Tuglaq :

Firoz Shah Tuglaq:



i.First to start Rotation of

Started few new


The founder of the

crops in india and also


Tuglaq :

Tughlaq dynasty was

Introduced copper coins.

1) Khara

He was the king

Ghazi Malik who ascended

ii.Known as wisest fool in


when Temur

the throne as Ghiyasuddin

indian History.

3) Zakat

attacked india

Tughlaq in AD 1320 and

4) Kahams

this dynasty ruled till AD

1)Khizr Shah

Temur after defeating Tuglaq dynasty declared Khizr Shah as the protector of



3) Ibrahim Lodhi:

Founder of Lodhi

Founded Agra and made his capital.

Babur defeated him in First Battle of


Banned export of slaves from India.


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Mughal Empire (1526 1857)
Babur defeated Ibrahim Lodhi in First Battle of Panipat and established Mughal Empire .


Descendent of Temur .He took the title of Ghazi after
defeating RanaSanga in Battle of Khanwa. Burried at Aram



He divided his empire for his brothers. Sher Shah Suri forced
exile of 15 years(1540-55) on him . His wife name was
HamidaBanu Begum. Akbar was born at Amarkot. Humayun
Tomb is called as prototype of Tajmahal was bult by Haj



Akbar was one of the greatest monarchs of India. He

succeeded the throne after his father Humayuns death.
In the second Battle of Panipat in1556, he defeated Hemu.
Ralph Fitch was the first Englishman to visit Akbar Court. He
built Ibadatkhana to discuss teaching of various religion. He
founded a religion Din i illahi. He abolished Jaziya.He also
built Agra Fort and shifted his capital to FatehpurSikri.



When Akbar died, prince Salim succeeded with the title

Jahangir (Conqueror of World) in 1605.
In 1611, Jahangir married Mehrunnisa who was known as
He wrote his autobiography Tuzuk I jahangiri.
Captain Hawkin and Sir Thomas Roe visited his court.



He built TajMahal, Moti Masjid at Agra, Jama Masjid, Red Fort,

Shalimar Bagh at Lahore.
The last years of Shah Jahans reign were clouded by a bitter
war of succession among his four sons DaraShikoh (crown
prince), Shuja (governor of Bengal), Aurangazeb (governor of
Deccan) andMuradBaksh (governor of Malwaand Gujarat).
Towards the end of 1657, Shah
Jahan fell ill at Delhi for some time but later recovered. But
the princes started fighting forthe Mughal throne.Aurangazeb
emerged victorious in this struggle. He entered the Agra



Aurangazeb was one of the ablest of the Mughal kings. He

assumed the title Alamgir
He was called asDarwesh or ZindaPir.

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Historical Battles of India

War / Battle


326 B.C.

Battle of Hydaspas

Porus loses to Alexander

1191 A.D.

First Battle of Tarain

Prithviraj Chauhan defeats Mohammed


1192 A.D.

Second Battle of

Ghori defeats Prithviraj Chauhan

1194 A.D.

Battle of Chhandwar

Ghori defeats Jaichandra of Kannauj

1526 A.D.

First Battle of Panipat

Babar defeats Ibrahim Lodhi

1527 A.D.

Battle of Khanua

Babar defeats Rana Sanga

1529 A.D.

Battle of Ghaghara

Babar defeats the Afghans

1539 A.D.

Battle of Chausa

Sher Shah Suri defeats Humayun

1540 A.D.

Battle of Kannauj

Sher Shah Suri defeats Humayun

(or Bilgram)
1556 A.D.

Second Battle of

Bairam Khan (representing Akbar) defeats



1576 A.D.

Battle of Haldighati

Akbar defeats MaharanaPratap

1658 A.D.

Battle of Dharmatt

Aurangzeb defeats DaraShikoh

and Samugarh
1757 A.D.

Battle of Plassey

Robert Cive defeats Siraj-ud-daula, the

Nawab of Bengal

1760 A.D.

Battle of Wandiwash

English defeat the French

1761 A.D.

Third Battle of Panipat

Ahmed Shah Abdali defeats Marathas

1764 A.D.

Battle of Buxar

Hector Munro defeats combined armies of

Nawab Mir Qasim of Bengal, NawabShujaud-daula of Awadh and Mughal emperor
Shah Alam

1767-69 A.D.

First Anglo Mysore

Hyder Ali defeats English forces

1780-84 A.D.

Second Anglo Mysore

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Hyder Ali dies. Treaty of Mangalore is

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1789-92 A.D.

1799 A.D.



Third Anglo Mysore

Tipu Sultan defeated. Treaty of


Serirangapatnam is signed.

Fourth Anglo Mysore

Tipu Sultan is defeated and killed


Modern History: 1857 Revolt

Revolt of 1857 has a significant importance in Indian History. This revolt is called as first war of
Independence by some historians. This revolt was not because of immediate reactions by
Indians, but due to oppression carried out by Britishers for more than a century.
Following is the time line of historical events which led a way toward Indias first war of
Event 1(1773): First Governor General
Lord Warren Hastings became the first Governor General of Bengal. Hewas called as first
Governor General of India (dont confuse it with Governor General of India because Governor
General of India was firstly declared in 1833.Till 1833 governor general of Bengal was considered
as head of India).
Event 2(1793):Permanent Settlement
1.Permanent settlement was introduced into some parts of India,which was also known as
Zamindari System.Lord Cornwallis was the Governor General at that time.This system was very
suppressing and forced farmers to pay taxes even in the dry season.
2.Under this system, The Zamindars were made hereditary owners of the land under their
possession. They and their successors exercised total control over lands. The companys share in
the revenue was fixed permanently with the Zamindars.
Event 3(1799): Subsidiary Alliance System
Subsidiary Alliance system was passed by Lord Wellesley,under which Indian princely states had
to come directly under the British Empire.Their army supposed to be trained by Britishers; no
relation with European countries and finance department of princely state should be held by a
British only.This system produced discomfort among Indian princes. Nizamalikhan, Nawab of
Hyderabad was the first to sign.
Event 4(1829): Ban On Sati
Ban on sati was accepted by the Britishers after the effort of Raja Ram Mohan Roy. Lord William
Bentinck was the governor general at this time. Lord William Bentinck was the first governor
general of India. Sati was an archaic Indian funeral custom where a widow immolated herself on
her husbands pyre, or committed suicide in another fashion shortly after her husbands death.
Event 5(1835): Education policy of Britishers
Lord Macaulay introduced new English education system through English education act, 1835.

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The main aim of this policy was to replace old and ancient education system which strengthens
Indian culture with new English system which made British culture supreme.
Event 6 (1848): Doctrine of lapse
Doctrine of lapse introduced by Lord Dalhousie, under which princely states without a heir had to
merge their empires with British Empire. Satara was the first state to merge with Britishers under
doctrine of lapse.
Event 7(1856): Widow Remarriage Act and Religious Diability Act
Widow Remarriage act was passed by Lord Dalhousie with the efforts of Iswar Chandra
vidyasagar in 1856.

Lord Dalhousie was replaced by Lord Canning .He passed theReligious Disability Act, 1856,
under which if anyone converts his/her religion, their parents cannot disown him/her from
their property. This was simply to promote christianity.

Final Event
There was a news in military that the newly introduced Enfieldrifles cartilage seal was made of
cows or pigs flesh, there were also news regarding mixing of animal bones into flour.19th
infantry from Bengal started this revolt.

This was immediately followed by revolt of 34th infantry,Mangalpandey was from this

The revolt began, and Bahadur shah Zafar,last king of mughal empire was declared as the
leader. But this revolt came to an end after one year. It is also referred as Indias first war
of Independence( Ref: V.D Savarkar book).

So we can conclude that 1857 revolt was not due to enfield rifles issue but because of
culmination of various factors which were seen by Indians as an intrusion in their culture,
political space, economical activities, religion and personal life.

Heroes of 1857 revolt:

Modern History: After 1857 Revolt And Before Formation of Congress

Event 1: End of East India Company rule in India
This revolt came as last nail in the coffin of east India company rule in India. Various steps have
taken by British parliament by passing act in 1858 under which:

Whole control of India was shifted to British parliament and queen.

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A new post of Viceroy was created, who was the head of princely states in India and he
directly reported to the queen of England.

Governor General had to give his report to the British parliament. Normally, Both posts
were held by one person at one time.

Lord Canning was the governor general at that time, So he also become the first Viceroy
of India.

To handle the Indian affairs, Secretary of state post was created. Lord Stanley was the
first in 1858.
Event 2: Indian council Act, 1861

Portfolio(ministerial) system was introduced in India, 6-10 people were added into the
governor council for legislative purposes through nomination only.

Among them few can be Indians. First three Indians nominated are : 1) Maharaja of
Patiala 2) Raja of Banaras and 3) SirDinkarrao

Event 3: Lord Lyttons Reactionary Policies

He set the maximum age limit for the I. C. S. examination to 19 years, this making it impossible
for Indians to compete for it.
He organized grand Delhi Durbar in 1877, when the country was in the severe grip of
Lytton is responsible for vernacular Press Act under which he directed pre censorship for
newspaper which means newspaper material had to submit with British before
Event 4: The Ilbert Bill Controversy
Lord Ripon replaced Lord Lytton. He was considered as one of most pragmatic Governor General
India ever had.
He sought to abolish Judicial disqualification based as race distinction and present Ilbert
Bill sought to give the Indian members of the covenanted civil services the same powers
and rights as the European colleagues enjoyed.
The Bill raised a storm of agitation among the members of the European community and
they all stood united against the Bill. Ripon had to modify the Bill that almost defeated
the original purpose.
The Ilbert Bill controversy proved an eye opener to the Indian intelligentsia. It became
clear to them that justice and fairplay could not be expected where the interests of the
European community were involved. Further, it demonstrated to them the value of
organised agitation.

Modern History: Formation of Congress

Congress was formed in 1885 at Gopuldas Tejpal House, Bombay. Sir A.O Hume, a former civil
servant was responsible for the formation of Congress. He is called as Father of Congress

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Congress Sessions and Presidents:

Modern History: Division of Bengal, Surat Split And Minto Morley Reforms
Bengal Division:
On 16th October, 1905, Lord Curzon through a royal proclamation reduced the old province of
Bengal in size by creating East Bengal and Assam out of rest of Bengal

Main objective of this move was to set up a communal gulf between the Hindus and the

Swadesi andolan was started against British in 1905 against Bengal division. People started
boycotting foreign goods.

In 1911, Bengal was reunited and Delhi was declared as new capital. Lord Hardinge was
the governor general at that time.

Surat Split, 1907:

The INC split into two groups the extremists and the moderates at the Surat session in 1907.
The Extremists were led by Bal, Pal, Lal while the moderates by G.K. Gokhale.
Indian Council Act,1909 or Minto Morley reforms
Total numbers of members in Governor Council increased to 60.

Direct elections were introduced,but only tax payers could participate.

First time executive (ministerial) post given to indian. Sir S.P Sinha was the law minister
at that time.

Separate electorate system for Muslims was introduced, which means only Muslims can
vote for Muslims.
Home rule movement:
The movement was started by B.G. Tilak in Poona in April 1916 and Annie Besant and
S.Subramania Iyer at Adyar near Madras in September 1916.

Main demand was not complete independence but self-government under the hand of

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Lucknow pact, 1916
Congress first time recognized Muslim league. Mohammed Ali Jinnah, who was the member of
congress and Muslim league, broke the ice between these two parties. Sarojini Naidu called him
Ambassador of Hindu Muslim unity. Extremist rejoined congress after their Surat split.

Montigo Chlemsford Act, 1919, Rowlatt Act , Non Cooperation, Simon

Government of India act,1919 or Montigo-Chlemsford Act,1919:

Three Indians can become minister or executive

Separate electorate for Sikhs,christans.
Introduction of provincial diarchy which means whole India divided between centre and
provinces(states),but the final power vested in centre.
Rowlatt Act:

In 1917 a Rowlatt committee was formed under Justice Rowlatt. This committee was
formed to curb revolutionary activities. The Rowlatt Bill sought to curtail the liberty of
the people.

The act was passed in the year 1919.

It provided for speedy trial of offences by a special court of 3 High court judges. There
was to be no appeal.

Rowlatt act was repealed by British in 1922.

Non cooperation Movement:

After the Jalianwala case and the Rowlatt act, Mahatma Gandhi started non-cooperation
movement. The resolution for this movement was passed in 1920 by a specially called
session under the president ship of Lala Lajpat Rai.

Main objective of non-cooperation was to establish Indian institutes, Industries, women

upliftment , Hindu and Muslim Unity along with boycotting British goods.

Ravindernath Tagore returned his title of knighthood to Britishers. Gandhi also inspired
from him and returned Keshriya hind medal given to him by Britishers.

Mob of people at Chauri Chaura (near Gorakhpur) clashed with the police and burnt 22
policemen on 5th February,1922.

This compelled Gandhiji to withdraw the Non Cooperation Movement on 12th February,

Simon Commission:
In 1927, the British government appointed a Commission to look into the working of the
Government of India Act, 1919.
Indian leaders opposed the Commission as there were no Indian in it and the Congress
turned the boycott into a movement.

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Lala Lajpat Rai was severely beaten in lathi charge and he succumbed to his injuries
while doing protest.

From Lahore to London Or 1929 to 1932

Lahore Session, 1929:

On December 19, 1929, under the Presidentship of Jawaharlal Nehru, the INC at its
Lahore session declared Poorna Swaraj as its ultimate goal.
On 31 December, 1929 the newly adopted tricolour flag was unfurled and 26 January,
1930 was fixed as the First Independence Day, which was to be celebrated every year.
Dandi march or salt satyagrah And Civil Disobedience:

Dandi march started on 12th march, 1930.

There were 80 people including Gandhiji at the beginning of march.

He travelled 240 miles in 24 days and reached at Dandi on 5th april, 1930.

The salt satyagraha movement was taken up by C. Rajagopalachari in Tamil Nadu and
the Vaikon Satyagraha by K. Kalappan in Malabar.

He broke the salt law by making salt.

As Gandhi broke the salt law, civil disobedience started.

Round table conference:

There are three round table conference held to discuss constitutional reforms in India.
First round table Conference( November 1930 to January 1931)

There were fifty-seven political leaders from British India and sixteen delegates from
the princely states.

Congress boycotted this meeting because of civil disobedience movement.

This conference was not successful because of the absence of Congress.

Second round table conference (1931)

Gandhiji represented the INC and went to London to meet the British PM Ramsay

In the conference Gandhi demanded immediate establishment of a full responsible

government at the Centre as well as in the provinces with complete control over
defense, external affairs and finance.

But due to opposition of Gandhiji by Muslim league and Hindu Mahasabha, this
conference was also a failure.

Ambedkar has attended first two conferences with great enthusiasm, Ramsay McDonald
has given separate electorate for Dalits. This was considered as communal awards.

Poona pact( September 1932): Gandhi went on fast in Yarwada jail, Pune against communal
awards.There was a meeting held at jail between B.R.Ambedkar and Gandhi.Ambedkar agreed not
to accept these awards,insteadGandhiji promised there will be a reservation for dalit in India.

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Third round table (December 1932)
This conference was also a failure because of less enthusiasm among participants and absence of
congress.However, Round table meetings reflected in Government of India act,1935.

Government of India Act, 1935 to Cabinet mission, 1945

Government of India Act, 1935:
Abolition of provincial dyarchy and introduction of dyarchy at centre.
Abolition of Indian Council and introduction of an advisory body in its place.
Provision for an All India Federation with British India territories and princely states.
Elaborate safeguards and protective instruments for minorities.
Supremacy of British Parliament. Increase in size of legislatures, extension of franchise,
division of subjects into three lists and retention of communal electorate.
Elections of 1937:
First provincial elections held in 1937 where out of 11 congress has won eight, Muslim
league none , Unionist party won 1(in Punjab),United party won 1(Sindh) and Praja party
won 1(Bengal).
Congress ministries had resigned because Britishers declared Indias participations in
second world war without their will.
August Offer, 1940:

Dominoin Status in the unspecified future.

A post-war body to enact the Constitution.
To expand the Governor Generals Executive Council to give full weightage to minority
Cripps mission,1942:

This mission was sent by British to seek help from Indians in second world war.
Cripps worked to keep India loyal to the British war effort in exchange for a promise of full
self-government after the war.

Both congress and Muslim league rejected this offer.

From Quit India To make British Quit India or Till Independence

Quit India,1942:
After the failure of Cripps mission, resolution for the movement to make British quit India was
passed on 8 August, 1942 at Bombay.

Gandhiji gave the slogan Do or Die.

This was the last and most violent agitation in Indian history,

Lord LinLithgow was the governor general at that time.

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Parallel governments were set up at various placessuch as the one in Ballia in eastern
U.P. under theleadership of ChittuPande. Others were in Satara,Talcher, parts of Eastern
U.P. and Bihar.

Wavell plan or Shimla conference, 1945:

This was the meeting between Governor general Lord Wavell, congress and Muslim

He proposed a plan which focused on self-government in India.

He reached a potential agreement for the self-rule of India which provided separate
representation for Muslims and reduced majority powers for both communities in their
majority region. But dispute arose when Jinnah demanded that Muslim candidates can
be selected only by Muslim league.

Congress opposed this and Wavell plan failed.

Cabinet mission,1946:

The Cabinet Mission reached Delhi on 24th March 1946. Its members were-Lord Pethick
Lawrence, Stafford Cripps (President of the Board of trade) and Mr. A.V. Alexendar (the
first Lord of the Admiralty).

This mission helped India to set up a constitution body.

This mission had rejected the proposal of Pakistan. Instead it focused on power sharing
between Hindu and Muslim in united India.
3rd june plan,1947 and Independence:

On 3rd June 1947, the Mountbatten plan was announced. It was essentially, plan for the
partition of India. The Congress and the Muslim League both accepted the plan of 3rd

The Indian Independence Bill was introduced in the British Parliament on 4th July 1947. It
was passed as the Indian Independence Act on 18thJuly 1947.

On 15 August, 1947, India got its Independence.

Social Reforms Movement

Social Reforms Movement:
Reform movement
BrahmoSamaj ,1828 at Calcutta

Raja Ram Mohan Roy

Ban on sati

Manav dharma sabha,1844 at


Durgaram Mancharam

Crititcise cast.

Parmahansa mandali,1849

Dadoba Pandurang

Criticize cast system

Brahma smaj of india


Native marriage act,1872.where

age of groom(18) and bride(14)


Debenderanath Tagore

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Atmaram Panurang


Swami Dayanand

Started Shudhi movement. HE

endorsed that Vedas are

Ramkrishan mission

Swami Vivekananda

Attended world parliament of

religion(1893) at Chicago and
history of religion at

Gopal Hari Deshmukh

Attack hindu orthodox. Also

known as Lokhitwadi
Education of women,against
caste system

Jyotibha Phule
Aligarh movement

Sir Syyed Ahmed khan

For education of muslim

Ahrar movement

Mohhamedali and Hakim

Ajmal khan

Modern idea of self government

Theosophical Society

Helena Blavatsky,
Anniebeasant was the

Opposed child marriage.


Chapekar brothers (Damodar and Balkrishna) murdered the unpopular Mr. Rand and Lt.
Amherst in 1897 at Pune.

MadanLalDhingra shot dead Curzon Wyllie, an officer of India Office in London in 1909.

Assistant Superintendent of Police, Saunders was shot dead by Bhagat Singh, Chandra
Shekhar Azadand Rajguru in 1928. They were convicted in the Lahore Conspiracy cas

Bhagat Singh and BatukeshwarDutt threw bombs in the Central Legislative Assembly in
April 1929during session.

Formation of Indian Independence Committee by VirendraNathChattopadhya,


Dutt, Hardayal and others in 1915 with the assistance of German foreign Ministry under the
Zimmerman Plan.

Suryasen declared independence at Chittagong in 1930 and formed Indian Republican


Execution of Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev and Rajguru by the British on March 23, 1931 in
Lahoreconspiracy case.

Surya Sen was arrested in 1933 and was tried and hanged.

LalaHardayal: Most well-known for forming the Ghadar Party in America in 1913.. The Ghadar
Party is well-known for the Ghadar Conspiracy under which Indian soldiers were to be
instigated to start rebellion against the British during World War I. The plan was however foiled
by the British

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Important personalities
Mahatma Gandhi:

Inspirational Books : civil disobedient written by Thoreau, Kingdom of God is within

you by Tolstoy, Unto this last by John Ruskin, BhagwatGeeta, Kuran, Ramayana.

Spent 21 years in South Africa.

Returned to india on 9thjan 1915.
There were three Satyagraha started by Mahatama Gandhi Gandhi(truth + nonviolence) in the beginning:

1. Champaran satyagraha,1917: Farmers were forced to grow indigo. Gandhiji fought

against this practice.

2. Ahmadabad satyagraha,1917: Workers-mill owner dispute,where mill owner were

paying less.

3. Khedasatyagraha(gujrat),1918: There was a famine in kheda and Britishers were

not in mood to scrap the tax.

Books by Gandhi: An Autobiography-The Story Of My Experiments With Truth, Hind

Swaraj or Indian Home Rule, by M. K. Gandhi, key to health.
Subhash Chandra Bose:

Stood 4th in ICS exam in 1921.But due to Non Cooperation Movement, he didnt join.
He became president of Congress at Haripura session in 1938.
He again won the election in 1939 but due to opposition from pro Gandhi group he
resigned and formed new party Forward group.

He was put under house arrest in Bengal from where he ran away to Peshawar to Kabul
to Russia to Berlin to Singapore. S.C.Bose took over Azad Hind Fauj in 1943 at

He attacked on India with the help of Japanese and captured Andaman and
Nicobar.Tiranga was hoisted firstly in mowdak(bangladesh).

INA trial on the soldiers of Azad Hind Fauj . Charges on P.K Sahgal, Shah Nawaj Khan
and G.S Dhillon were framed for open trial on red fort.Both muslim league and congress
defended these soldiers.
Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan:

KhudaiKhidmatgar is a non-violent struggle against the British Empire started by


He was the leader of North-West Frontier Province of British India.

He is known as Frontier Gandhi of India

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Kamagatamaru case:Kamagatamaru was the Japanese ship.It was hired by the
Gurdittsingh. The passengers consisted of 340 Sikhs, 24 Muslims, and 12 Hindus.This ship
was forcefully reverted back to India from Canada.(there were originally 376 persons on
the ship,372 were not allowed to land in china)
Sir Aurobindo: was an Indian nationalist, philosopher, yogi, guru, and poet.he focused on
D.Savarkar: He was the founded student societies including Abhinav Bharat Society and the Free
India Society.
Henry Louis Vivian Derozio: Leader of young bengal movement.
Slogan given by Some famous Personalities
Slogan / Quotes

Given by

A democratic Government is of the people, for the people and by

Abraham Lincon

the people
Just as I would not like to be a slave, so I would not like to be a
Eureka Eureka


Man is by nature a political animal


Swaraj Mera Janamsiddh adhikar hai, aur main ise lekar

Bal Gangadhar Tilak

rahunga(Swarajya is my birth right and I shall Have it)

Patriotism is religion and religion is love for India

Bankim Chandra

Vande Mataram(I bow to thee mother)

Bankim Chandra

Whether I earned your vote or not, I have listened to you, I

Barack Obama

have learned from you. You have made me a better President

There never was a good war or a bad peace

Benjamin Franklin

Well done is better than well said

Inquilab Zindabad(Long Live Revolution)

Bhagat Singh

Directive Principles of State policy are just like a cheque on

BR Ambedkar

bank payable at the convenience of the bank

Ambition is like love: Impatient both of delays as well as rivals


Dushman ki goliyon ka hum samna karenge, Azad hee rahein

Chandra Shekhar Azad

hain, Azad hee rahenge

Take care to get what you like or you will be forced to like what

G. B. Shaw

you get
Oh! Disrespectable democracy! I love you!

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Law grinds the poor and rich men rule the men

Gold Smith

Where wealth accumulates, men decay

Adolf Hitler is Germany and Germany is Adolf Hitler, He, who


pledges himself to zhitler pledges himself to Germany

Sare jahan se accha Hindostan humara


Araam Haraam hai

Jawaharlal Nehru

A thing of beauty is a joy forever

John Keats

Beauty is truth, truth is beauty, that is all

I came I saw I conquered

Julius Caesar

A state is known by rights that it maintains


Jai Jawaan, Jai Kisaan

Lal Bahadur Shastri

Simon Go Back-

Lala Lajpat Rai

Quit India , Do or Die, Dont Pay Tax, Bharat Chodo and Humne

Mahathma Gandhi

Ghunte Tekkar Rotti Mnagi Kintu Pathar Mile

There are no political devoid of religion
I therefore want freedom immediately this very night, before
dawn if it can be had?
One child, one teacher, one pen and one book can change the

Malala Yousafzay

I have a dream that my four children will one day live in a nation

Martin Luther King

where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by
the content of their character
One religion one caste and one god for mankind

Narayan Guru

Jai Hin & Dilli Chalo

Netaji Subhash Chandra


Satyamev Jayathe

Pandit Madan Mohan


Faith is the bird that feels the light when the dawn is still dark

Rabindra Nath Tagore

Samuhca Bharat ek vishal bandigrah hai

RC Das

To be and not to be that is the question


Brevity is the soul of wit

The child is father of the man

William Wordsworth

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