Anda di halaman 1dari 27

Number system

What is the number system ?


A number system is used to represent some quantity

why we use a number system ?

To give a number to something

To give a rank to something

To represent something

Types of number system


Decimal number system

Binary number system


Octal number system
Hexadecimal number system

Decimal number system

What is decimal number?

These are the numbers that starts from 0 to 9 it means these are 10
numbers

They have a base of 10

Decimal number system is mostly used around the world.

Octal number system

What is octal ?

Octal means 8

That is why octal number system has 8 values from 0 to 7

Its base is 8

For example

(568)8

Binary number system

Binary number is mostly used in computers


it has 2 values and that are 0 and 1

A collection of binary numbers are used to represent a large number

For example

(1010001111)2

Hexadecimal number system

This number system has 16 values starting from 0 to 9 and from A to


F

Its base is 16

For example

(abc)16

Conversions

Convert(10F)16 decimal ,binary ,and octal number system by direct


table and by calculation ?

Answer

In binary number

In octal number

In decimal number

OSI Model
A 7-Layer Communication Model

Point to
Ponder

What OSI stands for?

Open Systems Interconnection

By Whom?

ISO - International Organization for Standardization

Why?

To allow two systems to interconnect in spite of different


Architectures.

Example :

IBM and Apple Conflict

Point to
Ponder

What are its Advantages?

Divides the Communication Process into simple


processes.

Helps in Troubleshooting

Devices by Different Vendors can connect easily

Encourages industry to develop Compatible devices

Point to
Ponder

What are 7-Layers of ISO Model?


Application
Presentation
Session
Transport
Network
Data Link
Physical

Lets Consider them Briefly

Application Layer

Enables the user to access the network.

Provides user interface and supports for services such


as e-mail, file transfer, access to the World Wide Web.

Examples:

Chrome

Firefox

Outlook

Skype

Presentation
Layer

The presentation layer standardize all data into one


format

Like Data could be in PDF, JPEG, DOC, PNG, etc.

Convert into a Specific Code Like BCD, ASCII etc.

Performs Following functions

Data Reformatting

Encryption/Decoding

Compression/Decompression

Session Layer

Establishes, manages, and terminate user connection

Its Synchronous

Three Way Handshake

Decide Time Out of Connection

Example:

Banks Website etc.

Sensitive Data Website Like Nadra etc

Three Way Handshake

Transport Layer
Functions:
Segmentation

of data

Flow

Control

Error

Correction and retransmission of lost packets

Many

Protocols are used For Transmission

TCP

Transmission Control Protocol

UDP

Ultra Datagram Protocol

Session
Header

Data
Packet

Network Layer
Determines

the Destination IP Address

Determines

the Shortest Path to Destination

Adds

Header having IP addresses of Source and


Destination Server to Data Packet

This

is controlled by Routers.

What

is Router?

Arouteris

a networking device that forwards data packets


between computer networks.

Routersperform

Internet.

the traffic directing functions on the

SIP:
39.36.133.192

DIP:
129.36.133.192

Session
Header

Data
Packet

Data Link Layer

Offers a physical address so a devices data can be sent on the


network

It is responsible for node-to-node delivery of data.

It receives the data from network layer and creates FRAMES add
physical address to these frames and pass them to physical
layer.

It converts frames into bits before passing to physical layer.

Flow Control

MAC Address

It further divides into

LLC

MAC

Frame

S-MAC:
34:23:87:92:62:a1

D-MAC:
fc:3d:93:0e:54:a0

S-IP:
39.36.133.192

D-IP:
129.36.133.192

Session
Header

Data
Packet

Physical Layer

Deals with all aspects of physically moving data from one


computer to the next one.

Converts data from the upper layers into 1s and 0s for


transmission over media.

Defines how data is encoded onto the media used to transmit


the data.

Defined on this layer: Cable standards, wireless standards, and


fiber optic standards.

Copper wiring, fiber optic cable, radio frequencies, anything that


can be used to transmit data is defined on the Physical layer of
the OSI Model.

Physical topology (mesh, star, ring or bus).

Lets Have A Birds View of OSI Model

TCP/IP Suite

TCP/IP suite resides at Transport Layer of OSI Model

This protocol suite has been further classified into two


protocols

Transmission Control Protocol

User Datagram Protocol

In the above mentioned protocols, each has its own pros


and cons.

Transmission Control Protocol - TCP

TCP is a connection oriented protocol.

Reliable delivery of Data

Error Detection and Prevention

Retransmission of Damaged bits / Data

Acknowledgement

Segmentation

Sequencing

Reordering of Segments at other end

Relatively slow as compared to User Datagram Protocol

User Datagram Protocol - UDP

TCP is a connectionless service.

Does not establish link before sending data

Port Addresses

No Retransmission of Damaged bits / Data

No Acknowledgement

No Segmentation but fixed length data

Relatively very Fast as compared to Transmission Control


Protocol.

Used in Video Services Like

Youtube

Skype