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C3 Plant

C4 Plant

C02 Acceptor



involved in CO2


PEP carboxylase

Occurrence of
CO2 fixation

Once in
mesophyll cell

In bundle sheath cell

and mesophyll cell

First product



Efficiency of
CO2 formed


Less efficient
Efficient(PEP has
because low
high affinity for CO2
concentration of at low concentration)
Occur or may not

Source of C02
(During Calvin



Location of
bundle sheath
(During Calvin

Mesophyll cell

Bundle sheath cells.

2014 STPM Essay answers

The plasma membrane is selectively permeable which mean that
it only allows the passage of some molecules or ion and not to others.
Molecules and ions can moves across the plasma membrane
through only simple diffusions , channel protein and carrier protein.
Hence, it enable the plasma membrane to regulate the movement of in
and out of the subastances.
The movement of substances across the membrane depends on
the size,charge,structure and composition of the substances.
Molecules with very small, non-polar and hydrophobic such as
oxygen,carbon dioxide and as well as lipid-soluble molecules are able
to cross the phospholipid bilayer of only by simple diffusion.
As polar molecules such as water, glycerol can rapidly cross the
phospholipid bilayer through the pore protein at the plasma membrane
because they are small enough to pass through the gaps.Apart from
that, for charged ions such as sodium ions and potassioum ions. It
move across the plasma membrane with the help of channel protein.
Same goes to very large and polar molecules such as the glucose
molecules, it move across the plasma membrane via the carrier

The electron microscope uses a beam of electrons to give the
magnified image of the object. The electron beam is of shorter
wavelength which give to high resolving powe. The high resolving
power of the electrons microscope has meake it an ideal tool to
produce a much effective magnification for the detailed study of cell.
Paper chromatography is a technique used to separate mixture of
small samples into its components such as chlorophyll and protein.
The differences of the size,solubility and the adhesion of the
macrotubules (chlorophyll and protein) causes it to move through the
pores of the paper at different speed.
The mixture is dissolved in a suitable solvent and allowed to
pass over the paper. Mixture that move further up the paper has high
affinity towards the solvent.

19.How ATP and NADPH are produced in photosynthesis.

ATP and NADPH are produced during the light-dependent reaction of
photosynthesis which take place in the thylakoid of the chloroplast.
The reaction involved cyclic-photophosphorylation and non-cyclic
During the non-cyclic photophosphorylation,light energy is absorbed
by the antenna pigment and is transferred to the reaction centre of photosystem
II. The chlorophyll a in photosystem II is photoactivated and electron are
The electron is then accepted by the electron carrier,phaeophytin. After
that, the electron is transferred to a series of electron carriers that is
Quinone,Plastoquinone,Cytochrome and plastocyanin,finally to Photosystem I.
The energy released when the electron flow through the electron carries is used
to phosphorylate ADP to ATP.
Light energy also absorbed by the antenna pigment and is transferred to
chlorophyll a in the reaction centre of Photosystem I. The photoactivated
electrons are released and is accepetor by the primary acceptor containing FeS
which subsequently transferred to ferredoxin.
Water is spit through a reaction called photolysis of water releasing
electrons,proton and oxygen. The proton released during the photolysis of water
combine with electron from ferredoxin and the reduces NADP+ into NADPH +
During cyclic photophosphorylation, photoactivated electrons are
released from Photosystem I when light strike the antenna pigment.
The electrons are accepted by electron acceptor containing FeS before it
is transferred to ferredoxin,cytochrome.........plastocyanin and then back again to
PSI. The energy released from the photoexcited electrons is used to synthesis
ATP molecules.

(b) Effect of high concentration of oxygen on the photosynthesis of

C3 plant.
At high concentration of oxygen, carbon dioxide has to compete
with oxygen for same active site of RuBP carboxylase.
Oxygen is a competitive inhibitor to carbon dioxide.Hence, only
one molecule of glycerate-3-phosphate and one molecule of
phosphoglycolate is produced.
The phosphoglycolate produced is oxidised to release C02
through a process called photorespiration. Photorespiration consumed
ATP which produces no sugar and decrease the photosynthetic output.
At the end,one molecule of glycerate-3-phosphate molecules is
formed and a fourth carbon released as a carbon dioxide molecule
from two molecule of phosphoglycolate.
Thus, photorespiration reduces the efficiency of photosynthesis.

20 (a) & 2015 20(b)How energy is produced from fats in the

human body.
Fats is hydrolysed into glycerol and fatty acid via the enzymes
lipase. The glycerol is phosphorylated by ATP and dehydrogenated by
NAD+ to form glyceraldehydes-3-phosphate which then enters the
glycolysis and subsequently enters the Krebs Cycle.
As for the fatty acid, it is broken down in the matrix of
mitochondrion into 2C carbon. These 2C carbon called acetate
combine with coenzyme A forming Acetyl CoA which also enters the
Krebs cycle.
As for protein, protein is hydrolysed into amino acid. The amino
acid undergo deamination a process in which the basic amino
group(NH2) are removed.
The remaining portion the amino acid enters the respiratory
pathway. These amino acid(5C) are converted into -ketoglutarate
and 4C amino acid into oxaloacetate.
-ketoglutarate and oxaloacetate are intermediate of the Krebs
Cycle. From there, energy is obtained.

The oxidation of fats produces large quantities of hydrogen ions.
Moreover, fats has high proportion of hydrogen compare to the of
oxygen .
Hence, the hydrogen ions are transported to the hydrogen
carriers and is used to produce ATP molecules via the electron
transport chain.
Apart from that, the lower proportion of oxygen in fats required
more oxygen to complete oxidation,hence, yielding more energy.

Mc ohlsen Jenis
2016 semester 1