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SKELETAL

SYSTEM
OF FROGS

2 Kinds of Skeleton in
Vertebrates:
1. Exoskeleton
ex. feathers, hairs, scales, claws, horn
2. Endoskeleton
a. protection
b. muscle attachment
c. hematopoiesis

Endoskeleton can be
grouped into:
1. Axial skeleton
- bones lying along the central axis
- skull, hyoid apparatus, vertebral column,
sternum in other vertebrates - Ribs
2. Appendicular skeleton
- bones away from the central axis
- bones of the limbs (forelimbs and
hindlimbs), girdles (pectoral and pelvic
girdle)

AXIAL SKELETON

SKULL
triangular
cranium (braincase),bones of the
face, bones of the jaw and hyoid

BONES ON THE DORSAL


SIDE OF THE SKULL

Premaxillae

V shaped bone of
the snout
anterior tip of the
skull

Maxilla

largest bone of the


upper jaw
connected to
premaxillae and
quadratojugal

Nasal bone
paired bone
above the nasal
chamber
Ethmoid/Sphenethm
oid
small bone posterior
to nasal
Fronto-parietals
paired bone
Quadratojugal
posterior to maxilla
squamosal(anterior)
and maxilla (posterior)

Squamosal
Hammer shaped bone
arising from the prootic
Foramen Magnum
opening at the posterior
part of the skull
spinal cord emerges
Exoccipital bone
forms posterior border of
foramen magnum
occipital condyles
articulates with atlas
Prootic
paired
anterior to exoccipital
bone

BONES ON THE VENTRAL


SIDE OF THE SKULL

Vomer
pair of flat triangular
bones
roof of the mouth
vomerine teeth
Palatine
pair of irregular
bones
posterior to the
vomer

Parasphenoid
postero-medial to the
vomer
dagger shaped bone
Pterygoid
postero- lateral to the
parasphenoid
triradiate
connected to the
prootic, squamosal and
maxillae

BONES OF THE MANDIBLE

No teeth
Right and left halves
Divided into three parts:
Mento Meckelian
cartilage
median portion of
mandible
unites the lower jaw
Dentary
middle portion
Angulo-splenial
proximal end

HYOID BONE/APPARATUS
Visceral

skeleton

support tongue and larynx


cartilage (except thyroid process)

Body
broad, median part
hyaline cartilage
supports floor of the
mouth (tongue)
Anterior
cornua/horns
pair of horn-like
processes arising from
the antero-median
border of alary
process
attached to the prootic

Posterior cornua/horns
short processes
found at the postero-lateral part of hyoid
Support the larynx
Alary processes
lateral expansions on the anterior side of the
body of hyoid apparatus
Thyroid processes
wing-like extension
only pair of ossified part of the hyoid
support the tongue and larynx

STERNUM

Episternum
rounded anterior cartilage
Omosternum
posterior to episternum
inverted Y shape
Mesosternum
posterior to epicoracoid
bony structure
sternum proper
Xiphisternum
posterior bilobed terminal cartilage

THE VERTEBRAL COLUMN


movable
support of the
body
encloses the
spinal cord

THE VERTEBRAL COLUMN

Atlas

atypical
no prezygapophyses
no transverse processes
anterolateral side
concavities for articulation with occipital
condyles

THE VERTEBRAL COLUMN

2nd to 8th
typical vertebra
similar structures
differ in size and angle of inclination of
transverse processes

PARTS OF TYPICAL
VERTEBRA
1. Centrum
- solid base or body of vertebrae
2. Neural Arch
-enclosure formed on either side of the
centrum
3. Neural Canal
- formed by fusion of neural arches
- passage of spinal cord

PARTS OF TYPICAL
VERTEBRA
4. Neural Spine
- extends dorsally from neural arch
- muscle attachment
5. Transverse Processes
- lateral projections
- serve as ribs
- muscle attachment
6. Zygapophyses
- prezygapophyses and postzygapophyses
- articulation between vertebrae

Sacral Vertebra/ 9th vertebra


centrum with convex anterior
end
2 prominences at the posterior
end for articulation with the
urostyle

Urostyle
elongated triangular
10th vertebra
tapers posteriorly
keel on the dorsal side

APPENDICULAR
SKELETON

PECTORAL GIRDLE AND


FORELIMBS
Pectoral Girdle
supports the
forelimbs
Forelimbs

THE PECTORAL GIRDLE

Suprascapula
flat cartilaginous
bone
Scapula
elongate bone
articulates with
suprascapula
Glenoid Fossa
depression formed
by the edges of
scapula, clavicle,
and coracoid

Clavicle
ventro-medial to scapula
slender bone
Coracoid
broad bone with constriction at the middle
and expanded end
Fenestra
space that separates the clavicle and
coracoid at the middle

BONES OF THE FORELIMBS

Humerus
long bone of the
upper arm
Head articulates with
__________?
Deltoid ridge for
muscle attachement
Shaft/diaphysis
Condlyles (distal
end)/epiphysis

Radio-ulna
bone of the forearm
formed by union of radius and ulna
longitudinal groove
Carpals
wrist bones

Metacarpals
long rod like bones
bones of the palm

Phalanges/ digits

PELVIC GIRDLE &


HINDLIMBS

THE PELVIC GIRDLE

V shaped
supports the hind limbs
consist of right and left
halves (innominate
bone)
Ilium
arm
articulates with
transverse process of
sacral vertebra
Ischium
broad bone posterior
to ilium

Pubis
triangular bone
ventral to ischium
Acetabulum
Pubic symphysis
point of union
Ischiac
symphysis
Puboischiac
symphysis

BONES OF THE HINDLIMBS

Femur
long bone of the thigh
Head fits into _______?
Tibio- fibula
fused bone of the leg
a. astragalus/tibiale
- more curved
b. calcaneum/fibulare
- more straight
Tarsals
bones of the ankle
Metatarsals
5 long bones of the sole

MANDIBLE

Mandible is completely ossified in man.

HYOID

Hyoid is a bony structure in man.


Frogs hyoid apparatus is cartilaginous
except for the thyroid process.

VERTEBRAL COLUMN

25 + 1 coccyx = 26 vertebrae

10 vertebrae

ATLAS

STERNUM

Sternum in man is a bony structure.


In frog, the sternum is made up of cartilage.

BONES OF THE FORELIMB

Forearm is made up of two separate bones the


radius and the ulna
Forearm of the frog is made up of one bone the
radio-ulna

BONES OF THE HINDLIMB

In man the leg is made up of two bones the tibia


and fibula
Shank is made up of one bone the tibio-fibula
(frog)