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UNIT-I Conducting Materials

PART A
1. What are the classifications of conducting materials?
Conducting materials are classified into
Zero resistive materials. Ex.Superconductors
Low resistive materials. Ex. Silver , Aluminium , Alloys
High resistive materials. Ex. Tungsten, platinum ,Nichrome
2. What are the sources of resistance in metals?
The resistance in metals is due to
Impurities present in metals
Temperature of the metal
Number of free electrons
3. Give any three postulates of classical free electron theory.
The free electrons in the metal move freely, similar to the gas molecules moving in a vessel
and it obeys the classical kinetic theory of gases.
These free electrons move in a constant potential field due to the ions fixed in the lattice
When the field is applied the free electrons move in a direction opposite to that of the field
direction
4. Define drift velocity. How is it different from thermal velocity of an electron?
It is the average velocity acquired by the free electron in a particular direction, due to the
application of electric field but thermal velocity is the velocity of an electron without any
external
filed. Here the electrons move in random direction.
5. Define the terms relaxation time, collision time and Mean free path of an electron.
Relaxation time: The average time taken by a free electron to reach its equilibrium position
from
its disturbed position due to application of an external electric field is called relaxation time.
Collision time: It is the average time taken by a free electron between two successive collisions.
Mean free path: The average distance travelled by a free electron between any two successive
collisions in the presence of an applied field is known as mean free path.
6. The mobility of electron in copper is 3x10-3 m2/Vs. Assuming e = 1.6x10-19C and me= 9.1x10-31
kg, calculate the Mean free time.

Equating (1) and (2) we get,


7. Differentiate between electrical conductivity and thermal conductivity.
S. No Electrical Conductivity Thermal Conductivity
1 Electrical conductivity is based on the
no of free electrons
Thermal conductivity is based both on
electrons and phonons
2 The quantity of electrical charges
flowing per unit time across unit area
in the metal for unit applied electric
field is called electrical conductivity

It is defined as the amount of heat


conducted per unit time through the metal
having unit area of cross section
maintaining at unit temperature gradient
between the two ends
3 Electrical conductivity takes place
from higher potential side to lower
potential side
Thermal conductivity takes place from hot
end to cold end.
4 unit :-1 m-1 unit :W-1 m-1K-1
8. Mention the drawbacks of classical free electron theory of metals.
It is a microscopic theory
Classical theory states that all the free electrons will absorb energy, but
quantum theory states
only few electrons will absorb energy.
This theory cannot explain the Compton, photo-electric effect,
paramagnetism,
ferromagnetism, etc.
The theoretical and experimental values of specific heat and electronic
specific heat are not
matched.
The Lorentz number by classical theory does not have good agreement
with the experimental
value and it is rectified by quantum theory.
9. What are the merits of classical free electron theory of metals?
It is used to verify ohms law.
The electrical and thermal conductivities of metals can be explained by
this theory.
It is used to derive Wiedemann-Franz law.
It is used to explain the optical properties of metals.
10. Find the drift velocity of electrons copper wire whose cross sectional area
is 1 mm2. When the
wire carries a current of 10 A. Assume that each copper atom contributes
one electron of the
electron gas. Given n = 8.5x1028 /m3.
Drift velocity
11. A conducting rod contains 8.5x1028 electrons per m3. Calculate the
electrical conductivity at
room temperature if the collision time for electron is 2 X 10-14 s.
12. State any three assumptions of quantum free electron theory.
The potential energy of an electron is uniform or constant throughout the
metal.
The electrons have wave nature.
The free electrons obey Fermi Dirac statistics.
13. What are the merits and demerits of quantum free electron theory?

Merits:
This theory attracts the electron quantum mechanically rather than
classically.
It explains the electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, specific heat
capacity of
metals, photoelectric effect and Compton Effect.
Demerits
Even though it explains most of the physical properties of the metals, it
fails to state the
difference between conductor, semiconductor and insulator.
It also fails to explain the positive value of Hall coefficient and some of the
transport
properties of metals.
14. Define Fermi level and Fermi energy with its importance.
Fermi level: It is the highest reference energy level of a particle at 0K.
Importance: It is the reference energy level that separates the filled energy
levels and vacant
energy levels.
Fermi energy: It is the maximum energy of the quantum state corresponding
to Fermi energy
level at 0K.
Importance: It determines the energy of the particle at any temperature.
15. Write down the expression for Fermi-Dirac distribution function and plot
it as a function of
energy.
Fermi distribution function is given by F(E) =
16. Calculate the Fermi energy of copper at 0 K if the concentration of
electrons is 8.5x1028 m-3
17. Define Density of Energy states.
Density of state Z (E) dE is defined as the number of available states present
in a metal
per unit volume in an energy interval E and E+ dE.
18. Define Lorentz number.
The ratio of thermal conductivity (K) of a metal to the product of electrical
conductivity
() of a metal and absolute temperature (T) of the metal is a constant. It is
called Lorentz number
and it is given by
Where L is Lorentz number whose value is 2.44 x 10-8 W K-2 at 293 K.
19. The thermal conductivity of a metal is 123.92 W/m/k. Find the electrical
conductivity and
Lorentz number when the metal possess relaxation time 10-14 seconds and
300 K.(Density of
electrons = 6 x 1028 /m3).
Electrical Conductivity

20. The Fermi temperature of a metal is 24600 K. Calculate the Fermi


velocity.
m/s.
PART B
1. i) Define Electrical conductivity. Derive an expression for electrical
conductivity of a metal by
using classical free electron theory.
Electrical conductivity: The quantity of electric charge flows in unit time
per unit area of
cross section of the conductor per unit potential gradient.
ohm1 m1
Expression for electrical conductivity
ii) Find the mobility of electrons in copper if there are 9x1028 valence
electrons/m3 and the
conductivity of copper is 6x107 mho/m.
4.166 X
2. i) Define thermal conductivity Derive an expression for thermal
conductivity of a metal.
Thermal Conductivity (K): The amount of heat flowing through an unit
area of a material
per unit temperature gradient.
K = - W/m/K.
The negative sign indicates that heat flows from hot end to cold end.
Expression for thermal conductivity
ii) Calculate the electrical and thermal conductivities for a metal with a
relaxation time 10-14
second at 300 K. Also calculate Lorentz number using the above result.
(Density of electrons
=6x1028 m-3).
Thermal conductivity
K = 123.80 W/m/K
3. Deduce mathematical expression for electrical conductivity and thermal
conductivity of a
conducting material and hence obtain Wiedemann-Franz law.
Electrical conductivity:
When an electric field of strength (E) is applied to the conductor, the force
experienced
by the free electrons is given by F = e E
From Newtons 2nd law of motion, the force acquired by the electrons can be
written as
F=ma
Equating the above equations e E = m a
Thermal conductivity:
The average kinetic energy of an electron at hot end A of temperature (T) =
The average kinetic energy of an electron at cold end B of temperature (TdT) =

The net heat energy transferred from end A to B per unit area per unit time
Amount of heat transferred per unit area per unit time is given by
We know for metals relaxation time ( collision time
Therefore thermal conductivity
Wiedemann-Franz law: This law states that the ratio between the thermal
conductivity and
the electrical conductivity of a metal is directly proportional to the absolute
temperature of
the metal.

Proof:

T
4. State and prove Wiedemann-Franz law. Why does the Lorentz number
determined
experimentally does not agree with the value calculated from the classical
theory.
Wiedemann-Franz law: This law states that the ratio between the thermal
conductivity and the
electrical conductivity of a metal is directly proportional to the absolute
temperature of the
metal.
Proof:

5. Derive an expression for the density of states and based on that calculate
the carrier
concentration in metals.
The Fermi function F (E) gives only the probability of filling up of electrons in
a given energy
state, it does not gives the information about the number of electrons that
can be filled in a
given energy state. To know that we should know the number of available
energy states, so
called density of states
Density of state N (E) dE is defined as the number of available states present
in a metal per
unit volume in an energy interval E and E+ dE.

Z(E)dE =
Z(E)dE =

Z(E)dE =
Carrier concentration
6. i) Starting with the density of energy states obtain the expression for the
Fermi energy of an
electron at 0 K and hence obtain the expression for the average energy of an
electron.
Carrier concentration
Expression for Fermi energy at 0K

Expression for Mean energy at 0K


=
=
=
ii) The Fermi energy of silver is 5.51 eV. What is the average energy of a free
electron at 0 K.
7. i) Define mobility.
When electric field (E) is applied to metals, the electrons move in the
direction
opposite to the field direction with the velocity v, then mobility of an
electron is defined as the
velocity acquired by the electron per unit electric field (E).
Unit: m2V-1s-1.
ii) What are Fermi particles or Fermions?
Fermi particles or fermions or particles with integral spin values. Eg.,
electrons.
iii) A uniform silver wire has a resistivity of 1.54x10-8 ohm/m at room
temperature. For an
electric field along the wire of 1 Volt/cm, compute the average drift velocity
of electron assuming
that there is 5.8x1028 conduction electrons/m3. Also calculate the mobility.
8. Write an expression for the Fermi energy distribution function F (E) and
discuss its behaviour
with change in temperature. Plot F (E) versus E for T=0K, and T > 0K.
Fermi distribution function: The probability F (E) of an electron occupying a
given energy
level is given by Fermi-Dirac distribution function
At T =0K and E< Ef
At T =0K and E> Ef
At T =0K and E= Ef
At T = any K
Due to the supply of thermal energy electrons in the lower energy level
absorb
the supplied energy and move to higher energy level thereby creating vacant
energy levels
below the Fermi energy level.
9. i) Use the Fermi distribution function to obtain the value of F (E) for the
level just 0.01eV
above the Fermi level at 200 K.
ii) Evaluate the Fermi function of energy KBT above the Fermi energy.
10. i) The density of silver is 10.5x103 kg/m3. The atomic weight of silver is
107.9. Each silver
atom provides one conduction electron. The conductivity of silver at 20C is
6.8 x107-1m-1.
Calculate the density of electron and also the mobility of electrons in silver.

ii) Calculate the electrical and thermal conductivities of a metal with the
relaxation time of
10-14 second at 300 K. The electron density is 6x1026 m-3.
Thermal conductivity K = L
K = 1.241 W/m/K.
iii) Calculate the Fermi energy and Fermi temperature in a metal. The Fermi
velocity of
electrons in the metal is 0.86x106 m/s.
Fermi energy
Fermi Temperature
UNIT-II SEMICONDUCTING MATERIALS
PART A
1. Define semiconductor and mention its properties.
The material which has the electrical conductivity between conductors and
insulators are
called semiconductors. It is special class of material very small in size and
sensitive to heat,
light and electricity.
The resistivity lies between 10-4 to 0.5 ohm meters.
At 0K, they behave as insulators.
They empty conduction band and almost filled valence band.
The conductivity of a semiconductor increases both due to the
temperature and
impurities.
They have negative temperature coefficient of resistance.
In semiconductors both the electron and holes are charge carriers and will
take part in
conduction.
2. What is the band gap energy Eg ? Give its value for Germanium & Silicon.
Energy band gap (Eg) is the region of energies which are not occupied by the
electrons
and is equal to the energy difference between minimum energy of
conduction band (Ec) and
the maximum energy of valence band (Ev).
3. What are the differences between elemental and compound
semiconductors? Give examples.
S.No Elemental semiconductors Compound semiconductors
1 They are made up of single element. They are made up of compounds.
2 They are called indirect band gap
semiconductors.
They are called as direct band gap
semiconductors.
3 Here heat is produced during
recombination.
Here the photons are emitted during
recombination.

4 Life time of charge carriers is more. Life time of charge carriers is less.
5 Current amplification is more. Current amplification is less.
6 They are used in the manufacture of
diodes and transistors, etc.
They are used for making LEDs, laser
diodes, ICs, etc.
7 Examples: Ge, Si, etc. Examples: GaAs, GaP, CdS, MgO, etc.
4. Distinguish between intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors.
5. Write an expression for electrical conductivity of an intrinsic
semiconductor
Electrical conductivity 2 e (me
* mh *) 3/4 e-Eg/2KT ( )
Where Intrinsic carrier concentration
Mobility of electron
Mobility of hole.
6. What are the limitations of intrinsic semiconductors?
Electrical conductivity is low. Germanium has a conductivity of 1.67 -1m-1
which is nearly
107 times smaller than copper.
Electrical conductivity is a function of temperature and increases
exponentially as temperature
increases.
7. What is meant by doping?
The addition of impurities to a pure semiconductor is known as doping and
added impurity is
called as doping agent or dopant.
S.No Intrinsic semiconductor Extrinsic semiconductors
1 Semiconductor in a extremely pure form is
called as intrinsic semiconductors.
Semiconductor which is doped with
impurities is called extrinsic
semiconductors.
2 Charge carriers are produced only due to
thermal agitation.
Charge carriers are produced due to
impurities and may also be produced due
to thermal agitation.
3 Low electrical conductivity High electrical conductivity
4 Low operating temperature High operating temperature
5 At 0K, the Fermi level exactly lies between
conducting band and valence band.
At 0K, the Fermi level lies closer to
conducting band in n type and lies near
valence band in p type semiconductor.
6 Eg: Si, Ge, etc. Eg: Si and Ge doped with Al, In, P, As,
etc.

8. What are n-type and p-type semiconductors?. Give examples.


N-type semiconductor is obtained by doping a pure semiconductor with
pentavalent
impurity. The majority carriers in N-type semiconductor are electrons. Ex.
Germanium doped
with Phosphorous, arsenic, antimony
P-type semiconductor is obtained by doping a pure semiconductor with
trivalent
impurity. The majority carriers in P-type semiconductor is holes. Ex
Germanium doped with
Boron, aluminium, etc.
9. Give any four differences between n-type and p-type semiconductors.
S.No n-type semiconductors p-type semiconductors
1 n-type semiconductor is obtained by
doping an intrinsic semiconductor with
pentavalent impurity.
p-type semiconductor is obtained by
doping an intrinsic semiconductor with
trivalent impurity.
2 Here electrons are majority charge
carriers and holes are minority charge
carriers.
Here holes are majority charge carriers and
electrons are minority charge carriers.
3 It has donar energy levels very close to
conduction band.
It has acceptor energy levels very close to
valence band.
4 When temperature is increased these
semiconductors can easily donate an
electron level to the conduction band.
When temperature is increased these
semiconductors can accept an electron
from valence band to acceptor energy
level.
10. Why compound semiconductors are called direct band gap
semiconductors? Give its
application.
During recombination the photons are emitted so they are called as direct
band gap
Semiconductors.
11. What is meant by donor and acceptor level?
Donors are pentavalent impurity atoms like P, As, etc., which donates an
electron to the pure semiconductors like Ge or Si. These energy levels are
donor energy levels.

Acceptors are trivalent impurity atoms like Ga, In etc., which can easily
accept
an electron from the pure semiconductors like Ge or Si. These energy levels
are acceptor energy
levels.
12. i) Define mobility.
Mobility is defined as the drift velocity acquired by a charge carrier per unit
electric field
Strength. Its unit is m2 V-1 s-1
ii) Find the resistance of an intrinsic Ge rod 1 cm long,1 mm wide, and
0.5mm thick at 300K.
For Ge, ni= 2.5 x 1019/m3, e= 0.39 m2V-1 S-1 and h= 0.19 m2V-1 S-1 at 300k.
13. Draw the diagram to show the variation of Fermi level with temperature
of a p-type
semiconductor for high and low doping level.
14. With increase of temperature the conductivity of semiconductor
increases while that of
metals decreases. Give reasons.
At 0K semiconductors behave as insulators. When the temperature is raised
or when
impurities are added, their conductivity increases. In the case of conductors
when the temperature
increases, the resistivity increases and hence the conductivity decreases.
15. Define Fermi level in the case of semiconductors. Mention its position in
intrinsic and
extrinsic semiconductor at 0 K.
Fermi level is located half way between the valence band and conduction
band in an intrinsic
Semiconductors at 0 K. EF =
In n-type semiconductor at 0 K, Fermi level lies exactly at the middle of the
donor level Ed and
the bottom of the conduction band Ec EF =
In p-type semiconductor at 0 K, Fermi level lies exactly at the middle of the
acceptor level Ea and
the top of the valence band Ev EF =
16. For an intrinsic semiconductor with a band gap of 0.7 eV, determine the
position of EF at
T=300 k if mh* = 6 me*.
17. Given an extrinsic semiconductor, how will you find whether it is n-type
or p-type?
If Rh value is negative then it is n-type semiconductor.
If Rh value is positive then it is p-type semiconductor.
18. What is Hall Voltage?
When a current carrying conductor is placed in a transverse magnetic field,
an electric

field is produced inside the conductor in a direction normal to both the


current and the magnetic
field. This effect is known as Hall Effect. The generated voltage is called hall
voltage.
19. The Hall Co-efficient of a specimen of a doped silicon is found to be
3.66x10-4 m-3/c.
The resistivity of specimen is 8.93x10-3 m. Find the mobility and density of
charge carriers.
Charge carrier density
20. Mention the applications of Hall Effect.
It is used to find the type of semiconductor.
It is used to measure carrier concentration.
It is used to find mobility of charge carrier.
It is used to measure the magnetic flux density using a semiconductor
sample of known
hall coefficient.
PART B
1. Derive an expression for density of electrons in the conduction band,
density of holes
in the valence band of an intrinsic semiconductor.
dn = n =
derivation upto n = 2 e (E
F E
C )/KT
dp = p =
derivation upto p = 2 e (E
v E
F )/KT
2. Derive the intrinsic carrier concentration for intrinsic semiconductor and
also calculate
the Fermi level and its variation with temperature.
n = p =ni
derivation upto ni = 2 (me
* mh
* ) e-Eg/2KT
Variation of Fermi level with temperature
EF = log ( ) +
EF =
3. i) Derive the Electrical Conductivity of an intrinsic semiconductor.
derivation for I = 2 e (me
* mh
* ) e-Eg/2KT (e h )
ii) Discuss the variation of electrical conductivity with temperature.
derivation for I = A e-Eg/2KT
log i = log A -

iii) For an intrinsic GaAs, the room temperature of electrical conductivity is


10-6
( m)-1. The electron and hole mobilities are 0.85 and 0.04 m2/V-s,
respectively.
Calculate the intrinsic carrier concentration at room temperature.
4. Explain the method of determining the band gap of a semiconductor. Also
describe
the experimental determination of Band gap.
I = A e-Eg/2KT
Derivation for log Ri = log C +
Eg = 2 k
5. Obtain an expression for the carrier concentration of electrons in the
conduction band
of n-type semiconductor.
Density of electrons per unit volume is n = 2 e (E
F E
C )/KT
Derivation upto n = (2Nd)1/2 e-E/2KT
6. Obtain an expression for the carrier concentration of holes in the Valence
band of ptype
semiconductor.
p = 2 e (E
v E
F )/KT
Derivation upto p = (2Na)1/2 e-E/2KT
7. i) With neat sketches, explain how Fermi level varies with impurity
concentration
and temperature in n-type semiconductor.
Explanation about the following diagram
ii) With neat sketches, explain how Fermi level varies with impurity
concentration
and temperature in p-type semiconductor
Explanation about the following diagram
8. i) Explain the variation of carrier concentration with temperature and
impurity in a
semiconductor.
Explanation of
i) Intrinsic range
ii) Exhaustion range
iii) Impurity range
ii) Explain the variation of electrical conductivity in extrinsic semiconductor.
Explanation about the following graph
9. ( i) Derive an expression of Hall coefficient and mobility of charge carriers.
Describe
an experimental setup for the measurement of Hall coefficient.
Hall Effect statement:

derivation for Hall effect in n-type semiconductor


RH = where RH = derivation for Hall effect in p-type semiconductor
RH = where RH =
Mobility of charge carriers
e = - h = ( ii) The Hall co-efficient of certain silicon was found to be -7.35x10-5 m3C-1
from 100 to 400
k. Determine the nature of the semiconductor. If the conductivity was found
to be 200 m-1 -1,
calculate the density and mobility of the charge carriers.
(i) Since hall coefficient is negative the given semiconductor is n-type.
(ii) Charge carrier density
(iii) Mobility =
10. (i) For an intrinsic semiconductor with gap width Eg = 0.7 eV, calculate
the
concentration of intrinsic charge carriers at 300 k assuming that me*= mh * =
m0
(rest mass of electron).
(ii) The resistivity of an intrinsic semiconductor is 4.5 ohm-m at 20C and 2.0
ohmm
at 32C. Find the energy band gap in eV.
1.66 X

(iii) A sample of silicon doped with 1023 phosphorous atoms/m3. Find the Hall
voltage in a sample with thickness =100 m, current, Ix=1mA and magnetic
field
Bz=0.1 Wb/m2.(Assume electron mobility e=0.07 m2/V.s)
Hall voltage
UNIT -3 - MAGNETIC AND SUPERCONDUCTING MATERIALS
PART A

1. Classify magnetic materials based on their magnetic moments.


2. What is Bohr Magnetron? Write its value.
The orbital magnetic moment and the spin magnetic moment of an electron
in an atom
can be expressed in terms of atomic unit of magnetic moment called bohr
magnetron. 1 Bohr
magnetron = B = 9.27 x 10-24 Am2
3. What are paramagnetic materials? Give examples.
Paramagnetic materials can be defined as a type of magnetism in which the
material
gets weakly magnetised in the same direction as the applied filed. The
paramagnetic susceptibility
is positive and small and relative permeability values are slightly greater
than one. Examples:
Platinum, chromium, aluminium, etc.
4. Define intensity of magnetization and flux density.

Intensity of magnetization: The term magnetization means the process of


converting a nonmagnetic
material into a magnetic material. It is defined as the magnetic moment per
unit
volume. I = Unit: Weber /m2.
Flux density: It is defined as the number of magnetic lines of forces passing
normally through
unit area of cross section. B = Unit: Weber/m2 or Tesla.
CLASSIFICATION OF MAGNETIC MATERIALS
NOT HAVING PERMANENT
MAGNETIC MOMENT
HAVING PERMANENT
MAGNETIC MOMENT

DIAMAGNETIC
MATERIALS
PARA MAGNETIC
MATERIALS
FERRIMAGNETIC
MATERIALS
FERROMAGNETIC
MATERIALS

5. A magnetic field of 2000 A/m is applied to a material which has a


susceptibility of 1000.
Calculate the (i) Intensity of Magnetisation and (ii) Flux density.
Intensity of Magnetization
Flux Density
6. Define magnetic susceptibility and permeability.
Magnetic susceptibility: It is defined as the ratio between intensity of
magnetisation and the
magnetic field intensity.
Magnetic permeability: It is defined as the ratio of magnetic flux density
(B) inside the
substance to the magnetizing field intensity (H).
7. A magnetic field of 1800 ampere/metre produces a magnetic flux of 3x10 5 Weber in an iron
bar of cross sectional area 0.2 cm2. Calculate permeability.
8. Define retentivity and coercivity.
Retentivity is the amount of magnetic induction retained in the material even
after the magnetic
field is removed.
Coercivity is the amount of magnetising field applied in the reverse direction
to remove the
residual magnetism completely from the material.
9. What are soft and hard magnetic materials.
S.No Soft Magnetic Materials Hard Magnetic materials
1 They can be easily magnetized and
demagnetized.
They cannot be easily magnetized or
demagnetized
2 Loop area is less and hence the
hysteresis loss is minimum.

The loop area is large and hence the


hysteresis loss is maximum.
3 Susceptibility and permeability is high. Susceptibility and permeability is
low.
4 Retentivity and Coercitivity are small. Retentivity and Coercitivity are large.
5 They have low eddy current loss. They have high eddy current loss.
6 These materials are free from
irregularities like strain or impurities.
These materials have large amount of
impurities and lattice defect.
10. Define energy product of a magnetic material.
The product of retentivity (Br) and coercivity (Hc) is called energy product. It
represents
the amount of energy stored in the specimen. The value of energy product is
very high for
permanent magnets.
Energy product = Br x Hc
11. What is antiferromagnetism? Give examples.
In anti-ferromagnetism, electron spin of neighbouring atoms are aligned
antiparallel.
Anti-ferromagnetic susceptibility is small and positive and it depends greatly
on temperature.
Eg. MnO, MnS, NiCr, Cr2O3, etc.
12. What is superconductivity?
The phenomenon of sudden disappearance of electrical resistivity in
materials when it
is cooled to sufficiently low temperature is called superconductivity. The
materials that exhibit
superconductivity and which are in the superconducting state are called
superconductors.
13. Mention the condition for the material to behave as a superconductor.
It should be pure i.e., the residual resistivity due to scattering by impurities
(0) should be
zero.
It should be cooled below transition temperature i.e., the ideal resistivity
due to scattering
by phonons (T) should be zero.
Magnetic induction in the material should be zero when it is placed in
external magnetic
field.
14. Define critical temperature and critical field.
The temperature at which the normal conductor loses its resistivity and
becomes a
superconductor is known as transition temperature or critical temperature
(TC). The magnetic field

at which the superconducting property of a material disappears is called as


critical magnetic field.
15. What is isotope effect?
In a superconducting material, transition temperature varies with the
average isotopic
mass M of its constituents. i.e.,
Where is called isotope effect coefficient.
16. What is meant by persistent current?
When DC current of large magnitude is induced in a superconducting ring,
then due to
the diamagnetic property of the superconductor, the magnetic flux is trapped
inside the ring and
hence the current persists in the ring for a longer time. This is called
persistent current.
17. What are high Tc superconductors? Give examples.
Any superconductor, if the transition temperature is above 10 K it is called as
high TC
superconductor.
Examples:
YBa2Cu3O7 TC = 92 K
La1.85Ba0.05CuO4 TC = 36 K
18. What are cooper pairs?
The attractive interaction between two electrons mediated by means of a
phonon
exchange dominates the usual repulsive interaction. Pair of such electrons
having opposite spins
which interact interactively in the phonon filed are called a cooper pair.
19. Calculate the critical current for a wire of lead having a diameter of 1mm
at 4.2 K. Critical
temperature for lead is 7.18 K and H0 = 6.5x104 A/m.
20. The critical temperature for Hg with isotopic mass 199.5 at 4.184 K.
Calculate the critical
temperature when its mass changes to 203.4.
Critical temperature for isotopic mass M1 Tc1 = 4.185 K M1 = 199.5
Critical temperature for isotopic mass M2 Tc2 = 4.133 K M2 = ?
MTc = constant
M
1Tc1 = M 2Tc =
=
=x
= 14.124 x 1.01258 = 14.3016
M2 = 204.536
PART B
1. i) State the origin of magnetic moment.
Three contributions for the magnetic dipole moment of an atom.

i. Orbital magnetic moment: Orbital motion of electrons (i.e., the motion of


electrons in the
Closed orbits around the nucleus). Its magnitude is always small.
ii. Spin magnetic moment: Spin motion of the electrons (i.e., due to electron
spin angular in
momentum).
iii. Nuclear magnetic moment: Contribution from the nuclear spin (i.e., due to
nuclear spin
angular momentum). It is nearly 103 times smaller than that of electron spin;
it is not taken
into consideration.
ii) How are magnetic materials classified based on magnetic moments?
Compare their
properties. Give also their characteristics and examples.
S.No Properties Diamagnetic Paramagnetic Ferromagnetic
1 Definition
No permanent
magnetic moment
Permanent magnetic
moment
Enormous magnetic
moment
2 Spin alignment No spin alignment Random alignment
Parallel and orderly
alignment
3
Magnetised
direction
Opposite to the
applied field
Same direction as the
applied external
magnetic field.
Same direction as the
applied external magnetic
field.
4 Permeability Very less High Very high
5
Relative
permeability
r < 1 r > 1 r >> 1
6 Susceptibility Negative Positive and small Positive and high

2. Explain ferromagnetic domain theory. Briefly explain different types of


energy involved in
domain growth.
A ferromagnetic material is divided into a large number of small region is
called

domains. (0.1 to 1 of area), each direction is spontaneously magnetized.


When the magnetic
field is applied to the Ferromagnetic material, the magnetization is produced
by two ways.
1. By the motion of domain walls.
2. By the rotation of domains.
Different energies involved in domain growth is
1. Exchange energy (or) Magnetic field energy.
2. Crystalline energy (or) Anisotropy energy.
3. Domain wall energy (or) Bloch wall energy.
4. Magnetostriction energy
3. i) Draw the B-H curve (Hysteresis) for a ferromagnetic material and explain
the same on the
basis of domain theory.
When a ferromagnetic material is taken through a cycle of magnetization,
the variation of B
(magnetic induction) with respect to H (applied field) can be represented by
a closed loop
(or) curve (hysteresis loop or curve) is called hysteresis.
OA - Due to smaller reversible domain wall movement
AB - Due to larger irreversible domain wall movement
BS - Due to smaller irreversible domain wall rotation
ii) Explain how susceptibility varies with temperature for dia, para, and Ferro
magnetic
materials in detail.
Material Diamagnetic Paramagnetic ferromagnetic
susceptibility Negative Positive & small Positive & large

A given material has a susceptibility of 900. Determine the relative


permeability of the material.
4. i) Explain soft and hard magnetic materials.
Soft magnetic materials
Easily magnetised and demagnetised.
Hysteresis is very small and hysteresis loss is also small.
Coercivity and retentivity is very small.
Materials have very large values of susceptibility and permeability.
Magentostatic energy is very small.
Eddy current loss is very small.
Hard magnetic materials
Cannot be easily magnetised and demagnetised.
Hysteresis is very large and hysteresis loss is also large.
Coercivity and retentivity is very large.
Materials have very small values of susceptibility and permeability.
Magentostatic energy is very large.
Eddy current loss is very large.
ii) Iron has relative permeability of 5000. Calculate its magnetic
susceptibility.

iv) Mention the properties of antiferromagnetism.


The adjacent magnetic dipoles are aligned antiparallel.
Anti ferromagnetic susceptibility mainly depends on temperature.
Its susceptibility is very small and it is positive.
The susceptibility is given by when T > TN.
5. i) What are ferrites? Explain the structure of ferrites, properties and its
applications.
These are compounds of iron oxides with oxides of other metals. Ferrites are
the magnetic
compounds consisting of two or more different kinds of atoms. Generally
ferrites are
expressed by the formula where X is a divalent metal ion.
Structures of ferrites:
Regular spinel
Inverse spinel
Properties
Spin alignment is antiparallel and of different magnitude.
They have high permeability and high resistivity.
Ferromagnetic materials possess net magnetic moment.
They have low eddy current losses and low hysteresis losses.
The susceptibility of a ferromagnetic material is positive and very large.
Applications
They are used to produce ultrasonic waves.
Used in audio and video transformers.
Ferrites rods are used in radio receivers to increase the sensitivity.
ii) Why are Ferrites advantages for use as transformer core?
Ferrites are used as transformer cores for frequencies upto microwaves. This
is because
the eddy current problem which prevents the penetration of magnetic flux
into the material is
so much less severe in ferrites than in iron.
6. Explain the different properties of superconductors in detail.
a. Zero electrical resistance: The phenomenon of exhibiting zero electrical
resistance by
certain material when it is cooled below a certain temperature (critical
temperature Tc).
b. Effect of magnetic field: In the superconducting state, a material
possesses zero
electrical resistance and behaves as a diamagnetic material. Below Tc if
sufficiently
strong magnetic field is applied, the superconducting property of the
material is
destroyed and the material reverts back to its normal state. The minimum
field required
to destroy the superconducting property is known as the critical magnetic
field (Hc) .

c. Effect of electric current: In the superconducting state, a material


possesses zero
electrical resistance and behaves as a diamagnetic material. Below Tc if
sufficiently
strong magnetic field is applied, the superconducting property of the
material is
destroyed and the (material reverts back to its normal state. The minimum
field
required to destroy the superconducting property is known as the critical
magnetic field
(Hc) .
d. Persistent current: When DC current of large magnitude is induced in a
superconducting ring, then due to the diamagnetic property of the
superconductor, the
magnetic flux is trapped inside the ring and hence the current persists in the
ring for a
longer time. This is called persistent current.
e. Meissner effect: When a weak magnetic field is applied to a
superconducting specimen
at a temperature below transition temperature (Tc), the magnetic flux lines
are expelled.
The specimen acts as an ideal diamagnet. This effect is called Meissner
effect.
f. Isotope effect: In superconducting materials, the Tc varies with the
average isotopic
mass of their constituents.
Tc M
MTc = constant
g. Effect of pressure: When pressure is applied to a superconducting
material, transition
temperature increases. Thus it is quite possible that the Tc of a material can
be made to
approach room temperature by the application of high pressures.
7. i) What is Meissner effect? Prove that all superconductors are perfect diamagnet in
superconducting state.
Meissner effect: When a weak magnetic field is applied to a
superconducting specimen at a
temperature below transition temperature (Tc), the magnetic flux lines are
expelled. The
specimen acts as an ideal diamagnet. This effect is called Meissner effect.
Superconductors are perfect dia-magnet Proof
Magnetic induction is given by
For a superconductor, B = 0
Therefore, 0
Since

H+I=0
I = -H
Thus, when B = 0, magnetic susceptibility of a superconductor is found to be
negative
maximum. This is referred to as perfect diamagnetism.
ii) Discuss the important features and the prediction of BCS theory.
Important features of BCS theory
Electrons form pairs which propagate through the lattice.
The cooper pairs are propagated through the lattice without resistance
because the
electrons move in resonance with phonons.
Predictions
This could successfully predict the phenomenon of isotope effect.
It explains the existence of an energy gap between the ground state and
first excited
state.
It explains the quantization of the magnetic flux through a
superconducting ring.
8. i) Differentiate the Type I and Type II superconductors
S.No Type I Superconductors Type II Superconductors
1 Here, the transformation from
superconducting to normal state takes
place suddenly at the critical magnetic
field (HC).
Here, the transformation from superconducting
to normal state is gradually from HC1 to HC2.
2 They exhibit complete Meissner effect. They do not exhibit complete
Meissner effect.
3 They have only one critical magnetic
field
They have two critical magnetic fields.
4 They are known as soft
superconductors because the field
required to destroy the
superconducting state is small.
They are known as hard superconductors
because the field required to destroy the
superconducting state is high.
5 Examples: Al, Zn, Sn, Pb, etc. Examples: Vanadium, Niobium, etc.
6.
ii) Explain High temperature superconductors in detail.
In a superconductor if the transition temperature is high i.e., greater than
100K, then it
is called high temperature superconductor.
9. i) Discuss the applications of superconductors in detail.

a. Superconductors are used for the production of high magnetic field


magnets.
b. By using superconducting materials, it is possible to manufacture
electrical generators
and transformers.
c. Superconducting materials are used in the construction of very sensitive
electrical
measuring instruments such as galvanometers.
d. Superconducting materials are used for power cables, which will enable
transmission of
power over very long distances without any significant power loss or drop in
voltage.
e. It is used to study tiny magnetic signals from brain and heart.
ii) Superconducting tin has a critical temperature of 3.7 K at zero magnetic
field and a
critical field of 0.0306 tesla at 0 K. Find the critical field at 2 K.
10. Explain the following in detail
i) AC and DC Josephson Effect :
AC Josephson Effect: when a Dc voltage is applied across the Josephson
junction through
which super current is flowing, an AC current is noticed.
DC Josephson Effect: the tunnelling of superconducting electron pairs
through Josephson
junction leads to the flow of current without the application of voltage.
ii) Cryotron: Cryotron is a magnetically operated switch. The
superconducting property
of a material disappears when the applied magnetic field is greater than the
critical magnetic
field.
iii) SQUID: SQUID is the acronym for Superconducting Quantum Interference
Device. It
is a double junction quantum interferometer. Two Josephson junctions
mounted on a
superconducting ring forms this interferometer. Squids are based on the flux
quantization in
the superconducting ring. The total magnetic flux passing through the ring is
quantized. It is a
weak ultra-sensitive measuring instrument used for detection of very weak
magnetic field in
the order of 10-14 tesla.
iv) Magnetic Levitation: The magnetic levitation is based on the
diamagnetic property of
a superconductor which is rejection of magnetic flux lines. A superconductor
can be
suspended in air against the repulsive force from a permanent magnet. This
magnetic

levitation effect can be used for high speed transportation without frictional
loss.
UNIT - IV Dielectric Materials
PART A
1. What are Dielectrics?
Dielectrics are the insulating materials having electric dipoles permanently
or have an
ability to produce enormous induced dipoles by the application of external
electric field.
2. Define electric polarization and electric susceptibility.
The process of producing electric dipoles inside the dielectric by an electric
field is
called electric polarization in dielectrics.
The polarization vector is proportional to the total electric field intensity and
is
in the same direction of E. therefore the polarization vector can be written
as,
Where the constant is referred as the electrical
susceptibility and is a characteristic of every dielectric.
=

3. Compare active and passive dielectrics.


S.No Active dielectrics Passive dielectrics
1 Dielectrics which can easily adapt
itself to store the electrical energy in it
is called active dielectrics.
Dielectrics which restrict the flow of
electrical energy in it are called passive
dielectrics.
2 They are not pure insulating materials. They are pure insulating materials
like
glass.
3 Examples : Piezo-electrics, Pyroelectrics,
etc.
Examples : Ceramics, Mica, etc.
4 Application : they are used to generate
ultrasonic waves
Application : They are used to produce
sheets, pies, etc.
4. Define dielectric constant.
It is the ratio between absolute permittivity of the medium () and the
permittivity of free space
(0)
If the medium has high dielectric constant, it is easily polarized and behaves
as a good electric
insulator.

5. What are the types of polarization mechanism involved in dielectric


material?
Electronic polarization
ionic polarization
Orientational polarization
Space charge polarization
6. What are the differences between polar and non polar molecules?
S.No Polar molecules Non-polar molecules
1 These molecules have permanent
dipole moment even in the absence of
the electric field.
These molecules do not have permanent
dipole moments.
2 The polarization of polar molecules is
highly temperature dependent
The polarization of this kind of molecules is
temperature independent
3 They do not have center of symmetry They have centre of symmetry
4 Here the +ve and ve charges do not
coincide with each other
Here +ve and ve charges are coinciding
with each other.
5 absorption and emission is found in
infrared region
There is no absorption or emission in the
infrared region.
6 Examples : HCl,H2O,CHCL3 etc. Examples :CCl4, CO2,H2 etc.
7. Define space charge polarization.
In some materials containing two or more phases, the application of an
electrical field
causes the accumulation of charges at the interfaces between the phases or
electrodes. As a result
of this, polarization is produced. This type of polarization is known as space
charge polarization.
8. Define dielectric loss and dielectric breakdown.
Dielectric loss: When a dielectric material is subjected to an A.C voltage the
electrical energy is
absorbed by the material and is dissipated in the form of heat. This
dissipation of energy is called
dielectric loss.
Dielectric breakdown: When the dielectric is subjected to a heavy voltage,
beyond the critical
value it loses its insulation property because electrons start jumping from
valence band to the
conduction band. Hence a dielectric material loses its resistivity and permits
large value of current

to flow through it. This is known as dielectric breakdown.


9. Define dielectric strength.
The magnitude of electric field strength at which dielectric breakdown occurs
is called
dielectric strength. It is the breakdown voltage per unit thickness of the
material.
10. What are the requirements of good insulating materials?
It should have low dielectric constant
It should possess low dielectric loss.
It must have high resistance.
It must possess high dielectric strength.
It should have adequate chemical stability.
It must have high moisture resistance.
11. Calculate the polarization produced in a dielectric medium of dielectric
constant 6 and it is
subjected to an electric field of 100 V/m. Given 0 = 8.85 x 10-12F/m.
P = 4.425 X
12. A capacitor consists of two conducting plates of area 200 cm2 each
separated by a dielectric
constant = 3.7 of thickness 1mm. Find the capacitance and the electric
flux density when a
potential of 300 V is applied. (0 = 8.85 x 10-12F/m).
Capacitance
Electric Flux Density
13. What are the factors affecting dielectric loss.
Dielectric loss may increase due to the following factors.
high frequency of the applied voltage.
high value of the applied voltage.
14. The dielectric constant of a He gas at NTP is 1.0000684. Calculate the
electronic
polarizability of He atoms if the gas contains 2.7 x 1025 atoms/m3 and hence
evaluate the
radius of the He atoms. Given 0 = 8.85 x 10-12F/m.
Electronic polarizability
15. Write the Clausius Mosotti relation. What is its significance?

=
It relates the microscopic quantity with macroscopic quantity
It relates the dielectric constant of the material with polarisability.
16. If a NaCl crystal is subjected to an electric field of 1000V/m and the
resulting polarization is
4.3x10-8 C/m2. Calculate the relative permeability of NaCl.
17. State the properties of ferroelectric materials.
The dielectric constant of these materials does not vary with respect to
temperature.

The dielectric constant (r) reaches a maximum value only at a particular


temperature
called Curie temperature
The polarization does not vary linearly with respect to electric field and
hence these
materials are also called as non-linear dielectrics.
Ferro-electric materials exhibit hysteresis, similar to that of ferro-magnetic
materials.
18. Find the capacitance of layer of Al2O3 having 0.5 m and area 2500 mm2
with r = 8.
Capacitance
19. What is Piezoelectricity?
When a dielectric material acquires electric polarization due to the external
mechanical
pressure, it is called Piezo electricity and these materials are known as Piezo
electrics.
20. Mention the applications of dielectrics.
Ferro-electric materials are used to produce ultrasonics.
They are used in the production of Piezo-electric materials and in turn to
make microphones.
Ferro-electrics are also used in SONAR, Strain gauges, etc.
They are also used as frequency stabilizers and crystal controlled
oscillators.
Electrets are also used to bond the fractured bones in the human body.
Ferro-electric semiconductors are used to make positors, which in turn are
used to measure and
control the temperature.
PART B
1. Define the following. Give the necessary equations relating the above
quantities.
a .Dielectric constant.
It is defined as the ratio of absolute permittivity of the medium to the
permittivity of free space.
b. Polarizability .()
The average dipole moment of a system is proportional to the applied
electric field.
c. Polarization vector.
If is the average dipole moment per molecule and N is the number of
molecules per unit volume , the polarisation vector is defined as dipole
moment per unit
volume of the dielectric material.
=N
d. Electric flux density : The number of electric lines passing through unit
area of
cross section.
e. Electric Susceptibility.

The polarisation vector is proportional to the applied electric field


strength.
==-1
2. Discuss electronic and ionic polarizations with examples in detail.
ELECTRONIC POLARISATION
Electronic polarisation is due to the displacement of positively charged
nucleus and
negatively charged electrons of an atom in opposite directions on the
application of electric
field. Ex : Inert gases
Derivation for e
Without electric field:
With electric field: When the dielectric is placed in an electric field (E), two
phenomenon
occur. (i) Lorentz force due to the electric field tends to separate the nucleus
and the electron
cloud from their equilibrium position. FL = -ZeE
(ii) After separation, an attractive coulomb force arises between the nucleus
and electron
cloud which tries to maintain the original equilibrium position.
ind = e E where e = 4
IONIC POLARISATION
Ionic polarisation is due to the displacement of cations and anions in
opposite
directions. This occurs in ionic dielectrics by the influence of external electric
field. Ex: Ionic
Without electric field With electric field

(=

Derivation for
3. Explain the different types of polarization mechanisms involved in a
dielectric material.
Electronic Polarisation: Electronic polarisation is due to the displacement
of positively
charged nucleus and negatively charged electrons of an atom in opposite
directions on the
application of electric field. Ex : Inert gases
Derivation for e
Without electric field
With electric field
ind = e E where e = 4
Ionic Polarisation.
Ionic polarisation is due to the displacement of cations and anions in
opposite
directions. This occurs in ionic dielectrics. by the influence of external electric
field. Ex: Ionic

Derivation for
(=
Orientation Polarisation.
Orientation polarisation takes place only in polar dielectrics. Polar dielectrics
have molecules with permanent dipole moments even in the absence of an
electric field.
Derivation for

o =

Space charge Polarisation.


Space charge polarisation occurs due to the accumulation of charges at the
electrodes
or at the interfaces of multiphase dielectric materials.
Total polarisation = e+ + o + s
4. Explain the frequency and temperature dependence of all type of
polarization in dielectrics.
If an alternating electric field is applied across the material, polarisation
occurs as a
function of time. ie P(t) = P [1 - e-t/t

]
Frequency range in Hz Type of polarisation
~ 1015 Electronic
~1013 Ionic + Electronic
~106 -1010 orientation +Ionic + Electronic
~102 Space charge + orientation +
Ionic+ Electronic
r

Temperature Dependence
Electronic Polarisation: Temperature independent.
Ionic Polarisation: Temperature independent.
Orientatinal Polarisation: increase in temperature decrease the
polarisation.
Space charge polarisation: increase in temperature increases the
polarisation.
5. What is meant by local field in a dielectric? And how it is calculated for a
cubic structure?
Deduce the Clausius Mosotti relation.
When a dielectric is kept in an external electric field (E), two fields are
exerted due to (i)
external Electric field (ii) dipole moment created. These long range Coulomb
field which is
responsible for polarization of each atom or molecule is known as internal
field or local
field and is given by,
Eint = E1 + E2 +E3 + E4
E1 = Electric field due to charges on the plates of the capacitor.

E2 = Electric field due to polarised charges on the plane surface of the


dielectric.
E3 = Electric field due to polarised charges induced on the surface of the
imaginary
spherical cavity.
E4 = Electric field due to permanent dipoles of atoms inside the spherical
cavity considered.
Eint = E + E3
Eint = E +

6. i) A solid contains 5x1028 identical atoms /m3, each with a polarizability of


2x10-40 Fm2.
Assuming that internal field is given by the Lorentz relation, calculate the
ratio of internal
field to the applied field. (0 = 8.85 x 10-12F/m)
v) The dielectric constant of water is 80. Is water a good dielectric? Is it
useful for energy
storage in capacitors? Justify your answer.
Though the dielectric constant of water is 80 at 20C or 293K it is not a good
dielectric
material because of the following reasons.
1. At normal temperature the electrical conductivity of water is very high
2. At normal temperature current lead the voltage by a very less angle i.e.,
cos is
very less which leads to very high loss angle () and hence tan is very high
3. The dissipation factor and hence the power loss is very high. Thus water
cannot be used
as dielectric for energy storage in capacitors.
7. What is dielectric loss? Derive the expression for dielectric power loss.
Dielectric loss: When a dielectric material is subjected to an A.C voltage
the electrical energy
is absorbed by the material and is dissipated in the form of heat. This
dissipation of electrical
energy is called dielectric loss.
Expression for dielectric loss
PL = VI cos
PL = VI cos 90
PL = 0
For a practical dielectric material
PL = 2 f C V2 tan
tan power factor
8. What are the different types of dielectric break down in dielectric medium?
Discuss in detail
the various types of dielectric breakdown.

Dielectric breakdown: When the dielectric is subjected to a heavy voltage,


beyond the critical
value it loses its insulation property because electrons start jumping from
valence band to the
conduction band. Hence a dielectric material loses its resistivity and permits
large value of current
to flow through it. This is known as dielectric breakdown.
Types of dielectric breakdown
Intrinsic breakdown and avalanche breakdown
Thermal breakdown
Chemical and Electrochemical breakdown
Discharge breakdown
Defect breakdown
Explanation of each breakdown and its characteristics.
9. What is ferroelectricity? Explain the properties of ferro electric material.
Give examples and
mention the applications.
Ferro electric materials
Some materials which exhibit electronic polarisation even in the absence of
the applied
electric field and thus they produce electricity. This electricity is known as
Ferroelectricity. Materials are called Ferroelectric materials.
Ex:
1. Barium titanate. (Ba Tio3)
2. Potassium dihydrogen phosphate(KH2PO4)
3. Ammonium dihydrogen phosphate.(NH4H2PO4)
4. Lithium Niobate(LiNbO3)
5. Rochelle salt(NaKC4H4O6, 4H2O)
10. Explain the uses of dielectrics in capacitors and in Transformers.
Insulating materials are used in power and distribution transformers and
capacitors.
In Capacitors :
Explanation about the various types of dielectric materials in various
capacitors like
a) Power Capacitors.
b) Electrolytic Capacitors.
c) Ceramic Capacitors.
Explanation about the Uses of insulating materials in power and distribution
transformers .
UNIT V ADVANCED ENGINEERING MATERIALS
PART A
1. Define Met glasses.
Metallic glasses are new type of engineering materials which shares the
properties of
both metals and glasses. They are metal-metal or metal-metalloid alloy
glasses having

amorphous nature.
2. What is meant by glass transition temperature?
The temperature at which metals in the molten form transforms into glasses
ie liquid to
solid is known as glass transition temperature (Tg).
3. What do you understand by the term quenching?
Quenching is a technique used to form metallic glasses. Quenching means
rapid
cooling. Actually atoms of any material move freely in a liquid state. Atoms
can be arranged
regularly when a liquid is cooled slowly. Instead, when a liquid is quenched,
there will be an
irregular pattern, which results in the formation of metallic glasses.
4. Mention the merits of metallic glasses as transformer core materials.
Metallic glasses are ferromagnetic. They posses low magnetic losses, high
permeability and saturation magnetization with low coercivity. They also
have extreme
mechanical hardness and excellent initial permeability.
These properties make them useful as transformer core materials. Moreover
power transformers
made of metallic glasses are smaller in size and efficient in their
performance.
5. Mention any four properties of met glasses.
Metallic glasses have tetrahedral closely packed (TCP) structure rather
than hexagonal
closely packed structure (HCP) structure.
The metallic glasses are very strong in nature
They posses malleability, ductility, etc.
They exhibit very low hysteresis loss and hence transformer core loss is
very less.
6. Write any four application of met glasses.
Metallic glasses are very strong and hard and they can be used to make
different kinds of
springs.
Metallic glasses have high resistivity and they can be used to make
computer memories,
magneto-resistance sensors etc.
Since Metallic glasses can behave as superconductors, they are used in the
production of
high magnetic fields.
Metallic glasses are not affected by irradiation and so they can be used in
nuclear reactors.
Metallic glasses are high corrosion resistant and they can be used in
reactor vessels,
surgical clips, marine cables, etc.
7. What is transformation temperature?

In SMA, the shape recovery process occurs not at a single temperature;


rather it
occurs over a range of temperature. Thus the range of temperature at which
the SMA switches
from new shape to its original shape is called transformation temperature or
memory transfer
temperature.
8. What is meant by shape memory effect?
The ability of shape memory alloys to get severely deformed on cooling and
then
regaining its original shape by heating effect is known as shape memory
effect.
9. What do you understand by Martensite and Austenite phase.
Martensite and Austenite are the two solid phases which occur in SMA.
Martensite is relatively soft and it is easily deformable phase which exists
at low
temperature (Monoclinic).
Austenite is a phase occurs at high temperature having crystal structure
and high degree
of symmetry (Cubic).
10. What is pseudo elasticity?
The ability of the SMA to return to its original shape upon unloading after a
substantial
deformation is known as super elasticity or pesudoelasticity. This is based on
the stress induced
martensite transformations.
11. What is one-way and two-way shape memory alloys?
One-way shape memory alloy (SMA):
A material which exhibits shape memory effect during both heating and
cooling.
Two-way shape memory alloy (SMA):
A material which exhibits shape memory effect during both heating and
cooling.
12. Mention the advantages and disadvantages of shape memory alloys.
Advantages
They are simple, compact and high safe.
They have good bio-compatibility.
They have diverse applications and offer clean, silent and spark free
working condition.
They have good mechanical properties and strong corrosion resistant.
Disadvantages
They have poor fatigue properties.
They are expensive.
They have low energy efficiency
13. What are nanophase materials? Give examples.
Nanophase materials or nanomaterials are newly developed materials

with grain size at the nanometer range (10-9) ie in the order of 1-100 nm.
14. Mention few techniques for synthesis of nano phased materials.
Plasma-arching
Chemical vapor deposition
Sol-gel technique
Electro-deposition
Mechanical crushing- Ball milling
Laser synthesis
Inert gas condensation
15. What is top down and bottom up approach in nano materials?
Top down process: In this process bulk materials are broken into nano
sized particles. In top
down process, the buildings of nanostructures starting with small
components like atoms and
molecules that are removed from a bulk material so as to obtain desired
microstructure.
Examples: Nanolithography, Ball milling, etc.
Bottom up process: This process involves building larger objects from
smaller building blocks.
Nanotechnology seeks to use atoms and molecules as those building blocks.
This is the opposite
of top-down process. Instead of taking the material away to make structures,
the bottom up
process selectively adds atoms to create structures.
Example: pulsed lased deposition, chemical vapor deposition, etc.
16. Give any four non-linear optical properties.
The few non-linear optical phenomena observed are
Higher harmonic generation
Optical mixing
Optical phase conjugation
Solition
17. What is meant by second harmonic generation?
In some non-linear crystals which lack centre of symmetry, when intense
radiation is
passed through, the frequency of radiation is doubled, i.e., wavelength is
halved. Such process is
known as second harmonic generation.
18. What are bio-materials?
The materials which are used for structural applications in the field of
medicine are
known are known as biomaterials. They are used to make device to replace
damaged or diseased
body parts in human and animal bodies.
19. What are the types of bio-materials?
They are classified s four types.
Metals and alloys biomaterials

Ceramics biomaterials
Polymer biomaterials
Composite biomaterials
20. What are the applications of biomaterials?
Applications:
Stainless steel is a predominant alloy widely used in implant and
orthopedic applications.
Protosal from cast alloy of Co-Cr-Mo is used to make stem and head of
implant hip
endoprosthesis.
PART B
1. What are metallic glasses? Describe the preparation and properties and
applications of metallic
glasses.
Metallic Glasses
Metallic glasses are amorphous metallic solids which combines both the
properties of
metals and glasses. They have high strength, good metallic and corrosion
resistance
properties. Eg: Alloys of Fe, Ni, Al, Mn, Cu, etc.
Preparation Technique
Melt spinning method
Properties of Metallic Glasses
Structural properties
Mechanical properties
Electrical properties
Magnetic properties
Chemical properties
Application of Metallic Glasses
Structural application
Electrical and Electronics
Metallic glasses as transformer core material
Nuclear reactor engineering.
Bio medical application.
2. How are metallic glasses prepared? Explain how the melt spinner device
can be used to
produce met glasses.
Preparation of metallic glasses
1. Twin roller
2. Melt spinning
3. Melt extraction
Melt spinning technique Extreme rapid cooling of the molten metal alloy
(rapid quenching).
Due to rapid cooling atoms are arranged irregularly and form metallic
glasses.

3. Explain the properties and application of metallic glasses also mentions its
types with
examples.
Properties of Metallic Glasses
Structural properties
They do not have any crystal defects.
They have tetrahedral close packing structure.
Mechanical properties
They have extremely high strength.
They have high elasticity.
They have high ductility.
They are not work-harden but they are work-soften.
Electrical properties
Electrical resistivity of metallic glasses is high and it does not vary with
temperature.
Eddy current loss is very small.
Temperature coefficient is zero or negative.
Magnetic properties
They have both soft and hard magnetic properties.
They exhibit high saturation magnetisation.
They have less core losses.
Metallic glasses have very narrow hysteresis loop.
Chemical properties
They are highly resistance to corrosion due to random ordering.
They are highly reactive and stable.
They act as a catalyst.
Application of Metallic Glasses
Structural application
Electrical and Electronics
Metallic glasses as transformer core material
Nuclear reactor engineering.
Bio medical application.
4. What are shape memory alloys? Describe the characteristics of SMA and
its applications.
Shape Memory Alloys: The ability of metallic alloys to regain its original
shape while
heating or cooling is called as shape memory alloys. Ex: Ni-Ti alloys, Cu Zn
Al, Cu Al Ni, AuCd, Ni-Mn-Ga and Fe based alloys.
Phases of Shape Memory Alloys
Austenite High temperature phase having cubic structure.
Martensite Low temperature phase having monoclinic structure.
Characteristics of Shape Memory Alloys
1. Shape Memory Effect: the change of shape of a material at low
temperature by loading

and regaining of original shape by heating it, is known as Shape Memory


Effect.
2. Pseudo elasticity
3. Super elasticity
4. Hysteresis: It is defined as the difference between the temperatures at
which a material is
50% transformed into austenite while heating and 50% transformed to
martensitic while
cooling.
Advantages
1. Good bio-compatibility
2. Good mechanical properties and good corrosion resistance.
3. High power and weight ratio
Disadvantages
1. Poor fatigue properties.
2. Low energy efficiency
Applications
1. Eye glass frames
2. Toys
3. Helicopter blades
4. Coffee valves
5. Mirco- surgical instruments
6. Dental arch wires
5. i) Mention the properties of Ni Ti alloy.
Ni-Ti alloy has high shape memory alloy.
The density of Ni-Ti is 6450 Kg m-3.
It is more flexible.
It has high melting point.
The transformation temperature varies from -200_C to 110C.
It has high thermal stability and corrosion resistance.
The thermal conductivity varies from 8.5 to 18 WK-1M-1.
ii) Explain the applications of SMA
Eye glass frames
Toys
Helicopter blades
Coffee valves
Mirco- surgical instruments
Dental arch wires
iii) Explain the advantages and disadvantages of SMA.
Advantages
Good bio-compatibility
Good mechanical properties and good corrosion resistance.
High power and weight ratio
Disadvantages
Poor fatigue properties.
Low energy efficiency

6. What are nanomaterials? Explain the preparation, properties and


applications nanomaterials.
Nanomaterials are materials having grain sizes in the order of 1 to 100nm.
Synthesis
1. Top down approach process of breaking down bulk material to nano size.
2. Bottom up approach nanomaterials are made by building atom by atom.
Synthesis of nanomaterials
1. Pulsed laser deposition
2. Chemical vapor deposition
Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD): Precursor gases are delivered into the
reaction chamber
at elevated temperature usually under vacuum. As they pass over or come
into contact with a
heated substrate, they react or decompose forming a solid phase. They are
deposited onto the
substrate. The substrate temperature is critical and can influence what
reactions will take
place.
Properties of Nanomaterials
1. Electrical properties
2. Optical properties
3. Chemical properties
4. Mechanical properties
5. Magnetic properties
Applications of Nanomaterials
1. Used to produce color paints
2. Used in thermal protection and current controlling devices.
3. Used in data storage
4. Used in hydrogen storage devices.
5. Used in drug delivery.
6. Used in semiconductor laser and CDs.
7. Used as sunscreens.
7. Describe the method of producing nano materials using
i) Pulsed laser deposition: The laser pulses of high intensity and energy is
used to
evaporate carbon from graphite. These evaporated carbon atoms are
condensed to form
nanotubes.
ii) Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD): Precursor gases are delivered into
the reaction
chamber at elevated temperature usually under vacuum. As they pass over
or come into
contact with a heated substrate, they react or decompose forming a solid
phase. They
are deposited onto the substrate. The substrate temperature is critical and
can influence

what reactions will take place.


8. i) Explain Birefringence.
The appearance of double refraction under the influence of an external agent
is known
as artificial double refraction or induced birefringence. The property of
double refraction
can be induced in an isotropic material by the application of (i) a mechanical
strain (ii) an
electric field or (iii) a magnetic field.
ii) Explain optical Kerr effect.
Anisotropy induced in an isotropic medium under the influence of an electric
field is
known as Kerr effect.
The change in refractive index is given by
iii) Explain non-linear materials. Give examples.
Non linear optics: In some materials, the intensity and frequency of the
output is not
linearly proportional to the intensity and frequency of the incident light input.
This effect is
called nonlinear effect.
Ex: Lithium tantalite, Lithium niobate, Barium sodium niobate, etc.
9. Explain the origin of non-linear optics? How are second harmonic wave
generated.
Non linear optics: In some materials, the intensity and frequency of the
output is not
linearly proportional to the intensity and frequency of the incident light input.
This effect is
called nonlinear effect.
Ex: Lithium tantalite, Lithium niobate, Barium sodium niobate, etc.
Second harmonic generation: second order generation represents the
generation of new
frequencies with the help of crystals such as quartz, LiO3, etc.
In nonlinear medium for higher fields i.e., higher intensities of light the
nonlinear effects are
observed.
10. Explain biomaterials, classification and its modern application in field of
medicine.
The materials which are used for structural applications in the field of
medicine are
known as biomaterials. These materials are used to make devices to replace
damaged or
diseased body parts in human and animal bodies.
Classification of biomaterials
Metals and alloys biomaterials
Ceramics biomaterials
Polymer biomaterials

Composite biomaterials
Applications
Protosal from cast alloy of Co-Cr-Mo is used to make stem and used for
implant hip
endoprosthesis.
Ni-Ti shape memory alloy is used in dental arch wires, micro surgical
instruments,
blood clot filters, guide wires, etc.
Ceramic implants such as Al2O3 with some SiO2 and alkali metals are used
to make
femoral head.
Carbon has good biocompatibility with bone and other tissues.

wire carries a current of 10 A. Assume that each copper atom contributes one electron of the
electron gas. Given n = 8.5x1028 /m3.
Drift velocity
11. A conducting rod contains 8.5x1028 electrons per m3. Calculate the electrical conductivity at
room temperature if the collision time for electron is 2 X 10-14 s.
12. State any three assumptions of quantum free electron theory.
The potential energy of an electron is uniform or constant throughout the metal.
The electrons have wave nature.
The free electrons obey Fermi Dirac statistics.
13. What are the merits and demerits of quantum free electron theory?
Merits:
This theory attracts the electron quantum mechanically rather than classically.
It explains the electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, specific heat capacity of
metals, photoelectric effect and Compton Effect.
Demerits
Even though it explains most of the physical properties of the metals, it fails to state the
difference between conductor, semiconductor and insulator.
It also fails to explain the positive value of Hall coefficient and some of the transport
properties of metals.
14. Define Fermi level and Fermi energy with its importance.
Fermi level: It is the highest reference energy level of a particle at 0K.
Importance: It is the reference energy level that separates the filled energy levels and vacant
energy levels.
Fermi energy: It is the maximum energy of the quantum state corresponding to Fermi energy
level at 0K.
Importance: It determines the energy of the particle at any temperature.
15. Write down the expression for Fermi-Dirac distribution function and plot it as a function of
energy.
Fermi distribution function is given by F(E) =
16. Calculate the Fermi energy of copper at 0 K if the concentration of electrons is 8.5x1028 m-3
17. Define Density of Energy states.

Density of state Z (E) dE is defined as the number of available states present in a metal
per unit volume in an energy interval E and E+ dE.
18. Define Lorentz number.
The ratio of thermal conductivity (K) of a metal to the product of electrical conductivity
() of a metal and absolute temperature (T) of the metal is a constant. It is called Lorentz number
and it is given by
Where L is Lorentz number whose value is 2.44 x 10-8 W K-2 at 293 K.
19. The thermal conductivity of a metal is 123.92 W/m/k. Find the electrical conductivity and
Lorentz number when the metal possess relaxation time 10-14 seconds and 300 K.(Density of
electrons = 6 x 1028 /m3).
Electrical Conductivity
20. The Fermi temperature of a metal is 24600 K. Calculate the Fermi velocity.
m/s.
PART B
1. i) Define Electrical conductivity. Derive an expression for electrical conductivity of a metal by
using classical free electron theory.
Electrical conductivity: The quantity of electric charge flows in unit time per unit area of
cross section of the conductor per unit potential gradient.
ohm1 m1
Expression for electrical conductivity
ii) Find the mobility of electrons in copper if there are 9x1028 valence electrons/m3 and the
conductivity of copper is 6x107 mho/m.
4.166 X
2. i) Define thermal conductivity Derive an expression for thermal conductivity of a metal.
Thermal Conductivity (K): The amount of heat flowing through an unit area of a material
per unit temperature gradient.
K = - W/m/K.
The negative sign indicates that heat flows from hot end to cold end.
Expression for thermal conductivity
ii) Calculate the electrical and thermal conductivities for a metal with a relaxation time 10-14
second at 300 K. Also calculate Lorentz number using the above result. (Density of electrons
=6x1028 m-3).
Thermal conductivity
K = 123.80 W/m/K
3. Deduce mathematical expression for electrical conductivity and thermal conductivity of a
conducting material and hence obtain Wiedemann-Franz law.
Electrical conductivity:
When an electric field of strength (E) is applied to the conductor, the force
experienced
by the free electrons is given by F = e E
From Newtons 2nd law of motion, the force acquired by the electrons can be
written as
F=ma
Equating the above equations e E = m a
Thermal conductivity:
The average kinetic energy of an electron at hot end A of temperature (T) =

The average kinetic energy of an electron at cold end B of temperature (TdT) =


The net heat energy transferred from end A to B per unit area per unit time
Amount of heat transferred per unit area per unit time is given by
We know for metals relaxation time ( collision time
Therefore thermal conductivity
Wiedemann-Franz law: This law states that the ratio between the thermal
conductivity and
the electrical conductivity of a metal is directly proportional to the absolute
temperature of
the metal.

Proof:

T
4. State and prove Wiedemann-Franz law. Why does the Lorentz number
determined
experimentally does not agree with the value calculated from the classical
theory.
Wiedemann-Franz law: This law states that the ratio between the thermal
conductivity and the
electrical conductivity of a metal is directly proportional to the absolute
temperature of the
metal.
Proof:

5. Derive an expression for the density of states and based on that calculate
the carrier
concentration in metals.
The Fermi function F (E) gives only the probability of filling up of electrons in
a given energy
state, it does not gives the information about the number of electrons that
can be filled in a
given energy state. To know that we should know the number of available
energy states, so
called density of states
Density of state N (E) dE is defined as the number of available states present
in a metal per
unit volume in an energy interval E and E+ dE.

Z(E)dE =
Z(E)dE =

Z(E)dE =
Carrier concentration
6. i) Starting with the density of energy states obtain the expression for the
Fermi energy of an
electron at 0 K and hence obtain the expression for the average energy of an
electron.

Carrier concentration
Expression for Fermi energy at 0K
Expression for Mean energy at 0K
=
=
=
ii) The Fermi energy of silver is 5.51 eV. What is the average energy of a free
electron at 0 K.
7. i) Define mobility.
When electric field (E) is applied to metals, the electrons move in the
direction
opposite to the field direction with the velocity v, then mobility of an
electron is defined as the
velocity acquired by the electron per unit electric field (E).
Unit: m2V-1s-1.
ii) What are Fermi particles or Fermions?
Fermi particles or fermions or particles with integral spin values. Eg.,
electrons.
iii) A uniform silver wire has a resistivity of 1.54x10-8 ohm/m at room
temperature. For an
electric field along the wire of 1 Volt/cm, compute the average drift velocity
of electron assuming
that there is 5.8x1028 conduction electrons/m3. Also calculate the mobility.
8. Write an expression for the Fermi energy distribution function F (E) and
discuss its behaviour
with change in temperature. Plot F (E) versus E for T=0K, and T > 0K.
Fermi distribution function: The probability F (E) of an electron occupying a
given energy
level is given by Fermi-Dirac distribution function
At T =0K and E< Ef
At T =0K and E> Ef
At T =0K and E= Ef
At T = any K
Due to the supply of thermal energy electrons in the lower energy level
absorb
the supplied energy and move to higher energy level thereby creating vacant
energy levels
below the Fermi energy level.
9. i) Use the Fermi distribution function to obtain the value of F (E) for the
level just 0.01eV
above the Fermi level at 200 K.
ii) Evaluate the Fermi function of energy KBT above the Fermi energy.
10. i) The density of silver is 10.5x103 kg/m3. The atomic weight of silver is
107.9. Each silver
atom provides one conduction electron. The conductivity of silver at 20C is
6.8 x107-1m-1.

Calculate the density of electron and also the mobility of electrons in silver.
ii) Calculate the electrical and thermal conductivities of a metal with the
relaxation time of
10-14 second at 300 K. The electron density is 6x1026 m-3.
Thermal conductivity K = L
K = 1.241 W/m/K.
iii) Calculate the Fermi energy and Fermi temperature in a metal. The Fermi
velocity of
electrons in the metal is 0.86x106 m/s.
Fermi energy
Fermi Temperature
UNIT-II SEMICONDUCTING MATERIALS
PART A
1. Define semiconductor and mention its properties.
The material which has the electrical conductivity between conductors and
insulators are
called semiconductors. It is special class of material very small in size and
sensitive to heat,
light and electricity.
The resistivity lies between 10-4 to 0.5 ohm meters.
At 0K, they behave as insulators.
They empty conduction band and almost filled valence band.
The conductivity of a semiconductor increases both due to the
temperature and
impurities.
They have negative temperature coefficient of resistance.
In semiconductors both the electron and holes are charge carriers and will
take part in
conduction.
2. What is the band gap energy Eg ? Give its value for Germanium & Silicon.
Energy band gap (Eg) is the region of energies which are not occupied by the
electrons
and is equal to the energy difference between minimum energy of
conduction band (Ec) and
the maximum energy of valence band (Ev).
3. What are the differences between elemental and compound
semiconductors? Give examples.
S.No Elemental semiconductors Compound semiconductors
1 They are made up of single element. They are made up of compounds.
2 They are called indirect band gap
semiconductors.
They are called as direct band gap
semiconductors.
3 Here heat is produced during
recombination.
Here the photons are emitted during

recombination.
4 Life time of charge carriers is more. Life time of charge carriers is less.
5 Current amplification is more. Current amplification is less.
6 They are used in the manufacture of
diodes and transistors, etc.
They are used for making LEDs, laser
diodes, ICs, etc.
7 Examples: Ge, Si, etc. Examples: GaAs, GaP, CdS, MgO, etc.
4. Distinguish between intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors.
5. Write an expression for electrical conductivity of an intrinsic
semiconductor
Electrical conductivity 2 e (me
* mh *) 3/4 e-Eg/2KT ( )
Where Intrinsic carrier concentration
Mobility of electron
Mobility of hole.
6. What are the limitations of intrinsic semiconductors?
Electrical conductivity is low. Germanium has a conductivity of 1.67 -1m-1
which is nearly
107 times smaller than copper.
Electrical conductivity is a function of temperature and increases
exponentially as temperature
increases.
7. What is meant by doping?
The addition of impurities to a pure semiconductor is known as doping and
added impurity is
called as doping agent or dopant.
S.No Intrinsic semiconductor Extrinsic semiconductors
1 Semiconductor in a extremely pure form is
called as intrinsic semiconductors.
Semiconductor which is doped with
impurities is called extrinsic
semiconductors.
2 Charge carriers are produced only due to
thermal agitation.
Charge carriers are produced due to
impurities and may also be produced due
to thermal agitation.
3 Low electrical conductivity High electrical conductivity
4 Low operating temperature High operating temperature
5 At 0K, the Fermi level exactly lies between
conducting band and valence band.
At 0K, the Fermi level lies closer to
conducting band in n type and lies near
valence band in p type semiconductor.
6 Eg: Si, Ge, etc. Eg: Si and Ge doped with Al, In, P, As,

etc.
8. What are n-type and p-type semiconductors?. Give examples.
N-type semiconductor is obtained by doping a pure semiconductor with
pentavalent
impurity. The majority carriers in N-type semiconductor are electrons. Ex.
Germanium doped
with Phosphorous, arsenic, antimony
P-type semiconductor is obtained by doping a pure semiconductor with
trivalent
impurity. The majority carriers in P-type semiconductor is holes. Ex
Germanium doped with
Boron, aluminium, etc.
9. Give any four differences between n-type and p-type semiconductors.
S.No n-type semiconductors p-type semiconductors
1 n-type semiconductor is obtained by
doping an intrinsic semiconductor with
pentavalent impurity.
p-type semiconductor is obtained by
doping an intrinsic semiconductor with
trivalent impurity.
2 Here electrons are majority charge
carriers and holes are minority charge
carriers.
Here holes are majority charge carriers and
electrons are minority charge carriers.
3 It has donar energy levels very close to
conduction band.
It has acceptor energy levels very close to
valence band.
4 When temperature is increased these
semiconductors can easily donate an
electron level to the conduction band.
When temperature is increased these
semiconductors can accept an electron
from valence band to acceptor energy
level.
10. Why compound semiconductors are called direct band gap
semiconductors? Give its
application.
During recombination the photons are emitted so they are called as direct
band gap
Semiconductors.
11. What is meant by donor and acceptor level?
Donors are pentavalent impurity atoms like P, As, etc., which donates an
electron to the pure semiconductors like Ge or Si. These energy levels are
donor energy levels.

Acceptors are trivalent impurity atoms like Ga, In etc., which can easily
accept
an electron from the pure semiconductors like Ge or Si. These energy levels
are acceptor energy
levels.
12. i) Define mobility.
Mobility is defined as the drift velocity acquired by a charge carrier per unit
electric field
Strength. Its unit is m2 V-1 s-1
ii) Find the resistance of an intrinsic Ge rod 1 cm long,1 mm wide, and
0.5mm thick at 300K.
For Ge, ni= 2.5 x 1019/m3, e= 0.39 m2V-1 S-1 and h= 0.19 m2V-1 S-1 at 300k.
13. Draw the diagram to show the variation of Fermi level with temperature
of a p-type
semiconductor for high and low doping level.
14. With increase of temperature the conductivity of semiconductor
increases while that of
metals decreases. Give reasons.
At 0K semiconductors behave as insulators. When the temperature is raised
or when
impurities are added, their conductivity increases. In the case of conductors
when the temperature
increases, the resistivity increases and hence the conductivity decreases.
15. Define Fermi level in the case of semiconductors. Mention its position in
intrinsic and
extrinsic semiconductor at 0 K.
Fermi level is located half way between the valence band and conduction
band in an intrinsic
Semiconductors at 0 K. EF =
In n-type semiconductor at 0 K, Fermi level lies exactly at the middle of the
donor level Ed and
the bottom of the conduction band Ec EF =
In p-type semiconductor at 0 K, Fermi level lies exactly at the middle of the
acceptor level Ea and
the top of the valence band Ev EF =
16. For an intrinsic semiconductor with a band gap of 0.7 eV, determine the
position of EF at
T=300 k if mh* = 6 me*.
17. Given an extrinsic semiconductor, how will you find whether it is n-type
or p-type?
If Rh value is negative then it is n-type semiconductor.
If Rh value is positive then it is p-type semiconductor.
18. What is Hall Voltage?
When a current carrying conductor is placed in a transverse magnetic field,
an electric

field is produced inside the conductor in a direction normal to both the


current and the magnetic
field. This effect is known as Hall Effect. The generated voltage is called hall
voltage.
19. The Hall Co-efficient of a specimen of a doped silicon is found to be
3.66x10-4 m-3/c.
The resistivity of specimen is 8.93x10-3 m. Find the mobility and density of
charge carriers.
Charge carrier density
20. Mention the applications of Hall Effect.
It is used to find the type of semiconductor.
It is used to measure carrier concentration.
It is used to find mobility of charge carrier.
It is used to measure the magnetic flux density using a semiconductor
sample of known
hall coefficient.
PART B
1. Derive an expression for density of electrons in the conduction band,
density of holes
in the valence band of an intrinsic semiconductor.
dn = n =
derivation upto n = 2 e (E
F E
C )/KT
dp = p =
derivation upto p = 2 e (E
v E
F )/KT
2. Derive the intrinsic carrier concentration for intrinsic semiconductor and
also calculate
the Fermi level and its variation with temperature.
n = p =ni
derivation upto ni = 2 (me
* mh
* ) e-Eg/2KT
Variation of Fermi level with temperature
EF = log ( ) +
EF =
3. i) Derive the Electrical Conductivity of an intrinsic semiconductor.
derivation for I = 2 e (me
* mh
* ) e-Eg/2KT (e h )
ii) Discuss the variation of electrical conductivity with temperature.
derivation for I = A e-Eg/2KT
log i = log A -

iii) For an intrinsic GaAs, the room temperature of electrical conductivity is


10-6
( m)-1. The electron and hole mobilities are 0.85 and 0.04 m2/V-s,
respectively.
Calculate the intrinsic carrier concentration at room temperature.
4. Explain the method of determining the band gap of a semiconductor. Also
describe
the experimental determination of Band gap.
I = A e-Eg/2KT
Derivation for log Ri = log C +
Eg = 2 k
5. Obtain an expression for the carrier concentration of electrons in the
conduction band
of n-type semiconductor.
Density of electrons per unit volume is n = 2 e (E
F E
C )/KT
Derivation upto n = (2Nd)1/2 e-E/2KT
6. Obtain an expression for the carrier concentration of holes in the Valence
band of ptype
semiconductor.
p = 2 e (E
v E
F )/KT
Derivation upto p = (2Na)1/2 e-E/2KT
7. i) With neat sketches, explain how Fermi level varies with impurity
concentration
and temperature in n-type semiconductor.
Explanation about the following diagram
ii) With neat sketches, explain how Fermi level varies with impurity
concentration
and temperature in p-type semiconductor
Explanation about the following diagram
8. i) Explain the variation of carrier concentration with temperature and
impurity in a
semiconductor.
Explanation of
i) Intrinsic range
ii) Exhaustion range
iii) Impurity range
ii) Explain the variation of electrical conductivity in extrinsic semiconductor.
Explanation about the following graph
9. ( i) Derive an expression of Hall coefficient and mobility of charge carriers.
Describe
an experimental setup for the measurement of Hall coefficient.
Hall Effect statement:

derivation for Hall effect in n-type semiconductor


RH = where RH = derivation for Hall effect in p-type semiconductor
RH = where RH =
Mobility of charge carriers
e = - h = ( ii) The Hall co-efficient of certain silicon was found to be -7.35x10-5 m3C-1
from 100 to 400
k. Determine the nature of the semiconductor. If the conductivity was found
to be 200 m-1 -1,
calculate the density and mobility of the charge carriers.
(i) Since hall coefficient is negative the given semiconductor is n-type.
(ii) Charge carrier density
(iii) Mobility =
10. (i) For an intrinsic semiconductor with gap width Eg = 0.7 eV, calculate
the
concentration of intrinsic charge carriers at 300 k assuming that me*= mh * =
m0
(rest mass of electron).
(ii) The resistivity of an intrinsic semiconductor is 4.5 ohm-m at 20C and 2.0
ohmm
at 32C. Find the energy band gap in eV.
1.66 X

(iii) A sample of silicon doped with 1023 phosphorous atoms/m3. Find the Hall
voltage in a sample with thickness =100 m, current, Ix=1mA and magnetic
field
Bz=0.1 Wb/m2.(Assume electron mobility e=0.07 m2/V.s)
Hall voltage
UNIT -3 - MAGNETIC AND SUPERCONDUCTING MATERIALS
PART A

1. Classify magnetic materials based on their magnetic moments.


2. What is Bohr Magnetron? Write its value.
The orbital magnetic moment and the spin magnetic moment of an electron
in an atom
can be expressed in terms of atomic unit of magnetic moment called bohr
magnetron. 1 Bohr
magnetron = B = 9.27 x 10-24 Am2
3. What are paramagnetic materials? Give examples.
Paramagnetic materials can be defined as a type of magnetism in which the
material
gets weakly magnetised in the same direction as the applied filed. The
paramagnetic susceptibility
is positive and small and relative permeability values are slightly greater
than one. Examples:
Platinum, chromium, aluminium, etc.
4. Define intensity of magnetization and flux density.

Intensity of magnetization: The term magnetization means the process of


converting a nonmagnetic
material into a magnetic material. It is defined as the magnetic moment per
unit
volume. I = Unit: Weber /m2.
Flux density: It is defined as the number of magnetic lines of forces passing
normally through
unit area of cross section. B = Unit: Weber/m2 or Tesla.
CLASSIFICATION OF MAGNETIC MATERIALS
NOT HAVING PERMANENT
MAGNETIC MOMENT
HAVING PERMANENT
MAGNETIC MOMENT

DIAMAGNETIC
MATERIALS
PARA MAGNETIC
MATERIALS
FERRIMAGNETIC
MATERIALS
FERROMAGNETIC
MATERIALS

5. A magnetic field of 2000 A/m is applied to a material which has a


susceptibility of 1000.
Calculate the (i) Intensity of Magnetisation and (ii) Flux density.
Intensity of Magnetization
Flux Density
6. Define magnetic susceptibility and permeability.
Magnetic susceptibility: It is defined as the ratio between intensity of
magnetisation and the
magnetic field intensity.
Magnetic permeability: It is defined as the ratio of magnetic flux density
(B) inside the
substance to the magnetizing field intensity (H).
7. A magnetic field of 1800 ampere/metre produces a magnetic flux of 3x10 5 Weber in an iron
bar of cross sectional area 0.2 cm2. Calculate permeability.
8. Define retentivity and coercivity.
Retentivity is the amount of magnetic induction retained in the material even
after the magnetic
field is removed.
Coercivity is the amount of magnetising field applied in the reverse direction
to remove the
residual magnetism completely from the material.
9. What are soft and hard magnetic materials.
S.No Soft Magnetic Materials Hard Magnetic materials
1 They can be easily magnetized and
demagnetized.
They cannot be easily magnetized or
demagnetized
2 Loop area is less and hence the
hysteresis loss is minimum.

The loop area is large and hence the


hysteresis loss is maximum.
3 Susceptibility and permeability is high. Susceptibility and permeability is
low.
4 Retentivity and Coercitivity are small. Retentivity and Coercitivity are large.
5 They have low eddy current loss. They have high eddy current loss.
6 These materials are free from
irregularities like strain or impurities.
These materials have large amount of
impurities and lattice defect.
10. Define energy product of a magnetic material.
The product of retentivity (Br) and coercivity (Hc) is called energy product. It
represents
the amount of energy stored in the specimen. The value of energy product is
very high for
permanent magnets.
Energy product = Br x Hc
11. What is antiferromagnetism? Give examples.
In anti-ferromagnetism, electron spin of neighbouring atoms are aligned
antiparallel.
Anti-ferromagnetic susceptibility is small and positive and it depends greatly
on temperature.
Eg. MnO, MnS, NiCr, Cr2O3, etc.
12. What is superconductivity?
The phenomenon of sudden disappearance of electrical resistivity in
materials when it
is cooled to sufficiently low temperature is called superconductivity. The
materials that exhibit
superconductivity and which are in the superconducting state are called
superconductors.
13. Mention the condition for the material to behave as a superconductor.
It should be pure i.e., the residual resistivity due to scattering by impurities
(0) should be
zero.
It should be cooled below transition temperature i.e., the ideal resistivity
due to scattering
by phonons (T) should be zero.
Magnetic induction in the material should be zero when it is placed in
external magnetic
field.
14. Define critical temperature and critical field.
The temperature at which the normal conductor loses its resistivity and
becomes a
superconductor is known as transition temperature or critical temperature
(TC). The magnetic field

at which the superconducting property of a material disappears is called as


critical magnetic field.
15. What is isotope effect?
In a superconducting material, transition temperature varies with the
average isotopic
mass M of its constituents. i.e.,
Where is called isotope effect coefficient.
16. What is meant by persistent current?
When DC current of large magnitude is induced in a superconducting ring,
then due to
the diamagnetic property of the superconductor, the magnetic flux is trapped
inside the ring and
hence the current persists in the ring for a longer time. This is called
persistent current.
17. What are high Tc superconductors? Give examples.
Any superconductor, if the transition temperature is above 10 K it is called as
high TC
superconductor.
Examples:
YBa2Cu3O7 TC = 92 K
La1.85Ba0.05CuO4 TC = 36 K
18. What are cooper pairs?
The attractive interaction between two electrons mediated by means of a
phonon
exchange dominates the usual repulsive interaction. Pair of such electrons
having opposite spins
which interact interactively in the phonon filed are called a cooper pair.
19. Calculate the critical current for a wire of lead having a diameter of 1mm
at 4.2 K. Critical
temperature for lead is 7.18 K and H0 = 6.5x104 A/m.
20. The critical temperature for Hg with isotopic mass 199.5 at 4.184 K.
Calculate the critical
temperature when its mass changes to 203.4.
Critical temperature for isotopic mass M1 Tc1 = 4.185 K M1 = 199.5
Critical temperature for isotopic mass M2 Tc2 = 4.133 K M2 = ?
MTc = constant
M
1Tc1 = M 2Tc =
=
=x
= 14.124 x 1.01258 = 14.3016
M2 = 204.536
PART B
1. i) State the origin of magnetic moment.
Three contributions for the magnetic dipole moment of an atom.

i. Orbital magnetic moment: Orbital motion of electrons (i.e., the motion of


electrons in the
Closed orbits around the nucleus). Its magnitude is always small.
ii. Spin magnetic moment: Spin motion of the electrons (i.e., due to electron
spin angular in
momentum).
iii. Nuclear magnetic moment: Contribution from the nuclear spin (i.e., due to
nuclear spin
angular momentum). It is nearly 103 times smaller than that of electron spin;
it is not taken
into consideration.
ii) How are magnetic materials classified based on magnetic moments?
Compare their
properties. Give also their characteristics and examples.
S.No Properties Diamagnetic Paramagnetic Ferromagnetic
1 Definition
No permanent
magnetic moment
Permanent magnetic
moment
Enormous magnetic
moment
2 Spin alignment No spin alignment Random alignment
Parallel and orderly
alignment
3
Magnetised
direction
Opposite to the
applied field
Same direction as the
applied external
magnetic field.
Same direction as the
applied external magnetic
field.
4 Permeability Very less High Very high
5
Relative
permeability
r < 1 r > 1 r >> 1
6 Susceptibility Negative Positive and small Positive and high

2. Explain ferromagnetic domain theory. Briefly explain different types of


energy involved in
domain growth.
A ferromagnetic material is divided into a large number of small region is
called

domains. (0.1 to 1 of area), each direction is spontaneously magnetized.


When the magnetic
field is applied to the Ferromagnetic material, the magnetization is produced
by two ways.
1. By the motion of domain walls.
2. By the rotation of domains.
Different energies involved in domain growth is
1. Exchange energy (or) Magnetic field energy.
2. Crystalline energy (or) Anisotropy energy.
3. Domain wall energy (or) Bloch wall energy.
4. Magnetostriction energy
3. i) Draw the B-H curve (Hysteresis) for a ferromagnetic material and explain
the same on the
basis of domain theory.
When a ferromagnetic material is taken through a cycle of magnetization,
the variation of B
(magnetic induction) with respect to H (applied field) can be represented by
a closed loop
(or) curve (hysteresis loop or curve) is called hysteresis.
OA - Due to smaller reversible domain wall movement
AB - Due to larger irreversible domain wall movement
BS - Due to smaller irreversible domain wall rotation
ii) Explain how susceptibility varies with temperature for dia, para, and Ferro
magnetic
materials in detail.
Material Diamagnetic Paramagnetic ferromagnetic
susceptibility Negative Positive & small Positive & large

A given material has a susceptibility of 900. Determine the relative


permeability of the material.
4. i) Explain soft and hard magnetic materials.
Soft magnetic materials
Easily magnetised and demagnetised.
Hysteresis is very small and hysteresis loss is also small.
Coercivity and retentivity is very small.
Materials have very large values of susceptibility and permeability.
Magentostatic energy is very small.
Eddy current loss is very small.
Hard magnetic materials
Cannot be easily magnetised and demagnetised.
Hysteresis is very large and hysteresis loss is also large.
Coercivity and retentivity is very large.
Materials have very small values of susceptibility and permeability.
Magentostatic energy is very large.
Eddy current loss is very large.
ii) Iron has relative permeability of 5000. Calculate its magnetic
susceptibility.

iv) Mention the properties of antiferromagnetism.


The adjacent magnetic dipoles are aligned antiparallel.
Anti ferromagnetic susceptibility mainly depends on temperature.
Its susceptibility is very small and it is positive.
The susceptibility is given by when T > TN.
5. i) What are ferrites? Explain the structure of ferrites, properties and its
applications.
These are compounds of iron oxides with oxides of other metals. Ferrites are
the magnetic
compounds consisting of two or more different kinds of atoms. Generally
ferrites are
expressed by the formula where X is a divalent metal ion.
Structures of ferrites:
Regular spinel
Inverse spinel
Properties
Spin alignment is antiparallel and of different magnitude.
They have high permeability and high resistivity.
Ferromagnetic materials possess net magnetic moment.
They have low eddy current losses and low hysteresis losses.
The susceptibility of a ferromagnetic material is positive and very large.
Applications
They are used to produce ultrasonic waves.
Used in audio and video transformers.
Ferrites rods are used in radio receivers to increase the sensitivity.
ii) Why are Ferrites advantages for use as transformer core?
Ferrites are used as transformer cores for frequencies upto microwaves. This
is because
the eddy current problem which prevents the penetration of magnetic flux
into the material is
so much less severe in ferrites than in iron.
6. Explain the different properties of superconductors in detail.
a. Zero electrical resistance: The phenomenon of exhibiting zero electrical
resistance by
certain material when it is cooled below a certain temperature (critical
temperature Tc).
b. Effect of magnetic field: In the superconducting state, a material
possesses zero
electrical resistance and behaves as a diamagnetic material. Below Tc if
sufficiently
strong magnetic field is applied, the superconducting property of the
material is
destroyed and the material reverts back to its normal state. The minimum
field required
to destroy the superconducting property is known as the critical magnetic
field (Hc) .

c. Effect of electric current: In the superconducting state, a material


possesses zero
electrical resistance and behaves as a diamagnetic material. Below Tc if
sufficiently
strong magnetic field is applied, the superconducting property of the
material is
destroyed and the (material reverts back to its normal state. The minimum
field
required to destroy the superconducting property is known as the critical
magnetic field
(Hc) .
d. Persistent current: When DC current of large magnitude is induced in a
superconducting ring, then due to the diamagnetic property of the
superconductor, the
magnetic flux is trapped inside the ring and hence the current persists in the
ring for a
longer time. This is called persistent current.
e. Meissner effect: When a weak magnetic field is applied to a
superconducting specimen
at a temperature below transition temperature (Tc), the magnetic flux lines
are expelled.
The specimen acts as an ideal diamagnet. This effect is called Meissner
effect.
f. Isotope effect: In superconducting materials, the Tc varies with the
average isotopic
mass of their constituents.
Tc M
MTc = constant
g. Effect of pressure: When pressure is applied to a superconducting
material, transition
temperature increases. Thus it is quite possible that the Tc of a material can
be made to
approach room temperature by the application of high pressures.
7. i) What is Meissner effect? Prove that all superconductors are perfect diamagnet in
superconducting state.
Meissner effect: When a weak magnetic field is applied to a
superconducting specimen at a
temperature below transition temperature (Tc), the magnetic flux lines are
expelled. The
specimen acts as an ideal diamagnet. This effect is called Meissner effect.
Superconductors are perfect dia-magnet Proof
Magnetic induction is given by
For a superconductor, B = 0
Therefore, 0
Since

H+I=0
I = -H
Thus, when B = 0, magnetic susceptibility of a superconductor is found to be
negative
maximum. This is referred to as perfect diamagnetism.
ii) Discuss the important features and the prediction of BCS theory.
Important features of BCS theory
Electrons form pairs which propagate through the lattice.
The cooper pairs are propagated through the lattice without resistance
because the
electrons move in resonance with phonons.
Predictions
This could successfully predict the phenomenon of isotope effect.
It explains the existence of an energy gap between the ground state and
first excited
state.
It explains the quantization of the magnetic flux through a
superconducting ring.
8. i) Differentiate the Type I and Type II superconductors
S.No Type I Superconductors Type II Superconductors
1 Here, the transformation from
superconducting to normal state takes
place suddenly at the critical magnetic
field (HC).
Here, the transformation from superconducting
to normal state is gradually from HC1 to HC2.
2 They exhibit complete Meissner effect. They do not exhibit complete
Meissner effect.
3 They have only one critical magnetic
field
They have two critical magnetic fields.
4 They are known as soft
superconductors because the field
required to destroy the
superconducting state is small.
They are known as hard superconductors
because the field required to destroy the
superconducting state is high.
5 Examples: Al, Zn, Sn, Pb, etc. Examples: Vanadium, Niobium, etc.
6.
ii) Explain High temperature superconductors in detail.
In a superconductor if the transition temperature is high i.e., greater than
100K, then it
is called high temperature superconductor.
9. i) Discuss the applications of superconductors in detail.

a. Superconductors are used for the production of high magnetic field


magnets.
b. By using superconducting materials, it is possible to manufacture
electrical generators
and transformers.
c. Superconducting materials are used in the construction of very sensitive
electrical
measuring instruments such as galvanometers.
d. Superconducting materials are used for power cables, which will enable
transmission of
power over very long distances without any significant power loss or drop in
voltage.
e. It is used to study tiny magnetic signals from brain and heart.
ii) Superconducting tin has a critical temperature of 3.7 K at zero magnetic
field and a
critical field of 0.0306 tesla at 0 K. Find the critical field at 2 K.
10. Explain the following in detail
i) AC and DC Josephson Effect :
AC Josephson Effect: when a Dc voltage is applied across the Josephson
junction through
which super current is flowing, an AC current is noticed.
DC Josephson Effect: the tunnelling of superconducting electron pairs
through Josephson
junction leads to the flow of current without the application of voltage.
ii) Cryotron: Cryotron is a magnetically operated switch. The
superconducting property
of a material disappears when the applied magnetic field is greater than the
critical magnetic
field.
iii) SQUID: SQUID is the acronym for Superconducting Quantum Interference
Device. It
is a double junction quantum interferometer. Two Josephson junctions
mounted on a
superconducting ring forms this interferometer. Squids are based on the flux
quantization in
the superconducting ring. The total magnetic flux passing through the ring is
quantized. It is a
weak ultra-sensitive measuring instrument used for detection of very weak
magnetic field in
the order of 10-14 tesla.
iv) Magnetic Levitation: The magnetic levitation is based on the
diamagnetic property of
a superconductor which is rejection of magnetic flux lines. A superconductor
can be
suspended in air against the repulsive force from a permanent magnet. This
magnetic

levitation effect can be used for high speed transportation without frictional
loss.
UNIT - IV Dielectric Materials
PART A
1. What are Dielectrics?
Dielectrics are the insulating materials having electric dipoles permanently
or have an
ability to produce enormous induced dipoles by the application of external
electric field.
2. Define electric polarization and electric susceptibility.
The process of producing electric dipoles inside the dielectric by an electric
field is
called electric polarization in dielectrics.
The polarization vector is proportional to the total electric field intensity and
is
in the same direction of E. therefore the polarization vector can be written
as,
Where the constant is referred as the electrical
susceptibility and is a characteristic of every dielectric.
=

3. Compare active and passive dielectrics.


S.No Active dielectrics Passive dielectrics
1 Dielectrics which can easily adapt
itself to store the electrical energy in it
is called active dielectrics.
Dielectrics which restrict the flow of
electrical energy in it are called passive
dielectrics.
2 They are not pure insulating materials. They are pure insulating materials
like
glass.
3 Examples : Piezo-electrics, Pyroelectrics,
etc.
Examples : Ceramics, Mica, etc.
4 Application : they are used to generate
ultrasonic waves
Application : They are used to produce
sheets, pies, etc.
4. Define dielectric constant.
It is the ratio between absolute permittivity of the medium () and the
permittivity of free space
(0)
If the medium has high dielectric constant, it is easily polarized and behaves
as a good electric
insulator.

5. What are the types of polarization mechanism involved in dielectric


material?
Electronic polarization
ionic polarization
Orientational polarization
Space charge polarization
6. What are the differences between polar and non polar molecules?
S.No Polar molecules Non-polar molecules
1 These molecules have permanent
dipole moment even in the absence of
the electric field.
These molecules do not have permanent
dipole moments.
2 The polarization of polar molecules is
highly temperature dependent
The polarization of this kind of molecules is
temperature independent
3 They do not have center of symmetry They have centre of symmetry
4 Here the +ve and ve charges do not
coincide with each other
Here +ve and ve charges are coinciding
with each other.
5 absorption and emission is found in
infrared region
There is no absorption or emission in the
infrared region.
6 Examples : HCl,H2O,CHCL3 etc. Examples :CCl4, CO2,H2 etc.
7. Define space charge polarization.
In some materials containing two or more phases, the application of an
electrical field
causes the accumulation of charges at the interfaces between the phases or
electrodes. As a result
of this, polarization is produced. This type of polarization is known as space
charge polarization.
8. Define dielectric loss and dielectric breakdown.
Dielectric loss: When a dielectric material is subjected to an A.C voltage the
electrical energy is
absorbed by the material and is dissipated in the form of heat. This
dissipation of energy is called
dielectric loss.
Dielectric breakdown: When the dielectric is subjected to a heavy voltage,
beyond the critical
value it loses its insulation property because electrons start jumping from
valence band to the
conduction band. Hence a dielectric material loses its resistivity and permits
large value of current

to flow through it. This is known as dielectric breakdown.


9. Define dielectric strength.
The magnitude of electric field strength at which dielectric breakdown occurs
is called
dielectric strength. It is the breakdown voltage per unit thickness of the
material.
10. What are the requirements of good insulating materials?
It should have low dielectric constant
It should possess low dielectric loss.
It must have high resistance.
It must possess high dielectric strength.
It should have adequate chemical stability.
It must have high moisture resistance.
11. Calculate the polarization produced in a dielectric medium of dielectric
constant 6 and it is
subjected to an electric field of 100 V/m. Given 0 = 8.85 x 10-12F/m.
P = 4.425 X
12. A capacitor consists of two conducting plates of area 200 cm2 each
separated by a dielectric
constant = 3.7 of thickness 1mm. Find the capacitance and the electric
flux density when a
potential of 300 V is applied. (0 = 8.85 x 10-12F/m).
Capacitance
Electric Flux Density
13. What are the factors affecting dielectric loss.
Dielectric loss may increase due to the following factors.
high frequency of the applied voltage.
high value of the applied voltage.
14. The dielectric constant of a He gas at NTP is 1.0000684. Calculate the
electronic
polarizability of He atoms if the gas contains 2.7 x 1025 atoms/m3 and hence
evaluate the
radius of the He atoms. Given 0 = 8.85 x 10-12F/m.
Electronic polarizability
15. Write the Clausius Mosotti relation. What is its significance?

=
It relates the microscopic quantity with macroscopic quantity
It relates the dielectric constant of the material with polarisability.
16. If a NaCl crystal is subjected to an electric field of 1000V/m and the
resulting polarization is
4.3x10-8 C/m2. Calculate the relative permeability of NaCl.
17. State the properties of ferroelectric materials.
The dielectric constant of these materials does not vary with respect to
temperature.

The dielectric constant (r) reaches a maximum value only at a particular


temperature
called Curie temperature
The polarization does not vary linearly with respect to electric field and
hence these
materials are also called as non-linear dielectrics.
Ferro-electric materials exhibit hysteresis, similar to that of ferro-magnetic
materials.
18. Find the capacitance of layer of Al2O3 having 0.5 m and area 2500 mm2
with r = 8.
Capacitance
19. What is Piezoelectricity?
When a dielectric material acquires electric polarization due to the external
mechanical
pressure, it is called Piezo electricity and these materials are known as Piezo
electrics.
20. Mention the applications of dielectrics.
Ferro-electric materials are used to produce ultrasonics.
They are used in the production of Piezo-electric materials and in turn to
make microphones.
Ferro-electrics are also used in SONAR, Strain gauges, etc.
They are also used as frequency stabilizers and crystal controlled
oscillators.
Electrets are also used to bond the fractured bones in the human body.
Ferro-electric semiconductors are used to make positors, which in turn are
used to measure and
control the temperature.
PART B
1. Define the following. Give the necessary equations relating the above
quantities.
a .Dielectric constant.
It is defined as the ratio of absolute permittivity of the medium to the
permittivity of free space.
b. Polarizability .()
The average dipole moment of a system is proportional to the applied
electric field.
c. Polarization vector.
If is the average dipole moment per molecule and N is the number of
molecules per unit volume , the polarisation vector is defined as dipole
moment per unit
volume of the dielectric material.
=N
d. Electric flux density : The number of electric lines passing through unit
area of
cross section.
e. Electric Susceptibility.

The polarisation vector is proportional to the applied electric field


strength.
==-1
2. Discuss electronic and ionic polarizations with examples in detail.
ELECTRONIC POLARISATION
Electronic polarisation is due to the displacement of positively charged
nucleus and
negatively charged electrons of an atom in opposite directions on the
application of electric
field. Ex : Inert gases
Derivation for e
Without electric field:
With electric field: When the dielectric is placed in an electric field (E), two
phenomenon
occur. (i) Lorentz force due to the electric field tends to separate the nucleus
and the electron
cloud from their equilibrium position. FL = -ZeE
(ii) After separation, an attractive coulomb force arises between the nucleus
and electron
cloud which tries to maintain the original equilibrium position.
ind = e E where e = 4
IONIC POLARISATION
Ionic polarisation is due to the displacement of cations and anions in
opposite
directions. This occurs in ionic dielectrics by the influence of external electric
field. Ex: Ionic
Without electric field With electric field

(=

Derivation for
3. Explain the different types of polarization mechanisms involved in a
dielectric material.
Electronic Polarisation: Electronic polarisation is due to the displacement
of positively
charged nucleus and negatively charged electrons of an atom in opposite
directions on the
application of electric field. Ex : Inert gases
Derivation for e
Without electric field
With electric field
ind = e E where e = 4
Ionic Polarisation.
Ionic polarisation is due to the displacement of cations and anions in
opposite
directions. This occurs in ionic dielectrics. by the influence of external electric
field. Ex: Ionic

Derivation for
(=
Orientation Polarisation.
Orientation polarisation takes place only in polar dielectrics. Polar dielectrics
have molecules with permanent dipole moments even in the absence of an
electric field.
Derivation for

o =

Space charge Polarisation.


Space charge polarisation occurs due to the accumulation of charges at the
electrodes
or at the interfaces of multiphase dielectric materials.
Total polarisation = e+ + o + s
4. Explain the frequency and temperature dependence of all type of
polarization in dielectrics.
If an alternating electric field is applied across the material, polarisation
occurs as a
function of time. ie P(t) = P [1 - e-t/t

]
Frequency range in Hz Type of polarisation
~ 1015 Electronic
~1013 Ionic + Electronic
~106 -1010 orientation +Ionic + Electronic
~102 Space charge + orientation +
Ionic+ Electronic
r

Temperature Dependence
Electronic Polarisation: Temperature independent.
Ionic Polarisation: Temperature independent.
Orientatinal Polarisation: increase in temperature decrease the
polarisation.
Space charge polarisation: increase in temperature increases the
polarisation.
5. What is meant by local field in a dielectric? And how it is calculated for a
cubic structure?
Deduce the Clausius Mosotti relation.
When a dielectric is kept in an external electric field (E), two fields are
exerted due to (i)
external Electric field (ii) dipole moment created. These long range Coulomb
field which is
responsible for polarization of each atom or molecule is known as internal
field or local
field and is given by,
Eint = E1 + E2 +E3 + E4
E1 = Electric field due to charges on the plates of the capacitor.

E2 = Electric field due to polarised charges on the plane surface of the


dielectric.
E3 = Electric field due to polarised charges induced on the surface of the
imaginary
spherical cavity.
E4 = Electric field due to permanent dipoles of atoms inside the spherical
cavity considered.
Eint = E + E3
Eint = E +

6. i) A solid contains 5x1028 identical atoms /m3, each with a polarizability of


2x10-40 Fm2.
Assuming that internal field is given by the Lorentz relation, calculate the
ratio of internal
field to the applied field. (0 = 8.85 x 10-12F/m)
v) The dielectric constant of water is 80. Is water a good dielectric? Is it
useful for energy
storage in capacitors? Justify your answer.
Though the dielectric constant of water is 80 at 20C or 293K it is not a good
dielectric
material because of the following reasons.
1. At normal temperature the electrical conductivity of water is very high
2. At normal temperature current lead the voltage by a very less angle i.e.,
cos is
very less which leads to very high loss angle () and hence tan is very high
3. The dissipation factor and hence the power loss is very high. Thus water
cannot be used
as dielectric for energy storage in capacitors.
7. What is dielectric loss? Derive the expression for dielectric power loss.
Dielectric loss: When a dielectric material is subjected to an A.C voltage
the electrical energy
is absorbed by the material and is dissipated in the form of heat. This
dissipation of electrical
energy is called dielectric loss.
Expression for dielectric loss
PL = VI cos
PL = VI cos 90
PL = 0
For a practical dielectric material
PL = 2 f C V2 tan
tan power factor
8. What are the different types of dielectric break down in dielectric medium?
Discuss in detail
the various types of dielectric breakdown.

Dielectric breakdown: When the dielectric is subjected to a heavy voltage,


beyond the critical
value it loses its insulation property because electrons start jumping from
valence band to the
conduction band. Hence a dielectric material loses its resistivity and permits
large value of current
to flow through it. This is known as dielectric breakdown.
Types of dielectric breakdown
Intrinsic breakdown and avalanche breakdown
Thermal breakdown
Chemical and Electrochemical breakdown
Discharge breakdown
Defect breakdown
Explanation of each breakdown and its characteristics.
9. What is ferroelectricity? Explain the properties of ferro electric material.
Give examples and
mention the applications.
Ferro electric materials
Some materials which exhibit electronic polarisation even in the absence of
the applied
electric field and thus they produce electricity. This electricity is known as
Ferroelectricity. Materials are called Ferroelectric materials.
Ex:
1. Barium titanate. (Ba Tio3)
2. Potassium dihydrogen phosphate(KH2PO4)
3. Ammonium dihydrogen phosphate.(NH4H2PO4)
4. Lithium Niobate(LiNbO3)
5. Rochelle salt(NaKC4H4O6, 4H2O)
10. Explain the uses of dielectrics in capacitors and in Transformers.
Insulating materials are used in power and distribution transformers and
capacitors.
In Capacitors :
Explanation about the various types of dielectric materials in various
capacitors like
a) Power Capacitors.
b) Electrolytic Capacitors.
c) Ceramic Capacitors.
Explanation about the Uses of insulating materials in power and distribution
transformers .
UNIT V ADVANCED ENGINEERING MATERIALS
PART A
1. Define Met glasses.
Metallic glasses are new type of engineering materials which shares the
properties of
both metals and glasses. They are metal-metal or metal-metalloid alloy
glasses having

amorphous nature.
2. What is meant by glass transition temperature?
The temperature at which metals in the molten form transforms into glasses
ie liquid to
solid is known as glass transition temperature (Tg).
3. What do you understand by the term quenching?
Quenching is a technique used to form metallic glasses. Quenching means
rapid
cooling. Actually atoms of any material move freely in a liquid state. Atoms
can be arranged
regularly when a liquid is cooled slowly. Instead, when a liquid is quenched,
there will be an
irregular pattern, which results in the formation of metallic glasses.
4. Mention the merits of metallic glasses as transformer core materials.
Metallic glasses are ferromagnetic. They posses low magnetic losses, high
permeability and saturation magnetization with low coercivity. They also
have extreme
mechanical hardness and excellent initial permeability.
These properties make them useful as transformer core materials. Moreover
power transformers
made of metallic glasses are smaller in size and efficient in their
performance.
5. Mention any four properties of met glasses.
Metallic glasses have tetrahedral closely packed (TCP) structure rather
than hexagonal
closely packed structure (HCP) structure.
The metallic glasses are very strong in nature
They posses malleability, ductility, etc.
They exhibit very low hysteresis loss and hence transformer core loss is
very less.
6. Write any four application of met glasses.
Metallic glasses are very strong and hard and they can be used to make
different kinds of
springs.
Metallic glasses have high resistivity and they can be used to make
computer memories,
magneto-resistance sensors etc.
Since Metallic glasses can behave as superconductors, they are used in the
production of
high magnetic fields.
Metallic glasses are not affected by irradiation and so they can be used in
nuclear reactors.
Metallic glasses are high corrosion resistant and they can be used in
reactor vessels,
surgical clips, marine cables, etc.
7. What is transformation temperature?

In SMA, the shape recovery process occurs not at a single temperature;


rather it
occurs over a range of temperature. Thus the range of temperature at which
the SMA switches
from new shape to its original shape is called transformation temperature or
memory transfer
temperature.
8. What is meant by shape memory effect?
The ability of shape memory alloys to get severely deformed on cooling and
then
regaining its original shape by heating effect is known as shape memory
effect.
9. What do you understand by Martensite and Austenite phase.
Martensite and Austenite are the two solid phases which occur in SMA.
Martensite is relatively soft and it is easily deformable phase which exists
at low
temperature (Monoclinic).
Austenite is a phase occurs at high temperature having crystal structure
and high degree
of symmetry (Cubic).
10. What is pseudo elasticity?
The ability of the SMA to return to its original shape upon unloading after a
substantial
deformation is known as super elasticity or pesudoelasticity. This is based on
the stress induced
martensite transformations.
11. What is one-way and two-way shape memory alloys?
One-way shape memory alloy (SMA):
A material which exhibits shape memory effect during both heating and
cooling.
Two-way shape memory alloy (SMA):
A material which exhibits shape memory effect during both heating and
cooling.
12. Mention the advantages and disadvantages of shape memory alloys.
Advantages
They are simple, compact and high safe.
They have good bio-compatibility.
They have diverse applications and offer clean, silent and spark free
working condition.
They have good mechanical properties and strong corrosion resistant.
Disadvantages
They have poor fatigue properties.
They are expensive.
They have low energy efficiency
13. What are nanophase materials? Give examples.
Nanophase materials or nanomaterials are newly developed materials

with grain size at the nanometer range (10-9) ie in the order of 1-100 nm.
14. Mention few techniques for synthesis of nano phased materials.
Plasma-arching
Chemical vapor deposition
Sol-gel technique
Electro-deposition
Mechanical crushing- Ball milling
Laser synthesis
Inert gas condensation
15. What is top down and bottom up approach in nano materials?
Top down process: In this process bulk materials are broken into nano
sized particles. In top
down process, the buildings of nanostructures starting with small
components like atoms and
molecules that are removed from a bulk material so as to obtain desired
microstructure.
Examples: Nanolithography, Ball milling, etc.
Bottom up process: This process involves building larger objects from
smaller building blocks.
Nanotechnology seeks to use atoms and molecules as those building blocks.
This is the opposite
of top-down process. Instead of taking the material away to make structures,
the bottom up
process selectively adds atoms to create structures.
Example: pulsed lased deposition, chemical vapor deposition, etc.
16. Give any four non-linear optical properties.
The few non-linear optical phenomena observed are
Higher harmonic generation
Optical mixing
Optical phase conjugation
Solition
17. What is meant by second harmonic generation?
In some non-linear crystals which lack centre of symmetry, when intense
radiation is
passed through, the frequency of radiation is doubled, i.e., wavelength is
halved. Such process is
known as second harmonic generation.
18. What are bio-materials?
The materials which are used for structural applications in the field of
medicine are
known are known as biomaterials. They are used to make device to replace
damaged or diseased
body parts in human and animal bodies.
19. What are the types of bio-materials?
They are classified s four types.
Metals and alloys biomaterials

Ceramics biomaterials
Polymer biomaterials
Composite biomaterials
20. What are the applications of biomaterials?
Applications:
Stainless steel is a predominant alloy widely used in implant and
orthopedic applications.
Protosal from cast alloy of Co-Cr-Mo is used to make stem and head of
implant hip
endoprosthesis.
PART B
1. What are metallic glasses? Describe the preparation and properties and
applications of metallic
glasses.
Metallic Glasses
Metallic glasses are amorphous metallic solids which combines both the
properties of
metals and glasses. They have high strength, good metallic and corrosion
resistance
properties. Eg: Alloys of Fe, Ni, Al, Mn, Cu, etc.
Preparation Technique
Melt spinning method
Properties of Metallic Glasses
Structural properties
Mechanical properties
Electrical properties
Magnetic properties
Chemical properties
Application of Metallic Glasses
Structural application
Electrical and Electronics
Metallic glasses as transformer core material
Nuclear reactor engineering.
Bio medical application.
2. How are metallic glasses prepared? Explain how the melt spinner device
can be used to
produce met glasses.
Preparation of metallic glasses
1. Twin roller
2. Melt spinning
3. Melt extraction
Melt spinning technique Extreme rapid cooling of the molten metal alloy
(rapid quenching).
Due to rapid cooling atoms are arranged irregularly and form metallic
glasses.

3. Explain the properties and application of metallic glasses also mentions its
types with
examples.
Properties of Metallic Glasses
Structural properties
They do not have any crystal defects.
They have tetrahedral close packing structure.
Mechanical properties
They have extremely high strength.
They have high elasticity.
They have high ductility.
They are not work-harden but they are work-soften.
Electrical properties
Electrical resistivity of metallic glasses is high and it does not vary with
temperature.
Eddy current loss is very small.
Temperature coefficient is zero or negative.
Magnetic properties
They have both soft and hard magnetic properties.
They exhibit high saturation magnetisation.
They have less core losses.
Metallic glasses have very narrow hysteresis loop.
Chemical properties
They are highly resistance to corrosion due to random ordering.
They are highly reactive and stable.
They act as a catalyst.
Application of Metallic Glasses
Structural application
Electrical and Electronics
Metallic glasses as transformer core material
Nuclear reactor engineering.
Bio medical application.
4. What are shape memory alloys? Describe the characteristics of SMA and
its applications.
Shape Memory Alloys: The ability of metallic alloys to regain its original
shape while
heating or cooling is called as shape memory alloys. Ex: Ni-Ti alloys, Cu Zn
Al, Cu Al Ni, AuCd, Ni-Mn-Ga and Fe based alloys.
Phases of Shape Memory Alloys
Austenite High temperature phase having cubic structure.
Martensite Low temperature phase having monoclinic structure.
Characteristics of Shape Memory Alloys
1. Shape Memory Effect: the change of shape of a material at low
temperature by loading

and regaining of original shape by heating it, is known as Shape Memory


Effect.
2. Pseudo elasticity
3. Super elasticity
4. Hysteresis: It is defined as the difference between the temperatures at
which a material is
50% transformed into austenite while heating and 50% transformed to
martensitic while
cooling.
Advantages
1. Good bio-compatibility
2. Good mechanical properties and good corrosion resistance.
3. High power and weight ratio
Disadvantages
1. Poor fatigue properties.
2. Low energy efficiency
Applications
1. Eye glass frames
2. Toys
3. Helicopter blades
4. Coffee valves
5. Mirco- surgical instruments
6. Dental arch wires
5. i) Mention the properties of Ni Ti alloy.
Ni-Ti alloy has high shape memory alloy.
The density of Ni-Ti is 6450 Kg m-3.
It is more flexible.
It has high melting point.
The transformation temperature varies from -200_C to 110C.
It has high thermal stability and corrosion resistance.
The thermal conductivity varies from 8.5 to 18 WK-1M-1.
ii) Explain the applications of SMA
Eye glass frames
Toys
Helicopter blades
Coffee valves
Mirco- surgical instruments
Dental arch wires
iii) Explain the advantages and disadvantages of SMA.
Advantages
Good bio-compatibility
Good mechanical properties and good corrosion resistance.
High power and weight ratio
Disadvantages
Poor fatigue properties.
Low energy efficiency

6. What are nanomaterials? Explain the preparation, properties and


applications nanomaterials.
Nanomaterials are materials having grain sizes in the order of 1 to 100nm.
Synthesis
1. Top down approach process of breaking down bulk material to nano size.
2. Bottom up approach nanomaterials are made by building atom by atom.
Synthesis of nanomaterials
1. Pulsed laser deposition
2. Chemical vapor deposition
Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD): Precursor gases are delivered into the
reaction chamber
at elevated temperature usually under vacuum. As they pass over or come
into contact with a
heated substrate, they react or decompose forming a solid phase. They are
deposited onto the
substrate. The substrate temperature is critical and can influence what
reactions will take
place.
Properties of Nanomaterials
1. Electrical properties
2. Optical properties
3. Chemical properties
4. Mechanical properties
5. Magnetic properties
Applications of Nanomaterials
1. Used to produce color paints
2. Used in thermal protection and current controlling devices.
3. Used in data storage
4. Used in hydrogen storage devices.
5. Used in drug delivery.
6. Used in semiconductor laser and CDs.
7. Used as sunscreens.
7. Describe the method of producing nano materials using
i) Pulsed laser deposition: The laser pulses of high intensity and energy is
used to
evaporate carbon from graphite. These evaporated carbon atoms are
condensed to form
nanotubes.
ii) Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD): Precursor gases are delivered into
the reaction
chamber at elevated temperature usually under vacuum. As they pass over
or come into
contact with a heated substrate, they react or decompose forming a solid
phase. They
are deposited onto the substrate. The substrate temperature is critical and
can influence

what reactions will take place.


8. i) Explain Birefringence.
The appearance of double refraction under the influence of an external agent
is known
as artificial double refraction or induced birefringence. The property of
double refraction
can be induced in an isotropic material by the application of (i) a mechanical
strain (ii) an
electric field or (iii) a magnetic field.
ii) Explain optical Kerr effect.
Anisotropy induced in an isotropic medium under the influence of an electric
field is
known as Kerr effect.
The change in refractive index is given by
iii) Explain non-linear materials. Give examples.
Non linear optics: In some materials, the intensity and frequency of the
output is not
linearly proportional to the intensity and frequency of the incident light input.
This effect is
called nonlinear effect.
Ex: Lithium tantalite, Lithium niobate, Barium sodium niobate, etc.
9. Explain the origin of non-linear optics? How are second harmonic wave
generated.
Non linear optics: In some materials, the intensity and frequency of the
output is not
linearly proportional to the intensity and frequency of the incident light input.
This effect is
called nonlinear effect.
Ex: Lithium tantalite, Lithium niobate, Barium sodium niobate, etc.
Second harmonic generation: second order generation represents the
generation of new
frequencies with the help of crystals such as quartz, LiO3, etc.
In nonlinear medium for higher fields i.e., higher intensities of light the
nonlinear effects are
observed.
10. Explain biomaterials, classification and its modern application in field of
medicine.
The materials which are used for structural applications in the field of
medicine are
known as biomaterials. These materials are used to make devices to replace
damaged or
diseased body parts in human and animal bodies.
Classification of biomaterials
Metals and alloys biomaterials
Ceramics biomaterials
Polymer biomaterials

Composite biomaterials
Applications
Protosal from cast alloy of Co-Cr-Mo is used to make stem and used for
implant hip
endoprosthesis.
Ni-Ti shape memory alloy is used in dental arch wires, micro surgical
instruments,
blood clot filters, guide wires, etc.
Ceramic implants such as Al2O3 with some SiO2 and alkali metals are used
to make
femoral head.
Carbon has good biocompatibility with bone and other tissues.