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# MATH 113 NOTES

PETER GYU YOUNG CHANG

C ONTENTS
1. Introduction
2. 01/24/17
2.1. Arithmetics of Complex Numbers
2.2. Properties of Complex Numbers
2.3. Limits
3. 01/26/17
3.1. Complex Derivatives
3.2. Cauchy-Riemann Equations
3.3. Differentiability
3.4. Convergence of Sequence and Series

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## PETER GYU YOUNG CHANG

1. I NTRODUCTION
Professor Yum-Tong Siu taught Math 113, Complex Function Theory
at Harvard in Spring 2017.
These are the notes I took from the course. Conventions are as
follows: Each lecture gets its own chapter, and appears in the table
of contents with the date.
Of course, these notes are not a faithful representation of the course,
either in the physics itself or in the quotes, jokes, and philosophical
musings; in particular, the errors are my fault. By the same token,
any virtues in the notes are to be credited to the lecturer and not the
scribe. 1
Please email suggestions to Peter0414@gmail.com. 2

1 This

## introduction has been adapted from Aaron Landesmans introduction to

his notes, with his permission.
2 Image taken from http://www.wikipedia.org/

## MATH 113 NOTES

2. 01/24/17
2.1. Arithmetics of Complex Numbers.
2.1.1. Peano Axioms. The Peano axioms are a set of axioms for the
natural numbers. Let S be a single-valued successor function.
(1) 0 N
(2) x N, x = x (reflexivity).
(3) x, y N, if x = y, then y = x (symmetric).
(4) x, y, z N, if x = y and y = z, then x = z (transitive).
(5) a, b, if b N and a = b, then a N (closed).
(6) n N, S(n) N.
(7) m, n N, m = n iff S(m) = S(n) (S is an injection).
(8) n N, S(n) = 0 is false.
(9) If K is a set s.t. 0 K and n N, n N implies S(n) K,
then N K.
2.1.2. Definition of Complex Numbers.
N Z:
(1) n N0, unique n
/ N, Z s.t. n + (n) = 0.
(2) i, j Z, i = j iff j = i.
Z Q: Equivalence classes of ordered pairs of integers (m, n)
with n 6= 0, s.t. (m1 , n1 ) (m2 , n2 ) iff m1 n2 m2 n1 = 0. Addition and multiplication are defined as follows:
(1) (m1 , n1 ) + (m2 , n2 ) (m1 n2 + n1 m2 , n1 n2 )
(2) (m1 , n1 ) (m2 , n2 ) (m1 m2 , n1 n2 )
Q R: Dedekind cut is a partition of Q into two non-empty
sets A, B, s.t. a A, b B, a < b, and A contains no
greatest element. We can use this to construct R from Q.
R C: z C is defined as an ordered pair (a, b) R2 , with
the following addition and multiplication rules:
(1) (a, b) + (c, d) = (a + c, b + d)
(2) (a, b) (c, d) = (ac bd, bc + ad)
2.1.3. Geometric Representation of Arithmetics of Complex Numbers.
Addition of complex numbers, z = (a, b), w = (c, d) C
can be represented as the addition of 2 d vectors: (a, b) +
(c, d) = (a + c, b + d).
Multiplication of complex numbers can be represented by the
vector addition of the log of the polar representations of the
numbers.
For example, let (a, b) = (r, ) and (c, d) = (, ). Then,
first we convert to log space and add them: (log r + log , +

## ). Finally, we convert back by exponentiating: (r, + ). In

Proof. First, the radii can be checked. By definition, we have
r2 = a2 + b2 and 2 = c2 + d2 . Thus, the product of radii is:
q
p
(a2 + b2 ) (c2 + d2 ) = a2 c2 + a2 d2 + b2 c2 + b2 d2
q
= (ac bd)2 + (bc + ad)2
Since (a, b) (c, d) = (ac bd, bc + ad) by definition, the radius of the product is correct.
Next, the angles can be checked. Since we have tan = b/a
and tan = d/c, the tangent of the angle of the product is:
b
d
tan + tan
a+ c
tan( + ) =
=
1 tan tan
1 bd
ac
=
ac bd
This matches the definition of the product defined above. 

## 2.2. Properties of Complex Numbers.

Reflection of z = (a, b) C wrt the real axis is its complex
conjugation, defined as:
z (a, b)

## For z = (a, b), its absolute value is defined as:

p
|z| a2 + b2
And therefore, the following property holds:
zz = |z|2
Proof. zz = (a, b) (a, b) = (a2 + b2 , 0) = a2 + b2 = |z|2
Triangle inequality is defined for general vectors ~u,~v as:

## k~u + ~vk k~uk + k~vk

This extends to the complex numbers: z, w C:
|z + w| |z| + |w|
Proof. This follows from the parallelogram law, which states
that for a parallelogram, the sum of squares of the sides is
equal to the sum of squares of the diagonals.

## Thus, for z = (a, b) and w = (c, d), we have



2
2
2 |z| + |w| = |z + w|2 + |z w|2
Thus:


|z + w|2 = 2 |z|2 + |w|2 |z w|2


2
2
2
2
2
= |z| + |w| + |z| + |w| |z w|
= |z|2 + |w|2 + 2 (ac + bd)

(|z| + |w|)2

2.3. Limits.
Real sequence: an R.
lim an = L

## means that > 0, N N s.t. n N, |an L| < .

Intuitively, this means that an is -close to L if n is sufficiently large.
Complex sequence: cn C and L C.
lim cn = L

## means that > 0, N N s.t. n N, |an L| < .

While this statement is identical to the real case, the implications of the absolute value symbol are different. For the real
case, -closeness is a 1d concept, whereas it is a 2d concept for
the complex case. Thus, the target is larger for the complex
case.
Real-valued functions:
lim f(x) = L

xa

## means > 0, > 0 s.t. |f(x) L| < if 0 < |x a| < .

Intuitively, this means that if x is -close to a, then f(x) is
-close to L.
Complex-valued functions:
lim f(z) = L

zc

## means > 0, > 0 s.t. |f(z) L| < if 0 < |z c| < .

Again, the implications are different.

## PETER GYU YOUNG CHANG

3. 01/26/17
3.1. Complex Derivatives.
Remark 3.1. A series is defined as a sum of terms of a sequence:
S=

bn

n=1

Sn

n
X

bk

k=1

## We can extract individual terms in the original sequence by the method

of telescoping:
bn = Sn Sn1
3.1.1. Difference Quotient.
An intermediate form of complex difference quotient is described as follows.
For t R and w = f(t) = (u(t), v(t)) C, where w =
u(t) + iv(t), if the following equation holds:
f(t + h) f(t)
=L
h
h0
Then, the following holds:
lim

L = (u 0 (t), v 0 (t))
This is considered an intermediate form, since while the
function value, w = f(t) C, its domain, t R.
We further extend this by setting the domain of the function
to be the set of complex numbers. If
f(z) f(c)
=L
zc
zc
where z, c C, then we say that f 0 (c) = L.
Suppose z = x + yi and c = a + bi. In the z-plane, we can
imagine two possible restrictions:
(1) Restriction to the horizontal line containing c: then we
have Im(z) = Im(c) = y = b. Then, Im(z c) = 0. Thus,
we have:
f(z) f(c)
f
f(z) f(c)
L = lim
= lim
=
zc
xa
xa
xa
x
lim

## (2) Restriction to the vertical line containing c: then we have

Re(z) = Re(c) = x = a. Thus:
1
1 f
f(z) f(c)
f(z) f(c)
= lim
=
zc i(y b)
i yb y b
i y

L = lim

f
1 f
=
x
i y

(3.1)

## 3.2. Cauchy-Riemann Equations.

3.2.1. Alternate Formulation. Again, letting f(z) = u(x, y) + iv(x, y):
f
u
v
=
+i
x
x
x
u
v
f
=
+i
y
y
y
Therefore, plugging these into the Cauchy-Riemann equation above:
f
u
v
1 f
u v
=
+i
=
= i
+
x
x
x
i y
y y
we have another formulation of the Cauchy-Riemann equations:
v
u
=
x
y
v
u
=
x
y

(3.2)

3.2.2. Shorthand Notation. Another shorthand notation of the CauchyRiemann equation is the following equation:
f
=0
z
The justification is as follows. Since we have:
dz = dx + idy
dz = dx idy
we can rewrite this as:
1
(dz + dz)
2
1
(dz dz)
dy =
2i
dx =

(3.3)

## PETER GYU YOUNG CHANG

We want to find the dual basis of dz and dz. Since we must have:
 

(dz)
=1
z
 

(dz)
=1
z
 

(dz)
=0
z
 

(dz)
=0
z
This means that we must have:


1

=
+i
z
2 x
y



=
i
z
2 x
y
Therefore, the Cauchy-Riemann equation can be rewritten as equation (3.3).
Remark 3.2. Directional, or partial, derivatives are a coordinate-free
way to represent vectors. For example, if we are interested in the
vector ~v = (, ), such that 2 + 2 = 1, since for an arbitrary function f = f(x, y), we have:
f
f
f
= +
~v
x
y
plugging in f = x recovers and f = y recovers . Thus, vectors can
be represented by directional derivatives.
3.2.3. Application of Cauchy-Riemann Equations.

## The Cauchy-Riemann equations are related to the Cauchys

integral theorem by Stokes theorem.
A conformal map is a function that preserves angles locally.
The Cauchy-Riemann equations can be used to show the conformal property. The function f takes (x, y) into (u(x, y), v(x, y)).
The function takes the x = 0 and y = 0 lines into
 


u v
u v
,
&
,
x x
y y

## If we rotate the first line 90 degrees, we can express conformality as follows:


 

v u
u v
,
=
,
x x
y y
which is equivalent to the Cauchy-Riemann equations.
Im confused what implication this has.
3.3. Differentiability.
3.3.1. Differentiability of a Single-Variable Real-Valued Function. For an
arbitrary x, the function value f(x) can be represented as the firstorder Taylor approximation plus some error term:
f(x) = f(a) + (x a)f 0 (a) + E(x)
Then, we have:
f(x) f(a)
E(x)
f 0 (a) =
xa
xa
E(x)
f(x) f(a)
f 0 (a) = lim
lim
xa x a
xa
xa
Since by definition,
f 0 (a) lim

xa

f(x) f(a)
xa

## f 0 (a) exists iff we have:

E(x)
=0
xa x a
In other words, E(x) has to go to 0 as x a faster than the first-order
term, x a.
lim

## 3.3.2. Differentiability of a Two-Variable Real-Valued Function. Similarly,

we can define the differentiability of f(x, y) such that f(x, y) is differentiable at (a, b) R2 iff f(x, y) can be approximated by a polynomial of degree 1 to an order higher than first-order.
In other words, f(x, y) is differentiable at (a, b) iff Ax + By + C
s.t.
f(x, y) (Ax + By + C)
p
lim
=0
(x,y)(a,b)
(x a)2 + (y b)2
This definition not intuitive :(
Theorem 3.3. For c = a + bi, z = x + yi, given w = f(z), f 0 (c) exists
iff the following two conditions hold:

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## PETER GYU YOUNG CHANG

(1) Re(f) and Im(f) as real-valued functions of the two real variables
x, y are differentiable
(2) The Cauchy-Riemann equations hold at c.
Proof. We prove the direction of the differentiability following from
the two conditions. The other direction is LTR.
First, using condition (1), u and v can be represented as:
u(x, y) = u(a, b) + A(x a) + B(y b) + E1 (x, y)
v(x, y) = v(a, b) + C(x a) + D(y b) + E2 (x, y)
where, for i = 1, 2, the following holds:
lim

(x,y)(a,b)

Ei (x, y)
p

(x a)2 + (y b)2

=0

## Using condition (2), the following equalities hold:

A=D
B = C
Then, for f = u + iv, we have:
f(z) = f(c) + (A + iC)(x a) + (B + iD)(y b) + (E1 + iE2 )
= f(c) + (A + iC)(z c) + (E1 + iE2 )
and also:

E
=0

lim
zc z c
Therefore, f 0 (c) exists.

## 3.4. Convergence of Sequence and Series.

Remark 3.4. The motivation behind switching gears to study convergence is that a function having complex derivative at every point
in the domain is an equivalent statement as the function being expressible as a convergent series in the monomials, 1, z, z2 , . . . .
The basic question is the following. Given the series:

an z n

n=0

## where an C, at which z is the power series convergent, and how

does it dependent on {an }?

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