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Chemistry

Work Book
1 . secondary
st

Chemical formula and Balancing chemical equations


A)Write the molecular formula for the following compounds
1) Sulphuric
acid.
5) Iron II
sulphate
9) Aluminium
sulphate
13) Caustic
Soda
17)Lime water

2) Aluminum
oxide
6) Iron III
sulphate.
10) Sodium
phosphate.
14)Magnesium
nitride
18) Quick lime

3) Potassium
nitride
7) Copper II
sulphate
11)Ammonium
phosphate
15) Potassium
phosphide
19)Nitric acid.

21)Copper
carbonate

22)Sulphuric acid

24)Ammonia gas

4) Calcium
phosphide.
8) Iron III
hydroxide
12)Lime stone
16) Potassium
sulphide
20)Zinc
sulphate
25)Iron III Oxide

B)Balance the following equations and write the name of each


compound
1) Na + H2O
NaOH + H2
2) Li + O2
Li2O
3) Li + N2
Li3N
4) Mg + N2
Mg3N2
5) Na2O(s) + H2O(l)
NaOH(aq)
6) Na2O + HCl
NaCl + H2O
7) Li3N + H2O
LiOH
+ NH3
8) Mg3N2
+
H2O
Mg(OH)2
+ NH3
heat
9) NaNO3
NaNO2 + O2
10) KO2
+
CO2
K2CO3
+ O2
Heat
11) HNO3
NO2 + O2 + H2O
12) CH4 + O2
CO2 + H2O
13) C2H4 + O2
CO2 + H2O
14) C2H2+ O2
CO2 + H2O
15) C2H5OH+ O2
CO2 + H2O
16) C6H6 + O2
CO2 + H2O
17) AlCl3 + NaOH
NaCl
+ Al(OH)3
18) FeCl3 + NH4OH
NH4Cl + Fe(OH)3
19) FeSO4 +
NaOH
Na2SO4 + Fe(OH)2
20) NaHCO3
Na2CO3
+
CO2 + H2O

C)Write the chemical equations for the following reactions and


balance them:
1- Silver nitrate + Sodium chloride
Sodium nitrate +
Silver chloride
2- Sodium carbonate + Hydrochloric acid
Sodium chloride +
Carbon dioxide + water
3- Barium chloride + sulphuric acid
Barium sulphate
+ Hydrogen chloride.
4- Nitric acid
heat
Nitrogen dioxide + water + Oxygen
5- Ammonium chloride + lime water
Calcium chloride +
ammonia gas + water
6-Potassium Carbonate + Nitric acid
Potassium nitrate
+ carbon dioxide + water
7- Iron II oxide + Oxygen
Iron III oxide
8- Ammonia gas + Sulphuric acid
Ammonium
Sulphate
9- Aluminum sulphate + Caustic soda
Sodium
sulphate + Aluminum hydroxide
10- Iron III sulphate + Sodium hydroxide
Sodium
sulphate + Iron III hydroxide
11- Silver nitrate + Sodium chloride
Sodium nitrate +
Silver chloride
12- Sodium carbonate + Hydrochloric acid
Sodium chloride
+ Carbon dioxide + water
13- Barium chloride + sulphuric acid
Barium sulphate
+ Hydrogen chloride.
14- Nitric acid
heat
Nitrogen dioxide + water + Oxygen
15- Ammonium chloride + lime water
Calcium chloride +
ammonia gas + water
16-Potassium Carbonate + Nitric acid
Potassium nitrate
+ carbon dioxide + water
17- Iron II oxide + Oxygen
Iron III oxide
18-Lime water + hydrochloric acid
Calcium chloride +
water
19-Sulphuric acid + Magnesium oxide
Magnesium
sulphate + water.
20-Sulphuric acid + caustic soda
Sodium sulphate
+ water
21-Iron
+ Chlorine
Iron III chloride.
22-Aluminium sulphate + Sodium hydroxide
Aluminum
hydroxide + Sodium sulphate
23-Sulphuric acid + Barium nitrate
Barium sulphate
+ Nitric acid.
3

24-Iron II chloride + Sodium hydroxide


+ Iron II hydroxide.
25-Hydrogen + Nitrogen
26-Chlorine + Sodium bromide
Bromine

Sodium chloride
ammonia gas
Sodium chloride +

Chemistry and
measurements
Nano Technology

Homework (Chapter 1) lesson (1)


A)Choose correct answer :
1)The study of the chemical reactions in the living cell is called .

a) Physical chemistry
b)
Biology
c) Electrochemistry
d)
Biochemistry
2)Small accurate volumes of liquids can be obtained by a..
a)Beaker
b) Burette
c) test tube
d)Graduated
cylinder
3)One of the following glass tools is used in preparation and
distillation.
a)Burette
b)Pipette
c)Sensitive balance
d)Round
bottom flask
4)pH value in acidic solutions is .
a) >7
b) <7
=14
5)Which of the following is used in titration.
a)Round bottom flask
b)Conical flask
5

c) =7

d)

c)Pipette
cylinder

d)Graduated

6)A chemical equation is balanced to satisfy ..................


a)Law of conservation of energy
b)Avogadros
law
c)Law of conservation of mass
d)second law
of thermodynamics
B) Define :1- Science 2-Chemistry
Biochemistry
5-Physical chemistry

3-Mesurements

4-

C)Give reasons for :


1- Scientists are interested in studying chemistry.
2-Measurements have a great importance.
D)State relation between each of the following :
1- Chemistry and biology.
2-Chemistry and physics
Chemistry and pharmacy.

3-

E)Answer the following


1- What a person with high blood pressure must avoid in his food and
drink ?
2- What is the importance of Measurement ?
F)State one use for :1- Sensitive balance
2-Beaker
3-Burette
4-Pipette
5- Conical flask
6-Graduated cylinder
G)State a scientific term :
1-Value which determines whether the liquid is Acidic , alkaline or
neutral by determining concentration of H+.
2-The range of values that a healthy person should have.
3-An expression which represents the law for the quantitative
relationship between reactants and products.
4-The science that is interested in the study of substance
composition , its properties , changes which occur to it , reactions of
different substances with each other , and appropriate conditions.
5-Long glass tube , open from both sides and its graduation starts
from top to down.
H) Determine the appropriate tool
Use
-Determines volumes of liquids and solids of irregular
shapes
-Transport certain amount of liquids.
-Add accurate volumes of liquids during titration.
-Prepares solutions of known concentrations
accurately

Tool
1..
2..
3..
4..

I)Balance the following reactions


electric spark
1) N2 + H2
NH3
2) Mg3N2 + H2O
Mg(OH)2 + NH3
heat
3) NH4Cl +
Ca(OH)2
NH3 + H2O + CaCl2
4) Ca3(PO4)2 + H2SO4
H3PO4 +
CaSO4
5) CO2(g) + NaOH(aq)
Na2CO3(aq) + H2O(l)

General questions on Chapter (1) Lesson (1)

Chemistry and measurements


A)Choose correct answer :
1-......................used to prepare standard solutions (Solutions of
known concentration).
a)Conical flask b)Beaker
c) Volumetric flask
d) Pipette
2-One of the types of glass tools used in titration process ..
a)Burette
b)Pipette
c)Sensitive
balance
d)Round flask
3- .............. graduated with the zero at the top.
a)Burette
b)Pipette
balance
d)Round flask

c)Sensitive

4- .............. used to keep and transport liquids in laboratory.


a)Conical flask
b)Beaker
c) Volumetric flask
d) Pipette
5-Biochemistry is interested in studying the .
a)Composition and properties of matter
b)
Components of the siol
c)Chemical structure of the cell
Components of water

d)

6-The glass tool used for distillation and preparation processes is

a)round bottom flask


b)graduated cylinder
c)Pipette d)burette
7-When pH value of a solution is less than 7 , then the solution is ..
.
a)Alkaline
b) Acidic
c)
Neutral
8- ............. is used to obtain fixed volume of liquid with high accuracy
a)Graduated beaker
b)Pipette
c)Measuring
flask
d)Test tube
9-Solution is acidic when pH value is ..
7

a) less than 7
d) equals 14

b) more than 7

c) equals 7

B)State a scientific term


1)The study of chemical reactions in the living cell.
2)The study of heat energy in chemical reactions.
3)An organized structure of knowledge that includes facts , concepts ,
principles and laws.
4)The study of motion and energy.
5)The study of structure of matter and interaction between materials.
6)Science which includes chemistry and biology
7)A long glass tube with two openings , its graduation starts from up
to down.
8) Comparison of unknown quantity with another quantity of its kind in
order to know the number of times which the first include the second
9) Range of values that a healthy person should have.
10)A value which indicates acidity or alkalinity of medium.
11)An apparatus used to measure pH value.
12)Used to measure volumes of liquids and solids of irregular shape.
13)Chemical substance that have healing properties.
C) Match the following :
A
B
1-Burette
a-Made of Pyrex
glass
2b-Electronic device
Graduated
Cylinder
3-Conical
c-Long glass tube
flask
4-pH
d-Used to measure
meter
volumes of liquids,
and transport liquids

C
I)It is graduated with zero at top
II)Can be used to measure
volumes of irregular solids
III)To know how much acidic or
alkaline is the solution
IV)Used in titration

D)Give reasons for :


1)Measurements is very important to our lives.
2)Chemistry is considered the center of most of other sciences as
biology , physics , and agriculture.
3)The measurement of pH has a great degree of importance in
chemical and biochemical reactions.
4) pH meter is more accurate than pH tape in measuring pH value.
E)What is meant by :
1-Measurement
3-pH meter
5-Measuring unit

2-Hydrogen exponent (pH value)


4-pH tape

F) Write the tool or instrument which is used in :


1-Measuring the volume of liquids and irregular solid substances that
do not dissolve in water.
2-Measuring acidity or basicity degree of a solution.
8

3-Measuring the mass of substance.


G)Correct underlined words :
1-Graduation in graduated cylinder is from up to down.
2-The sensitive balance is used to determine the volume of a liquid.

Homework (Chapter 1) Lessons 2


Nano Technology
A)Choose correct answer :
1-A micro meter equals meter.
a)10-2
b) 10-9
-3
10

c) 10-6

d)

2-One of the one dimensional Nano substances ..


a)Nano fibers
b) Nano tubes
c) Nano shells
d) Bucky ball
3-The Nanometer is important in our life because ..
a)It needs special tools to see it and deal with it.
b)It shows new properties that have not appeared before.
c)Its value ranges from 1-100 nm.
d)It needs special methods to produce it.
4- Nano meter is important in our life because
.
a)It needs special tools to see it and deal with it.
b)It shows new properties that have not appeared before.
c)It needs special methods to manufacture it.
d)All the choices above.
5-Which of the following amounts is large ?
a) 10-4
b) 10-9
c) 10-3
10-2
6-When dividing a cube into smaller cubes ..
a)Surface area increases and volume decreases.
b) Surface area decreases and volume decreases.
c) Surface area decreases and volume remains fixed.
d) Surface area increases and volume remains fixed.
7-The behavior of Nano particles is related with its very small size
because
a)The ratio between surface area to the size is very large
compared to larger size of matter.
b)The number of atoms on the surface of the particles is large
compared to larger size of matter.
c) The number of atoms on surface of particles is smaller
compared to larger size of matter.
d) A and B are true answers.
9

d)

B)What is meant by :Nano technology

- Critical nano volume

C)Give reasons for :


1-Nano Solar cells are better than Normal solar cell.
2-When the ratio between surface area to volume of a substance
increases to a very large degree , the fantastic nano properties
appear.
3-Carbon nano tubes are stronger than steel.

D) Join A),B) and C)

A
1-Nano fibers
2-Nano tubes
3-Nano wires
4-The Carbon
Bucky ball

a)Used in space shuttles


b)3 dimension nano
substance
c)One dimensional nano
substance
d)Used in electronic
devices

I)Used in water filters


II)One dimensional
substance.
III)Has nano two
dimensions
IV)Carry medicine inside
without being affected
from outside

E)State a scientific term :


1-Comparing an unknown quantity with another one of its type to
know how many times the first includes the second.
2-The natural science which deals with the stars and planets.
3-A branch of science which deals with chemical applications of Nano
substances
4-Wastes resulting from the process of producing Nano substances.
5-Equals one of a billion of a meter
F)State function of :
1-Nano robots in medicine.
2-Nano substances in technology of glass , ceramics and screens of
electrical devices.
G)State one use for each of the following :

10

1-pH meter

General questions (Chapter 1) Lesson (2)


Nanotechnology and chemistry

A)Choose correct answer :


1-The Nanometer equals . Meter.
a)1 x 10-9
b) 1 x 10
-3
d) 1 x 10
2-.. is the biggest value.
a)10-6
b)10-9
-2
d) 10

c) 1 x 109

c)10-3

3-When dividing a cube into smaller cubes


a)The surface area decreases and the volume decreases.
b)The surface area increases and the volume decreases.
c)The surface area decreases and the volume remains fixed.
d)The surface area increases and the volume remains fixed.
4-The behavior of Nano particles is related with its very small size
because ..
a)The ratio between the surface area to the size is very large in
comparison with the larger size of matter.
b)The number of atoms on the surface of the particles is large in
comparison to their numbers to the larger size of matter.
c)The number of atoms on the surface of the particles is small in
comparison to their numbers in the larger size of the matter.
d)A and B are true answers.
5- Carbon nano tubes are
a) one-dimensional nano substance.
dimensional nano substance.
c)Three-dimensional nano substance.
dimension less than 100 nm
6- ..consists of 60 carbon atoms
11

b)Twod) have one

a)Nano-fibers
shells
d)Bucky ball

b)Carbon nano tubes

7-. are from one dimensional nano materials.


(Carbon nanotubes

thin films Bucky ball


nano shells)

c)Nano

8-When a cube is subdivided into small cubes ..


a)Surface area and volume decreases.
b)Surface area decreases and volume increases.
c)Surface area and volume increase.
d)Surface area increase and volume is constant.
B)Choose from the column (A) what is appropriate from column (B) ,
and then choose what is appropriate from column (C).
(A)
(B)
(C)
1-Substances with one
a)Bucky ball
I)Space shuttle
dimensional nano dimension
2-Substances with two Nano
b)Nano Wires
II)Treatment of
dimensions
cancer
3-Substances that have three
c)Nano Carbon
III)Electronic
Nano dimensions
tubes
circuits
C)State a scientific term :
1)Deals with the treatment of the matter on the Nano scale to produce
new useful products.
2)A branch of the Nano science that deals with the chemical
applications of the Nano substance.
3)Changes the properties of the Nano particles of different sizes in the
range of the nano scale.
4)Includes the study , description , and production of the substances
with Nano dimensions.
5)Equals one of a billion of meter.
6)Substances with different dimensions , or one of its dimensions is
between 1-100 nm.
7) The volume in which the unique Nano properties of the substance
appears and is located between 1-100 nm.
8)Nano materials that have only one dimension between 1-100 nm.
9)Pollution resulting from nano materials.
10)The science of studying and creating nano-substances.
11)Application of scientific knowledge for practical purposes , specially
industry.
12)Application of scientific knowledge concerning nano substances in
industry.
13)Nano substance used in packaging food products to protect them
from being spoiled.
14)Nano substance used in making electric circuits.
15)Nano substances used in making water filters.
16)Nano substance which are good conductors of heat and electricity
and stronger than steel.
17)Nano substance which connects to protein easily and used as a
biological sensors.

12

D)Give reasons for :


1) Nano scale is unique.
2)Bucky ball is used as a carrier for medicines in the body.
3)The reasons for the unique properties of the nano substances.
4)Carbon nano tubes are used as biological sensors.
5)Bucky balls are used as medicine carrier.
6)Nano silicon is much better than macro silicon in solar cells.
E)Compare between each of the following :
1)Normal solar cells and Nano solar cells.
2)Solidness of copper and the Nano particles of copper.
F)State function of :1-Nano robots
2-Carbon nano fibers in
human body.
3-Carbon nano in astronomy .
4-invisible Nano molecules in
glass and ceramics industry
5-Nano substances in cosmetics and creams.
G)Write short notes :
1)Harmful health effect of the Nano technology.
2)Relationship between the surface area and the volume of a Nano
substance.
3)Applications of nanotechnology in agriculture and energy.
H)What is meant by each of the following :
1-Nanotechnology
2-Critical nano volume
I)State an application of nano technology in the field of :
1-Medicin
2-Agriculture
3-Energy
J)Choose from (A) what is appropriate from (B) , and then from (C)
(C)
(B)
(A)
Space shuttles
Nano shells
Substances that have only
one nano dimension
Treatment of Cancer
Nano wires
Substances with two nano
dimensions
Electronic circuits
Nano Carbon
Substances that have three
tubes
Nano dimensions

13

Mole
Weight Percentage and
empirical formula

Homework (Chapter 2) Lesson 1


I)Choose correct answer: (Na=23 , Cl=35.5 , N=14 , H=1 , C=12 ,
O=16 , S=32 , )
1)Number of moles in 292.5 grams of sodium chloride is ..
a)15 moles
b) 5 moles
c)0.2 moles
d) 0.5 moles
2)The number of moles in 72 liters of ammonia gas NH3 at s.t.p is

a)3.6 moles
b)2.3 moles
c) 3.2 moles
d) 6.3 moles
14

3)Volume of 0.5 moleof carbon dioxide CO2 gas at s.t.p is


liters
a) 11.2
b) 2.11
c) 22.4
d)11.5
4)The volume of SO3 gas occupied by 1.6 grams at s.t.p is liters
a)0.444
b) 4.48
c)8.44
d) 0.448
5)Number of molecules in 30 liters of O2 gas at s.t.p is
molecules
a)806.25 x 1021
b) 80.625 x 1023
c) 8.0625 x
1021
d) 80.625 x 1021
6)0.5 moles of CO2 equals . grams
a)44
b) 22
1023
d) 36

c) 3.01 x

7) Number of molecules in 128 grams of SO2 is


a) 1.204 x 1022
b) 12.04 x 1024
c) 1.204 x 1023
d)120.4 x 1022
8) Number of molecules in 1 mole of NH3 is .. molecules
a) 6.02 x 1022
b) 6.02 x 1024
c) 6.02 x
1023
d) 60.2 x 1021
9) Number of atoms in 1 mole of NH3 is atoms.
a) 2 x 6.02 x 1023
b) 3 x 6.02 x 1023
c) 4 x 6.02 x
1023
d) 5x6.02x1023
10)One of the following represents the greatest mass of Chlorine
a) 1 mole of Chlorine
b) 1 atom of
Chlorine
c) 1 gram of Chlorine
d) 1
molecule of chlorine.
11) The volume of Hydrogen needed to produce 11.2 L of water vapor
at (stp) is ...............L
a)22.4
b)44.8
c)11.2
d)68.2
12)Number of grams of 44.8 L of ammonia gas NH3 at (STP)
equals ......................g.
a)2
b)17
d)34

c)0.5

13)If an amount of Sodium contains 3.01x1023 atoms , then the mass of


this amount equals ................g
a)11.5
b)23
c)46
d)0.5
15

14)Half mole of Carbon dioxide CO2 is ..........................g


a)44
b)22
c)88
d)66

15)When 64 g of Oxygen reacts with abundance of Hydrogen , then the


volume of the produced water vapor at s.t.p is .............. L.
a)22.4
b)4.48
c)11.2
d)89.6
II)State a scientific term :
1) Volumes of reacting and produced gases are in fixed ratio.
2) Equal volumes of different gases contain same number of molecules
under the same standard temperature and pressure
3) The reactant that is present in less than its molar ratio in the
balanced chemical equation .
III) Problems: (C=12 , O = 16 , H = 1 ,Cl=35.5 , Na=23 , Zn = 65 , O = 16 , N
=14, Fe=56 , Si = 28 , Ag = 108)

1)Calculate the number of liters of hydrogen gas at s.t.p resulting


from the reaction of 6.54 g of Zinc with an excess amount of dilute
hydrochloric acid HCl.
Zn + 2 HCl
ZnCl 2 +
H2
2) Calculate number of moles of silver chloride AgCl resulting from the
reaction of 5.85 g sodium chloride with 17 g silver nitrate.
AgNO 3 + NaCl
NaNO3 +
AgCl
3)Calculate number of liters of ammonia gas NH3 at s.t.p needed to
prepare 132 g of ammonium sulphate salt.
2NH3 + H2SO4
(NH4)2SO4 .
4)Calculate total no. of ions produced from dissolving 50 grams of
Sodium chloride in water.
5)Calculate no. of sulphate ions produced from dissolving 120 grams
of Sodium sulphate in water.
6)Calculate mass percentages of the elements forming sugar glucose
C6H12O6 .
7)Calculate the volume of one mole of phosphorus in gaseous state at
(stp) , then calculate number of atoms in this volume.
IV)Write the following reactions in Ionic form :
1)Sulphuric acid + Potassium hydroxide
sulphate + water.
2)Potassium chloride + Silver nitrate
+ Silver chloride.
3)Barium Chloride + Sulphuric acid
+ Hydrogen chloride.

16

Potassium
Potassium nitrate
Barium sulphate

General questions (Chapter 2)_ Lesson (1)

Mole and Chemical equations


I)Choose correct answer :(Ca=40,C=12 , O=16 , Zn=65 , Cl =35.5 ,
H=1 ,N=14, S=32)
1) Number of molecules in 128 grams of SO2 is
a) 1.204 x 1022
b) 12.04 x 1024
c) 1.204 x 1023
22
d)120.4 x 10
2) Number of molecules in 1 mole of NH3 is .. molecule
a) 6.02 x 1022
b) 6.02 x 1023
c) 6.02 x 1024
d) 60.2 x 1021
3)One of the following represents the greatest mass of Chlorine
a) 1 mole of Chlorine
b) 1 atom of Chlorine
c) 1 gram of Chlorine
d) 1 molecule of
chlorine.
4) If O=16 and H=1 , then the number of water moles in 36 g of it =
.
a)1 mole
b) 0 moles
c)2.5 moles
d) 2 moles
5)The no. of Carbon atoms in 2 g of Carbon equals to .. x
Avogadros no. [C=12]
a) 1/2
b) 1/3
c) 1/4
d)
1/6
6) Number of atoms in 1 mole of NH3 is atoms.
a)2 x 6.02 x 1023
b) 3 x 6.02 x 1023
c) 4 x 6.02 x 1023
23
d) 5x6.02x10
7)Number of moles of ammonia gas present in 2.5 liters is
moles
a)0.1116
b) 0.2225
c) 0.3335
d) 0.4446
8)Find number of moles of SO3 gas present in 24 liters of it is .
moles
a)2.27
b)3.35
c) 0.27
d) 1.07
9) Number of moles of SO2 gas in 50 liters of it is moles
17

a)3.4432
b) 2.23214
c) 2.5553
d)3.3432
10)Calculate volume of 2.3 moles of ammonia gas.
a) 43.43
b)22.24
c)51.52
d)22.40
11) Number of ammonia NH3 molecules in 44.8 liters of it are
a) 6.023 x 1023
b) x 6.023 x 1023 c) 2x6.023 x 1023
d) 4x6.023 x 1023
12)Mass of sulphur in 120 grams of Iron III sulphate is . g
a)14.4
b)12.2
c)22.4
d)28.8
13) Number of nitrogen atoms in 300 g of nitric acid is
a)2.86 x 1024
b)3.3x 1022
c) 6.02 x 1023
d)28.6 x 1024
14)No. of water moles found in 36 g of it are moles.
a)1
b)2
c)2.5
d)
0.5
15)No. of Carbon dioxide molecules found in 88 g of it equals
molecules.
a) 2
b) 6.02 x 1023
c) 3.01 x 1023
23
d) 12.04 x 10
16)Number of produced sodium ions from dissolving 40 g of NaOH in
water equals .. ions.
a)2
b) 6.02x1023
c) 3.01x1023
23
d) 12.04 x 10
17)The law states that volumes of gases which enter in a
reaction and produced are at constant ratio.
a)Avogadro
b) Conservation
of Charge
c)Conservation of mass
d) Gay-Lussac
18) The volume of 4 g of Hydrogen at s.t.p equals liters.
a) 2
b)22.4
c)44.8
d) 89.6
19)An equation is to balanced to satisfy law.
a)Avogadros
b)Reservation of energy
c)conservation of mass
d)Gay-Lussac
20)Number of moles in 292.5 grams of sodium chloride is ..
a)15 moles
b) 5 moles
c)0.2 moles
d) 0.5 moles
21)The number of moles in 72 liters of ammonia gas NH 3 at stp is

a)3.6 moles
b)2.3 moles
c) 3.2
moles
d) 6.3 moles
22)Volume of 0.5 mole of carbon dioxide CO2 gas at s.t.p is
liters
a) 11.2
b) 2.11
c) 22.4
d)11.5
23)The volume of SO3 gas occupied by 1.6 grams at s.t.p is liters
a)0.444
b)0.448
c)8.44
d)4.48
18

24)Number of molecules in 30 liters of O2 gas at s.t.p is


molecules
a)806.25 x 1021 b) 6.02 x 1023
c) 3.01 x 1022
3.01 x 1026
25)0.5 moles of CO2 equals . grams
a) 44
b) 22
c) 3.01 x 1023
d) 36

d)

II)State a scientific term :


1) Volumes of reacting and produced gases are in fixed ratio.
2) Equal volumes of different gases contain same number of molecules
under the same standard temperature and pressure
3) The reactant that is present in less than its molar ratio in the
balanced chemical equation .
3-Number of atoms , molecules , or ions in one mole of a substance.
III)Problems : (C=12 , O = 16,H = 1 ,Cl=35.5 ,Na=23 , Ca = 40, O = 16 ,
N =14, Fe=56, Si = 28 ,Ag = 108, K=39)
1) Calculate mass of 0.5 mole of ammonia gas .
2) Calculate no. of moles in 34 g of ammonia gas. .
3)Number of molecules in 110 g of Iron III oxide.
(Ans.4.138 x 1023 molecules)
4)Number of molecules in 4 moles of Calcium phosphate.
2.409x1024 molecules)

(Ans.

5) Number of molecules in 51 g of ammonia gas.


(Ans. 1.806x1024 molecules)
6) Calculate volume of 56 g of Nitrogen gas at stp
7) Calculate volume of one mole of phosphorus in gaseous state at
stp , then calculate no. of atoms in this volume.
8)Calculate mass of calcium oxide produced from thermal
decomposition of 500 grams of calcium carbonate.
CaCO3
CaO + CO2
280 g)

(Ans.

9)Calculate volume of carbon dioxide produced from thermal


decomposition of 300 grams of calcium carbonate.
CaCO 3
CaO + CO2
(Ans. 67.2 liters)
10) Calculate number of water molecules produces from reaction
between 22.4 liters of Hydrogen with excess of Oxygen to form water.
(O=16 , H=1)
11)Calculate no. of Sodium ions produced from dissolving 117 g of
Sodium chloride in water
19

12)Calculate mass of Calcium carbonate needed to produce 5.1 liters


of carbon dioxide according to reaction : CaCO3 + 2 HCl
CaCl2 + CO2 + H2O
13) Calculate weight of Potassium chlorate needed to obtain 5.7 liters
Oxygen at s.t.p .
2 KClO3
2 KCl + 3 O2
(Ans. 20.78 g)
14)The human body converts food glucose (C6H12O6) into carbon
dioxide and water according to the equation. C6H12O6 + 6 O2
6CO2 + 6 H2O
If a person ate a piece of a sweet containing 14.2 grams of glucose ,
calculate the mass of water formed in the body.
(Ans. =8.52 g)
IV)Express the following in balanced ionic reactions :
1)Sodium chloride solution + Silver nitrate solution
Sodium
nitrate solution + Silver chloride(s)
2)Nitric acid + Potassium hydroxide solution
Potassium
nitrate solution + water.
3) Caustic soda + Hydrochloric acid
Sodium chloride +
water
4) Sulphuric acid + Sodium hydroxide
Sodium sulphate +
water.
V)Give reasons for :
1)The volume occupied by 26 g of Acetylene gas C2H2 at (s.t.p) equals
the volume occupied by 2 g of Hydrogen at the same conditions.
2)The difference in molar mass of phosphorus in its different physical
states.
3) One liter of Oxygen gas contain same no. of molecules that a liter of
chlorine gas contains at s.tp.
4)2 grams of Hydrogen gas contain same number of molecules as 32
grams of Oxygen at s.t.p.
VI)Find number of moles and molecules in the following : (Ca=40 ,
Na=23 , C=12 , H=1 , Cl=35.5)
1)120 g of NaOH
2) 8.4 g of NaHCO3
3) 50 g of CaCO3
4) 117
of NaCl
5) 200 of Na2CO3
VII)Problems
1)Calculate number of moles of 144 g of Carbon.
2)Calculate mass of 2.4 mole of Limestone
3)Calculate volume of 56 g of nitrogen at s.t.p.
4)Calculate Volume of Hydrogen and number of sodium ions resulted
from reaction of 23 g of Sodium and an excess amount of water in
standard conditions according to the following equation
2Na + 2 H2O
2NaOH + H2
5)Calculate number of Carbon atoms found in 50 g of Calcium
carbonate .
20

6)Calculate volume of Oxygen needed to produced 90 g of water by


reacting with an excess amount of Hydrogen at stp.
7)Calculate volume of Oxygen needed to produce 50 g of water by
reacting with excess amount of hydrogen at stp.
(O=16 , H=1)
8)In the reaction : CuO + H2SO4
CuSO4 + H2O
a-What is the mass of CuSO4 which is formed from reaction of 10 g of
copper oxide . (Ans. 20.0628 g)
b-What is the mass of H2SO4 which reacts with 15 g of CuO .
(Ans. 18.5 g)
9)Calculate number of Chloride ions produced when 29.25 grams of
sodium chloride (NaCl) are dissolved in water .
10)Calculate mass of Zinc chloride produced from the reaction of 32.5
grams of Zinc with hydrochloric acid .
11)Calculate number of OH ions on dissolving 80g of NaOH in water.

Homework (Chapter 2) Lesson 2

I-Choose correct answer :


1)The percentage of Carbon in Na2CO3 is .. %
a) 22.4
b) 14.11
d) 5.5

c)11.32

2)When 0.24 g of Carbon react with Oxygen to form 0.48 g of Carbon


dioxide
,
then
its
molecular
formula
is
..
(C=12 , O=16)
a)CO
b)CO 3
c) CO4
d) CO2
3)The mass of CaO resulted from dissociating 50 g of Calcium
carbonate CaCO3 thermally is . g.
a)28
b)82
c)96
d)14
4)The empirical formula of the compound C4H8O2 is
a) C4H4O2
b) C2H4 O
c)C2H8O2
d) C4H8O
5)The number of empirical formula units of the compound C2H2O4 is

a)1
b)2
c)3
d)4
6) If 6.1 g of methyl alcohol is produced from the reaction of 1.2 g of
hydrogen with abundance of Carbon monoxide, then percentage of
actual yield (Practical yield) is %.
CO(g) + 2H2(g)
CH3OH(l)
21

a)63.54
d) 70.55
7)The
empirical
of ......................
a)HCHO
d) All the previous.

b) 25.3
formula

c) 33.11
CH2O

expresses

b) CH3COOH

molecular

formula

c) C6H12O6

8)The molecular formula of a hydrocarbon compound resulted from the


linkage of 0.1 moleof Carbon atoms with 0.4 mole of Hydrogen atoms
is ................
a)C2H4
b)C4H8
c)CH4
d)C3H4
II-Problems (C=12 , N=14 , O=16 , H=1 ,Na=23 , Fe=56 ,S=32 ,
Ag=108)
1) Calculate number of chloride ions resulting from the dissolution of
39 g of sodium chloride in water.
2)Calculate total number of ions produced from dissolving 212 g of
Sodium carbonate in water.
3)Calculate no. of Iron ions produced from dissolving 200 grams of Iron
III sulphate in water.
4)Find empirical formula of an organic compound consists of 25%
hydrogen and 75 % carbon.
5)A hydrocarbon was analyzed and the percentage of C was 92.3% &
77% H. Find empirical formula and if molecular weight of the
compound is 66. Find empirical formula then molecular formula.
6)A hydrocarbon was analyzed and the percentage of C was 85.7142%
& 14.2857 % H. Find empirical formula and if molecular weight of the
compound is 28. Find empirical formula then molecular formula.
7)Calculate the empirical formula of a compound containing nitrogen
with a weight percentage 25.9% and oxygen with a weight percentage
of74.1 % .
8)Chemical analyses have proven that acetic acid (vinegar) is formed
from 40% carbon ,6.67% hydrogen, and 53.33% oxygen. If the
molecular molar mass ofit is 60 g, infer the molecular
formula of the acid knowing that .
9) Chemical analysis have proven that acetic acid (vinegar) is formed
from 40% carbon ,6.67% hydrogen, and 53.33% oxygen. If the molar
mass of it is 60 g, find the molecular
formula of the acid knowing that .

22

10) Calculate the empirical formula of a compound containing nitrogen


with a weight percentage 25.9% and oxygen with a weight percentage
of 74.1 % .
11)130 grams of Silver chloride precipitated when a mole of Sodium
chloride dissolved in water reacted with Silver nitrate solution.
Calculate the following
a)Percentage of actual product.
b)Number of Sodium ions resulted from this reaction.
III-State a scientific term :
1-A formula which shows type of atoms and the simplest ratio between
their numbers.
2-A formula which shows type of atoms and their number in a
molecule.
3-Amount of a substance which we practically obtain from a reaction.
4-The volume of the gas is directly proportional to the number of its
moles as its temperature and pressure are constant.
5-Equal volumes of gases at same temperature and pressure contains
same number of molecules.

General questions (Chapter 2) Lessons 2


Weight Percentage and empirical formula

I)Choose correct answer :


1)The empirical formula of a compound C6H12O6 is .
23

a)CHO
d)C12H24O12

b)C2H4O2

c)CH2O

2)The number of formula units of the compound C6H12O6 is .


a)3
b)4
c)2
d)6
3)If the empirical formula of a compound is CH2 and its molar mass is
56 , then the molecular formula of such a compound is ..
a)C2H4
b)C3H6
c)C4H8
d)C5H10
4)If the empirical formula of a compound is CH2 and its molar mass is
70 , then its molecular formula is
a)C2H4
b)C3H6
c)C4H8
d)C5H10
5)Percentage of Sodium in Sodium carbonate is %
(Na=23,C=12,O=16)
a)22.4
b)21.7
c)32.3
d)43.4
6)The calculated amount produced from a chemical reactions is called
..
a)Actual yield
b)Theoretical yield
c)Percentage of actual yield
d)Percentage of theoretical yield.
7)If the molecular formula of vitamin C is C6H8O6 , so the empirical
formula is .
a)C3H4O6
b)C3H8O3
c) C6H4O3
C3H4O3

d)

8)48 g magnesium need 32 g of Oxygen to produce .. Of Magnesium


oxide (Mg =24,O=16)
a) 80 g
b)20 g
c) 60 g
d) 10 g
9) Empirical formula of a hydrocarbon when mass of Carbon =0.12 g
and hydrogen =0.02
a)CH4
b)CH3
c)C12H2
d)CH2
10) The combining of 0.1 mole of Carbon with 0.4 mole of Hydrogen
produces a compound of molecular formula .
a)C3H4
b) CH4
c) C4H8
d) C2H4
11)The empirical formula of CH2O expresses the molecular formula of
.
24

a)HCHO
d)all previous

b)CH3COOH

12)The percentage of Carbon in Na2CO3 is .. %


a) 22.4
b) 14.11
d) 5.5

c) C6H12O6

c)11.32

13) If 6.1 g of methyl alcohol is produced from the reaction of 1.2 g of


hydrogen with abundance of Carbon monoxide , then percentage of
actual yield (Practical yield) is %.
CO(g) + 2H2(g)
CH3OH(l)
a)63.54
b) 25.3
c) 33.11
d) 70.5

II)State a scientific term


1-Formula expressing the actual number of atoms or ions forming the
molecule or the formula unit.
2-Amount of a substance which we practically obtain from a reaction.
3-A formula expressing the simplest ratios of integers among the
element atoms forming the compounds.
4-Amount of the calculated substance based on the reactions
equation.
III)Problems : (Ca=40 , C=12 , O=16 , Na=23 , Cl=35.5 , H=1 , S=32 ,
Ag=108)
1)By analyzing a compounds , it was found that it consists of 92 g of
Sodium and 32 g of Oxygen. Find molecular formula of the compound
(Na=23 , O=16)
2)By analysis of a hydrocarbon , it was found that it consists of 36 g
carbon and 6 g hydrogen. find empirical formula. (C=12 ,H=1).
3)What is the empirical formula of a hydrocarbon when analyzed , it
consists of 80% carbon and 20% hydrogen and if the molecular mass is
30 then find molecular formula.(C=12 , H=1)
4)If Nitrogen reacts with 0.3 gram of hydrogen to form 1.7 g of
ammonia gas then find formula of ammonia.(N=14 , H=1)
5)If empirical formula of an organic compound is CH3O and its
molecular weight is 93 then find molecular formula.
6)If empirical formula of a compound is CHO and its molecular weight
is 116 then find molecular formula.
7)When a hydrocarbon compound was analyzed , it was found that it
consists of 60 g of carbon and 15 g of hydrogen then find empirical
formula.

25

8)When a hydrocarbon compound was analyzed , it was found that it


consists of 24 % of carbon and 4 % g of hydrogen then find empirical
formula.
9)When a hydrocarbon compound was analyzed , it was found that it
consists of 36 % of carbon and 6 % g of hydrogen and 48 % Oxygen
then find empirical formula.
10)When a hydrocarbon compound was analyzed , it was found that it
consists of 48 % of carbon and 2 % g of hydrogen and 64 % Oxygen
then find empirical formula and if molecular weight is 171 then find
molecular formula.
11)Calculate the empirical formula and molecular formula of an
organic compound containing 85.63 % carbon and 14.37 % hydrogen ,
knowing that the molecular mass of it equals 42.
12)An organic compound of molecular mass =70 and it contains 0.24 g
of carbon and 0.04 g of hydrogen . Find the empirical formula and the
molecular formula of this compound.
13)An organic compound was analyzed the masses of C, H, O were 64
g of oxygen, 8 g of H and 48 g of C. Find chemical formula
14)A sample of calcium carbonate was analyzed and the masses were
0.04 g of calcium, 0.012g of carbon and 0.048 g of oxygen Find
chemical formula.
15)If the masses of carbon and hydrogen are 0.12 and 0.02 grams then
find empirical formula of this compound.
16)Calculate empirical formula for a compound of 25.9 % Nitrogen and
74.1% oxygen knowing N=14 , O=16.
17)Calculate molecular formula for a compound containing Carbon with
a ratio of 85.7 % and Hydrogen with a ratio 14.3 % and its molecular
mass.
18) 130 g of silver chloride precipitated when a mole of Sodium
Chloride dissolved in water reacted with silver nitrate solution.
Calculate the following :
a) Percentage of actual product.
b) Number of Sodium ions resulted from this reaction.
19) Calculate molecular formula of a compound containing 26.1 %
nitrogen , 7.49% hydrogen , and 66.4 % Chlorine , knowing that its
molecular mass is 53.5.
(H=1 , N=14 , Cl =35.5)
20) Chemical analysis have proven that acetic acid is formed from 40%
Carbon , 6.67% hydrogen and 53.33% Oxygen , if the molar mass of it
is 60 g , find molecular formula of the acid. (C=12 , H=1 , O=16)
26

32) 130 g of silver chloride precipitated when 1 mole of Sodium


chloride in water reacted with silver nitrate. Calculate Percentage of
actual product.
(Ans. 90.59 %)
C) Number of moles of an element in the compound
Ex. Calculate number of moles of carbon in an organic compound
containing only carbon and hydrogen .If you knew the weight
percentage of carbon in this compound is 85.71% and the molar mass
of this compound 28 g (C=12 , H=1)
Soln.
The mass of Carbon in the molar mass of compound =
85.71/100 x 28=24 g
Number of moles of carbon = Mass/atomic mass = 24/12
= 2 moles.
Problems :Calculate number of moles of :
1-Hydrogen in a compound consisting of Hydrogen and Oxygen , if
percentage of Hydrogen is 11.111 % and molar mass of this
compound is 18. (H=1 , O =16)
(Ans. 2 mol)
2-Oxygen in a compound consisting of Hydrogen and Oxygen , if
percentage of Oxygen in the compound is 88.89% and molar mass of
compound = 18 g.
(Ans. 1 mol)
3-Hydrogen in a compound consisting of Hydrogen and Nitrogen , if
percentage of Hydrogen is 17.65 % , and molecular mass of compound
= 17 a.m.u. (N=14 , H=1)
(Ans. 3 mol)
4-Carbon in a compound consisting of carbon and hydrogen , if
percentage of carbon in the compound is 85.71% , and molar mass of
compound =28 g (C=12 , H=1)
(Ans. 2 mol)

27

Solutions
Acids and bases

Homework (Chapter 3) lesson 1


Solution
A-Choose correct answer
1- Blood and milk are example of
a) liquid solution
b) solid solution
c)Colloidal
solution d) suspension
2- Sugar dissolves in water due to the formation of . Bonds.
a)Covalent
b)ionic
c)co-ordinate
d)hydrogen
3-Water vapor in air represents a gaseous solution of the .
Type.
a-Gas in Gas
b-Gas in liquid
c-Liquid in
Gas
d-Solid in gas
4-The angle between bonds in water is
a)104.5
b)105.4
c)90
d)140.5
5- is the unit for expressing molar concentration of solutions.
a)Mol/L
b) g/eq.L
c) g/L
d) mol/kg
6-Atmospheric air represents a gaseous solution of the .............. type.
28

a-gas in gas
b-gas in liquid
c-liquid in gas
d-solid in gas
7-....................... is an example of a strong electrolyte .
a-H2O
b-Benzene
c-HCl(g)
d-HCl(aq.)
8-Unit for expressing molar concentration is ................
a-mol/L
b-g/eq.L
c-g/L
d-Mol/kg
B-Think and infer one reasons :
1-Water molecule has high degree of polarity.
2-Sugar dissolves in water.
3-In cold countries they spread Sodium chloride over snow on the
streets.
4-Boiling point of a solution is higher than pure solvent.
5-Raising the boiling point of Sodium carbonate solution rather than
Sodium chloride solution , however mass of both solvent and solute in
both solutions is constant.
6-Sugar in water forms true solution , while milk powder in water
forms a colloid.
C-Determine type of Colloidal system in each case :1-Maynnaise
Dust in air
3-Soft drinks
D-What is meant by :
1-Boiling point of a liquid
3-Molality
4-Tendal effect.
6-Saturated solution

2-

2-Vapor pressure
5-Degree of solubility

E-State a scientific term


1-Number of moles of solute in each liter of solvent.
2- Ability of solvent to dissolve a solute or ability of a solute to
dissolve in a certain solvent.
3-The temperature at which a liquid is converted to solid due to
decreasing temperature.
4-Solution which accepts more of solute after reaching saturation. This
can be made by heating,
5-Mixture of 2 substances unreacted chemically but structurally
homogenous.
F- Problems
1-Add 10 g of sucrose to an amount of water of mass 240 g , then
calculate the mass percentage m/m of sucrose in solution.
2-Add 25 ml of ethanol to an amount of water , then complete the
solution to 50 ml . Calculate volume percentage (v/v) of ethanol in
solution.
3-Calculate molar concentration for a solution of a volume 200 ml of
Sodium hydroxide , knowing that mass of dissolved sodium hydroxide
is 20 g.
4-Calculate molar concentration for a solution prepared by dissolving
53 g of sodium carbonate in 400 g of water.
29

General questions (Chapter 3) Lesson (1)

I)Choose correct answer :


1-Water vapor in air is a gaseous solution of the type .
a)gas in gas
b)gas in liquid
c)liquid in gas
d)solid in gas
2- is a solid solution of solid in solid.
a)Naphthalene in air
b)Sugar in water
c)Nickel-Chrome
d)All previous.
3-Dust and air particles is a colloidal solution where the dispersed
phase is .
a)Solid
b)Liquid
c)gas
d)suspension
4-Aeorsols are colloidal where the dispersing medium is ..
a)Solid
b)Liquid
c)gas
d)water
5-When adding Hydrogen sulphide to sulphur dioxide prepares a
sulphur colloidal by a method called .method.
a)Dispersion
b)Distillation
c)Condensation
d)Coordination
6-The temperature at which vapor pressure of liquid equals
atmospheric pressure is
a)Boiling point
b)Freezing point
c)Condensation point
d)Liquid point
7-Number of moles of solute in every kilogram of solvent is .
a)Molarity
b)Normality
c)percentage
d)Molality
8-Mixture of Cobalt chloride in water is
a)Heterogeneous b)Colloidal
c)Suspension
d)true solution
9-The usual method to express concentration in food and medical
solutions is
a)Percentage
b))Molarity
c)Normality
d)Molality
10-When 10 g of Sodium hydroxide is dissolved in 0.25 liters of water ,
then its concentration equals .
a)2 mol/Liter
b)4 molar
c)molar
d)5 mol/liter
11-The molality of a solution is expressed by ..
a)Mol/L
b)g/L
c)mol/Kg
d)Kg/L

30

12-The attraction force between Solvent and solute molecules in a


solution is .. than the attraction force between solvent
molecules and each other.
a)Stronger
b)weaker
c)equals
d)Slightly weaker
13-The freezing point of a glucose solution is freezing point of
table salt solution with the same concentration.
a)Equals
b)Half
c)Double
d)Three times.
14-If water freezes at 0C , then freezing point of Sodium chloride
solution is
a)Higher
b)equals
c)lower
d)Doubles
15- in colloidal solution ,and similar to solvent in a solution.
a)Solute
b)Dispersed
c)Suspension
d)Dispersed medium
16-Dissolving 20 g of Sodium hydroxide in an amount of water and
complete the solution until 250 ml , the concentration is .
(Na=23 , O=16 , H=1)
a)1M
b) 2 M
c) 0.5M
d)
0.25M
17-All the following are mineral acids except ..
a)Sulphuric acid
b)Citric acid
c)Phosphoric acid
d)Hydrochloric acid
18-The following acids are all strong except .
a) H2CO3
b) HBr
c)HClO4
d)HNO3
19-When dissolving . Salt in water , it produces an acidic
solution.
a)NH4Cl
b) NaCl
c) CH3COONa
d)
Na2CO3
20-If one mole is dissolved from each of the following substances in
one liter of water , which one of them has the largest effect in the
vapor pressure of its solution is ..
a)KBr
b)C6H12O6
c)MgCl2
d)CaSO4
II)Give reasons for :
1-Dissolving sugar in water produces true solution , while dissolving
Milk powder in water produces colloid.
2-Milk is considered as a colloid.
3-Water is a polar solvent.
4-table salt is added to snow in the streets in cold countries.
31

5-Boiling point of Sodium carbonate solution is higher than that of


Sodium chloride solution.
6-Vapor pressure of a solution is lower than vapor pressure of its pure
solvent.
7-Freezing point of Potassium Chloride solution is higher than freezing
point of Sodium carbonate solution .
8-The purity of a liquid can be detected using boiling point
9-Mixture of chalk powder in water is a suspension.
10-Adding a solute to a solvent decreases a freezing point.
III)State a scientific term :
1-Solution of chalk powder or sand in water.
2- The temperature in which the vapor pressure of the liquid equals
atmospheric pressure
3-Solution where diameter of particles is between 1-100 nanometer
,and can be seen by microscope.
4-A method to prepare colloidal solution where a substance is crushed
until it becomes very small particles , then added to dispersion
medium while stirring (starch in water)
5- The process when the solute dissociate into negative and positive
ions or into separated polar molecules. Each of them binds with water
molecules.
6- Ability of solvent to dissolve a solute or ability of a solute to
dissolve in a certain solvent.
7- Solution where solvent can accept more of solute.
8-Solution which accepts more of solute after reaching saturation. This
can be made by heating saturated solution
9- Number of moles of solute dissolved in 1 liter of solvent.
10- Number of solute moles in every Kilogram of solvent.
11-It is the pressure made by water vapor on liquid surface when it is
at equilibrium with the liquid inside a closed container at a certain
temperature.
12- Temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid equals
atmospheric pressure.
13-Solution which can be obtain from saturated solution by heating it
and adding more solute.
14-Number of grams of solute dissolved in 100 g of solvent .
15-Mixture where diameter of solute particles is less than 1
nanometer.
16-A bond is the reason for the solubility of sugar in water.
III)Explain factors which affect solubility.
IV)Problems :
(Na=23 , C=12 , Cl=3.5 , O=16 , H=1 , K=39 ,S=32)
1-Calculate molarity of sugar C12H22O11 solution , knowing that mass of
dissolved sugar is 85.5 g and solution volume is 0.5 Liters.
2-Calculate molality of sodium hydroxide solution when dissolving 20 g
of it in 800 g of water.
3-Calculate percentage concentration when dissolving 25 g of glucose
in 250 g of water.
32

4-Calculate mass of Sodium carbonate solution , its concentration is 20


% (mass/mass) and contains 35 g of Sodium carbonate.
5-What is the mass of Potassium hydroxide required to prepare 500 ml
of 2 molar solution.
6- If 53 g of Sodium carbonate were dissolved in 400g of water,
Calculate molality of solution
7-Calculate mass of Sodium chloride needed to prepare 3 molar
solution , if volume of water is 2 liters.
8-Calculate molarity when dissolving 500 g of table salt in 300 cm3 of
water. (Na=23,Cl=35.5)

Homework (Chapter 3) Lessons 2

A-Choose correct answer :


1-When water gains a proton from acid , then it is converted into
..
a-Base
b-strong acid
c-Conjugate acid
d-Conjugate base
2-Dissolving Sodium acetate solution in water converts
Phenolphthalene to color.
a-Blue
b-Pink
c-Orange
Yellow
3-Dissolving Ammonium acetate in water , causes pH value to be
..
33

d-

a-more than 7

b-less than 7

c-3

d-

7
4-Solution of Sulphuric acid is ..
a-Strong electrolyte
b-non-electrolyte
weak electrolyte
5-An indicator is ..
a-Weak acid
b-weak base
d-(a and b are correct)

c-

c-salt

6-Phosphoric acid H3PO4 is one of the .................... acids.


a-Monoprotic
b-Diprotic
c-Triprotic
d-Polyprotic
7-In the reaction between ammonia with Hydrochloric acid , the
ammonium ion (NH4+) is considered as .......................
a-Conjugate acid
b-Base
c-Conjugate base
d-Acid
8-One of the following acids is considered as a strong acid ..................
a-Acetic acid
b-Carbonic acid
c-Nitric acid
d-Citric acid
9-The pH value in which the color of Phenolphthalene is Pink (red)
is .............
a-2
b-4
c-6
d-9
10-The conjugate acid of HSO4- is .................
a-HSO4+
b-SO42d-H+

c-H2SO4

B-Give reasons for :


1-Copper oxide is considered as a base.
2-In acidic solutions we dont find Proton of acid (Positive hydrogen
ion).
3-Potassium acetate has an alkaline effect on litmus.
4-Ammonia is considered a base although it does not contain a
hydroxyl group (OH-) in its structure.
5-Hydrochloric acid is a strong acid , while acetic acid is a weak acid.
6-Sulphuric acid has two types of salts.
C-What is meant by :
1-Indicator
Hydrogen exponent
3-Conjugate base.
acid
5-Acidity test
phenomenon

24-Dibasic
6-Tendal

34

D-State a scientific term :


1-A compound which produces positive hydrogen ions in solutions.
2-An acid after losing a proton.
3-A theory which states that an acid is a proton acceptor and a base is
a proton donor.
4-Solution with partially ionized compounds in it.
5-The substance which contains Hydrogen and generates it when
reacting with metals.
6-Chemical substance that changes color with the change of the
medium type.
7-A substance that has the ability to acquire (receive) a proton.
8-A substance that has the ability to give a proton.
E-Give an example for each of the following :
1-A tribasic acid.
3-Mineral acid.
5-A dibasic acid.

2-Organic acid.
4-A weak acid.

F-How can you differentiate between hydrochloric and acetic acids


G-Identify the acidic and basic radicals in each of the following salts.
Potassium nitrate Sodium acetate Copper sulphate Ammonium phosphate
H- Use the following radicals to form salts , then write name of these
salts :
NH4+ - Ca2+ - Ba2+ - Cl- - SO42- - NO3-

35

General questions Chapter (3) Lesson (2)

Acids and bases


I)Choose correct answer :
1-In the neutral medium , the indicator that has a purple color is

a)Litmus
b)Phenolphthalene
c)Orange methyl
d)Bromothymoleblue
2-pH value for basic solutions is ..
a)7
b) 5
c)2
d)8
3-The color of Phenolphthalene (ph.ph.) in acidic medium is ..
a)Colorless
b)Red
c)Blue
d)Purple
4-Acids react with carbonates and bicarbonates salts and .
Gas evolves.
a)Hydrogen
b)Oxygen
c)Carbon dioxide
d)Sulphur dioxide
5-Bases are proton acceptors according to .theory.
a)Arrhenius
b) Lewis
c)Bronsted and Lowry
6-When an acid loses a proton , then it becomes .
a) an alkali
b) an acid
c) a conjugate acid
d) a conjugate base
7- Oxalic acid is acid
a) Weak dibasic
b) strong dibasic
c)weak tribasic
d) strong tribasic
8- Citric acid is . Acid.
a)Organic dibasic
b)Mineral tribasic
c)Organic tribasic
d)Mineral dibasic
9- forms an alkaline solution
a) NH4Cl
b) CH3COONH4
c) Na2CO3
d) NaCl
10-The salt solution which forms pink color with Phenolphthalene is
.
a) NaCl
b) NH 4Cl
c) CH3COONH4
d) Na2CO3
11- When ammonia reacts with hydrochloric acid , ammonium ion NH4+
is .
a)Conjugate acid
b)acid
c)base
d)conjugate base
12- Phosphoric acid has .
a)one proton
b)two protons
c)three protons
d) organic
13-Sugar dissolves in water due to the formation of . Bonds.
a)Covalent
b)ionic
c)co-ordinate
d)hydrogen

36

14-In the reaction of NH3 with HCl , the NH4+ ion is considered as

a)Conjugate acid
b)Base
c)Conjugate base
d)acid
II-State a scientific term :
1-Positive ion which is present in acidic solution.
2-An acid which produce 3 positive hydrogen ions in solution.
3-Solution which conducts electricity strongly , since all molecules are
completely ionized.
4-Solution which conducts electricity weakly , since small part of
molecules are ionized.
5-A theory which states that an acid is a proton donor and an alkali is
a proton acceptor.
6-A theory which states that an acid is a compound which produces
positive hydrogen ion and an alkali is a substance which produces
negative hydroxide ions.
7-Product when an acid loses a proton.
8-Product when an alkali gains a proton.
9-A theory which states that an acid is a compound which donates a
pair of electrons or more , while a base is a compound which accepts a
pair of electrons or more.
10-An acid which is incompletely ionized.
11-A compound which reacts with acids to give salt and water.
12-A weak acid or a weak base which changes its color according to
acidity of medium.
13-A value which measure degree of acidity or basicity of medium.
14-A neutralization reaction where a solution of known concentration
is used to find concentration of another solution of unknown
concentration.
III-State one use for each of the following compounds :
1-Methyl Orange
2-Carbonic acid
3-Caustic soda
Phosphoric acid

4-

IV-State the name of the product where these compounds are found :
1-Lactic acid
2-Citric acid
V-Write an equation to express each of the following reactions :
1-Sulphuric acid with Zinc metal.
2-Nitric acid with aqueous solution of Potassium hydroxide.
3-Hydrochloric acid and caustic soda.
4-Copper oxide with sulphuric acid.
5-Sodium carbonate with hydrochloric acid.
6-Sodium bicarbonate with sulphuric acid.
VI-Give reasons for :
1-Hydrochloric acid is a strong acid , while formic acid is a weak acid.
2-Sulphuric acid is a strong electrolyte , while acetic acid is a weak
electrolyte.
3-Sodium carbonate solution has a pH value greater than 7.
37

4-Sodium chloride has a neutral effect to litmus.


5-Sodium acetate solution forms pink color with Phenolphthalene.
VII-Write chemical equation which shows acids , bases , conjugate acid
and Conjugate base.
VIII-How can you differentiate between :
Sodium hydroxide

38

Hydrochloric acid and

Heat content
Forms of changes in heat
content

Homework (Chapter 4) lessons 1


Heat content

A-Choose correct answer :


1-Measuring unit of specific heat is
a)Joule
b)J/mol
c) J/K
J/gC

2-. has a larger specific heat capacity.


a) water
b) Iron
c) Aluminum
Mercury

d)

d)

3-In exothermic reactions ..


a)Heat moves to the system from the surroundings.
b) Heat moves from the system to the surroundings.
c) Heat does not move from or to the system.
d) Heat moves and to the system simultaneously.
4-In an isolated system ..
a)Exchange occurs between heat and the substance with the
surroundings
b)Exchange of heat occurs with the surrounding.
c)Exchange of the substance occurs with the surrounding.
39

d)Exchange of heat or substance does not occur with the


surrounding.
5-What is meant by standard conditions of the reaction.
a)Under 1 atm. Pressure and temperature 0C.
b)Under 1 atm. Pressure and temperature 25C.
c) Under 1 atm. Pressure and temperature 100C.
d)Under 1 atm. And temperature 273C.
B-What is meant by :1-Enthalpy
Exothermic reaction

2-Heat capacity

3-

C-Give reasons for :


1-Burning coal is considered as an exothermic reaction.
2-H is positive in endothermic reactions.
3-Substances differ from each other in heat content.
4-Farmers in cold areas spray fruit trees with water.
D-Compare between : Exothermic and Endothermic reactions.
E-State a scientific term :
1-Measure of disorder in the system.
2-Reactions which absorb energy.
3-It is an apparatus which forms an isolated system to measure
changes in temperature in an isolated system.
4-Reactions where heat content of products is less than heat content
of reactants
F-Calculate heat of the following reaction and determine if the reaction
is exothermic or endothermic
CH4 + 2O2
CO2 + 2H2O
Knowing that bond energy is estimated by the unit kj/moleas follows :
C=O 745 , O-H 476 , C-H 413
, O=O 498
G-What is meant by :
a-Heat capacity of an object =1000 j/C.
b-Specific heat of water =4.18 j/g/C.
c-Average bond energy of C-C = 346 Kj/mol.
H-Calculate amount of heat gained when dissolving 250 g of caustic
soda in 200 ml of water , causing temperature to rise from 20 to 30 C.
I-Calculate heat change for the following reaction and determine
whether it is exothermic or endothermic :
CH4 + 2 Cl2
CH2Cl2 + 2HCl
Given that bond energies are (C-H 80 , Cl-Cl 90 , C-Cl 120 , H-Cl
190 Kj/mol)
J-If you know that the specific heat of Platinum=0.133 j/g C ,
titanium=0.528 j/gC ,and Zinc =0.388 j/gC , so if we have a sample
with a mass of 70 g from each metal at room temperature , which
40

metal has the first increase in temperature when heated under same
conditions ? Mention reasons.
K-Explain how the breaking and formation of bonds accompanying a
chemical reaction specifies kind of reaction whether it is endothermic
or exothermic.
M-When the value of the change of heat content of a reaction and heat
of combustion are equal ?

General questions (Chapter 4)

Lesson (1)

A-Choose correct answer :


1-The unit of specific heat capacity is .
a) J/gC
b)J/gK
c)J/kgC
d) J/kgK
B-What is meant by :
1)Specific heat of Aluminum is 3.22 j/gC
2)Heat capacity of 3kg of Aluminum is 554 j/C.

C-State a scientific term :


1-Amount of heat needed to raise the body temperature one degree
Celsius.
41

2-A chemical equation that includes the changes in heat accompanying


reaction.
3-Amount of heat required to raise temperature of 1 gram of water 1
degree Celsius.
4-Amount of heat needed to raise temperature of 1 gram of substance
1 degree celsius.
5- System which exchanges energy (but not matter ) with the
surroundings in the form of heat.
6- It is an apparatus which forms an isolated system to measure
changes in temperature in an isolated system.
7-Energy transferred between 2 bodies due to difference in
temperature.
8-Sum of all energies stored in one mole of matter.
9-Force also between molecules which depends on the nature of
molecules and their polarity.
10-Energy that must be absorbed to break the bonds or energy is
released when bond is formed in one mole of the substance.
11- Changes occur in the direction that increases disorder (Entropy)
12- The total energy of an isolated system is constant even the system
is changed from state to another.
D-Give reasons for :
1-When writing a thermochemical equation , the physical state of the
reactants and products must be mentioned.
2-Combustion reactions are exothermic reactions.
E-Rewrite the following statements after correcting underlined words :
1-Heat is considered a measurement for the average kinetic energy of
the molecule that forms the substance or the system.
2-The joule is known as the amount of required heat to raise
temperature of 1 g of water one degree Celsius (From 15 to 16).
3-Specific heat is measuring unit is the J.
4-Chemical energy derives molecules from level of energy which is the
sum of the molecule kinetic energy in addition to its potential energy.
5-The change in heat content is the sum of the stored energy in one
moleof substance.
6-The system is open when there is no transfer of neither energy or
mass between system and surroundings.
7-Thermometer is used as an isolated system to measure the absorbed
or released heat during a chemical reaction.
8-The reaction is always spontaneous when the change in both heat
content and entropy is negative.

F-Problems :
1)Calculate amount of heat lost when dissolving 140 g of ammonium
nitrate in 100 g of water causing temperature to drop from 25 to 20 C
2)Calculate amount of heat gained by a 600 g of Aluminum when
heated causing its temperature to increase from 30 to 45 C. If specific
heat of Aluminum
42

3)4.5g of gold particles absorbed 276 j of heat when heated . If you


know that initial temperature was 25C and specific heat of gold is
0.13 j/gC. Calculate final temperature.
4) Calculate heat change for the following reaction and determine
whether it is exothermic or endothermic :
CH4 + Cl2
CH3Cl + HCl
Given that bond energies are (C-H 80 , Cl-Cl 90 , C-Cl 120 , H-Cl
140 Kj/mol)
5)A sample of mass 155 g , gained an amount of heat 5700 j so the
temperature raised from 25 to 40 C , calculate specific heat.
6)Calculate released heat when cooling 350 g of mercury from 77 to 12
C , if you know that specific heat of mercury is 0.14 j/gC.
7)Calculate specific heat of a piece of silver with a mass of 360 g and a
heat capacity of 86 j/C.
8) Calculate heat change for the following reaction and determine
whether it is exothermic or endothermic :
C2H4 + 3 O2
2 CO2 + 2H2O
Given that bond energies are (C=C 120 ,C-H 80 , O=O 90 , C=O
140 , H-O 85 Kj/mol)
9)Hydrogen is used as a fuel for spaceships because as it combusts in
an atmospheric of Oxygen gives great heat . If its combustion equation
is :
2H 2 + O2
2H2O
H= - 484 kj/mol
Is the inverse reaction exothermic or endothermic ? , Calculate the
heat of a complete combustion of 1 g of Hydrogen.
10) Calculate
H for the following reaction
NH2
NH2
+ O2
Bond energies :
N
N = 990 kj
N
H = 390 kj
O
O = 497 kj

43

N2
N
O

2 H2O

N = 163 kj
H = 463 kj

Homework (Chapter 4) Lessons 2

I-State a scientific term :


1-Amount of heat absorbed or released during formation of one mole
of a substance from its primary elements in standard state.
2-Amount of heat absorbed or released when dissolving one mole of a
solute in an amount of solvent to form saturated solution.
3- Heat of reaction is constant amount in standard conditions ,
whether the reaction is carried out in one step or a number of steps.
4-Quantity of heat released when 1 mole of a substance is completely
burned in excess of oxygen under standard conditions.
5-Binding dissociated ions with water.
II-Compare between :Endothermic and Exothermic dissolution.
III-Give reasons for :
1-Elements have no heat of formation.
2-Dissolution of table salt in water is Endothermic.
3-Scientists Use Hesss law calculate heat change of some reactions
instead of doing it experimentally
4-Combustion of glucose in the body is very important.
5-When writing a chemical equation , physical state of reacting
substances and products must be mentioned.
6-Solubility process is accompanied by heat change.
7-Heat of formation has a strong relationship with stability.
IV-Problems :
1-Calculate H form the following reaction :
Fe2O3(s)
+ 3 H2(g)
2 Fe(s)
+ 3 H2O(v)
knowing that heat of formation of Iron III oxide and water vapor are
799 and 242 kj.
2-Calculate standard change in heat content for the following
reaction :
H2S(g) + 4F2(g)
2HF(g) + SF6(g)
If you know that heat of formation of H2S=-21 Kj/mole, HF=-273
Kj/mole, SF6=-1220 Kj/mol
2-If you knew that heat of combustion of Ethanol C2H5OH is 1367
kg/mole, write the thermochemical equation , knowing that this
combustion produces Carbon dioxide and water vapor then calculate
heat produced from combustion of 100 g of alcohol .(O=16,C=12,H=1)
3-When acetylene C2H2 burns in oxygen (Combustion) the heat
produced is 1300 kj then calculate its heat of formation knowing that
heat of formation of carbon dioxide and water are 393.7 kj /mole and
285.85 kj/mole respectively.
4-Using Hesss law to calculate heat of formation of Carbon Monoxide
CO from
C(s) + O2(g)
CO2(g)
H=-393.5
Kj/mol
CO + O2(g)
CO2(g)
H= -283.3 Kj/mol
5-Calculate heat of combustion of Nitrogen Monoxide NO , according to
the equation
NO(g) + O2(g)
NO2(g)
Given that
N2(g) + O2(g)
NO(g)
H=+90.29 Kj/mol
44

N2(g) + O2(g)
H=+33.2 Kj/mol

NO2(g)

V-If you know that the standard heat change during combustion of
liquid Octane C8H18 is -1367 Kj/mol. Write the expressive chemical
equation for the complete combustion of 1 moleof this liquid in excess
of Oxygen.

General questions (Chapter 4) Lesson 2

I-State a scientific term :


1-Amount of heat produced during formation of 1 mole of water from
hydrogen and oxygen.
2-Energy must be absorbed to break the bonds or energy is released
when bond is formed in one mole of the substance.
3-Measure of the degree of disorder of a system.
4-Quantity of heat change when dissolving 1 mole of solute in certain
amount of solvent to form saturated solution under standard
conditions.
5-Amount of heat change when one mole of solute in its solution is
diluted from high concentration to lower concentration at standard
condition.
6- Quantity of heat released when 1 mole of a substance is completely
burned in excess of oxygen under standard conditions
II-Problems
1-State Hesss law and apply it to calculate heat of formation of
phosphorus trioxide from the following data.
4 P + 5 O2
2 P2O5
H = - 2984 kj
P 2O3 + O2
P2O5
H
= - 672 kj
2-Calculate heat of formation of acetylene from the following reaction
given that heat of formation of water , carbon dioxide are 285.85 kj
and 393.7 kj /mole respectively.
C2H2 + 5/2 O2
2 CO2 + H2O
H=1300 kj
3-Calculate the enthalpy change in the following reaction :
C2H4 + 3O2
2CO2 + 2H2O
If you know that heat of formation of Ethylene gas , carbon dioxide
and water are +240 , -120 , -110 respectively.
4-If heat of formation of Methane CH4 , Carbon dioxide and water are
90 kj , kj - 406 , - 285 kj mol-1 respectively then calculate heat of
reaction of methane with oxygen producing carbon dioxide and water
vapor (combustion).

45

5-In the following reactions :in the reactions , if heat of formation of


carbon monoxide is -120 kj then Calculate enthalpy change during
reaction of carbon dioxide with carbon to form carbon monoxide.
C + O2
CO2
H = -230
CO2 + C
2CO
6-From the following data :
C
+
O2
= CO2
2 H2
+
O2 = 2 H2O
CO
+ O2 = CO2

H = -394 kj/mol
H = - 484 kj
H = -283 kj/mole

Calculate heat of the reaction :


C
+ H 2O
=

CO

H2

7-Calculate change of heat of reaction for the combustion of nitric


oxide gas NO to form nitrogen dioxide NO2 as in the following
reaction : NO + O2
NO2
N 2 + O2
NO
H=+90.29
Kj/mol
N 2 + O2
NO2
H= +33.2 Kj/mol
8-Methane gas CH4 is considered the main component of natural gas. If
you knew that H0c = -96.1 kj/mole and Hf0 =-74.6 Kj/mole. Calculate
both amount of released heat when forming 50 g of methane gas and
also when combustion of 50 g of it.
III-Give reasons for :
1-Hesss law is of great importance in chemical calculations
2-Dissolution of ammonium nitrate is endothermic.
3- Heat of solution may be negative.
4-Energy required for breaking one mole of bond.

46

Nucleus and elementary particles


Radioactivity and Nuclear reactions

47

Homework (Chapter 5) Lesson 1

A)Choose correct answer :


1-The unit of atomic mass is .
a-The mass of hydrogen atom.
b-Mass of proton.
c-Mass of neutron.
d- 1/12 mass of carbon atom.

2-If the nuclear binding energy of helium nucleus equals 28 M.e.v , so


the nuclear binding energy for each nucleon in the helium nucleus in
million electron volt equals .
a-7
b-14
c-56
d-112
3-If the difference between the sum of the masses of the nucleus
components of the Iron atom and the nucleus mass when it is stable is
0.5 u , so the nuclear binding energy of the nucleus of iron atom
..
a-0.8 x 10-19 M.e.v
b- 0.5 joule
c- 0.5 M.e.v
d- 465.5 M.e.v
4-If two nucleons come close to each other to form a certain nucleus ,
then their potential energy is
a-Less
b-remains constant
c-Increases in a noticeable amount.
d-increases in a slight amount that may be neglected.
B)Calculate binding energy for Helium nucleus 2He4 and binding
energy for each nucleus (specific binding energy) knowing that mass
of Helium nucleus =4.0015 u , mass of a proton = 1.007825 , mass of
a neutron = 1..008665 .
C)Give reasons for : Actual mass of nucleus of any atom is less than
total masses of its components.

48

General questions (Chapter 5) Lesson 1

Nucleus and elementary particles


A)Choose correct answer :
1-. Are called nucleons.
a)Protons and alpha particles
Beta particles
c)Protons and electrons
Neutrons

b)Alpha and
d)Protons and

2- are called baryons.


a)Neutrons and protons
Mesons
c)Protons and electrons
mesons

b)Neutrons and
d)Electrons and

3-Which of the following properties is not related to the concept of


isotopes of an element ...
a)They have same chemical properties.
b)They have same atomic number.
c)The have same number of neutrons.
d)They have same number of protons.
4-The scientist who discovered that the atom contains protons is
.
a)Bohr
b)Einstein
c)James Chadwick
d)Rutherford
5-If the nucleus of an element X contains 19 protons and 20 Neutrons ,
then its symbol is ..
a)19X39
b)20X39
c)39X20
d)20X19
B)Give reasons for :
1)The mass of a nucleus is always smaller than its components.
2)The nucleus is stable although it has an electric repulsive force
between positive protons inside nucleus.
3)Elements to the left and right of stability curve are unstable
4)The atoms is electrically neutral
C)Problems :
1)Calculate energy produced from converting 5 g of mass into energy
in M.e.v.
2)Calculate binding energy of a deuteron 1H2 , if mass of a proton is
1.00728 u , mass of a Neutron is 1.00866 u , and actual mass of a
Deuteron is 2.013 u.

49

3)Calculate binding energy in Sodium nucleus 11Na23 , if mass of a


proton =1.00728 u , mass of a neutron is 1.00866 u , and mass of
Sodium nucleus is 23.00213 u.
4)Calculate actual mass of Sodium nucleus 11Na23 , since its binding
energy =181.55 M.e.v and mass of a proton =1.00728 u , and mass of
a neutron =1.00866 u.
5)Calculate number of neutrons in the nucleus of an element , knowing
that its binding energy =186.032 M.e.v , and specific binding energy
(Binding energy per nucleon) is 6.89 M.e.v and its valence shell (M)
which is the third main energy level contains 3 electrons.
6)Calculate binding energy of the neutron in the calcium nucleus 20Ca43
, if 20Ca43 = 42.958767
, 20Ca42 = 41.958618 u , mn = 1.008665 u.
C)State the work for each of the following scientists :
1-Nivel Sidgwick
2-Rutherford
3-Bohr
4- Einstein

Homework (Chapter 5) Lesson 2

A)Choose correct answer :


1-One of the following properties is related to Gamma rays. ..
a-Have a positive charge
b-Have
negative charge
c-They are electrons
d-The are
electromagnetic waves
2-If you know that aXb represents a nucleus of an element emitting
alpha particles , then the radiation of this element nucleus to alpha
particles can be represented by the following equation :
..
b
a). 2He4 + a+2Xb+4
b) 2He4
ax
b
+ a-2Xb-4
ax
4
b-2
b
c) 2He + a-2X
d) 2He4
ax
b
+ a+4Xb-2
ax
3-In the equation 2He4 +
(X) is ..
a)Electron
d)Gamma ray

B9

b)Proton

C12

+ X
c)Neutron

4)Thorium 90Th228 is converted into 84Po216 as a result of releasing a


number of alpha particles equal to
a)2
b)3
c)4
d)5

50

B)Problems :
1) If the half life time of a radioactive element is 20 seconds then
calculate percentage of remaining mass after 1 minute.
2) 16 g of a radioactive element was left for 28 days . The remaining
mass was 1 g . Calculate half life time.
3) On putting a radioactive element in front of Geiger counter , it
reads 320 disintegration per minute , and after 33 days it became 40
disintegration per minute. Calculate half life time.
4) A radioactive element lost 75 % of its mass in 8 hours , calculate
half life time.
5) A radioactive element , its final mass is 1.85 grams after 6 hours , if
its half life time is 3 hours then calculate initial mass.
C)Compare between Chemical and nuclear reactions
D)State : Harms caused by ionizing radiations.
E)Give reasons for :
1-Nuclear reactions must be balanced.
2-Presence of Cadmium rods inside nuclear reactor.
F)What is meant by definite volume , and how does it affect a serial
fission reaction.

51

General questions (Chapter 5) Lesson (2)


A)Choose correct answer :
1-One of the following properties relates to Gamma rays .
a-Have a positive charge.
b-Have negative charge.
c-are electrons.
d-are electromagnetic waves.
2-One of the following does not relates to alpha rays.
a-they are nuclei of Helium.
b-they have more
ability to ionize air.
c-more ability to penetrate air.
d-affected by
electromagnetic field.
3-All the following used as bombs except .
a-protons
b- particles
c- particles
d-neutrons
4-Van der Graaff and Cyclotron are used to increase of bombs.
a-Potential energy
b-Kinetic energy
c-Charge
d-Mass
5- particle can be obtained when nucleus of . is bombed with a
neutron.
a-N14
b-Al27
c-Mg26
d-Li6
6-In nuclear reactor , rods of .are used to control reaction
a-Radium
b-Thorium
c-Cadmium
d-Beryllium
7-In nuclear fission reaction , masses of produced nuclei is sum
of masses of fused nuclei.
a-more
b-less
c-equals
d-twice
8-If a living cell is exposed to ionizing radiations for a long time , this
will lead to .
a-increasing cell division
b-preventing or
delaying cell mitosis.
c-death of cell
d-all the above
9-The number of atoms of a radioactive element sample is (4.8 x 10 12
atoms) and its half life time is 2 years , the number of atom nuclei of
this element that decayed after 8 years equals ..
a)2.4x1012
b)4.2x1012
c)3.6x1012
11
d)3x10
10-Which of the following particles has the symbol 2X4 ..
a)Alpha particles
b)Beta particles
c)Neutrons
d)Protons
11-The most stable isotope which has the value of .
a-medium B.E
b-small BE
c-high BE/A
d-small BE/A
12-If the difference between the sum of free nucleons masses and
bonded nucleons of 26Fe56 is 0.5 u , so the binding energy (BE) of Iron
nucleus = .
a)0.5 joule
b)0.5 M.e.v
c)465.5 M.e.v
d)265.5 joule
13-The ratio of protons : Neutrons in the stable light elements is
..
a)5:1
b)2:1
c) 1:1
d) 1:2
14- 75% of a sample of a radioactive element decay , after 12 minutes ,
its half life time =.
52

a)6
b)4
c) 3
d) 9
15- 10 g of a radioactive element with half life time =10 days , after 30
days .g remains
a)5
b) 1.25
c) 2.5
d)0.625
B)Give reasons for :
1-The neutron is the most suitable bomb.
2-The serial fission reaction continuously occurs after starting.
C)State a scientific term :
1-Force binding nucleons inside nucleus.
2-Type of radiations which consists of 2 protons and 2 neutrons.
3-Type of radiations which has no mass.
D)Compare between :Chemical and nuclear reactions.
E)Show by nuclear equations how can you obtain :
1-Nitrogen from Carbon.
Oxygen from Nitrogen.

Model Answers

53

2-

Questions
1st. secondary

A)Write the molecular formula for the following compounds


1) H2SO4
5) FeSO4
9) Al2(SO4)3
13) NaOH
17)Ca(OH)2
21)CuCO3

2) Al2O3
6) Fe2(SO4)3
10) Na3PO4
14)Mg3N2
18) CaO
22)H2SO4

3) K3N
7) CuSO4
11)(NH4)3PO4
15) K3P
19)HNO3
24)NH3

4) Ca3P2
8) Fe(OH)3
12)CaCO3
16) K2S
20)ZnSO4
25)Fe2O3

B)Balance the following equations and write the name of each


compound
1) Na + H2O
NaOH + H2
2) 2 Li +
O2
Li2O
3) 3 Li + N2
Li 3N
4) 3Mg
+ N2
Mg 3N2
5) Na2O(s) + H2O(l)
2 NaOH(aq)
6) Na2O + 2
HCl
2NaCl + H2O
7) Li3N + 3 H2O
3 LiOH
+ NH 3
8) Mg3N2
+ 6 H 2O
3Mg(OH)2
+ 2 NH3
heat
9) NaNO3
NaNO2 + O2
10) 2 KO2 +
CO2
K2CO3
+ 3/2 O2
Heat
11) 2HNO3
2NO2 + O2 + H2O
12) CH4 + 2O2
CO2 + 2 H2O
13) C2H4 +
3 O2
2CO2 + 2H2O
14) C2H2+ 5/2 O2
2CO2 + H2O
15) C2H5OH+ 3O2
2CO2 + 3H2O
16) C6H6 + 15/2 O2
6 CO2 + 3H2O
17) AlCl3 + 3 NaOH
3NaCl
+ Al(OH) 3
18) FeCl3 + 3 NH4OH
3 NH4Cl + Fe(OH)3
54

19) FeSO4 +
20) 2 NaHCO3

2 NaOH
Na2CO3

Na2SO4 + Fe(OH)2
+
CO2 + H2O

C)Write the chemical equations for the following reactions and balance
them:
1- AgNO3 + NaCl
NaNO 3 + AgCl
2- Na2CO3 + 2HCl
2 NaCl + CO2 + H2O
3- BaCl2 + H2SO4
BaSO4 + 2HCl
4- 2 HNO3
2 NO 2 + 2 H2O
+ O2
5- 2NH4Cl
+
Ca(OH)2
CaCl2 + 2 NH3 + 2H2O
6- K2CO3 + 2HNO3
2 KNO3 + CO2 + H2O
7- FeO
+ O2
Fe2O3
8- NH3 + H2SO4
(NH4)2SO4
9- Al2(SO4)3
+ 6NaOH
3 Na 2SO4
+ 2 Al(OH)3
10- Fe2(SO4)3
+ 6 NaOH
3 Na 2SO4 + 2Fe(OH)3
11- AgNO3 + NaCl
NaNO 3
+ AgCl
12- Na2CO3 + 2 HCl
2 NaCl
+ CO2 + H2O
13- BaCl2 + H2SO4
BaSO4 + 2 HCl
14- 2HNO3
2NO2 + H2O + O2
15- 2NH4Cl
+
Ca(OH)2
CaCl2 + 2NH3 + 2H2O
16- K2CO3 + 2HNO3
2 KNO3 + CO2 + H2O
17- 2FeO + O2
Fe2O3
18- Ca(OH)2 + 2HCl
CaCl2 + 2 H2O
19- H2SO4 + MgO
MgSO4 + H2O
20- H2SO4 + 2NaOH
Na2SO4 + 2H2O
21- 2Fe +
3Cl2
2 FeCl3
22-Al2(SO4)3 + 6 NaOH
2 Al(OH) 3 + 3 Na2SO4
23- H2SO4 + Ba(NO3)2
BaSO4
+ 2HNO3
24- FeCl2
+ 2 NaOH
2 NaCl
+ Fe(OH) 2
25- 3 H2 + N2
2NH3
26-Cl2 + 2 NaBr
2NaCl + Br 2

Answers to Homework (Chapter 1) lesson (1)

A)Choose correct answer :


1)d) Biochemistry
2)b) Burette
3)d)Round bottom flask
4) b) <7
5) b)Conical flask
6)c) c)Law of conservation of mass
B) Define :1- Science
2-Chemistry
3-Mesurements
4- Biochemistry
5-Physical chemistry (Definitions are found in booklet)
C)Give reasons for :
1- Scientists are interested in studying chemistry.
Scientists work to :1- Produce new useful materials that can be used in a
varieties of fields like medicine, agriculture, and industry.
2- Solve some environmental problems like rust , pollution , deficiency of
water and lack of large sources of energy.
2-Measurements have a great importance.
1-To know concentration of elements forming a substance
2-For monitoring and protection
3-To suggest a medication in presence of a defect (Disease)
D)State relation between each of the following :
1- Chemistry and biology : Biochemistry is a science which studies chemical
reactions in living cells. like reactions during digestion or respiration.
2-Chemistry and physics : Chemistry is the study of chemical reactions and
change in matter , while physics is the study of force and energy. Physical
55

chemistry is the science which studies energies in chemical reactions is


called physical chemistry.
3-Chemistry and pharmacy : Medicines that patients use are chemical
compounds produced from chemical reactions and have a treatment effect.
Chemists either extract these materials from plants or prepare them.
E)Answer the following
1- What a person with high blood pressure must avoid in his food and drink ?
He must avoid Sodium ions , like in Sodium chloride (table salt)
2- What is the importance of Measurement ?
-To know concentration of elements forming a substance
-For monitoring and protection
-To suggest a medication in presence of a defect (Disease)
F)State one use for :
1- Sensitive balance :Used to measure mass of substance. Digital balances
are very common.
2-Beaker
: Used to keep solutions during reactions , and to find
approximate volume of solution. Used also to transport liquids of known
volumes from one place to another.
3-Burette
: Burette is used in experiments that need high degree
of accuracy like adding small amounts of liquids during titration.
4-Pipette
: It is used to measure and transport fixed volumes of
solutions.
5- Conical flask
: Used in titration process.
6-Graduated cylinder : Used to measure volumes of liquids and transport
them from one place to another , it is more accurate than the beaker , also
used to measure volumes of irregular shapes.
G)State a scientific term :
1-pH value (Hydrogen exponent)
equation.
4-Chemistry
H)1-Graduated cylinder
Volumetric flask

2-Reference value.
5-Burette
2-Beaker

3-Chemical

3-Burette

4-

I) Balance the following reactions :


1) N2 + 3 H2
2 NH3
2) Mg3N2 + 6 H2O
3Mg(OH)2 + 2NH3
3) 2 NH4Cl +
Ca(OH)2 heat
2 NH3 + 2 H2O + CaCl2
4) Ca3(PO4)2 + 3 H2SO4
2 H3PO4 + 3 CaSO4
5) CO2(g) + 2NaOH(aq)
Na2CO3(aq) + H2O(l)

Answers to Homework (Chapter 1) Lessons 2

A)Choose correct answer :


1-c) 10-6
2-a)Nano fibers
3-b)It shows new properties that have not appeared before.
4- b)It shows new properties that have not appeared before.
5- d) 10-2
6- d) Surface area increases and volume remains
fixed.
7- d) A and B are true
B)What is meant by :
Nano technology
: The technology of very small substances , and
it specializes in treating the substance on the Nano measure to
produce new, useful, and unique resultants in its properties.
Critical nano volume : :The volume in which the unique Nano
properties of the substance appears and is located between 1-100 nm.
56

C)Give reasons for :


1-Nano Solar cells are better than Normal solar cells.
Nano Silicon with high transformation capability of energy without
losing part of this energy in the form of heat.
2-When the ratio between surface area to volume of a substance
increases to a very large degree , the fantastic nano properties
appear.
At the nano scale , the surface are is very large compared to volume ,
which means that atoms exposed to reactions becomes more than
atoms in larger volumes.
3-Due to the strong bonds between its molecules
D) Join : 1-,c),I
2-,a),III
3-, d) , II)
4-, b) , IV)
E)State a scientific term :
1-Measurement.
2-Astronomy
3-Nano Chemistry
4-Nano
wastes 5-Nano meter
F)State function of :
1-Nano robots in medicine.
Nano robots that are send into blood stream to remove blood clots
from the vein walls without surgery.
2-Nano substances in technology of glass , ceramics and screens of
electrical devices.
Producing invisible Nano molecules that acquire glass and ceramics
the property of self cleaning.

Answers to general questions (Chapter 1) Lesson 1

Chemistry and measurements


A)Choose correct answer :
1-c) Volumetric
2-a)Burette
b)Beaker
5- c)Chemical structure of the cell
7- b) Acidic
8-b)Pipette

3- a)Burette
6-a)round bottom flask
9-a) less than 7

B)State a scientific term


57

4-

1)Biochemistry
2)Physical chemistry
3)Science
4)Physics
5) Chemistry.
6) Biochemistry
7)Burette
8) Measurement
9) Reference value
10) Hydrogen exponent (pH value)
11) pH meter
12)
Graduated cylinder (Measuring cylinder). 13)Medicine
C) Match :

1,c,I

2,d,II

3,a,IV

4,b,III

D)Give reasons for :


1)Measurements is very important to our lives.
-a)To know concentration of elements forming a substance
b)For monitoring and protection
c)To suggest a medication in presence of a defect (Disease)
2)Chemistry is considered the center of most of other sciences as biology ,
physics , and agriculture.
-Chemistry is the central science as it relates to most of other sciences , such
as :
Chemistry and biology (Biochemistry ) : It is studying reactions in living
organism , like reactions during digestion or respiration.
Chemistry and physics (Physical chemistry) : It is the science which studies
energies in chemical reactions is called physical chemistry.
Chemistry , medicine and pharmacy :
Medicines that patients use are chemical compounds produced from chemical
reactions and have a treatment effect. Chemists either extract these
materials from plants or prepare them.
Chemistry and Agriculture : Chemical analysis is used to know the suitable
soil for crops , Chemistry also is used for production of fertilizers and
insecticides.
Chemistry and future :Nano chemistry is a branch of chemistry interested in
dicoverenig new substances with extraordinary properties that can be used
in different fields like medicine , environment ,engineering and
transportations.
3)The measurement of pH has a great degree of importance in chemical and
biochemical reactions.
This is very important in chemical and biochemical reactions , since some
reactions must be made in acidic medium or alkaline medium , some
biochemical reactions takes place only in definite acidic or alkaline medium.
In agriculture for example , cultivating crops needs a certain pH value for the
soil.
There are certain medicines that can affect acidity or alkalinity of stomach ,
all medicines must have a predetermined pH value for the safety of patient.
4) pH meter is more accurate than pH tape in measuring pH value.
The paper tape is dipped in the solution to be tested , the color of the tape
will change and compared to a graduation from 0 14 according to color ,
While pH meter which is a digital device and gives reading on a digital screen
,with the value of pH without comparisons , which makes it more accurate ,
since we dont have human error here.
E)What is meant by : Answers are in the booklet
1-Measurement 2-Hydrogen exponent (pH value)
5-Measuring unit

3-pH meter

4-pH tape

F) Write the tool or instrument which is used in :1-Measuring cylinder or


Graduated cylinder
2-pH meter or pH tape. 3-Sensitive balance
G)Correct underlined words :
1-Graduation in Burette is from up to down.
58

2-Graduated cylinder is used to determine the volume of a liquid.

Answers to general questions (Chapter 1) Lesson (2)


Nanotechnology and chemistry

A)Choose correct answer :


1- a) 1 x 10-9
2
-2
- d) 10
3-d)The surface area increases and the volume remains fixed. 4-d)A
and B are true answers.
5- b)Two-dimensional nano substance.
6d)Bucky ball
7- thin films
8-d)Surface area
increase and volume is constant.
B)Choose from the column (A) what is appropriate from column (B) ,
and then choose what is appropriate from column (C).
1,b,III
2,c,I
3,a,II
C)State a scientific term :
1)Nanotechnology
surface area to volume
4)Nano chemistry
materials
7)Nano critical volume.
9)nano pollution.
12)Nano technology
15) nano fibers
nano tubes

2)Nano chemistry

3)Ratio of

5)Nanometer

6)Nano

8)one dimensional nano material.


10)Nano chemistry.
11)Technology
13) Plastic films
14) nano wire
16) Carbon nano tubes
17) Carbon

D)Give reasons for :


1) Nano scale is unique
-Because materials at the nano scale are different from materials at
larger scale , this is due to the relationship between the surface area
and volume. At the nano scale , the surface are is very large compared
to volume , which means that atoms exposed to reactions becomes
more than atoms in larger volumes.
2)Bucky ball is used as a carrier for medicines in the body.
The Bucky ball consists of 60 carbon atoms and is denoted by C60. It
has the shape of a hollow football. Due to its structure , Scientists use
Bucky ball as carrier for medicine in the body.
The hollow structure can carry medicine inside and the outer part of
the ball is resistant to reactions with other molecules in the body.
3)The reasons for the unique properties of the nano substances.
this is due to the relationship between the surface area and volume. At
the nano scale , the surface are is very large compared to volume ,
which means that atoms exposed to reactions becomes more than
atoms in larger volumes.
4)Carbon nano tubes are used as biological sensors.
59

-Because it easily connects to protein


5)Bucky balls are used as medicine carrier.
-Because the hollow structure can carry medicine inside and the outer
part of the ball is resistant to reactions with other molecules in the
body.
6)Nano silicon is much better than macro silicon in solar cells.
-because Nano Silicon with high transformation power of energy
without losing part of this energy in the form of heat.
E)Compare between each of the following :
1)Normal solar cells and Nano solar cells.
Nano solar cells are better than Normal solar cells , since Nano Silicon
is used with high transformation power of energy without losing part
of this energy in the form of heat.
2)Solidness of copper and the Nano particles of copper.
The copper at the nano scale is tougher (Harder) than copper at larger
scale (micro or macro scale) and its toughness depends on the volume
of copper.
F)State function of :
1-Nano robots : Nano robots that are send into blood stream to
remove blood clots from the vein walls without surgery.
2-Carbon nano fibers in human body : Easily connects to protein , so it
can be used as a biological sensor device as it is sensitive to certain
molecules.
3-Carbon nano in astronomy : The nano tube which equals the size of
a human hair , can pull a truck , therefore they are used in space
shuttle.
4-invisible Nano molecules in glass and ceramics industry :Give glass
and ceramics the property of self cleaning.
5-Nano substances in cosmetics and creams : To protect from
Ultraviolet rays.
G)Write short notes : see booklet for answers
1)Harmful health effect of the Nano technology.
2)Relationship between the surface area and the volume of a Nano
substance.
3)Applications of nanotechnology in agriculture and energy.
H)What is meant by each of the following : see booklet for answers
1-Nanotechnology
2-Critical nano volume
J)Choose from (A) what is appropriate from (B) , and then from (C)
1,b,III
2,c,I
3,a,II

60

Answers to Homework (Chapter 2) Lesson 1

I)Choose correct answer:


1)b) 5 moles 2)c) 3.2 moles. 3)a) 11.2
4)d) 0.448
5)
a)806.25 x 1021
6) b) 22
7)d)120.4 x 1022
8)c) 6.02 x 1023
9) c) 4 x 6.02 x 1023 10) a) 1
mole of Chlorine
11) c)11.2
12) d)34
13) a)11.5
14)
b)22
15) d)89.6
II)State a scientific term :1) Gay-Lussac law.
law.
3) Limiting reactant.
III) Problems: 1) 2.253 liters
2) 0.1 mole
4) 1.029 x 1024
IV)Write the following reactions in Ionic form :
1).
H+ + OHH2O
+
2)
Cl
+ Ag
AgCl
3)
Ba2+ + SO42BaSO4

2) Avogadros
3) 44 .8 liters

Answers to general questions (Chapter 2) Lesson (1)

I)Choose correct answer :

1) d)120.4 x 1022
2) b) 6.02 x 1023
3) a) 1 moleof Chlorine
4)
d) 2 moles
5) d) 1/6
6) c) 4 x 6.02 x 1023
7) a)0.1116
8)d) 1.07
9) b) 2.23214
10) c)51.52
11)c) 2x6.023 x 1023
12) d)28.8
13)a)2.86 x
24
10
14)b)2
15) d) 12.04 x 1023 16) b) 6.02x1023
17)d) Gay-Lussac 18)c)44.8
19)c)conservation of mass
20) b) 5 moles
21) c) 3.2
moles 22)a) 11.2
23)b)0.448
24)a)806.25 x 1021
25)b) 22
II)State a scientific term :
1)------------------2) Avogadros law
Avogadros number

3) Limiting reactant

4)

III)Problems :
(C=12 , O = 16,H = 1 ,Cl=35.5 ,Na=23 , Ca = 40, O = 16 , N =14, Fe=56, Si =
28 ,Ag = 108, K=39)
1) (8.5 g)
2) (Ans. 2 moles)
3)( 4.138 x 1023 molecules)
4)
24
( 2.409x10 molecules)
5) ( 1.806x1024 molecules)
6) (44.8 liters)
7)(Volume of one mole=22.4 liters) , (no. of atoms in one moleof P 4 =
4x6.023x1023)
8) (Ans. 280 g)
9) (Ans. 67.2 liters)
10)(Ans. 6.023 x 10 23
molecules)
11) (Percentage = 130/143.5 x100 = 90.5 %)
12)(no. of Sodium ions = 2
x 6.023 x 1023)
14)(Ans. 22.7678 g)
15) (Ans. 20.78 g)
16) (Ans. =8.52
g)
IV)Express the following in balanced ionic reactions :
1).
Cl- + Ag+
AgCl
2)
H+ + OHH2O
3)
OH- + H+
H2O
61

4)

OH- + H+

H2O

V)Give reasons for :


1)Because 26 g of Acetylene and 2 g of Hydrogen represent one moleof
each , and any one moleof a gas occupies 22.4 liters at stp.
2)Because one moleof phosphorus in solid state is its atomic mass in grams ,
while one moleof phosphorus in vapor state consists of 4 atoms , so it is 4
times its atomic mass.
3) Because according to Avogadros law , equal volumes of gases contain
same no. of molecules.
4)Because 2 g of Hydrogen gas and 32 g of Oxygen gas represent 1 moleof
each gas , and any one molecontain Avogadros no. of molecules.
VI)Find number of moles and molecules in the following : (Ca=40 , Na=23 ,
C=12 , H=1 , Cl=35.5)
No. of
No. of moles
Number
molecules
3x6.023x1023
3
1
0.1x6.023x1023
0.1
2
0.5 x 6.023 x
0.5
3
1023
2x6.023x1023
2
4
2x6.023x1023
2
5
VII)Problems :(Ca=40,C=12 , O=16)
1)(Ans. 12 moles)
2)(Ans. 240 g )
3)(Ans.
44.8 liters)
4)(Volume of Hydrogen =11.2 liters)
,
(No. of Sodium ions = 6.023
x 1023)
5)(no. of atoms of C = 3.01 x 1023 atoms)
6)(Volume = 56 liters)
7)(Volume = 31.111 liters)
8) a-(Ans. 20.0628 g)
b-(Ans. 18.5 g)
9)(No. of Chloride ions = 3.01 x 1023)
10)( 68 g)
11) (2x6.02 x 1023 ions)

Answers to Homework (Chapter 2) Lesson 2


I-Choose correct answer :
1)c)11.32
2) d) CO2
3)a)28
4)b) C2H4 O
6)a)63.54
II-Answers to Problems
1) 4.0133 x 1023
2) 3.6138 x 1024
3) 6.023 x 1023
4)CH4
6) C2H4
III-State a scientific term :
1-Empirical formula
Actual yield
4-Avogadros law

5)b)2

2- Molecular formula

5) C3H30

3-

5-Avogadros Postulate.

Answers to general questions Chapter (2) Lesson 2


Weight Percentage and empirical formula
I)Choose correct answer :
1)c)CH2O
2)d)6
3)c)C 4H8
4)d)C5H10
5)b)43.4
6)b)Theoretical yield
7)d) C3H4O3
8) a) 80 g
9)d)CH2
10) b)
CH4
11) d)all previous
12)c)11.32
13)a)63.54
II)State a scientific term
1- Molecular formula
Theoretical yield.

2- Actual yield

III)Problems :
62

3- Empirical formula

4-

1). Na2O
2)CH2
3)CH3
4)NH3
5)C3H9O3
6)C4H4O4
7)CH3
8)CH2
9)CH2O
10)Empirical formula :C2HO2 ,
Molecular
formula :C6H3O6
11)CH2
12)Empirical formula : CH2 , Molecular formula : C5H10
13)CH2O
17)CH2

14)CaCO3

18) A. Percentage =90.59 %


ions.
19) Empirical formula:NH4Cl

15)CH2

16)N2O5

B. No. of Sodium ions = 6.023 x 10 23


Molecular formula:NH4Cl

20) CH2O

Answers to Homework (Chapter 3) lesson 1


A-Choose correct answer
1-c)Colloidal solution
2-d)hydrogen 3-c-Liquid in Gas
4-a- 104.5
5-a-Mol/L
B-Think and infer one reasons :
1-Because Oxygen is more electronegative than Hydrogen , so Oxygen carries
a partial negative charge , while Hydrogen carries a partial positive charge.
2-Due to formation of Hydrogen bond between water and sugar molecules.
3-To prevent water from freezing , so preventing cars from skidding ,thus
preventing accidents.
4-Because in a pure solvent , all vaporization process is limited to molecules
of solvent (water) , and the only force needed to overcome is the force of
attraction between solvent molecules (water molecules) , while in presence
of solute to form a solution ,
a-the surface of the liquid will contain molecules of water and solute ,
which decreases surface area of solvent , which decreases vapor pressure of
solution.
b-Attraction between water molecules and solute is bigger than
between water molecules themselves.
5-Because no. of ions produced from dissolving 1 mole of Sodium carbonate
is greater than number of ions produced from dissolving 1 mole of Sodium
chloride. The boiling point of a solution depends on the no. of moles of
dissolved ions or molecules.
C-Determine type of Colloidal system in each case :
Dispersing
Dispersed phase
Colloidal system
medium
Liquid
Liquid
Mayonnaise
gas
Solid
Dust in air
Liquid
Gas
Soft drinks
D-What is meant by :
1-Boiling point of a liquid : It is the temperature at which the vapor pressure
of a liquid equals atmospheric pressure.
2-Vapor pressure
: It is the pressure made by water vapor on liquid
surface when it is at equilibrium with the liquid inside a closed container at a
certain temperature.
3-Molality
solvent.
E-State a scientific term
1-Molarity 2- Solubility
5-Solution

: Number of solute moles in every Kilogram of

3-Freezing point

63

4-Super saturated solution

Answers to general questions (Chapter 3) Lesson (1)

I)Choose correct answer :


1-c)liquid in gas
2-c)Nickel-Chrome
3- a)Solid
4- c)gas
5-c)Condensation
6-a)Boiling point
7- d)Molality
8-d)true solution
9-a)Percentage
10-c)molar
11- c)mol/Kg
12-a)Stronger
13-b)Half
14-c)lower
15- d) Dispersed medium 16-b) 2 M
17-b)Citric acid
18-a)
H2CO3
19- a)NH4Cl
20-c)MgCl2
II)Give reasons for :
1-Because diameter of solute particles in sugar solution is less than 1
nano meter , while diameter of particles of solute in Milk solution is
between 1-1000 nano meter.
2-Because diameter of solute particles (dispersed phase) is between 11000 nano meter.
3-Because Oxygen atom is more electronegative than Hydrogen , so it
attracts electrons more. Therefore Oxygen will carry a partial positive
charge , while Hydrogen will carry a partial negative charge.
4-To prevent water from turning into ice , and this will prevent
skidding of cars , decreasing accidents
5-Because each mole of Sodium carbonate produces three moles of
ions , while each moleof Sodium chloride produces two moles of ions.
6- Because in a pure solvent , all vaporization process is limited to
molecules of solvent (water) , and the only force needed to overcome
is the force of attraction between solvent molecules (water
molecules) , while in presence of solvent in solution ,
a-the surface of the liquid will contain molecules of solvent and
solute , which decreases surface area of solvent , which decreases
vapor pressure of solution.
b-Attraction between solvent molecules and solute is bigger than
between solvent molecules themselves.
7-Because as no. of moles of ions dissolved increases as the freezing
point becomes lower , each moleof Sodium carbonate produces 3
moles of ions , while each moleof Sodium chloride produces 2 moles of
ions , so freezing point of Sodium carbonate is lower than freezing
point of Sodium chloride.
8-Because presence of impurities in liquid will change its boiling
point .
9-Because diameter of chalk particles is greater than 100 nano meter ,
and particles of chalk can be seen by microscope and can be separated
by ultra filtration membrane
10- Because in a pure solvent , all vaporization process is limited to
molecules of solvent (water) , and the only force needed to overcome
is the force of attraction between solvent molecules (water
molecules) , while in presence of solvent in solution ,
a-the surface of the liquid will contain molecules of solvent and
solute , which decreases surface area of solvent , which decreases
vapor pressure of solution.
b-Attraction between solvent molecules and solute is bigger than
between solvent molecules themselves.
III)State a scientific term :
1-Suspension solution
2- Boiling point
Solution
4-Continuous or dispersion method
Dissolving process
64

3-Colloidal
5-

6- Solubility
saturated solution
9-Molarity
pressure
12- Boiling point
Percentage
15-True solution

7- Dilute solution
10- Molality

8-Super
11-Vapor

13-Supersaturated solution.

14-

16-Hydrogen bond

III)Factors affecting solubility :


1-Nature of solute and solvent
2- Temperature
1-Nature of solute and solvent: Ammonium nitrate NH4NO3 dissolves in
water better than in Ethyl alcohol because ammonium nitrate is ionic
(very high polarity) , while Mercuric chloride HgCl2 dissolves more in
Ethyl alcohol because Mercuric chloride is less polar than Ammonium
nitrate.
2- Temperature :Solubility of most solid substances increases with
temperature
IV)Problems :
(Na=23 , C=12,Cl=3.5 , O=16 , H=1)
1- (Ans. 0.5 mol/L)
0.625 mol/kg)
3- percentage concentration = 25/250 x 100 = 9.09 %
g)
5-Mass of Potassium hydroxide = 56 x 2 x .5 = 56 g
mol/kg)
7- Mass of Sodium hydroxide = 58.5 x 3 x 2 =351 g
= 28.49 molar

2- (Ans.
4- (175
6-( 1.5
8-Molarity

Answers Homework (Chapter 3) Lessons 2

A-Choose correct answer :


1-c-Conjugate acid
2-b-Pink
d-(a and b are correct)

3-d-7

4-a-Strong electrolyte

5-

B-Give reasons for :


1-Because it reacts with acids to give salt and water.
CuO + H2SO4
CuSO4 + H2O
2-Because proton of acid H+ combines with water forming Hydronium
or Hydroxonium ion
3-Because Potassium acetate comes from weak acid which is acetic
acid , and strong alkali which is Potassium hydroxide.
C-What is meant by :
1-Indicator
:It is a compound which indicates whether the medium
is acidic or alkaline , and used in titration.
2-Hydrogen exponent :It is a value between 0 to 14 and indicates
whether medium is acidic or alkaline. pH is less than 7 for acidic
medium and more than 7 for alkaline medium and 7 for neutral
medium. pH value is measured by pH meter.
3-Conjugate base :It is an acid which lost a proton.
4-Dibasic acid :It is an acid where each molecule produces 2 hydrogen
ions like H2SO4 , or Oxalic acid
5-Acidity test is a test for acids where Sodium carbonate or
bicarbonates are added to a substance , and if it is an acid , it will
react producing carbon dioxide gas which turbid lime water after short
time.
65

6-Tendal phenomenon : It is the scattering of light when it passes


through a colloidal solution.
D-State a scientific term :
1-Acid
2- Conjugate base
5-Weak electrolytes

3-Bronsted and Lowry

E-Give an example for each of the following :


1-A tribasic acid :Citric acid (Write formula)
2-Organic acid :acetic acid
3-Mineral acid :Hydrochloric acid
4-A weak acid :Acetic acid
5-A dibasic acid :Sulphuric acid , or Oxalic acid
F-How can you differentiate between hydrochloric and acetic acids
-By testing the conduction of electricity of their solutions , solution of
hydrochloric acid conducts electricity better than acetic acid solution.

Answers to general questions (Chapter 3) Lesson (2)

Acids and bases


I)Choose correct answer :
1- a)Litmus
c)Carbon dioxide
5-c)Bronsted and Lowry
Weak dibasic
8-c)Organic tribasic
d) Na2CO3
11-a)Conjugate acid
d)hydrogen
14-a)Conjugate acid

2-d)8

3-a)Colorless

4-

6-d) conjugate base

7-a)

9- c) Na 2CO3

10-

12-c)three protons

II-State a scientific term :


1-Hydronium or hydroxonium ion.
3-Strong electrolyte
electrolyte
5-Bronsted and lowry
theory
7-Conjugate base.
acid
9-Lewis acid-base theory
11-Base
13-Hydrogen exponent , or pH value

13-

2-Tribasic acid
4-Weak
6-Arrhenius
8- Conjugate
10-Weak acid
12-Indicator
14-Titration

III-State one use for each of the following compounds :


1-Methyl Orange
:It is an indicator which identifies whether medium
is acidic or alkaline
66

2-Carbonic acid
: Making Soap
4-Phosphoric acid

Soft drinks

3-Caustic soda

:Soft drinks

IV-State the name of the product where these compounds are found :
1-Lactic acid :Yoghurt
2-Citric acid :Lemon ,
orange , and citrus fruits
V-Write an equation to express each of the following reactions :
1-Sulphuric acid with Zinc metal.
Zn + H2SO4
ZnSO4 + H2
2-Nitric acid with aqueous solution of Potassium hydroxide.
HNO3 + KOH
KNO3 + H2O
3-Hydrochloric acid and caustic soda.
HCl + NaOH
NaCl + H 2O
4-Copper oxide with sulphuric acid.
CuO + H2SO4
CuSO4 + H2O
5-Sodium carbonate with hydrochloric acid.
Na2CO3 + 2HCl
2NaCl + H2O + CO2
6-Sodium bicarbonate with sulphuric acid.
2 NaHCO3 + H2SO4
Na2SO4 + 2H2O + 2CO2
VI-Give reasons for :
1-Because Hydrochloric acid is completely ionized , while formic acid is
incompletely ionized.
2-Because it is completely ionized , while acetic acid is incompletely
ionized , so Sulphuric acid conducts electricity better.
3-Sodium carbonate solution has a pH value greater than 7.
-Because Sodium carbonate comes from strong alkali which is Sodium
hydroxide , and weak acid which is carbonic acid.
4-Sodium chloride has a neutral effect to litmus.
-Because Sodium chloride is formed from strong alkali which is Sodium
hydroxide and strong acid which is hydrochloric acid
5-Because Sodium acetate has an alkaline effect on phenolphthalene ,
since it is formed from strong alkali NaOH , and weak acid which is
acetic acid.
VII-Write chemical equation which shows acids , bases , conjugate acid
and Conjugate base.
NH3
+ H2O
NH4+
+
OHBase
Acid
Conjugate acid
conjugate base
HCl
+
H2O
Cl+
H3O+
Acid
Base
Conjugate base
conjugate acid
VIII-How can you differentiate between :
Method one :By making acidity test ,By adding Sodium carbonate to
each one , the one which produces carbon dioxide gas , which turbid
lime water is Hydrochloric acid , while there is no gas evolves in case
of Sodium hydroxide.
Method two : By adding drops of an indicator like litmus solution , the
one which turns to red color is the acid , while sodium hydroxide will
form blue color.

Answers Homework (Chapter 4) lessons 1


Heat content

A-Choose correct answer :1-d) J/gC


2)a)1g of water
3-b) Heat moves from the system to the surroundings.
4-d)Exchange of heat or substance does not occur with the
surrounding.
5- b)Under 1 atm. Pressure and temperature 25C.
67

B-What is meant by :
1-Enthalpy
: It is the sum of stored energies in one
moleof a substance.
2-Heat capacity
: It is the quantity of heat required to raise
the temperature of 1 gram of substance one degree Celsius
3- Exothermic reaction
:These are reactions which produce heat ,
and heat content of products is less than heat content of reactants.
C-Give reasons for :
1-Because heat content of products is less than heat content of
reactants
2-Because heat content of products is more than heat content of
reactants
3-Because substances are different in type of atoms and type of bonds
between atoms
D-Compare between :
Exothermic reaction
Produces heat
Heat content of products is
less than heat content of
reactants
H is ve

Ex. Combustion reactions

Endothermic reaction
Absorbs heat
Heat content of products is more
than heat content of reactants
H is +ve

Ex. Thermal decomposition of


Magnesium carbonate

E-State a scientific term :


1-Entropy
2-Endothermic reactions.
3-Calorimeter.
4-Exothermic reactions
F-Calculate heat of the following reaction and determine if the reaction
is exothermic or endothermic
CH4 + 2O2
CO2 + 2H2O
Knowing that bond energy is estimated by the unit kj/moleas follows :
C=O 745 , O-H 467 , C-H 413
, O=O 498
Enthalpy change = 4(413) + 2(498) -2(745) -4(467)= -710 kj ,
Therefore reaction is exothermic.
G-What is meant by :
a-Heat capacity of an object =It means that the amount of heat needed
to raise the temperature of the whole body 1C is 1000 Joule.
b-Specific heat of water =It means that the amount of heat needed to
raise the temperature of 1 gram of water 1 C is 4.18 joule
H-Calculate Amount of heat =Mass of water x 4.18 x difference in
temp.
=200 x 4.18 x10 = 8360 joule = 8.360 kj
I-Calculate:
( -280 ) , the reaction is exothermic

68

Answers to general questions (Chapter 4)

A-Choose correct answer :1-c)J/kgC

Lesson (1)

B-What is meant by :
1)It means that amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1
gram of Aluminium 1 degree Celsius is 3.22 joule.
2)It means that amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of 3
kg of Aluminium 1 degree Celsius is 554 joule.
C-State a scientific term :
1-Heat capacity
2-Thermochemical equation 3-Calorie (Specific
heat capacity of water)
4-Specific heat capacity
5- Closed system
6Calorimeter
7-Heat energy
8-Heat content (Enthalpy)
9-Hydrogen bond
10-Bond energy
11- Spontaneous changes
12-First law
of thermodynamics
D-Give reasons for :
1-Because change in heat content of a reaction is affected by physical
state of reactants and products.
2-Because heat content of products is less than heat content of
reactants
E-Rewrite the following statements after correcting underlined words :
1-Temperature
2- Calorie
3- J/kgC.
4-electrons electron
5-Heat content
6- Isolated
7-Calorimeter
8- spontaneous at low
temperature
F-Problems :1)2090 Joules (2.09 Kj)
2)amount of heat = mass in g x specific heat x difference in
temperature
= 600 x 0.9 x 15 = 8100 Joule
3)Final temperature = 496.79 C
4) (-90 kj) (reaction is exothermic since change in heat content is
negative)
5)Specific heat is 2.45 j/gC
6)3185 joule
7)0.238 j/gC
8) -190 kj
9)The inverse reaction is endothermic . Heat produced from
combustion of 1 gram is 121 Kj
10)(-622 Kj)

69

Answers to Homework (Chapter 4) Lessons 2

I-State a scientific term :


1-Heat of formation
2-Heat of solution
3- Hesss law
4Heat of combustion
II-Compare between :
Endothermic dissolution
Exothermic dissolution
a-Heat absorbed
a-Heat evolved
b-energy absorbed during
b-energy absorbed during
separation of solvent molecules separation of solvent molecules
and solute ions is greater than
and solute ions is less than
energy released during binding
energy released during binding
ions with water.
ions with water.
c-Ex. Dissolution of NH4NO3
c-Ex. Dissolution of NaOH
III-Give reasons for :
1-Elements have no heat of formation.
-Because elements are simplest form of matter.
2-Dissolution of table salt in water is Endothermic.
-Because energy absorbed during separation of solvent molecules and
solute ions is greater than energy released during binding ions with
water.
3-Scientists Use Hesss law calculate heat change of some reactions
instead of doing it experimentally.
Because :a)Presence of danger when measuring heat of reaction by
experimental method.
b)Mixture of reactants or products with other substances.
c)Some reactions occur very slowly and need very long time
like formation of rust.
d)Difficulties when measuring heat of reaction in normal
conditions.
4-Combustion of glucose in the body is very important.
-To provide living organisms with energy to perform vital processes
IV-Problems :1-( 73 kj)
2-.
C2H5OH + 3O2
2CO2 + 3 H2O
H = -1367 Kj
Amount of heat produced from combustion of 100 g = 2971.73913 kj
3-Heat of formation of Acetylene = 226.75 Kj

70

Answers to general questions (Chapter 4) Lesson (2)

I-State a scientific term :


1-Heat of formation of water.
2-Bond energy.
Entropy
4- Heat of solution (Standard heat of solution)
of neutralization
6- Heat of combustion

35- Standard heat

II-Problems
1- Hesss law Heat of reaction is constant amount in standard
conditions , whether the reaction is carried out in one step or a
number of steps.
Heat of formation of Phosphorus trioxide is -820 kj/mol
2-Heat of formation of Acetylene = 226.75 kj/mol
3-Enthalpy change
5- ( H= -10 kj)
6-(131 kj)

H = -700 kj

4-(-886 kj)

7-(-57.09 kj)

8-Heat change during formation of 50 g = 233.125 kj


Heat change during combustion of 50 g = 300.312 kj
III-Give reasons for :
1- To calculate the change of heat content of reactions that cannot be
measured practically.
2- Because energy absorbed during separation of solvent molecules
and solute ions is greater than energy released during binding ions
with water.
3- Because energy absorbed during separation of solvent molecules
and solute ions is greater than energy released during binding ions
with water.
4-To overcome the force of attraction between atoms.

71

Answers Homework (Chapter 5) Lesson 1

A)Choose correct answer :


1-d- 1/12 mass of carbon atom.
2-a-7
3-d465.5 M.e.v
4-c-Increases in a noticeable amount.
B) Binding energy = 29.30 M.e.v , Binding energy per nucleon =7.327
M.e.v
C)Give reasons for :
Actual mass of nucleus of any atom is less than total masses of its
components.
-Because part of the mass is converted to energy to bind components
of nucleus together.

Answers to general questions (Chapter 5) Lesson 1

A)Choose correct answer :


1-d)Protons and Neutrons
and protons
3-c)The have same number of neutrons.
5-a)19X39

2-a)Neutrons
4-d)Rutherford

B)Give reasons for :


1)The mass of a nucleus is always smaller than its components.
-Because part of the mass is converted to energy to bind components
of nucleus together.
2)The nucleus is stable although it has an electric repulsive force
between positive protons inside nucleus.
-Because inside the nucleus there is a strong nuclear force between
nucleons produced from the loss of a part of their mass.
3)Elements to the left and right of stability curve are unstable
-Because elements to the left or to the right of the stability curve have
either more protons or more neutrons than the stability level
4)The atoms is electrically neutral
-Because number of Positive protons equals no. of negative electrons.
72

C)Problems :
1)Here we have 2 methods , either we change 5g to atomic mass unit u
, then multiply by 931 ,Or calculate energy in Joule then convert joule
to M.e.v .
(2.814 x 1027)
2) (2.737 M.e.v)
(22.989)

3)(169.32097)

4)

5)Mass defect = B.E/931 = 0.1998


Specific binding energy = B.E/mass no.
Mass no. =
186.032/6.89=27
And since its last energy level M contains 3 electrons , then its atomic
no. = 2+8+3=13
Therefore no. of neutrons = Mass no. atomic no. = 27-13 = 14
neutrons
6) mass of a neutron in a nucleus = 42.958767-41.958618 =1.000149 u
Since mass of a free neutron = 1.008665 u.
Difference in mass = 1.008665-1.000149 = 8.516 x 10-3
B.E for this neutron = 8.516 x 10-3 x 931 =7.928 M.e.v
C)State the work for each of the following scientists :
1-Nivel Sidgwick : Discovered Neutrons with no charge and mass
equals mass of a proton.
2-Rutherford
: Discovered positive protons in nucleus , which has a
mass equals approximately 1800 times mass of electrons
3-Bohr :stated that Electrons rotate around nucleus in constant orbits
called energy levels
4- Einstein :Made a relation between mass and energy

E=mc2

Answers Homework (Chapter 5) Lesson 2

A)Choose correct answer :


1-d-The are electromagnetic waves
b-4
b
a-2X
ax
3- c)Neutron
B)Problems :
1) 12.5%
2) 7 days
3) 11 days
5) 7.4 grams

2- b)

He4 +

4)b)3
4) 4 hours

C)Compare between Chemical and nuclear reactions


Chemical reactions
Nuclear reactions
Occur between the electrons of
Occur between the nuclei of the
the outermost shells of the
atoms
atom
There is no transformation of an Almost there is a
element to another
transformation of an element to
another or its isotope
The products are the same if we Isotopes of the same element
used different isotopes
give different results.
Produce small amount of energy Produce large amount of energy
D)State : Harms caused by ionizing radiations
Harms caused by ionizing rays
1-Death of cells
2-Increasing cell division , which leads to cancer tumors .(Carcinogenic
tumors)
3-Permanent changes in cells that is genetically transported to next
generation. Birth of new infants that are different than the parents
73

Answers to general questions (Chapter 5) Lesson 2

A)Choose correct answer :


1- d-are electromagnetic waves.
2-c-more ability
to penetrate air.
3-c- particles
4-b-Kinetic energy
5-b-Al27
6-c-Cadmium
7-b-less
8-d-all the above
9-d) d)3x10 11
10-a)Alpha particles
11- c-high BE/A
12c)465.5 M.e.v
13-c) 1:1
14- a)6
15- b) 1.25
B)Give reasons for :
1-The neutron is the most suitable bomb.
-Because it is neutral and has a suitable mass , so there is no any
repulsion.
2-The serial fission reaction continuously occurs after starting.
-Because we need just one neutron to start reaction , then every
reaction produces 3 neutrons which are used as bombs for new fission
reactions.
C)State a scientific term
1-Binding energy
3-Gamma waves

2-Alpha particle

D)Compare between :Chemical and nuclear reactions


Chemical reactions
Nuclear reactions
Occur between the electrons of
Occur between the nuclei of the
the outermost shells of the
atoms
atom
There is no transformation of an Almost there is a
element to another
transformation of an element to
another or its isotope
The products are the same if we Isotopes of the same element
used different isotopes
give different results.
Produce small amount of energy Produce large amount of energy
E)Show by nuclear equations how can you obtain :
14
1-Nitrogen from Carbon.
6C
0
+ -1e
14
2-Oxygen from Nitrogen.
+ 2He4
7N
18
9F

74

N14

17

F18
+ 1H1
9

Selected

Examinations

75

(1)Saint Clares College (first term 2015)

Answer four questions only


(H=1 , O=16 , Na=23 ,N=14)
Question one
A)Choose correct answer
1-The empirical formula CH2O expresses molecular formula
of ..............................
a-HCHO
b-CH3COOH
c-C6H12O6
d-all
previous
2-On dissolving ............... salt in water , alkaline solution is formed.
a-NaCl
b-Na2CO3
c-HCl
d-NH4Cl
3-Numer of water molecules found in 36 of it is .........
(H=1 ,
O=16)
a-6.02x1023
b-3.01x1023
c-12.04x1023
d23
1.51x10
4-The symbol 2He4 represents .............
a-beta
b-alpha
c-neutron
dProton
B)Mention one use for each of the following :
1-Cadmium rods in nuclear reactor.
2-Gamma rays in
Agricultural field.
`xz
C)Calculate molarity of a solution when dissolving 20 g of Caustic soda NaOH
in 800 g of water.
Question two :
A)Write a scientific term:
1-Quantity of heat absorbed or released when 1 mole of the compound is
formed from its elements at standard conditions.
2-Equal Volumes of gases at same conditions of temperature and pressure
have same number of molecules.
3-Amount of heat required to increase temperature of 1 gram of substance
one degree Celsius.
4-It is concerned with the manipulation of matter on a nanoscale.
B)Give reasons for :
1-The actual mass of an atom is less than the sum of masses of its
components.
2-Adding non-volatile solutes to solvents decrease freezing point of solution.
3-Ammonia is considered as a base although it doesnt have a hydroxide
group in its structure.
C)Calculate weight percent of iron in FeCO3 (Fe=56 , C=12 , O=16)
Question Three
A)Correct underlined word
1-In open system there is no exchange in energy or matter between the
system and the surrounding medium.
2-The Thermometer is used as an isolated system to measure the absorbed or
released heat during a chemical reaction or physical change.
3-Citric acid is considered as a biprotic acid.
4-Heat content is the sum of stored energies in one gram of a substance.
B)Compare between :
1-Exothermic and endothermic reactions with respect to (Definition change
in heat content)
2-Acid and base according to both Arrhenius and Bronsted.
C)Within 12 minutes , 75% of the nuclei of a radioactive element decayed ,
find Half life time.
Question four
A)What is meant by :
Calorie

1- Bond energy
76

2-

B)Write balanced ionic equation for the following reactions:


1-Adding Sodium chloride solution to silver nitrate solution.
2-Reaction of Nitric acid with Potassium Hydroxide.
C)Find final temperature of 4.5 g of gold particles which absorbed 276 joules
of energy when they were heated .Initial temperature was 25 C and specific
heat of gold is 0.13 j/gC
Question five
A)What is meant by Bucky ball , and state its use.
B)What happens when:
1-Supersaturated solution is cooled.
amount of heat.

2-A substance gains an

C)Calculate volume of ammonia gas from reaction of 14 g of Nitrogen gas


with Hydrogen gas according to the equation :
N2(g) + 3H2(g)
2NH3(g)
(1)Saint Clares College (first term 2015)(Model Answer)
Answer four questions only
(H=1 , O=16 , Na=23 ,N=14)
Question one
A)Choose correct answer1- d-all previous
2-b-Na2CO3
3-c-12.04x1023
alpha

4- b-

B)Mention one use for each of the following :


1-Cadmium rods in nuclear reactor.
-They act as a controlling system to control fission reaction since they have the ability to
absorb neutrons.
2-Gamma rays in Agricultural field.
a)Used in Pasteurization of some plants and animals products to preserve them from spoilage
and increase their storage time.
b)Used to sterilize male insects to limit the spread of diseases.
C)Calculate molarity =0.625 Molar
Question two :A)Write a scientific term:1-Heat of formation
2-Avogadros Postulate
3-specific Heat capacity
4-Nano Chemistry
B)Give reasons for :
1-The actual mass of an atom is less than the sum of masses of its components.
-Because part of the mass is converted to energy to bind components of nucleus together.
2- Adding non-volatile solutes to solvents decrease freezing point of solution.
Because ions or molecules of solute prevent molecules of solvent to join together to freeze
3-Ammonia is considered as a base although it doesnt have a hydroxide group in its
structure.
-Because according to Lowry and Bronsted theory , a base is a proton acceptor , and ammonia
reacts with acids or water accepting a proton.
NH3
+ H+
NH4+
C)Calculate weight percent of iron in FeCO3 (Fe=56 , C=12 , O=16)
Weight Percentage = 56/116x100 = 48.27%
Question Three
A)Correct underlined word
1-Isolated system
2-Calorimeter
3-Tribasic (Triprotic)

4-Mol

B)Compare between :
1-Exothermic and endothermic reactions with respect to (Definition change in heat content

77

Exothermic reactions
Produces heat
Heat content of products is less than heat content of
reactants
H is ve

Endothermic reactions
Absorbs heat
Heat content of products is more than heat content of reactants

Ex. Combustion reactions

Ex. Thermal decomposition of Magnesium carbonate

H is +ve

2Compound
Acid

Arrhenius
Bronsted-Lowry
(Proton donor)
(Proton donor)
Compound must contain Hydrogen
Compound must contain Hydrogen
Base
Compound
which
give
negative Any
negative
ion
,
or
any
hydroxide ion , so compound must compound which accepts a proton
contain hydroxide group.
is a base.
C)Within 12 minutes , 75% of the nuclei of a radioactive element decayed , find Half life time.
100
50
25
Number of half life times = 2 ,
Half life time =12/2 = 6 minutes
Question four
A)What is meant by :
1- Bond energy : Energy needed to break one mole of bonds , or energy released during
formation of one mole of bonds.
2-Calorie :Amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of one gram of water one degree
Celsius.
B)Write balanced ionic equation for the following reactions:
1-Adding Sodium chloride solution to silver nitrate solution.
NaCl + AgNO3
NaNO3 + AgCl
Ag+ + ClAgCl
2-Reaction of Nitric acid with Potassium Hydroxide.
HNO3
KOH
KNO 3 + H2O
H+
+ OHH2O
C)Find final temperature of 4.5 g of gold particles which absorbed 276 joules of energy when
they were heated .Initial temperature was 25 C and specific heat of gld is 0.13 j/gC
Amount of heat =Mass of substance x specific heat x (t 2-t1)
276
= 4.5
x 0.13 x (t 2-25)
T2 = 496.79
Question five
A)What is meant by Bucky ball , and state its use.
The Bucky ball consists of 60 carbon atoms and is denoted by C60. It has the shape of a hollow
football. Due to its structure , Scientists use Bucky ball as carrier for medicine in the body.
The hollow structure can carry medicine inside and the outer part of the ball is resistant to
reactions with other molecules in the body.
B)What happens when:
1-Supersaturated solution is cooled.
extra solute will be separated and will form crystals.

78

2-A substance gains an amount of heat.


Kinetic energy of molecules increases , therefore its temperature increases.
C)Calculate volume of ammonia gas from reaction of 14 g of Nitrogen gas with Hydrogen gas
according to the equation :
N2(g) + 3H2(g)
2NH3(g)
Volume of ammonia gas =22.4 liters

(4)Notre Dame School (Ahmed Saeed)(January 2015)

Answer four questions only

: Question one
: A)Choose correct answer
1-Solution is acidic when pH value is ..
a) less than 7
b) more than 7
c) equals 7
d) equals 14
2- Carbon nano tubes are
a) one-dimensional nano substance.
b)Two-dimensional
nano substance.
c)Three-dimensional nano substance.
d) have one dimension
less than 100 nm
3- Volume of 0.5 mole of carbon dioxide CO2 gas at stp is
liters
a) 11.2
b) 2.11
c) 22.4
d)11.5
Ammonium ion NH4+ is considered as a -4
a)Base
b)Acid
c)Conjugate base
d)Conjugate acid
B)Arrange the following solutions in an ascending order according to
their boiling points :
Na 2CO3 , H2O , NaCl , Na3PO3
(C)Compare between Alpha , Beta , and Gamma radiations in terms of
nature and ability to permeate
79

Question two
(A)State one use for each :1-Burette
3-Carbonic acid

2-Bomb Calorimeter

B)Calculate the empirical formula of a compound containing Nitrogen


with a weight percentage of 25.9 % and Oxygen with a weight
percentage of 74.1 % knowing that (N=14 , O=16)
(C) 12 grams of a radioactive element was left for 45 days , the
remaining mass was 1.5 grams . Calculate half life time.

: Question Three
: A)State a scientific term
.The mass of Avogadros number of particles -1
Heat of a reaction is constant amount in standard conditions , -2
whether the reaction is carried out in one step or a number of steps
3-Amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of one gram of
water one degree Celsius.
4-Different atoms of the same element , similar in their atomic
numbers but different in their mass numbers.
B) Calculate the heat of formation of Carbon monoxide CO from the
following equations :
(1)
C(s) + O2(s)
CO2(g)
H1 = -393.5 kj/mol
(2)
CO(g) + O2(g)
CO2(g)
H2 = -283.3 Kj/mol
(C) Write the following equation in symbolic form and balance it :
Iron III sulphate + Sodium hydroxide
Sodium sulphate +
Iron III hydroxide
Question four
(A)Calculate Binding energy in Aluminum nucleus 13Al27 , knowing that
mass of 1 proton = 1.0073 a.m.u , mass of 1 neutron is 1.00875 a.m.u
and mass of Aluminum nucleus is 27.0003 a.m.u.

(B) What is meant by :


1-Electrolyte
2-Heat content
3-Water is a polar molecule.
(C) Convert 5 grams into energy in Joules and M.e.v
Question five
A)Give reasons for :
1-The volume occupied by 32 grams of Oxygen gas equals volume
occupied by 2 grams of Hydrogen gas at stp.
2-Dissolution of ammonium nitrate in water is endothermic.
3-Adding salt to snow covered streets.
80

(B)Calculate volume of Oxygen needed to produce 90 g of water by


reacting with an excess amount of hydrogen at the standard
temperature and pressure (stp) [O=16 , H=1]
2H2(g)
+ O2(g)
2H2O(l)
(C) Calculate Enthalpy change for the following reaction and state
whether it is endothermic or exothermic.
CH4(g) + 2 O2(g)
CO2(g) + 2 H2O(g)
Knowing that bond energies estimated by unit Kj/moleas follows :
(C=O) 803
, (O-H) 467 , (C-H) 413 , (O=O)
498

Model Answer
(4)Notre Dame School (Ahmed saeed)(Midterm 2015)
Answer four questions only :
Question one :
A)Choose correct answer : 1- a) less than 7
2- b)Two-dimensional nano substance.
a) 11.2
4- d)Conjugate acid
B)Arrange the following liquids

H2O < NaCl

< Na2CO3

3-

< Na3PO3

(C)Compare between:
Gamma

Beta

Waves

Particles

Particles

Alpha

Nature

Strong

Moderate

Weak

Ability to permeate

Question two
(A)State one use for each of the following :
1-Burette :Identifying volumes of liquids during titration.
To measure heat of combustion.

81

Point of comparison

2-Bomb Calorimeter :

3-Carbonic acid

:Used in soft drinks.

B)Calculate the empirical formula :


(C) Problem
15 days

N2O5

Question Three : A)State a scientific term :


summation
3-Calorie
4-Isotopes

1-Mole

2-Hesss law of constant heat

B) Calculate the heat of formation of Carbon monoxide CO


Example 1
Page 86
Heat of formation = -110.5 Kj/mol
(C) Write the following equation in symbolic form and balance it :
Fe2(SO4)3 + 6NaOH
3Na2SO4 + 2 Fe(OH)3
Question four
(A)Calculate Binding energy
Number of protons = 13 ,
their mass = 13 x 1.0073=13.0949 u
Number of neutrons = 14 ,
Their mass= 14 x 1.00875=14.1225 u
Mass of constituents = 13.0949 + 14.1225 =272174 u
Mass defect =272174 27.0003 =0.2171
u
Binding energy = 0.2171
x 931 = 2021201
M.e.v
(B) What is meant by :
1-Electrolyte
:Liquid , molten or solution, which conducts electricity due to ions motion
in it.
2-Sum of all energies stored in one mole of matter.
3-It means that Oxygen in water carries a partial negative charge and Hydrogen carries a
partial positive charge , and this is due to their difference in Electronegativity.

(C) Convert
Energy

Energy = 5 x 9 x 1013
= 45 x 1013 / 1.605x10-13 =

=
2.804 x 1027

45 x 1013
M.e.v

Joules

Question five
A)Give reasons for :
1-Because 32 grams of Oxygen is 1 moleof Oxygen gas , and 2 grams of Hydrogen is 1 moleof
Hydrogen gas , and any one mole of a gas occupies 22.4 liters at stp.
2-Because the heat absorbed for separation of ions of solute and separation of molecules of
solvent is greater than the heat produced during hydration.
3-To prevent freezing the remaining of water in streets, thus preventing skidding of cars and
decreasing rate of accidents.
(B)Calculate volume of Oxygen
Oxygen =56 liters

Example page

(C) Calculate Enthalpy change

31

Volume of

The enthalpy change = -826 Kj/mol

(5)St. George's College (1st.term 2015)

Answer four questions only:


I-(A) Choose the correct answer:
1- is used to measure the mass of substances.
(a) pH meter
(b) Graduated cylinder
balance
(d) Burette
2- The volume of 2 g of hydrogen gas (H2) at STP is
(a) 11.2
(b) 22.4
(c) 2 (d) 44.8
3- Mayonnaise is an example of
.
82

(c) Sensitive
liters. [H = 1]

(a) solid solutions.


(b) liquid solutions.
(d) colloids.
4- The heat content for any element is .
(a) less than zero
(b) greater than zero
(d) none of these is correct
(B) Define the following:
Molecular formula.

(c) suspensions.
(c) zero

1- Quarks.

2-

(C) Calculate the amount of energy released from the conversion of 5 g


of a substance, expressed in;
(i) Joule
(ii) Million electron volt
(MeV)
II- (A) Correct the underlined words:
1- The flexibility of copper particles increases when converted from
macroscale to nanoscale.
2- The pH scale ranges from 2 to 12.
3- AI(HS04)3 is called Ammonium sulphite.
4- A thermometer is a device for measuring the heat exchanged by a
chemical reaction in an isolated system.
(B) Give reasons for:
1- Nuclear fusion is not carried out in laboratories.
2- The dissolution of ammonium nitrate in water is endothermic.
(C) Carbon tetrachloride (CCI4) is manufactured by :
CS2 + 3Cl2
CCl4 + S2Cl2
Calculate is the percent yield of CCI4 if 719 g is produced from the
reaction of 41 0 g of CS2. [C=12, S=32, CI=35.5]
III- (A) Write the scientific term of each of the following:
1- It is the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid
equals the standard atmospheric pressure.
2- The total amount of energy and matter in the universe remains
constant, merely changing from one form to another.
3- It is the reactant that is completely used up during the chemical
reaction.
4- It causes changes in the composition of tissues that are exposed to
it, as in alpha and beta particles.
(B) Write on each of the following:
1- Applications of nanotechnology in medicine.
2- Comparison between Lewis acid and a Lewis base.
(C) Calculate heat of combustion of nitric oxide gas NO(g) given the
following equations:
N2(g) + O2(g)
NO(g)
H=90.92
Kj/mole
N2(g) + O2(g)
N02(g)
H=90.92
Kj/mole

83

The combustion equation ofNO(g) is: NO(g) + O2(g)


N02(g)
IV (A) Choose the correct answer:
1- pH value of acidic solutions is...................................
(a) less than 7 (b) 7
(c) greater than 7
none of these is correct

(d)

2- All the following bases are strong except..............


(a) KOH
(b) NaOH
(c) Ba(OH)2
NH40H

(d)

3- is a system that freely exchanges energy and matter with its


surroundings.
(a) Isolated system (b) Open system
(c) Closed system
(d) A vacuum flask
Li6 + ......

4(a)
(d)0n1

3
0

H3 + 2He4
(b) 1H1

(c)

He4

(B) Write on each of the following:


1- A symbolic balanced equation to show the effect of sulphuric acid on
copper oxide.
2- The law which shows a relationship between heat and T.
3-The net ionic equation for the following reaction:
2Na3PO4(aq) + 3CaCl2(aq)
6 NaCI(aq) + Ca3(PO4)2(s)
(C) Calculate the molarity of a solution that is prepared by dissolving
109 of sodium hydroxide in 500 g of water. [H=1, Na = 23,Cl = 35.5
,O=16]

V(A) Define the following:

1- Three-dimensional nano materials.


2- Avogadro's Law.
(B) Give reasons for:
1- Phenolphthalein is not used to differentiate between acidic medium
and neutral medium.
2- The physical state of reactants and products must be mentioned in
the thelmochemical equation. 3- The mass of a nucleus is less than the
mass of the individual nucleons that make up that nucleus.
(C) 100 grams of an isotope with a half-life of36 hours is present at
time zero. How much time will have elapsed when 6.25 grams remain?

84

(5)St. George's College (1st.term 2015)(Answer)


Answer four questions only:
I-(A) Choose the correct answer:1- (c) Sensitive balance
2- (b) 22.4
4- (c) ze
(B) Define the following:
1- Quarks :
2- Molecular formula

3- (d) colloids.

(C) Calculate the amount of energy released from the conversion of 5 g of a substance,
expressed in;
(i) Joule
(ii) Million electron volt (MeV)
II- (A) Correct the underlined words:
1- The flexibility of copper particles increases when converted from macro scale to nanoscale.
2- The pH scale ranges from 2 to 12.
3- AI(HS04)3 is called Ammonium Sulphite.
4- A thermometer is a device for measuring the heat exchanged by a chemical reaction in an
isolated system.
(B) Give reasons for:
1- Nuclear fusion is not carried out in laboratories.
2- The dissolution of ammonium nitrate in water is endothermic.
(C) Carbon tetrachloride (CCI4) is manufactured by :
CS2 + 3Cl2
CCl4 + S2Cl2
Calculate is the percent yield of CCI4 if 719 g is produced from the reaction of 41 0 g of CS 2.
[C=12, S=32, CI=35.5]
III- (A) Write the scientific term of each of the following:
1- It is the temperature at which the vapour pressure of the liquid equals the standard
atmospheric pressure.
2- The total amount of energy and matter in the universe remains constant, merely changing
from one form to another.
3- It is the reactant that is completely used up during the chemical reaction.
4- It causes changes in the composition of tissues that are exposed to it, as in alpha and beta
particles.
(B) Write on each of the following:
1- Applications of nanotechnology in medicine.
2- Comparison between Lewis acid and a Lewis base.
(C) Calculate heat of combustion of nitric oxide gas NO(g) given the following equations:
N2(g) + O2(g)
NO(g)
H=90.92 Kj/mole
N2(g) + O2(g)
N02(g)
H=90.92 Kj/mole
The combustion equation of NO(g) is: NO(g) + O2(g)
IV (A) Choose the correct answer:
1- (a) less than 7
2-(d) NH40H
3- (b) Open system

N02(g)
4- (d)0n1

(B) Write on each of the following:


1- A symbolic balanced equation to show the effect of sulphuric acid on copper oxide.
2- The law which shows a relationship between heat and T.

85

3-The net ionic equation for the following reaction:


2Na3PO4(aq) + 3CaCl2(aq)
6 NaCI(aq) + Ca3(PO4)2(s)
(C) Calculate the molarity of a solution that is prepared by dissolving 109 of sodium hydroxide
in 500 g of water. [H=1, Na = 23,Cl = 35.5 ,O=16]
V(A) Define the following:
1- Three-dimensional nano materials.
2- Avogadro's Law.
(B) Give reasons for:
1- Phenolphthalein is not used to differentiate between acidic medium and neutral medium.
2- The physical state of reactants and products must be mentioned in the thermochemical
equation. 3- The mass of a nucleus is less than the mass of the individual nucleons that make
up that nucleus.
(C) 100 grams of an isotope with a half-life of 36 hours is present at time zero. How much time
will have elapsed when 6.25 grams remain.

86

(6)St. Clares College (First term 2014)


Answer four questions only :
Question one
A)Choose correct answer
1-In the reaction of NH3 with HCl , the NH4+ ion is considered as

(Conjugate acid Base


Conjugate base acid)
2- If O=16 and H=1 , then the number of water moles in 36 g of it =
.
(1 mole , 2 moles ,
2.5 moles , 0 moles)
3-Nanometer equals of a meter.
(1 x 10 -9 1 x 10-3
1 x 100 1x109)
4- When .. dissolves in water , the formed solution is acidic
(NH 4Cl NaCl
CH3COONa Na2CO3)
B) Write the tool or instrument which is used in :
1-Measuring the volume of liquids and irregular solid substances that
do not dissolve in water.
2-Measuring acidity or basicity degree of a solution.
3-Measuring heat of combustion for some substances
4-Measuring the mass of substance.
C)Calculate number of sodium ions produced from dissolving 117 g of
sodium chloride in water. (Na=23 , Cl = 35.5)
Question two
A)Write a scientific term :
1-Sum of stored energies in one moleof a substance.
2-Produced substance when an acid loses a proton.
3-Number of atoms , molecules , or ions in one moleof a substance.
4-The internal energy of an isolated system is constant and energy can
be transformed from one form to another.
B)Compare between:
1-Exothermic and Endothermic reaction
2-Nuclear and Chemical reactions.
C) Calculate quantity of heat released during combustion of 5.75 g of
Methane gas (CH4) in excess amount of Oxygen gas at constant
pressure. (C=12 , H=1)
CH4 + 2 O2
CO2 + 2 H2O
0
H = -890 KJ/mol
Question three
A)Correct underlined words :
1-According to Arrhenius definition , the acid is a substance which
when dissolved in water , it produces OH- ions.
87

2-The Thermometer is used as an isolated system to measure the


absorbed or released heat in chemical reactions.
3-The color of Phenolphthalene changes to pink when it is added to
neutral medium
4-Graduation in graduated cylinder is from up to down.
B) What is meant by each of the following :
1-Hesss law
2-Specific heat
3-Electrolyte
C)Calculate half life time of 32 g of a radioactive element if 1 g
remains after 100 days.
Question four
A)Give reasons for :
1-HCl is a strong acid while Formic acid is a weak acid.
Polarity of water molecule.
3-Nuclear fission reaction is called serial reaction.
B)Write chemical equations for the following :
1-Sodium chloride solution+ Silver nitrate solution
solution + Silver chloride precipitate.
2-Nitric acid + Potassium hydroxide solution
nitrate solution + water.

2-

Sodium nitrate
Potassium

C) What is the molecular formula for a compound containing 85.7 %


Carbon ,and 14.3 % hydrogen where its molar mass is 70 g/mol.
Question five
A)Complete the following table
Anion
NO3-

HCO3-

Cation
(1)
..
..(2)

Na+

(6)
..

(5)
..

..(3).

Salt
Fe(NO3)3
(CH3COO)2Cu
(4)

Al2(SO4)3

B)What is the relation between :


1-The freezing point of a solution and freezing point of pure solvent
that forms it.
2-Concentration of H+ and OH- in alkaline solution.
C) Calculate volume of Oxygen needed to produce 90 g of water by
reacting with excess amount of hydrogen at stp.
(O=16 , H=1)

88

(Answer)
(6)St. Clares College (2014)
Question oneA)Choose :1) Conjugate acid
2) 2 moles
3) 1 x 10 -9
4) NH4Cl
B) Write the tool or instrument which is used in :
1-Measuring Cylinder
2-pH meter
3-Bomb Calorimeter
4-Sensitive
balance
C) Calculate :
NaCl
Na +
+ Clg
no. of ions
58.5
6.02 x 10 23
117
x
No. of Sodium ions =
12.04 x 1023 ions
Question two
A)Write a scientific term :1-Heat Content (Enthalpy) 2-Conjugate base 3Avogadros number 4- First law of thermodynamics.
B)Compare between:1-Exothermic and Endothermic reaction
Endothermic reaction
Exothermic reaction
Absorbs heat
Produces heat
Heat content of products is more than heat
Heat content of products is less than
content of reactants
heat content of reactants
H is +ve
H is ve

Ex. Thermal decomposition of Magnesium


carbonate
2-Nuclear and Chemical reactions
Chemical reactions
Occur between the electrons of the
outermost shells of the atom
There is no transformation of an
element to another
The products are the same if we used
different isotopes
Produce small amount of energy

Ex. Combustion reactions

Nuclear reactions
Occur between the nuclei of the atoms
Almost there is a transformation of an
element to another or its isotope
Isotopes of the same element give different
results.
Produce large amount of energy

89

C) Calculate quantity of heat:


Solution
CH 4 + 2 O2
CO 2 + 2 H2O
H0 =
-890 KJ/mole
Grams
heat
16
890
5.75
x
amount of
heat =319.84 kj
Question three
A)Correct underlined words :
1-H+ ions.
2-Calorimeter
3-Alkaline
4Burette .
B) What is meant by each of the following :
1-Hesss law
: Heat of reaction is constant amount in standard conditions ,
whether the reaction is carried out in one step or a number of steps
2-Specific heat : It is the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of 1
gram of substance one degree Celsius
Unit of Specific heat is J/gC
3-Electrolyte
: substances which conduct electric current in liquid state (solution
or molten) due to presence of positive or negative ions. They may be acids , alkalis
or salt solutions
C)Calculate

32

16
8
4
2
1
Half life time = total time /no. of half life times = 100/5=20

days
Question four
A)Give reasons for :
1-Because Hydrochloric acid is completely ionized , while Formic acid is incompletely
ionized.
2-Because Oxygen is more electronegative than hydrogen , so Oxygen will attact
more electrons of the bond , causing a partial negative charge on Oxygen and partial
positive charge in Hydrogen.
3-Because every fission reaction produces number of neutrons which can hit new
Uranium atoms causing new fissions.
B)Write chemical equations for the following :
1- NaCl + AgNO3
NaNO3 + AgCl(s)
2- HNO3 + KOH
KNO 3 + H2O
C) What is the molecular formula :
Mass of Carbon 85.7/100 x 70 =60
No. of moles of Carbon
=60/12 =5
Mass of Hydrogen 14.3/100 x 70=10
No. of moles of Hydrogen =
10/1=10
Molecular formula is C 5H10
Question five
A)Complete the following table
(1) Fe3+
(2) Cu2+
(3) CH3COO(4) NaHCO3
(5)Al3+
(6)
2SO4
B)What is the relation between :
1-The freezing point of a solution is less than freezing point of pure solvent that
forms it.
2-Concentration of H+ is less than concentration OH- in alkaline solution.
C) Calculate volume of Oxygen needed to produce 90 g of water by reacting with
excess amount of hydrogen at stp.
(O=16 , H=1)
2H 2 + O2
2H2O
V
g
22.4
36
X
90
Volume of Oxygen gas
=56 liters
90

(7)St. Georges College (2014)


Answer four questions only
I-(a) Choose correct answer :
1-Biochemistry is interested in studying the .
a) Composition and properties of matter
b) Components
of the siol
c) Chemical structure of the cell
d)
Components of water
2)The no. of Carbon atoms in 2 g of Carbon equals to .. x
Avogadros no. [C=12]
a) 1/2
b) 1/3
c) 1/4
d) 1/6
3) Blood and milk are example of
a) liquid solution
b) solid solution
c)Colloidal
solution
d) suspension
4) The unit of specific heat capacity is
a) j/g
b) j/gC
c)j/C
d) j
b)Define the following
1-Nuclear fusion
yield

2-Percent

91

c)Calculate nuclear binding energy per nucleon of iron 26Fe56 , given


that mass of proton is 1.0073 u , mass of neutron is 1.0087 u , and
actual mass of iron nucleus is 55.85 u.
II-a)Correct underlined words :
1-Nanotubes are examples of zero-dimensional nano materials.
2-The SI unit of luminous intensity is Watt.
3- pb(NO3)2 is called palladium III nitrate.
4-If the enthalpy change and the entropy change are negative values ,
then the reaction is always spontaneous.
b)Give reasons for :
1-The emission of an alpha particle from the nucleus of a radioactive
element decreases atomic number by 2 and mass number by 4.
2-Dissolution of sodium hydroxide in water is exothermic.
c)Calculate molecular formula of a compound containing 26.1 %
nitrogen , 7.5% hydrogen , and 66.4 % Chlorine , knowing that its
molecular mass is 53.5.
(H=1 , N=14 , Cl =35.5)
III-a) Write a scientific term :
1-Solution in which the solvent contains maximum amount of solute at
a certain temperature.
2-A system where is no transfer of mass or energy takes place across
its boundary.
3-At same temperature and pressure , equal volumes of gases contain
equal number of molecules.
4-It does not cause changes in the composition of tissues that are
exposed to it , as in microwave.
b)Write on each of the following :
1-Applications of nanotechnology in agriculture and energy.
2-Comparison between a conjugate acid and a conjugate base.
c)Calculate H for the following reaction : H2S + 4F2
2HF
+ SF6
Knowing that heat of formation of H2S = -21 kj/mole, that of HF = -273
kj/mole and that of SF6= -1220 kj/mol
IV-a) Choose correct answer
1-One of the following glassware is used in chemical preparation and
distillation , which is .
a)Pipette
b)Beaker
c)round-bottom flask
d)conical
flask
2- is an organic acid.
a)Nitric
b)formic
c) Perchloric
d)
Carbonic
3-If specific heat of copper is 0.385 j/gC and that of iron is 0.4458 j/gC ,
therefore the heat capacity of 220 g of copper is that of
190 g of iron
a)greater than
b) twice
c) less than
d)equal to
14
4- 6C14
+ ..
7N
a)Alpha
b)Beta
c)Proton
d)neutron
b)Write on each of the following :
92

1-What is meant by indicator ? Mention the color of methyl orange at


pH=2.
2-Discuss the following statement :Heat of dilution is the sum of two
processes :
3-Rewrite the following equation in a correct form :Zn + 4 HCl
ZnCl + H
c)Calculate the molality of a solution of a solution that is prepared by
dissolving 11.7 g of sodium chloride in 400 g of water (Na=23 ,
Cl=35.5)
V-a)Define the following :
1-Nanochemistry
2-Limiting reagent.
b)Give reasons for :
1-Aqueous solution of Ammonium chloride is acidic.
2-Water is used as a surrounding medium in a calorimeter.
3-Nuclei to the right of stability curve undergo positron emission.
c)If the half life time of Zn-71 is 2.4 minutes . If one had 100 g at the
beginning , how many grams would be left after 7.2 minutes have
elapsed.

(7)St. Georges College (Answer)


I-a)Choose correct answer :1-(c) 2-(d) 3-(c) 4-(b)

93

b)Define : 1-Nuclear fusion :The fusion of two light nuclei to form heavier nucleus in a
nuclear reaction.
2-Percent yield :It is a percentage of actual yield of a reaction to its theoretical
yield.
c)No. of protons = 26
,
their mass = 26 x 1.0073 =26.1898 u
No. of neutrons = 30
,
their mass = 30 x 1.0087 =30.261 u
Mass of constituents = 26.1898 + 30.261 =56.4508 u
Mass defect =56.4508-55.85 = 0.6008 u
Binding energy = 0.6008 x 931 = 559.3448 M.e.v
II-a)Correct underlined words :1-two 2-Candela 3-Lead Nitrate
4-Spontaneous at low
temperature
b)Give reasons:1-Because an alpha particle consists of 2 protons and 2 neutrons. Atomic no.
is the number of protons , mass no. is the sum of protons and neutrons.
2-Because hydration energy is more than separation energy (separation of
ions and water molecules)
c)Calculate : mass of nitrogen 26.1/100x53.5= 13.9635 g , mass of hydrogen= 7.5/100 x
53.5=4.0125 g
,and mass of Chlorine = 66.4/100x53.5=35.524 g
therefore : no. of moles of Nitrogen = 13.9635/14=0.99739 , no. of moles of hydrogen
=4.0125/1=4.0125
no. of moles of chlorine =35.524/35.5=1.00647. Molecular formula is
NH 4Cl.
III-a)Scientific term :1-Saturated solution 2-Isolated system 3-Avogadros law 4-Non-ionizing
radiations.
b)Write on each :
1-Applications of nanotechnology in agriculture and energy :
a)In agriculture :-Identifying bacteria and preserving food.
-Improving nutrients and pesticides, and medicine for plants and animals.
b)Energy
:- Producing solar cells using Nano silicon with high transoformation power
without leakage of heat energy.
-Producing Hydrogen fuel cells with low cost and high performance.
2-Conjugate acid is a base which gained a proton , while conjugate base is an acid which lost a
proton
Ex.
NH3
+ H2O
NH4+
+
OHBase
Acid
Conjugate acid
conjugate base
HCl
+
H 2O
Cl+
H3O+
Acid
Base
Conjugate base
conjugate acid
c)Calculate H :

H2S

+ 4F2
2HF
+
SF6
-21
4(0)
2x -273
(-1220)
H = Heat of formation of products heat of formation of reactants
H = [ -1220 + 2(-273) (-21)] = -1745 kj
IV-a) Choose correct answer1-c)round-bottom flask
2-b)formic
3-d)equal to
4-b)Beta
b)Write on each of the following :
1-An indicator is a chemical compound which changes its color according to acidity of the
medium.
pH =2 indicates an acidic medium and Methyl orange is red in acidic medium.
2-heat of dilution is the sum of separation energy and hydration energy. If separation energy
is more than hydration energy then dilution is endothermic , while if hydration energy is more
than separation energy then dilution is exothermic.

94

3c)

Zn + 2 HCl

ZnCl2

+ H2
Molality =

Number of moles of solute


Mol/kg
Mass of solvent in kg
1 moleof NaOH = 23 +16+1=40 g
no. of moles of NaOH = 11.7/40=0.2925
Mass of water in kg = 0.4
Therefore Molality = 0.2925/0.4 = 0.73125 mol/kg

V-a) Define the following :


1-Nanochemistry :It is a branch of Nano science, it includes description ,and creating
substances with nano dimensions.
2-Limiting reactant :It is the reactant which is present in reaction with a quantity less than its
molar ratio in the balanced chemical equation , so it is the reactant which controls the
reaction
b)Give reasons for :
1-Ammonium chloride is acidic because it is derived from strong acid (HCl) , and weak alkali
NH4OH.
2-Because it has large specific heat , so it can gain or lose large amount of heat.
3-because elements to the right of stability curve have larger number of protons , and by
losing positrons , protons inside nucleus will change into neutron making the ratio between
protons and neutrons close to 1:1.6.
c).
100
2.4
50
2.4
25
2.4
12.5 g
The remaining mass is 12.5 g

(8) Notre Dame Heliopolis(2014)


Question 1:
A-Write the scientific tem for each of the following :
1-Measuring unit equals a part of a billion parts of a meter.
2-A formula expressing the simplest ratio of true number between the
atoms of elements which form the compound.
3-Number of solute in one kilogram of solvent.
4-Heat of reaction is constant amount in standard conditions whether
the reation is conducted in one step or number of steps .
B-Compare between : Chemical reaction and nuclear reaction
Question 2
A-What is meant by :
1-Molar heat of solution
2-indicator
Harmful effect of radiations

3-Hydrogen exponent

4-

B-Chemical analysis have proven that acetic acid is formed from 40%
Carbon , 6.67% hydrogen and 53.33% Oxygen , if the molar mass of it
is 60 g , find molecular formula of the acid. (C=12 , H=1 , O=16)
Question 3
A-Choose correct answer
1-From two dimensional nano-substance .
a)Nano-fibers
b)Carbon nano tubes
c)Nano
shells
d)Bucky ball
2-If the molecular formula of vitamin C is C6H8O6 , so the empirical
formula is .
a)C3H4O6
b)C3H4O3
c) C6H4O3
d)
C3H8O3
3-Sugar dissolves in water due to the formation of . Bonds.

95

a)Covalent
b)ionic
c)co-ordinate
d)hydrogen
4- 48 gram magnesium need 32 grams Oxygen to produce . Of
Magnesium oxide (Mg =24 , O=16)
a)20 g
b) 80 g
c) 60 g
d) 10 g
B-Compare between alpha , Beta , and gamma rays in (nature of
radiations ability to penetrate)
Question 4
A-Write balanced chemical equation of
1-Sodium carbonate with dilute sulphuric acid.
2-Nuclear fission of Uranium 235 when bombarded with neutron.
B-Calculate number of Carbon atoms found in 50 g of Calcium
carbonate knowing that (Ca=40 , C=12 , O=16)
C-Write chemical formula of : 1-Potassium acetate
Oxalic acid

2-

Question 5
A-What is meant by :Half life time of a radioactive element Iodine 131=
8 days
B-Give reasons
1)H in endothermic reactions is positive.
2)Nuclear fusion reaction is difficult to achieve in laboratory
C-Calculate heat change for the following reaction and determine if the
reaction is exothermic or endothermic
CH4 + 2 O2
CO2 + 2 H2O
Knowing that bond energy is estimated by units Kj/moleas follows
(C=O) 745
(O-H) 467
(C-H) 413
(O=O) 498
(Answer) (8) Notre Dame Heliopolis
Question 1:
A-Write the scientific tem for each of the following :1-Nanometer 2-Empirical formula
3Molality
B-Compare between :
Chemical reactions
Nuclear reactions
Occur between the electrons of the
Occur between the nuclei of the atoms
outermost shells of the atom
There is no transformation of an element
Almost there is a transformation of an
to another
element to another or its isotope
The products are the same if we used
Isotopes of the same element give
different isotopes
different results.
Produce small amount of energy
Produce large amount of energy
Question 2
A-What is meant by :1-Molar heat of solution :It is the amount of heat change when 1 moleof
solute is dissolved to form 1 liter of solution.
2-indicator :It is a weak acid or a weak base which changes its color according to medium
acidic or alkaline or neutral
3-Hydrogen exponent :It is a scale which expresses acidity or alkalinity medium , pH scale is
used which ranges from 0 to 14. pH less than 7 indicates that medium is acidic , pH value
greater than 7 indicates that medium is alkaline , pH =7 indicates medium is neutral.
4-Harmful effect of radiations : Harms caused by ionizing rays
1-Death of cells
2-Increasing cell division , which leads to cancer tumors .
(Carcinogenic tumors)
3-Permanent changes in cells that is genetically transported to next generation. Birth of new
infants that are different than the parents
Harms caused by non-ionizing radiations

96

1-Radiations emitted from cell phones towers cause headache , amnesia , dizziness and
fainting symptoms.
2-Cell phones produce rays which increase temperature of cells due to absorption of energy.
Some studies noted that using laptops by placing them of laps affects fertility.
B-Chemical analysis have proven that acetic acid is formed from 40% Carbon , 6.67% hydrogen
and 53.33% Oxygen , if the molar mass of it is 60 g , find molecular formula of the acid.
(C=12 , H=1 , O=16)
Mass of Carbon =40/100 x 60
= 24
No. of moles of Carbon = 24/12 =2
Mass of Hydrogen = 6.67/100 x 60= 4
no. of moles of Hydrogen = 4 /1 =4
Mass of Oxygen = 53.33/100 x 60 = 32
no. of moles of Oxygen = 32 /16 =2
Formula is C2H4O2
Question 3
A-Choose correct answer1-b)Carbon nano tubes
2-b)C3H4O3
3-d)hydrogen
4-b)
80 g
B-Compare between :
Radiation
Sym-bol Nature
Penetration power (Ability to permeate)
Alpha

2p+2n
Weak-cannot pass through thin paper
4
Helium nucleus
2He
Beta

Electron
A 5mm Aluminium slice prevents its passing
0
-1e
Gamma

Electromagneti
Strong
c wave
Question 4
A-Write balanced chemical equation of
1-Sodium carbonate with dilute sulphuric acid. Na2CO3 + 2 HCl
2NaCl
H2O
2-Nuclear fission of Uranium 235 when bombarded with neutron.
235
141
+ 0n1
+ 36Kr92 + 3 0n1 + large amount of energy
92U
56Ba

+ CO2

B-Calculate number of Carbon atoms in 50 g of Calcium carbonate knowing that (Ca=40 ,


C=12 , O=16)
Answer.
1 moleof CaCO3=40+12+3x16=100
CaCO3
C
g
no. of atoms
100
6.023 x 10 23
50
x
no. of atoms = 3.0115 x
1023
C-Write chemical formula of : 1-Potassium acetate

CH3COOK

2-Oxalic acid

COOH

COOH
Question 5
A-What is meant by Half life time of a radioactive element Iodine 131= 8 days
It means that the time taken by radioactive Iodine to lose its half mass and half radiations is 8
days.
B-Give reasons
1-H in endothermic :Because heat content of products is more than heat content of
reactants.
2-Because it needs 107 K to start reaction which is very hard to obtain.
C-Calculate heat change for the following reaction and determine
CH4
+
2 O2
CO2
+
2 H2O
4(413) + 2(498)
2(-745)
2[2(-467)]
H= -710
therefore reaction is exothermic

(9)Notre Dame Zeitoun(2014)


Question 1
A)Choose correct answer from between brackets :
1-The joule is equivalent to .
(m.kg.s
,
m2.kg.s2
, m2.kg.s-2 , m2.kg.s).
2-Phosphoric acid has .
(one proton , two
protons , three protons , organic)
3-The law states that volumes of gases which enter in a
reaction and produced are at constant ratio.
(Avogadro , GayLussac
, Conservation of mass , Conservation of Charge)

97

4-Considering ammonium ion NH4+ which is produced when ammonia


gas reacts with water is . According to Bronsted Lowry
theory. (Conjugate base base conjugate acid acid)
B)State one use or one importance for each of the following :
1-The use of Nonosilicon in solar cells.
2-Carbonic acid
C)Calculate quantity of energy produced when 4 grams of a substance
is converted into energy in :
1-Joule
2-Million
electron volt (M.e.v) (C=3 x 108)
Question two
A)Correct underlined words in the following :
1-The graduation in graduated cylinder is from top to bottom.
2-The substance which dissociates in water giving one or more
hydrogen ions is True solution.
B)When dissolving one mole of sulphuric acid in a quantity of water ,
then the volume was completed to 100 ml causing temperature to
increase 17C. Calculate quantity of heat produced.
C)Comment on the following
1-Sugar solution is considered as a true solution , while milk is
considered as a colloidal.
2-pH meter is more accurate than pH tape in measuring pH value.
Question 3
State a scientific term
1-A constant number which represent number of atoms , molecules or
ions found in one mole.
2-Quantity of material calculated , based on the chemical equation of
reaction.
3-Substance which accepts a pair or more of electrons.
4-Solutions with solute particles with dimensions between 1:100 nm.
B)Compare between Alpha and Beta particles regarding : Symbol ,and
ionization potential.
C)Calculate number of carbon atoms found in 50 g of calcium
carbonate.(Ca=40 , C=12 , O=16)
Question 4
A)What is meant by :-Half life time of radioactive iodine is 8 days.
B)Write the balanced chemical equations for the following reactions
1-Reaction between nitric acid and Potassium hydroxide.
2-Reaaction of Sulphuric acid with Zinc.
C)Calculate molar concentration of a solution of sugar C12H22O11 in
water , knowing that mass of dissolved sugar is 85.5 g in a solution of
volume 0.5 liters.
Question 5
A)Define each of the following:
2-Change in heat content.

1-Solubility

B)Comment on each of the following :


1-Dissolution of Sodium hydroxide in water is exothermic.
98

2-It is difficult to measure heat change for changing diamond to


graphite.
C)Calculate empirical formula for a compound of 25.9 % Nitrogen and
74.1% oxygen knowing N=14 , O=16.
(9) Notre Dame Zeitoun (Answer)
Question 1
A)Choose correct answer from between brackets :1-m2.kg.s-2
Gay-Lussac
4-conjugate acid

2-three protons

3-

B)State one use or one importance for each of the following :


1-The use of Nano silicon in solar cells :Solar cells are cells used to convert light energy into
electrical energy , and Nano silicon is used because it converts all light energy into electrical
energy without losing energy in the form of heat.
2-Carbonic acid :Used in soft drinks.
C)you solve this
problem
Question two
A)Correct underlined words in the following :
1-The graduation in Burette is from top to bottom.
2-The substance which dissociates in water giving one or more hydrogen ions is Acid.
B)

Amount of heat = 100 x 4.18 x 17 =

Joules

C)Comment on the following


1-Sugar solution is considered as a true solution , while milk is considered as a colloidal.
-Because particles of sugar in solution is less than 1 nano meter , and solution of sugar cannot
be separated by filteration, and sugar particles cannot be seen by microscope. In case of milk ,
we find that dispersed particles (solute) have diameters which range between 1-100 nano
meters , its particles can be seen by microscope , but cannot be separated by ultra filtration
membrane.
2-pH meter is more accurate than pH tape in measuring pH value.
-Because pH meter gives you a digital number expressing acidity , while pH tape gives you a
color and you compare this color with other color to get the value , so human error is high in
this case.
Question 3
State a scientific term 1-Avogadros number
Colloidal
B)Compare between Alpha and Beta particles

2-Number of moles.

Radiation

Symbol

Nature

Mass

Ionization
power

Alpha

4
2He

2p+2n
Helium nucleus

Four times
mass of a
proton

Strong

Beta

0
-1e

Electron

1/1800 mass
of a proton

Less than
Alpha

Electromagnetic
wave

----

Least
power

Gamma

3-Acid

Penetration
power
(Ability to
permeate)
Weakcannot pass
through
thin paper
A 5mm
Aluminium
slice
prevents its
passing
Strong

4Deviation in
electromagnetic
field.
Small deviation

Large deviation

Does not deviate

C)Calculate number of carbon atoms found in 50 g of calcium carbonate.(Ca=40 , C=12 , O=16)


CaCO 3
C
Grams
no. of atoms
100
6.023 x 10 23
50
x
No. of C atoms =3.01
x 1023 atoms
Question 4
A)What is meant by :
1-Half life time :Time taken by the radioactive Iodine to lose its half mass and half radiatons is
8 days.
B)Write the balanced chemical equations for the following reactions
1-Reaction between nitric acid and Potassium hydroxide. HNO 3 + KOH
KNO3 + H2O
2-Reaaction of Sulphuric acid with Zinc.
Zn + H 2SO4
ZnSO4 + H2

99

C)Calculate molar concentration of a solution of sugar C12H22O11 in water , knowing that mass
of dissolved sugar is 85.5 g in a solution of volume 0.5 liters.
Mass of solute = molex molex v
85.5
= 342 x molarity x 0.5
Molarity = 0.5
molar
Question 5
A)Define each of the following:
1-Solubility
:Ability of a solvent to dissolve solute or ability of a solute to dissolve in a
solvent.
2-Change in heat content :Difference in heat content between reactants and products.
B)Comment on each of the following :
1-Dissolution of Sodium hydroxide in water is exothermic.
-Because amount of heat produced during hydration is greater than heat absorbed during
separation of ions and separation of molecules of solvent.
2-It is difficult to measure heat change for changing diamond to graphite.
-Because it is very slow and takes a very long time.
C)Calculate empirical formula for a compound of 25.9 % Nitrogen and 74.1% oxygen knowing
N=14 , O=16.
No. of moles of Nitrogen =25.9/14=1.85
no. of moleof Oxygen =
74.1/16=4.63125
N1.85O4.63125
divide by 1.85
then
NO2.5
Multiply by 2 then
N 2O5

Exam (10) (Sacred heart school)(2014)


Answer four questions only :(Atomic masses : Na=23 , Cl = 35.5 , H=1 ,
S=32 , O=16 , C=12 , Ca=40)

I-A)State a scientific term


1-Nano materials that have only one dimension between 1-100 nm.
2-The sum of atomic masses of atoms forming a molecule.
3-Materials which conduct electricity in solutions.
4-Atoms which have same atomic number , but different in mass
number.
B)What happens when :
1-Bombardment of 92U235 with a slow neutron.
2-Passing sulphur dioxide gas through a solution of hydrogen sulphide.
C) Calculate the enthalpy change in the following reaction
C2H2 + 5/2 O2
2CO2 + H2O
Knowing that heats of formations for C2H2 , CO2 , and H2O are 227.15
KJ/mole, -393.5 KJ/mole, and -285.85 KJ/mole, then draw the diagram
which shows reaction.
II-A) Give reasons for :
1-Acidic solutions dont have a hydrogen ion H+.
2-The actual mass of a nucleus is always smaller than theoretical mass.
3-Boiling point of Sodium carbonate solution (1M) is higher than that
of Sodium chloride solution (1M)
B)

U238 emits 2 beta particles and one Alpha particle.


Determine atomic number and mass number of produced atom.
State relation between produced element and 92U238.
92

C) Compare between : 1- Helium and alpha


2-Ammonium chloride solution and Sodium acetate solution (in view of
their effect on litmus paper)
100

III-A) Calculate remaining mass of 2 g of a radioactive element ,


knowing that its half life time is 20 min. and this element was left for
120 sec.
B) Choose correct answer
1- 1 Joule equivalent to ..
a) m2.Kg.s
b) m.Kg.s-2
c) m2Kgs-2
d) m.Kg.s
2-Phosphoric acid is .
a)Monobasic
b) dibasic
c)tribasic
d)organic
3-The combining of 0.1 mole of Carbon with 0.4 moleof Hydrogen
produces a compound of molecular formula .
a) C3H4
b) CH4
c) C4H8
d) C2H4
4-A piece of Aluminium gains an amount of heat equals to 9.86 joules ,
and its temperature was raised from 23 C to 30 C. (Its specific heat
=0.9 J/gC) , then its mass is ..g
a)1.56
b)8.1
c)65
d)72
C)How can you obtain :1-A copper salt from its oxide.
Nitrogen from Carbon 6C14 .

2-

IV-A)Correct underlined words


1-A nano wire is formed of 60 atoms of Carbon.
2-One mole of Carbon dioxide occupies a volume of 12.4 liters at s.t.p
3-The sensitive balance is used to determine the volume of a liquid.
4-0.5 mole of sulphuric acid equals 196 g. (H= , S=32 , O=16)
B)Give reasons
1-Dissolution of Sodium hydroxide is exothermic.
2-The neutron is the most suitable projectile (bomb) for nuclear
reaction.
3-8O16 and 8O18 are 2 isotopes , but they make same chemical reactions.
C)According to the following reaction :
CaCO3 + 2HCl
CaCl2 + H2O
+ CO2
Calculate mass of calcium carbonate necessary to produce 5.6 liters of
carbon dioxide gas.
V-A)What is meant by :
1-Heat of formation of CO2 = -393 Kj/mole
2-pH of lemon solution =2
B)Show by balanced chemical equations :
1-Reaction between Hydrochloric acid and Sodium hydroxide.
2-Reaction between sulphuric acid and Potassium carbonate.
C)Calculate
1-Number of sodium ions in 117 g of sodium chloride solution in water.
2-Number of neutrons of 13Al , knowing that nuclear binding energy =
186.03 M.e.v and binding energy per nucleon = 6.89 M.e.v.
101

Exam (10) (Sacred heart) Model answer


Answer four questions only
I-A)State a scientific term1-One dimensional nano substance. 2-Molecular mass.
Electrolyte.
4-Isotopes.

3-

B)What happens when :


1-Bombardment of 92U235 with a slow neutron.
235
141
+ 0n1
+ 36Kr92 + 3 0n1 + large amount of energy
92U
56Ba
2-Passing sulphur dioxide gas through a solution of hydrogen sulphide.
Colloidal solution of sulphur will be formed
2H2S + SO2
+ 2 H2O

3S

C) Calculate the enthalpy change in the following reaction.


C2H2 + 5/2 O2
2CO2 + H2O
Knowing that heats of formations for C2H2 , CO2 , and H2O are 227.15 KJ/mole, -393.5 KJ/mole,
and -285.85 KJ/mole, then draw the diagram which shows reaction.
II-A) Give reasons for :
1-Acidic solutions dont have a hydrogen ion H +.
-Because H+ makes a bond with water forming hydrated Proton H3O+.
2-The actual mass of a nucleus is always smaller than theoretical mass.
-Because part of the mass is converted to energy to bind components of nucleus together.
3-Boiling point of Sodium carbonate solution (1M) is higher than that of Sodium chloride
solution (1M)
-Because number of ions produced from one moleof Sodium carbonate is greater than number
of ions produced by one mole of Sodium chloride.
B) 92U238 emits 2 beta particles and one Alpha particle.
Atomic number of produced atom is 92 , mass number 234
Produced atom is an isotope of Uranium 92U238 .

102

C) Compare between :
1- Alpha particle is the nucleus of Helium atom. Both of them have the symbol 2He4
2-Ammonium chloride solution and Sodium acetate solution (in view of their effect on litmus
paper)
Ammonium chloride has an acidic effect on litmus (turns litmus to red) , since it is formed from
weak alkali and strong acid , while Sodium acetate has an alkaline effect on litmus (turns
litmus blue ) , sinc it is formed from strong alkali and weak acid.
III-A) Calculate remaining mass of 2 g of a radioactive element , knowing that its half life time
is 20 min. and this element was left for 120 sec.
2
1

1/8
1/16
1/32
The remaining mass is 1/32 grams.
B) Choose correct answer
1- c) m2Kgs-2
2-c)tribasic
3-b) CH4
C)How can you obtain :
1-A copper salt from its oxide.
2-Nitrogen from Carbon 6C14 .

CuO + H2SO4
C14

N14

CuSO4 +
0
-1e

H2O

IV-A)Correct underlined words


1-Bucky ball is formed of 60 atoms of Carbon.
2-One mole of Carbon dioxide occupies a volume of 22.4 liters at s.t.p
3-The measuring cylinder is used to determine the volume of a liquid.
4-0.5 mole of sulphuric acid equals 49 g. (H= , S=32 , O=16)
B)Give reasons
1-Dissolution of Sodium hydroxide is exothermic.
-Because the amount of heat produced during hydration is greater than heat needed to
separate ions of solute and molecules of solvent.
2-The neutron is the most suitable projectile (bomb) for nuclear reaction.
-Because it has a suitable mass and can be accelerated with different speeds.
3-8O16 and 8O18 are 2 isotopes , but they make same chemical reactions.
-Because they have same number of electrons in the outermost energy level which is
responsible for chemical reactions.
C)According to the following reaction :
1 mole
CaCO3 + 2HCl
CaCl2 + H2O
Grams
100
X
Mass of Calcium carbonate =25 grams

1 mole
CO2
liters
22.4
5.6

V-A)What is meant by :
1-It means that amount of heat produced during formation of one mole of CO 2 from its
elements at standard state is 393 Kj
2-It means that the solution is highly acidic.
B)Show by balanced chemical equations :
1-Reaction between Hydrochloric acid and Sodium hydroxide.
NaOH + HCl
NaCl + H2O
2-Reaction between sulphuric acid and Potassium carbonate.
H2SO4 + K2CO3
K2CO3 + H2O + CO2
C)Calculate
1-Number of sodium ions in 117 g of sodium chloride solution in water.
1 mole
1 mole
NaCl
Na +
+
Cl23
58.5
6.023 x 10
117
x
x= 12.046 x 10 23

103

2-Number of neutrons of 13Al , knowing that nuclear binding energy = 186.03 M.e.v and
binding energy per nucleon = 6.89 M.e.v .
Binding energy per nucleon = B.E /mass number
Therefore
Mass number = B.E /B.E per nucleon. = 186.03 /6.89 =
Number of neutrons = Mass number atomic number =(186.03/6.89) - 13 =

(2)Notre Dame 2nd. Term 2015)


Answer Four Questions Only:
Question One: A- State a scientific term:
1-Material which conducts electricity in solutions.
2-The sum of stored energies in one mole of substance.
3-Amount of time in which the number of radiant nuclei decreases by half
their original number by radioactive degenerate.
4-Nano material that have only one dimension between 1-100 nm.
B-Chemical analysis have proven that acetic acid (vinegar) is formed from
40% carbon ,6.67% hydrogen, and 53.33% oxygen. If the molar mass of it is
60 g, find the molecular
formula of the acid knowing that (C = 12 , H = 1 , O = 16).
Question two :A-Choose correct answer :
1-Volume of 4 grams hydrogen at s.t.p = .Liters
a) 2
b) 22.4
c) 44.8
d) 89.7
2-The pH value which the Ph.Ph color is red
a)2
b) 4
c) 6
d) 9
4
9
12
3-In equation
+ 4Be
+ X . which x is
2He
6C
..
a)Electron
b)Proton
c)Neutron
d)No answer
104

4-The nanometer = . Meter.


a)1x109
b) 1 x 105

c) 1 x10-9

d) 1 x 103

B- Calculate the heat change for the following reaction , stating whether the
reaction is exothermic or endothermic. CH4 + 2 O2
CO2 + 2 H2O
(C=O) 745 , (O-H) 467 , (C-H) 413 , (O=O) 498
Question Three :A-Correct underlined words :
1-Arrhenius acid is the substance which dissolves in water giving OH-.
2-Heat of formation (heat content) of any element equals one.
3-Mass in grams of 44.8 liters of ammonia gas at stp equals 16 grams. (H=1 ,
N=14)
4-Small volumes of liquids are measured by test tube.
B-Calculate binding energy in 2He4 nucleus , and calculate B.E per nucleon if
you know that mass of 1 proton =1.00782 U , and mass of 1 Neutron
=1.00866 U.
Question four :A-Express the following chemical reactions in a balanced ionic
form :
Sodium chloride(aq) + Silver nitrate(aq)
Sodium nitrate(aq) +
Silver Chloride(aq)
Nitric acid(l) + Potassium hydroxide(aq)
Potassium
nitrate(aq) + water.
B-Give reasons for :
1-Dissolving Potassium iodide in water is endothermic.
2-It is difficult to make nuclear fusion reaction in lab.
3-Hydrochloric acid is a strong while acetic acid is weak.
4-Measurement has a great importance in chemistry.
Question five :A-What is meant by : 1- Nano chemistry.
2-Joule
B-Compare between Alpha and Beta radiations with respect to (Charge
ability to penetrate)
C-Calculate molar concentration of a solution when dissolving 53 g of Sodium
carbonate in 400 g of water . (Na=23 , C=12 , H=1)

Model answer of (2)Notre Dame 2nd.. Term 2015)

Answer Four Questions Only:


Question One: A- State a scientific term:
1-Electrolyte 2-Heat content (Enthalpy)
fibers , Nano wires

3-Half life time.

4-Nano

B- Solution
Number of moles of Carbon
= 40/12
= 3.33333
Number of moles of Hydrogen = 6.67/1 =6.67
Number of moles of Oxygen = 53.33/16 =3.3333
Formula is
C3.333 H6.67 O3.333
divide by
3.333
C H2 O
Now we are going to calculate molecular formula from empirical formula
1 mole of CH2O = 12 + 2 + 16 = 30
Number of empirical formula = 60/30=2
105

Multiply

CH2O

X2

C2H4O2
Question two :A-Choose correct answer :
1-c) 44.8
2-d) 9
3-c)Neutron

4- c) 1 x10 -9

B-Enthalpy change = 4(413) + 2(498) -2(745) -4(467)= -710 kj , Therefore


reaction is exothermic.
Question Three :A-Correct underlined words :
1-Arrhenius acid is the substance which dissolves in water giving OH-.
2-Heat of formation (heat content) of any element equals one.
3-Mass in grams of 44.8 liters of ammonia gas at stp equals 16 grams. (H=1 ,
N=14)
4-Small volumes of liquids are measured by measuring cylinder.
B-Calculate binding energy in 2He4 nucleus , and calculate B.E per nucleon if
you know that mass of 1 proton =1.00782 U , and mass of 1 Neutron
=1.00866 U.
Question four :A-Express the following chemical reactions in a balanced ionic
form :
Sodium chloride(aq) + Silver nitrate(aq)
Sodium nitrate(aq) +
Silver Chloride(aq)
Nitric acid(l) + Potassium hydroxide(aq)
Potassium
nitrate(aq) + water.
B-Give reasons for :
1-Dissolving Potassium iodide in water is endothermic.
-Because energy needed to separate ions of solute and molecules of solvent
is greater than energy released during Hydration.
2-It is difficult to make nuclear fusion reaction in lab.
-Because it needs 107 K to start reaction
3-Hydrochloric acid is a strong while acetic acid is weak.
-Because Hydrochloric acid is completely ionized while acetic acid is
incompletely ionized.
4-Measurement has a great importance in chemistry.
-a)To know concentration of elements forming a substance.
b)For monitoring and Health protection.
c)To Suggest a medication.
Question five :A-What is meant by :
1- Nano chemistry.
It is the study and creation of substances with Nano dimensions.
2-Joule
-Amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water 1/ 4.18
C
B-Compare between Alpha and Beta radiations with respect to (Charge
ability to penetrate)
C-Calculate molar concentration of a solution when dissolving 53 g of Sodium
carbonate in 400 g of water . (Na=23 , C=12 , H=1)

106

(3)Notre Dame (1st. Term 2015)


Answer Four Questions Only:
-Question One:
A- State a scientific term:
1-Equal one of a billion of meter.
2- The sum of stored energies in one mole of substance.
3-The number of moles of solutes in one kilogram of the solvents.
4-A nuclear reaction in which two light nuclei are fused to form heavier
nucleus.
B- Calculate the number of carbon atoms found in 50 g of calcium carbonate.(
Ca =40 C= 12 0 = 16 )
Question Two:
A- Choose the correct answer:
1- Volume of 32 g of oxygen in STP is .........................
a- 2 liter
b- 22.4 liter
c- 44.8 liter
d89.7 litre
2- The value of PH which ph.ph. Red is ......................
a- 2
b- 4
c- 6
d-9
14
14
3- In equation
+
X
in which x
6C
7N
is ...................
a-An electron
b- neutron
c-proton
ray
4-One of one dimensional substance ................
a-Nano fibers
b- Nano-tubes
c- Nano-shell
Bucky balls

d-

xd-

B- If heat of formation of methane is -74.6 Kj/mole and carbon dioxide is


-393.5 K mole and, water is -241.8 Kj/mole calculate the heat change in the
heat content of the reaction
CH4 + 2 O2
CO2 + 2H2O
Question three:
A-Rewrite the correct answer:
1- Half mole of carbon dioxide is 66 g
2- the empirical formula of compound CH2 and its mass 56 the molecular
formula C3H6
3- Atmospheric air represents a gaseous solution of Solid in gas type
4- The amount of heat needed to raise the body temperature one degree is
joule
B- Calculate the binding energy of nucleus 8O16 estimated with Mev Units and
then calculate the B.E for each nucleon providing by 8O16 =15. 994915 U
,proton mass = 1.007825 u, and neutron = 1.00866
Question Four:
A-Give reason for each:
1- One liter of O2 gas contain the same number of molecules in litre of Cl 2 gas
at STP
2- it is difficult to do the nuclear fusion reaction in lab.
3- Using Hess s law in calculating the heat formation of CO.
4-Sulphuric acid is strong acid but acetic acid is weak acid.
B- What is meant by
Isotopes

1- Nanochemistry

107

2-

Question Five: A-Compare between chemical and nuclear reaction


B- Express the balanced chemical equation
1- Nitrogen gas + hydrogen gas
2- Sodium carbonate +hydrochloric acid
+ Carbon dioxide

ammonia gas
Sodium chloride + water

C- Calculate The molarity for sugar can C12H22O11 in water if mass dissolved
Sugar 85.5 g in volume 0.5L . ( C= 12 H=1 0=16)
(3)Notre Dame (1st. Term 2015)(Answer)
Answer Four Questions Only:
-Question One:
A- State a scientific term:
1-Nanometer
2- Heat content (Enthalpy)
Fusion reaction

3-Molality

4-

B- Number of Carbon atoms = 3.01 x 1032 atoms.


Question Two:
A- Choose the correct answer:1-b-22.4 liters
2- d-9
3-a-An electron
4-a-Nanofiber
BCH4 + 2O2
CO2 + 2 H2O
-74.6 0
-393.5
2(-241.8)
= HFP - HFR = [-393.5+2(-241.8)-(-74.6)] =-802.5 Kj/mol
Question three:
A-Rewrite the correct answer:1- 22 g
2- C4H8
3- Gas in Gas
4- J/C
B- Binding energy =127.514415 M.e.v
Binding energy per nucleon =127.51445/16 = 7.9696 M.e.v
Question Four:
A-Give reason for each:
1-Because according to Avogadros postulate , equal volumes of gases at
same temperature and pressure , contain same number of molecules.
2- -Because it needs a very high temperature to start reaction 10 7 K.
3- -Because measuring heat of formation of CO practically is impossible
because it is unstable.
4-Because sulphuric acid is completely ionized , while acetic acid is
incompletely ionized.
B- What is meant by
1-Nanochemistry : It is the study and creating the substances with Nano
dimensions
2- Isotopes
: Different atoms of the same element , similar in atomic
number but different in mass number.
Question Five: A-Compare between chemical and nuclear reaction
Chemical reactions
Nuclear reactions
Occur between the electrons of the Occur between the nuclei of the
outermost shells of the atom
atoms
There is no transformation of an
Almost there is a transformation of
element to another
an element to another or its
108

isotope
Isotopes of the same element give
different results.
Produce large amount of energy

The products are the same if we


used different isotopes
Produce small amount of energy

B- Express the balanced chemical equation


1- N2
+ 3 H2
2 NH3
2Na2CO3
+
HCl
+ CO2

NaCl

H 2O

C- Calculate The molarity for sugar can C12 H22 O11 in water if mass dissolved
Sugar 85.5 g in volume 0.5L . ( C= 12 H=1 0=16)
Mass of solute = molex molex v
1moleof C12H22O11
= 342 g
85.5 = 342 x molarity
x 0.5
Molarity = 0.5 mol/Liter

109