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CONTOH 4.

2
Sebuah kipas 5 hp digunakan untuk memberikan sirkulasi udara dalam suatu ruangan besar.
Jika ruangan tersebut diasumsikan terinsulansi dengan baik tentukan energi internalnya
setelah kipas digunakan selama 1 jam.
Diketahui

P=5 hp
t=1 jam=3600 s

Ditanya

U = ? dengan satuanJoule

Penyelesaian :
1. Ubah 5 hp menjadi satuan watt
1 hp=746 watt
Maka

5 hp=746 x 5 watt=3730 watt

2. Menurut asumsi, Q = 0. Dengan PE=KE =0


hukum pertama menjadi Q W = U .
0W = U

W =U
Sedangkan rumus dari

W =P . t

Jadi,

W =U
W =P .t
W =(P. t)

W =(3730 watt x 3600 s)


W =(1,343 X 1 O7 watt s)
7

W =1,343 X 1O Joule
Tanda negatif yang dihasilkan adalah karena usaha dimasukkan ke dalam sistem. Akhirnya
kenaikan energi internalnya adalah

W =U
U =W

U =( 1,343 X 1O 7 Joule )
U =1,343 X 1 O7 Joule

CONTOH 4.4
Sebuah piston bebas gesekan digunakan untuk memberikan tekanan konstan sebesar 400 kPa
didalam sebuah silinder berisi uap yang awalnya berada pada 200 dengan volume 2 m3.
Hitunglah temperatur awalnya akhirnya jika 3500 kJ kalor ditambahkan.

W = l P d V = p ( v 2 - v,)= 4oo(v2 - v,)


The mass beiore and after remains unchanged. Using the steam tables, this is expressed as
V, 2 m=-=-u1 0.5342 - 744 kg
The volume V2 is written as V2= mu2 = 3.744 u 2 . The first law is then, finding U , from the
steam tables,
3500 - (4OO)(3.744~2- 2) = ( ~ 2 - 2647) X (3.744)
This requires a trial-and-error process. One plan for obtaining a solution is to guess a value
for u2 and calculate
u2 from the equation above. If this value checks with the u2 from the steam tables at the same
temperature, then
the guess is the correct one. For example, guess u2 = 1.0 m3/kg. Then the equation gives u2 =
3395 kJ/kg. From
the steam tables, with P = 0.4 MPa, the u2 value allows us to interpolate T2= 654C and the
u2 gives
T2= 600C. Therefore, the guess must be revised. Try u2 = 1.06 m3/kg. The equation gives
u2 = 3372 kJ/kg.
The tables are interpolated to give T2= 640C; for u 2 , T2= 647C. The actual u2 is a little
less than 1.06
m3/kg, with the final temperature being approximately
T2 = 644C
CONTOH 4.6

Kalor spesifik untuk uap superheat pada sekitar 150 kPa dapat ditentukan melalui persamaan
T 400
Kj/ Kg .
1480

C p =2.07+

a). Berapakah besarnya perubahan entalpi antara 300

dan 700

untuk 3 kg uap?

bandingkan dengan tabel-tabel uap .


Cp

b). Berapakah nilai rata-rataa

antara 300 dan 700 berdasarkan persamaan

tersebut dan berdasarkan data tabulasi.


Diketahui

P=150 kPa=0.15 MPa

C p =2.07+

Ditanya

T 400
Kj/ Kg .
1480

: a). Berapakah besarnya perubahan entalpi antara 300

dan 700

untuk 3 kg uap?bandingkan dengan tabel-tabel uap .


Cp

b). Berapakah nilai rata-rata

antara 300

dan 700

berdasarkan persamaan tersebut dan berdasarkan data tabulasi.


Penyelesaian :
T2

700

a). H=m C P dT =3
T1

300

3(2.07 T +

700

T 400
T
400
2.07+
dT =3 2.07+

dT
1480
1480
1480
300

T2
T

)
2.1480 3.7

U = ? dengan satuanJoule
Penyelesaian :
3. Ubah 5 hp menjadi satuan watt
1 hp=746 watt
Maka

5 hp=746 x 5 watt =3730 watt

4. Menurut asumsi, Q = 0. Dengan PE=KE=0


hukum pertama menjadi Q W = U .
0W = U

W =U
Sedangkan rumus dari

W =P . t

Jadi,

W =U
W =P .t
W =(P. t)

W =(3730 watt x 3600 s)


W =(1,343 X 1 O7 watt s)
W =1,343 X 1O7 Joule
Tanda negatif yang dihasilkan adalah karena usaha dimasukkan ke dalam sistem. Akhirnya
kenaikan energi internalnya adalah
W =U
U =W

U =( 1,343 X 1O 7 Joule )
U =1,343 X 1 O7 Joule

( a ) The enthalpy change is found to be


A H = rnlrT2c,)dT = 3/""'( 2.07 + 14-84000) dT = 2565 kJ
I 300
From the tables we find, using P = 150 kPa,
A H = (3)( 3928 - 3073) = 2565 kJ
(6) The average value c , ? , i~s ~found by using the relation
rnc,,,,,. AT = m/-:,,dT or (3)(400c,,,,) = 3/'*)(2.07 + T-400
dT
300
The integral was evaluated in part ( a ) ;hence, we have
Cp,av = 2565 = 2.14 kJ/kg ."C
(3 )(400)
Using the values from the steam table, we have
Ah

Cp,av = -AT = (3928 - 3073)/400 = 2.14 kJ/kg ."C


Because the steam tables give the same values as the linear equation of this example, we can
safely assume
that the c , ( T ) relationship for steam over this temperature range is closely approximated by
a linear relation.
This linear relation would change, however, for each pressure chosen; hence, the steam tables
are essential.
CONTOH 4.8
Tentukanlah perubahan entalpi untuk 1 kg nitrogen yang dipanaskan dari 300 ke 1200 K
dengan (a) menggunakan tabel-tabel gas, (b) mengintegrasikan Cp(T) dan (c)
mengasumsikan kalor spesifik konstan. Gunakan M = 28 kg/kmol
( a ) Using the gas table in Appendix F, find the enthalpy change to be
Ah = 36 777 - 8723 = 28 054 kJ/kmol or 28 054/28 = 1002 kJ/kg
( b ) The expression for c,(T) is found in Table B-5.The enthalpy change is
- 1.5 T - 2 Ah = /,p"[39.06 - 512.79( -&) + 1072.7( m) - 82O.4( &)-'I dt
= (39.06)(1200 - 300) - (512.79)( $)(12-0.5 - 3-O.9
+(1072.7)( ~10)0( 1 2 - -l 3-') - (820.4) 0(1 2-2 - 3-2)
= 28093 kJ/kmol or 1003 kJ/kg
( c ) Assuming constant specific heat (found in Table B-2) the enthalpy change is found to be
Ah C, AT = (1.042)(1200 - 300) = 938 kJ/kg
Note the value found by integrating is essentially the same as that found from the gas tables.
However, the
enthalpy change found by assuming constant specific heat is in error by over 6 percent.
CONTOH 4.10
Suatu rangkaian piston silinder berisi 0.02 m3 udara pada 50

dan 400 kPa. Kalor

ditambahkan sebesar 50 Kj dan usaha dilakukan oleh sebuah roda dayung hingga temperatur
mencapai 700 . Jika tekanan dijaga konstan berapakah besarnya usaha oleh roda dayung
yang harus ditambahkan ke udara? Asumsikan kalor-kalor spesifik konstan.
The process cannot be approximated by a quasiequilibrium process because of the paddlewheel work. Thus,
the heat transfer is not equal to the enthalpy change. The first law may be written as
Q - wpaddle = m ( h 2 - h ~=) m c p ( T 2 - T 1 )
To find rn we use the ideal-gas equation. It gives us
From the first law the paddle-wheel work is found to be
Wpaddle = Q - mC,( T2 - T , ) = 50 - (0.0863)( 1.00)(700 - 50) = -6.095 kJ
Note: We could have used the first law as Q - W,,, = rn(u, - U , ) and then let Wpaddle = W,,,
- P(V, - Vl). We
would then need to calculate V2.

CONTOH 4.12

Air mengalir dalam sebuah pipa yang diameternya berubah dari 20 menjadi 40 mm. Jika di
dalam bagian berdiameter 20 mm air memiliki kecepatan 40 m/s, tentukanlah kecepatannya
di dalam bagian 40 mm. Hitung juga fluks massanya.
The continuity equation ( 4 . 5 7 ) is used. There results, using p1 = p2,

The mass flux is found to be


riz = p ~ l=~ (ioloo)( T ( o y ) 2 ) ( 4 0 ) = 12.57 kg/s
where p = 1080 kg/m3 is the standard value for water.

CONTOH 4.14
Uap masuk ke dalam sebuah turbn pada 4000 kPa dan 500

dan keluar seperti

ditunjukkan dalam Gambar. 4.13 Untuk kecepatan masuk sebesar 200 m/s hitunglah keluaran
daya turbin tersebut. (a) Abaikanlah perpindahan kalor perubahan energi kinetik. (b)
Tunjukkanlah bahwa perubahan energi kinetik dapat diabaikan.

( a ) The energy equation in the form of (4.70)is -wT= (h2- h 1 ) h We find m as follows:
m = plAIVl= -1AlVl = T(0*025)2(200) = 4.544 kg/s
U1 0.08643
The enthalpies are found from Tables C-3 and C-2 to be
h, = 3445.2 kJ/ kg h, = 2665.7 kJ/ kg
The maximum power output is then wT=
( b ) The exiting velocity is found to be
AIVlp 1
v 2 = -=
A2 P 2
The kinetic energy change is then
v; - v2
-(2665.7 - 3445.2X4.544) = 3542 kJ/s or 3.542 MW
~(0.025)~(200/0.08643)
= 193m/s
T(0.125)2/2 .087
AKE = m ( ) = (4.544) ( 2o02 ) = -6250 J/s or -6.25 kJ/s

This is less than 0.1 percent of the enthalpy change and is indeed negligible. Kinetic energy
changes are
usually omitted in the analysis of a turbine.
CONTOH 4.16
Udara mengalir melalui sebuah nozel supersonik yang ditunjukkan dalam gambar 4.16.
Kondisi-kondisi masuknya adalah 7 kPa dan 420 . Diameter keluar nozel diatur
sedemikian rupa sehingga diperoleh kecepatan keluar sebesar 700 m/s. Hitunglah (a)
temperatur keluar, (b) fluks massa dan (c) diameter keluar. Asumsikan aliran adiabatik kuasi
kesetimbangan.

( a ) To find the exit temperature the energy equation (4.72) is used. It is, using Ah = cpAT,
v: V 2
-2 + c,T, = 22 + cpT2
We then have, using c, = 1000 J/kg K,
(6) To find the mass flux we must find the density at the entrance. From the inlet conditions
we have
Pl 7000
= (287)(693) = 0.03520 kg/m3
The mass flux is then r)2 = plAIVl = (0.0352X~XO.1)~(400)= 0.4423 kg/s.
( c ) To find the exit diameter we would use the continuity equation p,A,V, = p,A2V2.This
requires the density
at the exit. It is found by assuming adiabatic quasiequilibrium flow. Referring to (4.491, we
have
l / ( k - 1 ) 528 1/(1.4-1)
= (0.0352)( =) = 0.01784 kg/m3
Hence,
CONTOH 4.18
Uap meninggalkan boiler dari suatu siklus daya uap pada 4000 kPa dan 600 . Uap
tersebut keluar dari turbin pada 20 kPa sebagai uap jenuh. Uap kemudian keluar dari
kondensor sebagai air jenuh (Lihat gambar 4-20). Tentukanlah efisiensi termalnya jika tidak
terjadi penurunan tekanan di sepanjang kondensor dan boiler.

To determine the thermal efficiency we must calculate the heat transferred to the water in the
boiler, the
work done by the turbine, and the work required by the pump. We will make the calculations
for 1 kg of steam
since the mass is unknown. The boiler heat transfer is, neglecting kinetic and potential energy
changes,
qs = h , - h,. To find h, we assume that the pump simply increases the pressure [see (4.71)]:
wP = (P2 - P,)u = (4000 - 20)(0.001) = 3.98 kJ/kg
The enthalpy h2 is thus found to be, using (4.701,
h2 = wP + h , = 3.98 + 251.4 = 255.4 kJ/kg
where h, is assumed to be that of saturated water at 20 kPa. From the steam tables we find h,
= 3674 kJ/kg.
There results
qe = 3674 - 255.4 = 3420 kJ/kg
The work output from the turbine is wT = h, - h, = 3674 - 2610 = 1064 kJ/kg. Finally, the
thermal efficiency
is
v=-=wT - wp 1064 - = 0.310 or 31.0% 4 B 3420
Note that the pump work could have been neglected with no significant change in the results.
CONTOH 4.20
Sebuah tangki udara dengan volume 20 m3 diberikan tekanan hingga 10 MPa. Tangki tersebut
pada akhirnya mencapai suhu ruangan 25 . Jika udara dilepaskan tanpa perpindahan
kalor sehingga

Pf =

200 kPa, Tentukanlah massa udara yang tersisa di dalam tangki dan

temperatur akhir di dalam tangki.


Diket

: V = 20 m3
Pi = 10 MPa = 107 Pa
Ti = 25

Pf = 200 kPa = 2x105 Pa


R = 287 J/Kg.K
k = 1.4
Ditanya

: Tf =....?

Penyelesaian :
1. Massa awal udara didalam tangki
Pi V
( 1 07 Pa ) (20 m3 )
m=
=
=2338 K g
R T i (287 J Kg. K )(298 K )
2.

Berdasarkan rumus 4.91


Pf 1/k

Pi
mf
=
mi
Pf 1/k

Pi
mf =mi
1

2 x 1 05 Pa 1.4
=143 k g
107
mf = (2338 kg )
3. Untuk memperoleh temperatur akhir, menggunakan rumus 4.90
T f 1 /(k 1)

Ti
mf
=
mi
Tf
1/(1.41 )

298 K
143 kg
=
2338 kg

Tf
2.5

298 K
0.0612=
T f 2.5
93819,3=

T f =2.593819.3
T f =97.48 K
T f =175.52

The initial mass of air in the tank is found to be


PtV 10 x 106(20)
m.= -= = 2338 kg ' RT, (287)(298)
Equation (4.91) gives, using k = 1.4,
1/k 2 x 105 1/1.4
mf= mi(2) = (2ssS)( -)10 x 106 = 143.0 kg
To find the final temperature (4.90)is used:
k-1
= (298)( 143/2338)0.4 = 97.46 K or -175.5"C Tf= T,( 2)
A person who accidently comes in contact with a flow of gas from a pressurized tank faces
immediate
freezing.
CONTOH 5.6
Sebuah mesin Carnot dioperasikan dengan udara, dengan menggunakan siklus yang
ditunjukkan dalam gambar 5-12, Tentukanlah efisiensi termal dan keluaran usaha dari setiap
siklus operasi.

To find the work output we can determine the heat added during the constant temperature
expansion and
determine w from q = W/QH= w/q,. We find qH from the first law using Au = 0:
qH= w2-3= / P d v = RTH{ ~3 -dv 0 3 = RTH In U202
To find v2 first we must find u l :
Using (4.49), we have
2)l / ( k - 1)
U* = U( = (1.076)(300/500)'/".4-" - 0.300 m3/kg

Likewise, u3 = U ~ ( T ~ / T ~ )'1' '=( ~(1-0)(300/S00)2~5= 2.789 m3/kg. Hence,


2 789
qH= (287)(500)1n o.300 = 320.0 kJ/kg
Finally, the work for each cycle is w = q7qH= (0.4)(320.0) = 128 kJ/kg.