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GERHANA MATAHARI

Gerhana matahari terjadi ketika posisi bulan terletak di


antara Bumi dan Matahari, sehingga menutup sebagian
atau seluruh cahaya Matahari. Walaupun Bulan lebih kecil,
bayangan Bulan mampu melindungi cahaya Matahari
sepenuhnya karena Bulan yang berjarak rata-rata jarak
384.400 kilometer dari Bumi lebih dekat dibandingkan
Matahari yang mempunyai jarak rata-rata 149.680.000
kilometer.

Gerhana matahari terbahagi kepada empat jenis iaitu:

Gerhana total, terjadi apabila saat puncak gerhana,


piringan Matahari ditutup sepenuhnya oleh piringan
Bulan. Saat itu, piringan Bulan sama besar atau lebih
besar dari piringan Matahari. Ukuran piringan Matahari
dan piringan Bulan sendiri berubah-ubah tergantung
pada masing-masing jarak Bumi-Bulan dan BumiMatahari.

Gerhana sebahagian, terjadi apabila piringan Bulan


(saat puncak gerhana) hanya menutup sebagian dari
piringan Matahari. Pada gerhana ini, selalu ada bagian
dari piringan Matahari yang tidak tertutup oleh piringan
Bulan.

Gerhana cincin, terjadi apabila piringan Bulan (saat


puncak gerhana) hanya menutup sebagian dari piringan
Matahari. Gerhana jenis ini terjadi bila ukuran piringan
Bulan lebih kecil dari piringan Matahari. Sehingga ketika
piringan Bulan berada di depan piringan Matahari, tidak
seluruh piringan Matahari akan tertutup oleh piringan
Bulan. Bagian piringan Matahari yang tidak tertutup oleh
piringan Bulan, berada di sekeliling piringan Bulan dan
terlihat seperti cincin yang bercahaya.

Gerhana hibrida, bergeser antara gerhana total dan


cincin. Pada titik tertentu di permukaan bumi, gerhana
ini muncul sebagai gerhana total, sedangkan pada titiktitik lain muncul sebagai gerhana cincin. Gerhana
hibrida relatif jarang.

ECLIPSE
An eclipse is an astronomical event that occurs
when an astronomical object is temporarily
obscured, either by passing into the shadow of
another body or by having another body pass
between it and the viewer. An eclipse is a type
of syzygy.
The term eclipse is most often used to describe
either a solar eclipse, when the Moon's shadow
crosses the Earth's surface, or alunar eclipse,
when the Moon moves into the Earth's shadow.
However, it can also refer to such events
beyond the EarthMoon system: for example, a
planet moving into the shadow cast by one of
its moons, a moon passing into the shadow
cast by its host planet, or a moon passing into
the shadow of another moon.
A binary star system can also produce eclipses
if the plane of the orbit of its constituent stars
intersects the observer's position.

ECLIPSE CYCLES
An eclipse cycle takes place when a series of
eclipses are separated by a certain interval of
time. This happens when the orbital motions of
the bodies form repeating harmonic patterns.
A particular instance is the saros, which results
in a repetition of a solar or lunar eclipse every
6,585.3 days, or a little over 18 years.
Because this is not a whole number of days,
successive eclipses will be visible from different
parts of the world.

EARTHMOON SYSTEM

An eclipse involving the Sun, Earth and Moon can occur only when they are nearly in a
straight line, allowing one to be hidden behind another, viewed from the third. Because
the orbital plane of the Moon is tilted with respect to the orbital plane of the Earth

(the ecliptic), eclipses can occur only when the Moon is close to the intersection of
these two planes (the nodes). The Sun, Earth and nodes are aligned twice a year
(during an eclipse season), and eclipses can occur during a period of about two months
around these times. There can be from four to seven eclipses in a calendar year, which
repeat according to various eclipse cycles, such as a saros.
Between 1901 and 2100 there are the maximum of seven eclipses in: [8]

four (penumbral) lunar and three solar eclipses: 1908, 2038.

four solar and three lunar eclipses: 1917, 1973, 2094.

five solar and two lunar eclipses: 1934.

Excluding penumbral lunar eclipses, there are a maximum of seven eclipses in: [9]

1591, 1656, 1787, 1805, 1917, 1935, 1982, and 2094.

SOLAR ECLIPSE

The progression of a solar eclipseon August 1, 2008, viewed fromNovosibirsk, Russia. The time between shots
is three minutes.

As observed from the Earth, a solar eclipse occurs when the Moon passes in front of
the Sun. The type of solar eclipse event depends on the distance of the Moon from the
Earth during the event. A total solar eclipse occurs when the Earth intersects the umbra
portion of the Moon's shadow. When the umbra does not reach the surface of the Earth,
the Sun is only partially occulted, resulting in an annular eclipse. Partial solar eclipses
occur when the viewer is inside the penumbra.
The eclipse magnitude is the fraction of the Sun's diameter that is covered by the Moon.
For a total eclipse, this value is always greater than or equal to one. In both annular and

total eclipses, the eclipse magnitude is the ratio of the angular sizes of the Moon to the
Sun.
Solar eclipses are relatively brief events that can only be viewed in totality along a
relatively narrow track. Under the most favorable circumstances, a total solar eclipse
can last for 7 minutes, 31 seconds, and can be viewed along a track that is up to
250 km wide. However, the region where a partial eclipse can be observed is much
larger. The Moon's umbra will advance eastward at a rate of 1,700 km/h, until it no
longer intersects the Earth's surface.
During a solar eclipse, the Moon can sometimes perfectly cover the Sun because its
size is nearly the same as the Sun's when viewed from the Earth. A total solar eclipse is
in fact an occultation while an annular solar eclipse is a transit.
When observed at points in space other than from the Earth's surface, the Sun can be
eclipsed by bodies other than the Moon. Two examples include when the crew of Apollo
12 observed
the Earth
to
eclipse
the
Sun in
1969
and
when
the Cassini probe observed Saturn to eclipse the Sun in 2006.

SOLAT SUNAT
GERHANA MATAHARI
Melakukan Solat Gerhana Matahari atau dikenali
juga dengan nama Solat Sunat Kusuf adalah sunat
muakkad bagi muslimin dan muslimat (lelaki atau
perempuan), sama ada orang yang bermukim atau
bermusafir, merdeka atau hamba. Disunatkan mandi
sebelum dirikan solat gerhana, seperti hendak solat
Jumaat.
.

Solat Sunat Kusuf boleh dilakukan di mana-mana samada


di rumah, surau atau masjid. Solat Sunat Kusuf boleh
dilakukan secara bersendirian Walau bagaimanapun yang
lebih afdhal dan utama adalah ditunaikan secara
berjamaah di masjid yang didirikan Solat Jumaat.
.
Sebaiknya dibacakan khutbah setelah selesai solat seperti
mana pada solat hari raya. Isinya diarahkan kepada
keterangan tentang gerhana, isu-isu semasa ataupun halhal bermanfaat yang menjurus kepada anjuran taubat,
sedekah, persatuan, amar maruf nahi mungkar.

WAKTU SOLAT
GERHANA MATAHARI
.

Solat Sunat Kusuf / Gerhana Matahari waktunya bermula


ketika ternyata sedang berlakunya gerhana matahari
sehingga selesai gerhana matahari tersebut.

Iaitu dengan berakhir, tamatnya gerhana itu atau sehingga


jatuhnya matahari dan hilangnya gerhana tersebut.

Sekiranya gerhana berlaku ketika atau selepas terbenam


matahari, maka tidak ada solat gerhana.

Lafaz Niat:

Daku Solat Sunat Gerhana Matahari dua rakaat, kerana Allah Taala.

ATURAN SOLAT GERHANA


1. Disunatkan mandi sebelum solat.

2. Bilal Menyeru : " 3 " . Berdiri lurus mengadap kiblat. 4. Berniat


mengerjakan solat gerhana. (1) Lafaz niat untuk gerhana bulan &
Sahaja aku solat sunat gerhana bulan dua rakaat makmum
kerana Allah Taala. (2) Lafaz niat untuk gerhana matahari &
Sahaja aku solat sunat gerhana matahari dua rakaat makmum kerana
Allah Taala. 5. Takbiratul Ihram. Doa Iftitah, Bacaan Al-Fatihah dan Surah. 6. Ruku
serta tasbihnya dan qiam semula. 7. Baca al-Fatihah dan Surah. 2 8. Ruku, Itidal
kemudian sujud 2 kali (seperti biasa). 9. Kemudian qiam semula untuk mengerjakan
rakaat kedua. 10. Baca al-Fatihah dan Surah. 11. Ruku berserta tasbihnya dan qiam
semula. 12. Baca al-Fatihah lagi dan Surah. 13. Kemudian ruku Itidal dan sujud 2
kali, baca tasyahhud akhir dan salam. 14. Selepas itu dibacakan khutbah khas
sempena gerhana. Dua kali khutbah (seperti khutbah Hari Raya)