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Motivation (Management)



Human factors cant be circumvent while motivating people


multiplicity of managers role

There is no average person
treat people not as ones own end rather in a humanistic way
Consider of whole person

Motivation: entire class drive, needs, wishes and similar forces to propel people
toward goal achievement

McGregors theory X and Y:

Theory X
1. Average human being inherently dislike works
2. Coerced, controlled , directed and treated with punishment to get them exert
effort toward achievement of organizational objectives
3. Have little ambition and want security above everything else
Theory Y
1. Exhausting physical and mental effort in work is natural as play and rest.
2. Exercise self-direction and control while serving committed objectives.
3. Committed to objective depends on the size of reward and tempt arise from
4. Yearn for responsibility
5. High degree of imagination, ingenious, creativity in case of solving org.
1. Based on assumption in lieu of research
2. Doesnt imply hard( antagonistic, resistance) and soft( laissez faire)
3. Not be viewed as being on continuous scale
4. Doesnt heed to task and situational demand for different mgt approach.

Maslows Hierarchy of needs theory:

When one set of need had been stratified then that need no more
appeals/ceases as motivator.
Basic human needs placed by Maslow in an ascending order.
Physiological needs: basic needs for sustaining human life itself such as
need for food , water , warmth , shelter etc. until these needs are unmet
other needs will not motivate people.
Security / safety need: want to be free of physical danger or fear of losing
job, property , food and shelter
Affiliation and acceptance need: as a social being, need for belonging,
love and affection.
Esteem needs: want to be held in esteem both by themselves and other.
Earnest to have power , prestige , status and self confidence

Motivation (Management)


Need for self-actualization: To maximize ones potential or to accomplish


1. Closed apex of pyramid infers no need remained left where he vividly said
that in the array of need; when one need had been satisfied other need
immediately came forward
2. Measure of satisfaction level is somewhat abstract.
3. Some people may strive for self-actualization at first breaching commonplace
way to mitigate need like rebellious poet Kazi Nuzrul Islam
4. People may be oblivious about their own need.

Alderfers ERG theory:

Similar to Maslows hierarchy of needs.

People are motivated by existence, relatedness and growth needs

Alderfer needs
Existence need

Maslow need
Similar to maslows basic need for survival
Similar to maslows need for affiliation and
Growth need
Self-development , creativity , growth and
One may be motivated by needs on several levels at the same time. For ex:
one may go to work for living and motivated by good rapport with coworker

Herzbergs motivational theory:

Motivation is based on prevalence of two factor
Dissatisfier, maintenance or hygiene factors:
1) Related to job context like- relations, salary, status, job security, and
personal life.
1) Doesnt motivate people but foiled up dissatisfaction
1) Can be dovetail with Maslows physiological social need



Quality of



Satisfier/motivator factors:
Related to job content
Can be related with Maslows Esteem Need and Self-actualization.
Act as real motivator because they yields a sense of internal satisfaction.





Challenging work

Motivation (Management)


The Expectancy theory (M=V I E)

States that employees motivation is an outcome of how much an

individual wants a reward (Valence), the assessment that the likelihood
that the effort will lead to expected performance (Expectancy) and the
belief that the performance will lead to reward (Instrumentality).
In short, Valence is the significance associated by an individual about
the expected outcome. It is an expected and not the actual
satisfaction that an employee expects to receive after achieving the

Expectancy is the faith that better efforts will result in better

performance. Expectancy is influenced by factors such as possession of
appropriate skills for performing the job, availability of right resources,
availability of crucial information and getting the required support
for completing the job.
Instrumentality is the faith that if you perform well, then a valid
outcome will be there. Instrumentality is affected by factors such as
believe in the people who decide who receives what outcome.

Comparison of Maslows, Alderfers, Herzbergs, and McClellands

motivation theories.

Motivation (Management)


Equity Theory:
Individuals subjective judgment about fairness of reward given to him
relative to inputs (efforts, experience and education) in comparison with
reward of others.

outcome by a person outcome by other person

input by a person
input by other person

Feeling of inequality of reward causes disgruntlement of employee,

deteriorating quality and employee turnover.
inequitable reward
Dissatisfaction / quitting job
Continue with same level of output
Overpayment of reward
Handwork, reward discount
One of the problem; people may overestimate own contribution although
they are doing mediocre than other.

Goal setting theory of motivation:

Important features of goal-setting theory
1) Specific and clear goals lead to greater output and better performance.
2) Goals should be realistic and challenging. This gives an individual a feeling
of pride and triumph when he attains them, and sets him up for attainment of
next goal
3) Employees participation in goal is always desirable.
4) Goal setting theory has certain eventualities such as:
Self-efficiency is the individuals self-confidence and faith that he
has potential of performing the task.
Goal commitment- Goal setting theory assumes that the
individual is committed to the goal and will not leave the goal.

Motivation (Management)


Advantages of Goal Setting Theory

1) Used to raise incentives for employees to complete work quickly and
2) Better performance by increasing motivation and efforts, but also
through increasing and improving the feedback quality.
Limitations of Goal Setting Theory
1) At times, the organizational goals are in conflict with the managerial goals.
2) Very difficult and complex goals stimulate riskier behavior.
3) If the employee lacks skills and competencies to perform actions
essential for goal, then the goal-setting can fail and lead to undermining of
4) There is no evidence to prove that goal-setting improves job
Management by Objectives (MBO) is a personnel management technique
where managers and employees work together to set, record and monitor
goals for a specific period of time.( goal participatory decision about
execution of goal holistically )
MBP (management by participation) is the practice of empowering
members of a group, such as employees of a company or citizens of a
community, to participate in organizational decision making. (Participation
set goal)
Management by exception (MBE) is a practice where only significant
deviations from a budget or plan are brought to the attention of

McClellands Need Theory:

McClelland says that, regardless of our gender, culture, or age, we all have
three motivating drivers, and one of these will be our dominant
motivating driver. This dominant motivator is largely dependent on our
culture and life experiences.

Has a strong need to set and accomplish challenging goals.

Takes calculated risks to accomplish their goals.
Likes to receive regular feedback on their progress and achievements.
Often likes to work alone.

1) Wants to belong to the group.
2) Wants to be liked, and will often go along with whatever the rest of the group
wants to do.

Motivation (Management)


3) Favors collaboration over competition.

4) Doesn't like high risk or uncertainty.

Wants to control and influence others.

Likes to win arguments.
Enjoys competition and winning.
Enjoys status and recognition.

Steps for using McClelland's theory:

Step 1: Identify Drivers: examine team members to determine which of the three
motivators is dominant for each person. Identify drivers based on personality and
past actions
Step 2: Structure Your Approach: Based on the driving motivators of workers,
structuring managers leadership style Add to My Personal Learning Plan and project