Anda di halaman 1dari 19

AS/NZS 1668 Seminar

Notes
Overview

Ventilation why is it necessary?


Buildings shield us from fresh air & breezes.
Cooking smells, sweat and metabolic odours detract from the amenity of indoor spaces.
Laboratories, Manufacturing, Health care, etc., contaminate indoor air with smells and toxins.
A good citizen respects his neighbour, so exhaust discharge must not be a nuisance.
Compliance with BCA in construction work is required in Australian States & Territories.
Part F4 of the BCA requires compliance with AS 1668.2.
Why is it important?
Safely removes toxic fumes, gases, dusts and vapours from their points of origin in buildings
and then disposes of them in a manner that does not adversely affect the rest of the
community.
Clears odour and moisture from indoor spaces to preserve their amenity and eliminate the risk
of mould growth.
Brings in outdoor air to dilute human odour and cleans that outdoor air to get rid of the
nuisance of dust.
What are the significant changes to the Standards?
The provisions for natural ventilation of car parks in the 1991 edition are relocated to AS
1668.4.

Section 2: Principles of ventilation and Section 3: Natural ventilation, in the 2002 edition, are
relocated to AS1668.4.
The concept of the Dilution Index (DI) in the 2002 edition has been removed.
A new concept of Effective outdoor air is introduced to simplify the explanation of dilution
via transfer air, residual air, air cleaning devices, etc.
Filtration requirements of both the 1991 and 2002 editions are updated and tightened.
Minimum introduced outside air rates revert to those required by the 1991 edition (i.e: 7.5 L/s
for particulate filtration and 2.5 L/s when odour treatment is added).
In comparison with both the 1991 and 2002 editions, credit for local air cleaning within an
enclosure, to enhance Effective Outdoor Air in that enclosure, is discounted when calculating
the Residual Effective Outdoor Air available from that enclosure.
Simple and detailed procedures for calculating ventilation rates in car parks are incorporated.
Previous editions, used the terms small car parks, prescriptive procedure and engineered
procedure.
All references to smoking from the 1991 and 2002 editions are removed in the 2012 editions.
The concept of demand control ventilation has been included for variable occupancies.
Why was it necessary to make the changes?
The current Standard, referenced in the National Construction Code (NCC), is AS 1668.21991. Specifically, it is referenced in the Building Code of Australia (BCA), known as
Volumes One and Two of the NCC.
The current Standard requires highly conservative separation distances between fairly minor
exhaust outlets and air intakes. It is also silent on some of the issues confronting ventilation
design in modern, air-tight buildings.
The current Standard allows for, and in some cases requires, systems with poor energy
performance which is inconsistent with current BCA energy efficiency requirements.
It does not include guidance on Exhaust Hood design for common cooking processes such as
woks and bread ovens.
In many cases the specified minimum ventilation rates in the current Standard are excessive
to modern requirements.
The current Standard is 20 years old, out of date and superseded by the 2002 edition which is
NOT referenced in the BCA.
Having two, coexisting editions of a Standard is causing some confusion and discontent
within the industry, leading to increased costs and difficulties with establishing compliance.
Regulatory Warning
The ABCB has advised that AS 1668.2-2012 will be referenced in the 2013 edition of the
BCA, however, they have also advised that AS 1668.4-2012 will NOT be referenced before
2014. As mentioned previously, AS 1668.2-2012 excludes natural ventilation, so the adoption
of AS 1668.2-2012 alone, raises the potential for a hole in the regulations.
The ABCB has overcome this possible risk by creating a transitional arrangement for one
year, during which, both the 1991 edition as well as the new, 2012 edition of AS 1668.2 will
be referenced in the BCA. Practitioners will be free to use either edition of the Standard in the
development of Deemed-to-Satisfy ventilation systems.

This issue is of particular importance in the case of Car Parks, where Clause F4.11 of the
BCA states: Every storey of a car park, except an open deck car park, must have (a) a
system of ventilation complying with AS 1668.2, or (b) Designers and installers working
on car park ventilation systems, now have the option of a mechanical ventilation system
complying with either the 1991 or 2012 edition of AS 1668.2, but if they decide that natural
ventilation is the preferred option, the ONLY referenced Standard covering natural ventilation
of car parks will be the 1991 edition.

PART 2: Mechanical ventilation in buildings


What were the changes made to this Part of the Standard?
Preface & Foreword
Significant change: All references to environmental tobacco smoke have been deleted and
there are no provisions in this Standard for ventilation of enclosures in which smoking is
permitted.
Section 1
The flow chart on application of the Standard as a whole, has been deleted.
Significant change AS 1668: Part 2 does not address Natural Ventilation, which is now
covered in the new Standard AS 1668: Part 4.
Change from the 1991 edition. Clause 1.1 Scope, notes that the Standard does not include
requirements for maintenance, in accordance with protocol for reference in the BCA. There
is occasional advice, however, usually as commentary, indicating where allowance for
maintenance may be necessary to meet ongoing requirements of the Standard.
Change from the 1991 edition. Clause 1.1 Scope, notes that the Standard applying to
Microbial Control is AS 3666, the Standard applying to Thermal Comfort is ISO 7730 and
the Standard applying to safe operation of gas appliances is AS/NZS 5601.
The following new Definitions have been added (changed from one or both editions):
Competent person, Effective outdoor air, Exhaust discharge, Exposure limit (EL), General
contaminants, Grease removal device, Introduced outdoor air, Local air, Residual effective
outdoor air, Specific contaminants, Transfer air.The following Definitions have been deleted
(changed from one or both editions): Approved and approval, Dilution Index (DI), Exposure
standard (ES), Grease filter, Incinerette, Objectionable effluent, Regulatory authority.
Section 2

Specific advice is given on tundishes or floor wastes within ducts or plenums. These MUST
be permanently charged. Ref. Clause 2.4.
Change from the 1991 edition. Clause 2.5 Filtration, specifies minimum filter ratings
depending on system characteristics and airflow rates.
Clause 2.6 Prohibition of recycle air, now increased to 9 categories from which air must not
be recycled to dissimilar occupancies.
Clause 2.7 Outdoor air mixing. Further guidance given in Commentary on the impact of
partitioning during tenancy changes, on ventilation performance.
Significant change: Clause 2.8 Outdoor airflow rates. Calculation methods for determining
required outdoor airflow rates now include the concept of Effective Outdoor Airflow which
allows credit for air cleaning systems within the space and unused outdoor air in recycle or
transfer airstreams. Calculations for multiple enclosure ventilation are similar to both the
1991 and 2002 Standards, but simpler. The Dilution Index procedure from the 2002 Standard
is no longer used. Formulae for calculating ventilation in simple systems are incorporated in
Clauses 2.8.3 and 2.8.4.
Clause 2.8.4.4 is specifically included to allow the designer to calculate the benefits of other
factors, including: air cleaning systems (odour & particulate filtration) as well as unused
outdoor air in recycle or transfer air. This clause directs the user to Appendix D which
provides formulae for calculating Effective Outdoor Airflow in more complex systems.
Clause 2.9.3 Demand Control Ventilation. While both previous editions of the Standard have
addressed the issue of transient or variable occupancies, this new clause specifies lower limits
as well as how outdoor airflows may be automatically regulated by population
indicators. Guidance given in Commentary on types of acceptable population indicators.
PART 2: Mechanical ventilation in buildings

What were the changes made to this Part of the Standard?

Section 3

Clause 3.2.1 General. Allows supply air ventilation in lieu of exhaust air ventilation, where
discharges would not be objectionable, provided adjacent enclosures of different usage are
kept at higher pressures.

Change from the 1991 edition. Clause 3.3.1 Types of effluent. Gives exemption from the
normal Kitchen Exhaust Hood requirements for microwave ovens and the like that are used
solely for reheating food.
Clause 3.3.2.1 (d) warns designer that local exhaust depends on specific application. This
clause directs the user to other relevant Australian Standards, listed in Appendix O.
Clause 3.3.2.2 Type A effluent removal. Clarifies location for measuring capture velocity.
Commentary C3.3.3.2 advises that this Standard is not intended to apply to specific aspects of
industrial ventilation which are subject to Codes of practice and other Standards. Reference is
made to recommendations of the American Conference of Industrial Hygienists Industrial
Ventilation manual.
Kitchen Exhaust Hoods

Significant change: Clause 3.4.2.2 Hood type. Number of different hood types increased to
7. Additions to the 2002 edition are: Ventilated ceilings, Eyebrow hoods and Proprietary
equipment. This clause directs the user to Appendix E.
Significant change: Clause 3.4.2.3 Cooking process type. Number of different cooking
process types increased to 7. Additions to 2002 edition are: Oriental cooking tables/woks and
Bread ovens & Steam producing combination ovens.
Change from the 1991 edition. Clause 3.4.3 Hoods serving non-grease producing
equipment. Concession for dishwashers and non-grease producing ovens, reduced exhaust
velocity to 0.3 m/sec. Reduction to 0.1 m/sec allowed if hood volume is increased. Guidance
given in Commentary.
Clause 3.4.4 Standalone cooking devices. Front and rear opening standalone equipment such
as pizza ovens, combi ovens, etc only require hood to extend over door opening
area. (300mm to 450mm)
Change from the 1991 edition. Clause 3.4.5 Proprietary exhaust allowance. Kitchen
appliances with spigots to be connected to exhaust system must comply with manufacturers
requirements.
Table 3.1 Includes exhaust airflow rate calculation parameters for new Hood types and new
Cooking procedures.
Clause 3.6 Ventilated Ceilings & Proprietary Hoods. Performance requirements and relevant
international Standards are provided, for selection of these special systems, as Alternative
Solutions. Clause is intended to reassure certifiers that Alternative Solutions of this type are
compatible with the objectives of the Standard.

General Exhaust

Commentary C3.7.2. Warns against installation of open-flued gas appliances in enclosures


where negative pressures due to exhaust systems are anticipated. Ref. AS 5601.1
Significant change: Clause 3.8 Replenishment of exhaust air. More comprehensive
requirements given for sourcing make-up airflow. The Commentary C3.8.1 warns on risks of
using openable windows as sole make-up path for exhaust airflow in buildings with tight
faades.
Clause 3.8.3 Make-up air for kitchen exhaust. Reflecting energy saving requirements of
Section J of the BCA, make-up air for kitchen exhausts must meet strict conditions.
Note to Table 3.3 Eliminates a loophole. Multiple discharges less than 1,000 L/s but within
6m radius are treated as one discharge.
Significant change from the 1991 edition. Clause 3.10.2 and Table 3.4. Discharges less than
1,000 L/s may be within 6 m of property boundary or air intake.

Clauses 3.10.2 and 3.10.3 Discharges. Property boundary defined to mean land boundary
rather than Strata Title boundary.
Change from the 1991 edition. Clause 3.10.3 Discharges deemed objectionable. Kitchen
exhaust discharge still required to be 5 m/sec vertically and 6 m from boundary, but no longer
3m above roof, nor 15m from adjacent higher structure, nor 3m above thoroughfare.
Deletion from the 1991 edition. Requirement for disposal of rainwater and condensate now
covered by AS 3666.1.
Commentary C3.10.3 Concessions. Guidelines given on performance required to gain
concessions on location of Kitchen Exhaust discharge, by use of filters, photochemical or
chemical treatment to remove odour contamination.
Change from the 1991 edition. Clause 3.10.4 Non-required discharges. Simply must not
cause a nuisance. No special criteria for distance to air intake.
Section 4

Significant change: Clause 4.1 Scope. Does not include Natural Ventilation, which is now
covered in the new Standard AS 1668: Part 4.
Clause 4.1 Scope. Note 2 to this clause directs the user to Appendix N for guidance on
performance based design.

Clause 4.2.2 introduces the requirement for a disconnecting compartment between a car park
and an adjacent occupied enclosure. To be provided with supply air to maintain a higher
pressure than the car park.
Significant change from the 1991 edition. Clause 4.4 Car Parks. Exhaust ventilation airflows
align with the 2002 edition, resulting in reduced airflow rates compared with the current BCA
reference Standard, AS 1668.2-1991.
Summarised:

For small car parks: Absolute minimum drops from 3,000 L/s to 2,000 L/s
o

Rate per vehicle drops from 500 L/s to 400 L/s x Usage factor

Floor area rate drops from 3.5 L/s per m2 to 2.5 L/s per m2

For large car parks: Airflow calculated using the detailed equation is 20%
less
o

No need for calculation based on entering vehicles.

Factors included for Parking Usage, Vehicle Type & Staff Exposure.

Significant change: Clause 4.4.2 Ventilation distribution. Location of supply and exhaust air
openings is generally the same as the 1991 and 2002 editions, with the following three
significant amendments:

To avoid extra ductwork where air paths are obstructed within the car
park, airmoving devices such as jet fans or high velocity outlets are
permitted, to distort (or bend) the airflow, subject to flow rates, velocities
and installation in accordance with this clause. Appendix I shows
examples of distorted air paths.

The 1991 editions requirement to draw 30% to 50% of exhaust airflow at


low level has been deleted.

Specific conditions are introduced fro supply ONLY car park ventilation
systems.

Clause 4.4.3 Simple procedure for small car parks. Now applies to car parks with 40 or fewer
car spaces, to align with Section J of the BCA.

Change from the 1991 edition. Clause 4.5.3 Automotive service & repair shops. Simple and
detailed procedures are provided to calculate directly ducted exhaust flow rates.

Change from the 1991 edition. Clause 4.5.4 Vehicular lifts & shafts. Calculations for exhaust
airflow rates have been reduced from 3,000 L/s per enclosed lift car (or shaft) to 2,000 L/s
per enclosed lift car (or shaft).
Change from the 1991 edition. Clause 4.6 Queuing areas. Calculations for exhaust airflow
rates in queuing lanes has been reduced from 300 L/s to 225 L/s per metre per Exit lane and
from 200 L/s to 150 L/s per metre per Entry lane.
Change from the 1991 edition. Clause 4.10 Combination Systems. When natural and
mechanical ventilation systems are used in a car park, they are to be considered as entirely
separate systems.
Clause 4.11 Ventilation Control. Previous editions were silent on whether car park
ventilation should operate at all times, although this was implied. This clause specifies
allowable energy saving options suitable for both large and small car parks.
Guidance is given in the Commentary on practical, low cost energy saving options for small
car parks, utilizing motion detectors and car park door operation.

Control of large car parks using CO monitoring equipment is generally the same as in
previous editions of the Standard, but with minor changes to the CO concentrations at which
flow rate may be increased/decreased.
Clause 4.11.1 System operation. The Exposure Limit (EL) for Carbon Monoxide (CO) is
defined as 30ppm for staffed car parks and 60ppm for non-staffed car parks.
Clause 4.12.5 Sampling points. Must now be located between 750 mm and 1,800 mm above
floor level.
Clause 4.12.6 Marking, commissioning, reliability and records. This clause addresses the
reliability of CO monitoring equipment and directs the user to Appendix M for guidance.

PART 2: Mechanical ventilation in buildings


What were the changes made to this Part of the Standard?

Section 5
Significant change from the 1991 edition. Section 5 specifies mechanical ventilation of
enclosures in health care buildings. It is generally the same as Section 6 in the 2002 edition of
the Standard.

Specific features are:

Rooms or enclosures covered are: Operating theatres, Sterile stores, Infectious


isolation rooms, Protective isolation rooms, Recovery rooms, Autopsy rooms and
Dirty utility rooms.

Ventilation parameters specified include: Supply air change rates, Recirculated air
change rate, Outdoor airflow rate, Filtration type, Exhaust grille location and Room
pressure with respect to adjacent health care rooms.

Appendix A - Normative
The 2002 edition of the Standard used the Dilution Index method that was applied to the
listed enclosures. The new Standard, the 2012 edition, uses the same approach as the 1991
edition but is based on non-smoking environments in all enclosure types. The main changes
are:

Minimum outdoor airflow rates in rooms where previous editions allowed for
smoking, have been reduced:
o Food & drink: Bars, Caberets, Cafeterias, Cocktail lounges, Dining rooms and
Fast food outlets; Now 10 L/s per person
o Hotels, etc: Gambling casinos, Dormitories, Living room suites; Now 10 L/s
per person
o Offices: Boardrooms, Committee rooms, Conference rooms; Now 10 L/s per
person
o Prisons: Cell blocks and Eating halls; Now 10 L/s per person
o Specialties: Barbers shop, Beauty salons, Hairdressers: Now 10 L/s per person
o Theatres: Auditoriums, Concert halls, Foyers, Green rooms, Lecture halls,
Opera halls and Lobbies; Now 10 L/s per person
o Transport: Ticket areas and Waiting rooms; Now 10 L/s per person

Changes to names:
o Discotheques now referred to as Nightclubs.
o Locker rooms no longer mentioned, but there is now a Comment, stating that
Change Rooms may include Lockers. Ventilation rate is 5 L/s per m2

Appendix B - Normative
Similar to both the 1991 and 2002 editions, but with minor changes, noted below, to reflect
concerns raised during the review of the Standard.
Dry cleaning premises (using solvent) increased to 20 L/s per m2 over 1991 edition.
Residential laundry exhaust amended to reflect increasing use of clothes dryers: The greater
of 110% of dryer airflow or 20 L/s per room where no dryer or a condensing dryer is used,
and 40 L/s per room where a non-condensing dryer is installed.
Significant change Swimming Pools:
Spas and hydrotherapy pools increased from 5 L/s to 15 L/s per m2, and Swimming pools
increased from 2.5 L/s to 10 L/s per m2. In both cases, additional allowance of 15% pool area
is to be included for splash areas.
Appendix C - Informative
Outdoor air contaminant levels. Similar to both the 1991 and 2002 editions.
Appendix D - Normative
Provides the formulae for calculating Effective Outdoor Airflow in more complex
systems. Required if calculating outdoor air flows where factors such as air cleaning devices
might modify effective outdoor air. (Refer Clause 2.8.4.4) It is essentially based on
calculations of the mass-balance of outdoor air, supply air, cleaned air and contaminated air
to arrive at the minimum required outdoor airflow necessary to meet Appendix A of the
Standard. Appendix D also provides examples of these calculations.
Appendix E - Normative
Covers hood construction and calculation of exhaust airflow rates for all 7 hood types and all
7 cooking process types. Includes diagrams showing all different hood types and provides
sample calculations.
Includes new limit of 200mm minimum dimension between Kebab Cooker and grease
arresting device.
Includes diagrams showing new arrangements of hoods over Combi ovens, Woks, Pizza
ovens and Dishwashers.
Appendix F - Informative
Provides the requirements for a performance based approach to mechanical ventilation,
Supply or Exhaust.

Appendix G - Informative
Provides the technical rationale behind calculation of Lead time or Lag time for ventilation of
enclosures with transient occupation.
Appendices H, I, J, K, L, M & N - Informative
Provides information on the basis of calculations for car park ventilation system design.
Useful in the development of Alternative Solutions under the BCA.
Appendix O - Informative
Provides list of Standards that address additional ventilation requirements for specific
applications. Provided particularly to assist industrial ventilation practitioners.

PART 2: Mechanical ventilation in buildings (5,A)


What are some of the design issues?
Outdoor air ventilation in many types of public occupancies has been reduced, now that the
Standard is based on non-smoking indoor environments.
Energy saving by reducing outdoor airflow is now easier:

Lower minimum outdoor air requirements.

Calculations for minimum outdoor airflow rates are much simpler than with the
Dilution Index procedure of the 2002 edition, and a bit simpler than the 1991 edition.

Demand control ventilation is now permitted, using population schedules or based on


automatic monitoring.

In addition to saving energy on outdoor air, the new Standard includes a number of clauses
that give energy saving options in the operation of exhaust ventilation systems:

Kitchen exhausts and their make-up air systems.

Guidance on the use of proprietary Kitchen Exhaust hoods.

Reduced exhaust airflow requirements for dishwashers.

Intermittent operation of residential bathroom exhausts permitted.

Significant reductions in car park exhaust requirements.

Simple systems permitted for ventilation control in small car parks.

Omission of natural ventilation of Car Parks from AS 1668.2 leaves AS 1668.2-1991, as the
only referenced standard in the BCA covering natural ventilation of Car Parks.
The new Standard offers significant reduction in car park ventilation rates with associated
reductions in duct size, installation costs as well as operating energy costs mentioned above.
Based on warnings given in Commentary to Clause 2.7, designers of tenancy fitouts will be
obliged to include the original installations as-built ventilation documents in their
considerations.
Ventilation of patient care rooms in health care buildings now available in this Standard.
Much wider range of cooking procedures and hood types now included, to avoid extensive
research or avoidable use of alternative solutions.

What are some of the installation issues?


Apart from the more stringent requirements for supply air filters, there is not much additional
installation work demanded by this Standard.
Reductions in required rates will have a significant effect on the cost of ductwork and fans
used in car park ventilation systems.
Reductions in the required separation distances between minor exhaust outlets and air intakes
will simplify many installations.
Based on warnings given in Commentary to Clause 2.7, contractors engaging in tenancy
fitout work may need to review as-built ventilation documents before commencing work.
Commissioning will now include more electronic sensing equipment: Population indicators
for demand control ventilation, Car park CO monitoring and Motion detectors in small car
parks.

How is this Standard best implemented?


By reading the entire document and developing a thorough understanding of its requirements,
before commencing on your next design or installation project.
(Well read it at least once, so you know where to find the relevant bits.)
Rather than believing that the ventilation requirements of the Standards and the BCA are just
excessively conservative bureaucratic demands which add cost to the job, adopt the attitude
that ventilation is necessary for the safety and comfort of all occupants in buildings, including
you and your family and friends. Then it will be easy to follow this Standard, which
represents the MINIMUM necessary for safe and comfortable buildings in Australia.
PART 4: Natural ventilation of buildings

What were the changes made to this Part of the Standard?

Recognising that both the 1991 and 2002 editions of the Standard are currently in use
throughout Australia, the changes listed in this section may apply to one or both of these
editions.

The list below covers most of the significant changes, however, where minor amendments
were made for editorial reasons or to clarify previous misunderstandings, these have not been
listed.

Practitioners planning to use AS 1668.4-2012 for the first time, on a new project, are advised
to read it completely before commencing, to gain familiarity with the format and the
significant changes.

This Standard is, in essence, the Natural Ventilation content of AS 1668.2-2002, with
editorial and other minor amendments required so that it can be a stand-alone document.
Preface & Foreword

Significant change: All references to environmental tobacco smoke have been deleted and
there are no provisions in this Standard for ventilation of enclosures in which smoking is
permitted.
Section 1

Clause 1.1 Scope, notes that the Standard applying to safe operation of gas appliances is
AS/NZS 5601.1.

Clause 1.4 Normative references. Includes AS 1668.2, AS/NZS 1668.1, the National
Construction Code (NCC) and the CIBSE Guide: Volume A: Section A4 Air infiltration and
natural ventilation.

Sections 2 and 3

Sections 2 and 3 in this Standard include text from Sections 2 and 3 of the 2002 edition, but
not always in the same order or format as the 2002 edition.

The flow chart on application of the Standard to natural ventilation in has been deleted.

Commentary C2.2.1 includes additional discussion on the advantages and disadvantages of


natural ventilation.

Clause 3.3 System requirements. Requires natural ventilation using either a Simple Procedure
(Clause 3.4) or a Detailed Procedure (Clause 3.5). This clause directs the user to Appendix A.
Clause 3.4 Simple procedure. The requirements of this clause generally align with the current
requirements of Clauses F4.6 and F4.7 of the BCA.
Clause 3.5 Detailed procedure. This clause is drawn directly from similar clauses in the 2002
edition.
Section 4

This section is drawn directly from the relevant clauses in Section 7 of the 2002 edition.

Clauses 4.3.3 and 4.3.4 Simple procedure and Detailed procedure, correspond with Clause
7.4.3 Prescriptive procedure and Clause 7.4.4 Engineered procedure from the 2002 edition.

Appendix A - Informative

Provides guidelines for a performance based approach to natural ventilation.

Appendix B - Informative

Provides typical metabolic rates of occupants in buildings, for the purposes of application in
the Detailed procedures of Clause 3.5.
PART 4: Natural ventilation of buildings

What are some of the design issues?

This Standard will not be referenced in the 2013 BCA, so its application to buildings in
Australia will generally be as the basis to an Alternative Solution under the provisions of the
BCA.

It is likely, however, that the car park ventilation provisions of this Standard will be adopted
for the 2014 edition of the BCA.

What are some of the installation issues?


If an installation is based on an Alternative Solution using this Standard is, installers must
take particular care that the sizing and location of external openings are strictly in compliance
with the Standard.

Minor deviations, i.e: less than specified sizes, will render the system non-compliant and it is
usually expensive to increase the size of external openings in buildings.

How is this Standard best implemented?

By reading the entire document and developing a thorough understanding of its requirements,
before commencing on your next design or installation project. (Well read it at least once, so
you know where to find the relevant bits.)
It is likely that application of this Standard will not become common as the basis of
Alternative Solutions under the BCA for several years, but there is a strong possibility that its
car park ventilation provisions will be adopted for the 2014 edition of the BCA. For this
reason, we recommend developing a good understanding of Section 4 of this Standard.

CONCLUSIONS and Implications for:

Regulatory authorities

By removing the confusion of whether the 1991 or 2002 Standard applies, the 2012 Standard
will provide greater certainty in regard to required outdoor air supply rates and car park
exhaust rates.

The publication of the 2012 Standard should eliminate the (almost) universal application of
Alternative Solutions to ventilation rates in ordinary car parks.
Specific guidance is given on parameters that should be considered in Alternative Solution
submissions to Regulatory Authorities for the following ventilation systems: Kitchen Exhaust
Hoods, Car Park ventilation and Mechanical or Natural ventilation in general.

In the case of Health Care buildings, specific ventilation rates and room pressurization
requirements are now provided in this BCA referenced Standard.

Some qualitative issues discussed in Commentary, although not mandatory, may require
designers to explain to Regulatory Authorities how they have addressed these issues.

Mechanical services designers

Car park ventilation rates in the 2012 Standard range from 20% to 30% less than the current,
BCA referenced Standard, leading to reduced ductwork costs and reduced fan energy
consumption.

In the case of Health Care buildings, specific ventilation rates and room pressurization
requirements are now provided in this BCA referenced Standard.

Simplified calculations provided for assessing minimum outdoor air rates in small systems.

Using the new calculation procedures to optimise the Effective Outdoor Air in complex
systems, designers can now offer more energy efficient solutions for their clients, by using
credits from recycled air, transferred air and air passed through cleaning devices. It should be

noted, that the new Standards calculation methods are even simpler than those in the 1991
Standard.
Appendices indicate parameters that should be included in Alternative Solution proposals for:
Car Parks as well as Kitchen Exhausts with proprietary hoods or ventilated ceilings.

Guidance given in appendices on general mechanical or natural ventilation, with specific


advice on methods of performance assessment that should be used for development of
Alternative Solutions.
Extensive advice is provided in Commentary throughout the Standards to raise designers
awareness of factors such as special usage or building construction that might impact on
ventilation system performance. Responsible designers will now have to include these factors
in their considerations on ventilation design.
Specific commentary is included to guide industrial ventilation system designers who must
now take note of this commentary when using this Standard to comply with building
regulations.

Ventilation calculations and hood design parameters for additional, commonly used kitchen
exhaust hood types are now included. e.g: Eybrow hoods and proprietary hoods.

Calculation methods for additional cooking processes now included. e.g: Woks and Combiovens including bread ovens.

Reduced exhaust airflow rates included for dishwashers and non-grease-producing ovens will
give designers another option for saving energy.
Equipment manufacturers and suppliers

Use of Jet Fans or similar devices to distort ventilation airflow within car parks is likely to
become more common, now that this application is included in the prescriptive clauses.
The use of high performance filters to permit reduced outdoor airflow rates carries with it an
obligation on suppliers to replace them with filters of the same performance.

Large car parks require use of CO monitoring systems to control ventilation rates. Testing
and commissioning by qualified technicians on completion is required by the Standard.

A responsible building owners duty of care would include ongoing routine calibration and
maintenance of these systems. Manufacturers and suppliers may provide these services.
Maintenance contractors

The use of high performance filters to permit reduced outdoor airflow rates carries with it an
obligation on maintenance contractors to replace them with filters of the same performance.

Large car parks require use of CO monitoring systems to control ventilation rates. Routine
calibration and maintenance of these systems is part of a responsible building owners duty of
care. Maintenance contractors may need to engage specialists to provide these services.
Demand control ventilation (DCV) is now included in the Standard to reduce outdoor airflow
and by doing so, reduce energy costs. Population indicators are permitted for DCV
operation. Maintenance of these devices is a building owners responsibility, which will
probably be delegated to the maintenance contractor. Perhaps even more specialists will have
to be engaged to provide these services.
Installation of partitions during tenancy fitouts can adversely impact on ventilation within a
space. Specifically, the use of Transfer Air from adjacent areas within an enclosure to
enhance the Effective Outdoor Air may be dependent on partition layouts within the space.
Maintenance contractors carrying out simple tenancy fitouts will need to review ventilation
system documents before commencing work.
Filter manufacturers and suppliers

The use of high performance filters to permit reduced outdoor airflow rates carries with it an
obligation on suppliers to replace them with filters of the same performance.

By offering higher performance filters, manufacturers and suppliers may be in a position to


assist both designers and building owners reduce a buildings outdoor air energy costs.

Facilities managers and building owners

Car park ventilation rates specified in the 2012 Standard range from 20% to 30% less than the
current, BCA referenced Standard, leading to reduced ductwork costs and reduced fan energy
consumption.

Low cost methods for controlling ventilation system operation in small car parks will reduce
running costs.
The use of high performance filters to permit reduced outdoor airflow rates carries with it an
obligation on owners and managers to replace them with filters of the same performance.

Large car parks require use of CO monitoring systems to control ventilation rates. Routine
calibration and maintenance of these systems is part of responsible building owners and
managers duties of care.

Demand control ventilation (DCV) is now included in the Standard to reduce outdoor airflow
and by doing so, reduce energy costs. Population indicators are permitted for DCV
operation. Maintenance of these is the building owners and managers responsibility.
Installation of partitions during tenancy fitouts can adversely impact on ventilation within a
space. Specifically, the use of Transfer Air from adjacent areas within an enclosure to
enhance the Effective Outdoor Air may be dependent on partition layouts within the
space. Building owners and managers should keep ventilation system design documents and
ensure these are reviewed by contractors carrying our tenancy fitouts, before sthey start work,
by contractors carrying out tenancy fitouts.
In the case of Health Care buildings, specific ventilation rates and room pressurization
requirements are now provided in the BCA referenced Standard. There is an obligation on
building owners and managers to maintain these special ventilation rates and monitor room
pressurization.