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I. Subject matter of syntax

Syntax studies the so-called part of the sentence like Subject, Object, Predicate. More appropriately
Subject ~~~ should be called functions i.e. what function sentence constituents have in a language
Eg: The man opened the door.
functionally this is a noun phrase because it belongs to the word class nouns (it has the features
of nouns particle, pl. Form). Syntactically it has the function of Subject but in //I saw the man//
syntactically it has the function Object. In other words Morphology deals with the inherent features of
linguistic units (once a noun - always a noun) whereas Syntax studies their function in an expression.
Morphology = study of form and its changes
Syntax = roughly means (old Greek) putting together

Since English is a language where word forms do not change much (no inflections, cases) syntaxis
plays a major role for understanding a linguistic expression, in many cases we are not even able to tell
whether a word is verb or noun outside the syntactic context i.e. syntax is essential for English due to
the scanty morphological marking.
*water can be a noun/verb depending on the syntactic use.

The main unit of study in syntax is the sentence i.e. we need a definition about that linguistic structure.

II. Definition of the sentence : giving a precise and succinct definition is no mean feat. There
have been different attempts :
1. A traditional, logical definition : a sentence is a word or a group of words capable of expressing a
complete thought.
2. A transformational generative approach (Chomsky) `There is no need of a definition since the
whole grammar of a language is in fact an extended definition of the sentence + native speakers of
a language can intuitively identify the sentence.`
3. The psychological definition : the sentence is an expression of processes of combination of notions
in the interworld of the speaker and a means of reproducing the same combination of notions in the
inner world of the listener.
4. There is no single definition that is good enough to cover all aspects of the sentence as a major
linguistic unit; we need to take more comprehensive approach and this can be done by defining the
main features of the sentence : the sentence is an expression of combination of notions based on a
predicative relation; it expresses a thought and reflects some situation in reality;

The main features of the sentence are Predicativity, Modality, Intonation, Grammatical well-

III. Major features of the sentence

1. Predicativity is a structural feature of the sentence and is the back bone of human thinking and
linguistic statements. Simply, it means `saying sth about sth` ; it comprises relation of dependence
between two members one member which is what the statement is about, which is subjected to
description (the subject) and another member which predicates sth about the Subject, which
describes the Subject , ascribes features and charecteristics to the Subject,
Eg: The sky is blue.
`the sky` is what the sentence is about (Subject) and `is blue` is the Predicate charecterizing the
Subject. Predicativity is binary relation subject and Predicate; Subject and Predicate are correlative
notions a Subject functions only in correlation to a certain Predicate and vice versa.

The predicate relation is different from the attributive relation only the former expresses a thought,
statement, whereas the latter is like a label of some entity or phenomenon.

Cf: nice house attributive expression, `label` of some house

The house is / could be / must have been nice. predicative relation, expresses a thought / statement
about the house.
The shortest definition of Predicativity : `Predicativity is relating features and charecteristics to an
object in space and time`. The subject resides in space whereas the Predivate relates to time and thus
the Subject-Predicate relation forms a static-temporal framework which captures the two basic
dimensions of the physical world.

2. Modality this is not a structural but a semantic feature; it has to do with meaning. Modality refers
to the relation between statement and reality i.e. whether what is predicated is a fact or is merely
regarded as possible, desirable, imaginary.
Eg: The car is here. (factual modality)
The car must be her. ( non-factual subjective)

Modality is expressed by the category of mood or through modal words.

3. Intonation, exclamation, etc.

In some cases Intonation is the only difference between a sentence on the one hand and a word or
phrase on the other.

Eg: Water! sentence

water word
Cold water? sentence
cold water word

4. Grammatical well-formedness : in order to convey a statement a sentence has to be grammatically

shaped according to the language system rules.

He speak good - not grammatical
He speaks well. grammatical

I\/. Additional remarks about the sentence :

1. The sentence is unique among other linguistic units : unlike words and phrases sentences don`t
exist as prefabricated units, there is no `vocabulary list of sentences`, sentences are created every
time a new in the act of communication following certain sentence patterns.
2. Sentences are units of communication they convey thaughts and messages; words and phrases
are simply labels of entities and phenomena.
3. Like other language units Sentences are pairing of meaning on the one hand and form on the other
i.e. a sentence has a semantic (meaning) aspect and a structural (morphosyntactic) aspect. And
these two aspects are not always in one-to-one correspondence; in some cases one meaning may be
expressed in more than one different structures

Eg: Jack owns that car.

That car belongs to Jack.

In other cases one structure may be pregnant with different interpretations ( meanings)

Eg: Flying planes can be dangerous. two interpretations :1. To fly planes 2. The flying planes

The shooting of the hunters was horrible. 1. The way they shoot 2. The way they were shot

In Bulgarian such cases are rare.

4. A third aspect for the analysis of the sentence has been introduced in current linguistic theory
pragmatics (along with the structural and semantic aspects)

Pragmatics deals with the communicative value of sentences, for what purpose a sentence is used and
how information is distributed in the sentence. Distinction is made between old, already familiar, less
important information (theme) on the one hand and communicatively important salient, prominent
information (theme) on the other.
Cf: A : John developed that plan.
B : That plan was developed by John.

Semantically these are identical but pragmatically they are different i.e. there is different distribution of
In A `John` is Theme and `that plan` is Rheme.
Normally the Theme is placed first and the Rheme comes at the end.
In B `that plan` is Theme and John is rheme.

Pragmatics = what we do with the sentences, their use, the communicative goals achieved.

\/. Types of sentences:

1. According to communication :

A : Declarative
B : Interrogative
C : Imperative
D : Exclamatory

2. According to structure :

A : Simple (one Subject-Predicate group)

B : Composite (more than one)
- compound
- complex


Clause + clause = structure

Min sentence = 1 clause

Most curent linguistic theories adopt a verbo-centric model for the description of clause structure i.e.
the verb predicate is assumed to be the central hub of the clause which determines what other
constituents will be attached to it; the different types of verbs combine with different types of

Types of verbs

1. Stative vs dynamic
Stative verbs denote a state, permanent condition which is homogenous over time; normally such verbs
do not make progressive forms.

Eg: be, look, to know

Dynamic verbs denote some change of state, dynamic process which developes over time.

Eg: to jump, to read, to become

2. Intensive vs Extensive

Intensive verbs are `locked in` and and do not extend out of the sphere of the Subject.

S Vint X Eg: She is nice.

Intensive verbs are also known as (a.k.a.) alias link verbs.

Other intensive verbs : eg: She became a nurse.
They look happy.
Extensive verbs denote a meaning which extends out of the sphere of Subject and may or may not
affect (an)other constituent(s).

Eg: to run S V to read a book S V Object

3. Intransitive vs Transitive
Extensive verbs whose meaning does not affect (an)other constituent(s) are intransitive; they do not
take Objects.

Eg : to sleep, to run, to appear

Extensive verbs whose meaning affects (an)other constituent(s) are known as transitive they may
take Objects. When the meaning of a transitive verb involves one affected participant the verb is called

Eg : to open the door, to read a book

When the meaning of the verb involves two affected participants is called ditransitive

Eg : to give sb sth
to show sb sth
to send sb sth

Another possible Object with transitive verbs is the so-called complex Object (i.e. made up of more
than one constituent )

Eg: She made him a fool. I saw him run.

She made him happy. O complex2
/ \
Od Ocomplement
(O complex1)
O complex2 is in fact the Object complex proper.

Transitive verbs which take a complex object are defined az complex transitive.

Complementation of the verb

Objects Complements
- Direct - Subject ~
- Indirect - Object ~
- Benefective - Predicator ~

Objects relate directly to the verb whereas complements complement some other constituent in the
( Cs = Subject complement; Co = Object complement; and the verb Cp = Predicator complement)

eg: Objects
John kicked the ball. John gave the girl an apple.
\ \ \
Od Oi Od
(an apple to the girl)

I called the girl a taxi. (a taxi for the girl)

Eg : Complements
She is a nurse. He became a driver. She made him sad. They elected him president.
\ / \ / \
Cs Od Co Od Co
Cp is special it is not recognised in all grammars; in many cases it looks like an Object because it
relates to the verb, however, it is very closely bound to the verb and without it the verb cannot function
or changes its meaning. Passivization in thiscase is impossible.

Eg: He has a car. * A car is had by him.

The boy resembles his father. * The father is resembled by the boy.
The room sleeps three people. * Three people are slept by the room.

Optional extension

Dynamic adverbial of process / manner

Stative adverbial of place
All adverbial of time
A adverbial modifier


A place {1}
Stative Cs {2}
Extensive - monotransitive Od {3}
(Transitive) - ditransitive Oi + Od {4}
Subject Verb - complex transitive Ocomplex {5}
Intensive {6}
Dynamic Intransitive
Extensive {7}
Transitive Monotransitive Od {8}
- Ditransitive Oi + Od {9}
- Complex transitive - Ocomplex {10}


1} S V (predicate)
2} S V C (complement) / Cs; Cp /
-A (adverbial)
3} S V O C / Cs; Cv=Cp; Co /
-O (Object)

The English sentences comprise the following five constituents : SVOCA

Examples :
1. The train arrived
2. SVCs He is a teacher.(intensive, link = copulative verb)
SVCp He has a car.
The boy resembles his father.
SVA She is in London.
Mary lives here.
SVO John drinks beer. (Od)
3..SVOCs Mary will make John a good wife. (Oi)
SVOCo Mary will make John a fool.
SVOCp She turned him into a slave. (indispensable complement of the verb)

SVOA She put the vase on the table.

SVOO She gave her sister a book.
/ \
indirect direct
Additional patterns:
SVOA (Cs) (Co) They dragged him home blind drunk.
SVOO (Co) She served him the coffee black.
She served him the coffee naked.


I. Definition Subject is a main part of the sentence which along with the Predicate constitutes
the predicative relation (bond). Roughly speaking the Subject is `what the sentence is about`.
The term Subject comes from `to be subjected to description`.
In order to give an axhaustive definition of the Subject we need to take into account the following three
points (aspects) :
a) meaning of the Subject The Subject denotes a `thing` (in a general sense) which is described by
the predicate; it is usually an entity in some world (real or imaginary; concrete or abstract) an
Object / phenomenon / idea, etc.

b) syntactic relations Syntactically the Subject is the most important constituent : it is in initial
position and does not depend on other constituents; the Subject is in a special type of agreement
with the verbal predicate called Subject Verb Concorde (eg: i work / he works )

c) morphological features (realisation) Morphologically the Subject is substantial / substantivized

constituent -any element which is substantivised may become a Subject.
Eg: The poor are happy. (substantivised adjective)
A is a letter. (substantivised letter)

II. Types of Subjects according to the semantic function

`Subject` is a syntactic function (just like predicate or object) which may code in itself different
semantic roles :

1. Agent (agentive Subject) denotes the doer (agent) of the verbal action
Eh: The boy broke the window.

2. Force Subject denotes natural force (mechanical) which performs the action w/o volition or
Eg: The wind broke the window.
The avalanche destroyed the house.

3. Instrument Subject denotes an instrument for the verbal action.

Eg: The key opened the door
The stone broke the window.
NB! Instrument and Force Subjects cannot be coordinated with Agent Subject.
Eg: * The boy and wind broke the window.

4. Affected Subject there are different degrees of affectedness of the Subject

a) The Subject of verbs in the active voice which denotes a participant which suffers the
consequences of the verbal action
Eg: The boy fell down.
The bird dropped dead.
This is the lowest degree of affectedness.

b) with verbs of the so-called activo-passive type (active form; passive meaning)
eg: The chicken is cooking.
The house sold dear.

c) The highest degree of affectedness of the Subject is in typical passive expressions

Eg: The bottle was broken by Jim.
The apple was eaten by her.

Such affected subjects are also known as Patient Subjects.

NB! `Patient` is in correlation with Agent if there is no Agent there can be no Patient.
Cf: The door * opened by me. / The door was opened by me.
Only in the second example the Subject is a Patient, while in the first example it is affected of 3 degree
but not Patient.

5. Recipient Subject
Again there are different stages (subtypes) of recipient(ness)

A:// With verbs of possession, owning and containing.

Eg: My father has a radio. My brother owns a flat.
Srec Pc Srec Pc/Od

B:// With verbs of sense, perception where the Subject is recipient of visual or aural information or
some other perception.
Eg: She saw the tree / He heard the music.
Srec Sag.

NB! If Sia a `voluntary` recipient then he/sheis an agentive Subject (Sag.)

Cf: She saw the tree. / She looked at the tree.
Srec Sag.
He tasted the salt in the soup.
He tasted the soup.

C:// With prototypical `secondary` passives like:

Eg: Mary was given a book.
The boy was shown a picture.
She was sent an invitation.

Such passive Subject corresponds to Oi or Oprep with `to` in the active voice.
Eg: They gave Mary a book. They gave a book to Mary.
Oi rec O rec. Prep.

6. Locative Subject denotes location

Eg: The city is foggy.

7. Temporal Subject denotes time

Eg: Yesterday was a holiday.

8. Eventive Subject denotes event like wedding or an exam.

Eg: The wedding is tomorrow. The exam is next week.
Cf: The girl is tomorrow.
Not an event

III. Morphological realisation

1. The most typical Subjectis a noun or a noun phrase.
Eg: Blood is thicker than water. The girl we are talking to is my secretary
Noun complex N, phrase S
2. A finite clause ( )
a) `that` clause
eg: That his wife has left him makes him happy.
b) A wh-word clause
Eg: What was said above is irrelevant.
3. A non-finite clause
a) with an infinitive
eg: To say this in public is silly.
NB! If the infinitive has its own Subject it has to be introduced by `for`
Eg: For John to marry Ann would be a disaster.
The infinitive can be introduced by a wh-word.
Where to find her was a big problem.
b) With an -ing form
Eg: Howard being away doesn`t bother me.
John going there is dangerous.

4. Anticipatory `it` = finite / non-finite clause

Eg: That he is the best is obvious It is obvious that...
There is a theoretical issue with such sentences it is not easy to determine the Subject.
a) Formally `it` is the Subject because:
- `it`is in initial position
- `it` is involved in inversion and tail-questions, just like a real Subject.
Eg: It is..............Is it............, isn`t it?
However `it` is not what the sentence is about. If we assume that `it` is the formal Subject then `that he
is the best` shoul be the notional Subject thus we have two Subjects.

b) Another possible treatment

It is obvious that he is....
Complex discontinuous Subject

5. Unstressed `there`
Structures with unstressed `there` are known as existential sentences because they most often denote
Eg: There is a cat under the bed.
In this case too there are theoretical problems as to what the true Subject is.
Formally `there` is a Subject because it is in initial position and is involved in inversion and tag-
Eg: There is......
Is there ........., isn`t there?
The theoretical argumentation about `there` is similar to that about `it`.
It is more important however to stress on the pragmatic use of the `there` construction in English:
Since the English Subject is fixed only in initial positionthe `there` construction makes it possible to
shift theSubject to post-verbal position.
This may be necessary in the following case :
a) when the Subject denotes sth new and important and such elements are usually placed at the end of
the sentence.
Eg: .
A faint sound came through the door - the distribution of the information is not the same
Better : Through the door there came a faint sound.

b) When the Subject is very large and its initial position would seem unnatural because large
constituents are ususally placed at the endof the sentence.
Eg: The day when we finally met after many years of negotiations, broken promises, deceit and
downright lies, came. not good
Better : There came the day when we finally met...
Hence the `there` cinstruction is a very important mechanism, for achieving certain pragmatic and
communicative goals and it compensates for the rigid word order in English and it makes it possible to
place the Subject i post-verbal position.
`There` also occurs in non-existential sentences with `there`.
Eg: There stood an enormous statue in the hall.
There does not appear to have been any change in their views.
There are also passive sentences with `there`.
Eg: In 1929 there was commited the most horrible crime in the history of USA.

6. A prepositional phrase
Eg: After five o`clock is the best time to meet.
Within two miles of the airport would be too noisy.


I. Definition the predicate is the sevond main part of the sentence which along with the
Subject constitutes the predicative bond (relation). It ascribes the features and properties too
or denotes some relations of the Subject.

Eg: Jane is pretty. He arrived.

II. Types of Predicate

Predicate can be classified according to two different principles:

a) according to structure simple and compound
b) morphologically verbal and nominal
The combination of theseparametres yields the following types :
Simple Verbal; Simple Nominal; Compound Verbal; Compound Nominal;

1. S V P this type consists of a finite verb in a simple or analytical tense form

Eg: He opened the door. (simple verbal analytucal form)

The phraseological Predicate this is a subtype of S V P

a) a vague verb + a + verb-like noun
Usually the vague verb is `have, give or take`
Eg: to have a swim / smoke / walk / look / glance
To give a push / laugh / start
This type denotes a momentary action and compensates for the lack of the distinction in English.
Cf: to push = / to give a push =

b) vague verb + + abstract noun + preposition ( use `of`)

eg: get rid of, get hold of, take hold of, take care of, make use of, make fun of = pull sb`s leg, to lose
sight of, to catch sight of, to pay attention to

2. S N P
This is a noun or adjective w/o link verbs;
There are two subtypes which are usually exclamations:

a) S P type it usually denotes absurdity

Eg: He a gentleman! She a beauty! Me stupid! S*P
Such cases should not be treated as elliptical sentences where link verb has been omittedor skipped
because of the insertion of a `missing` link verb would change the meaning radically.
Cf: She is a beauty # She a beauty.

b) P S type here again quite common are exclamations:

Eg: Nice thing, beer! Splendid game, cricket!
Such cases are indeed elliptical sentences where the insertion of the link verb doesn`t change the
Cf: Cricket is a splendid game. Beer is a nice thing!

However the `elliptical version` is more emotional and expressive.

3. The Compound Verbal Predicate (C V P ) consist of two parts: semi-auxiliary + notional part
The semi-auxiliary is a finite verb form (limited to person, number and tense) and it usually carries
modal or aspective meaning (aspective relates to what is commonly known as action`s art, mode of
Eg: Beginning, duration, ending, entirety, etc.
Accordingly there are two subtypes of Compound Verbal Predicate:
-modal C V P
- aspective C V P
The notional part of the C V P bears the basic semantic content and is usually an infinite form or
infinitive form.

a) The Modal C V P there are different structures subsumed here all of themn denote
modality in some way:

- modal verb + infinitive

eg: Can go, may come

- verb with modal meaning + infinitive / -ing form

eg: want to go, wish to arrive, long to see her, expect, try, hope

- `be` or `have` + infinitive

eg: have to go must go
be to is supposed, is scheduled to
He is to go. She is to arrive.

- be going to + infinitive
Here belong also phrases like had better / have best / would better

b) The aspective C V P
In this case semi-auxiliary bears aspective meaning of duration, beginning, ending...
Such verbs are : begin, commense, keep, go on, continue, stop, finish, cease + infinitive / -ing form
Here belong also phrases denoting habitual repeated actions in the past.
Used to / would + infinitive
Eg: She used to use my restroom. He would get up early every morning.

4. The Compound Nominal Predicate link verb + Predicative (Cs)

In this structure the Predicate is the notional part which denotes some feature or charecteristics of the
Subject. S - Vlink - Cs
The link verb serves as a link / bridge between the Subject and the Cs.
Eg: He is a teacher. substantive She is pretty. adjective
S Vlink Cs

The Cs is substantival nominal or adjectival constituent and it follows the link verb.
Many verbs in English may have different function full lexical verb, on the one hand or link verb on
the other.
Cf: She ran fast. (full lexical) He ran his father`s factory. (full lexical)
The river ran dry. (Vlinkno lexical meaning, Compound Nominal Predicate)
She grew proud. ( Vlink, C N P )
He grew a beard.( lexical, transitive, S V P)
It grew dark. ( V link )
All link verbs are reducible either `be` ( for stative verbs) or `become` (for dynamic verbs)
Some verbs may have a double function / meaning- link verb on the one hand with some lexical
meaning on the other.
Eg: She sat amazed. She married young. He died a beggar.
Such cases are known as `double predicates`.
Cf: She married young. = She married. + She was young.
Lexical Vlink + Cs
A link verb can also be in the passive voice in cases like : He was found guilty.
She was reported missing.
The link vreb in the C N P is typically void of lexical meaning but in some cases it may exhibit a
`double` charecter - the lexicalised Vlink on the one hand a lexical meaningfull verb on the other.There
are gradations / stages in the weakening of the lexical meaning, as can be illustrated with `go` below:
a) She went to Britain as a child.
Double P
The verb `go` has retained/attained lexical meaning.

b) People go naked on the beach. (double predicate but very faded)

Intermediate case with very weak lexical meaning (locomotion) and strong prevailance of the link

c) When she saw me she went mad.

No meaning of locomotion
Pure link verb / C N P proper


I. Definition - the Cs is that part of the C N P which follows the Vlink but refers to the Subject.
It designates features and charecteristics of the Subject. As such, it is typically an adjective or
a noun but may also be realised by other morphological parts.
Eg: She is nice. ( Cs ) He is strong. ( Cs )

II. Classification
1. According to the meaning of the Vlink:
a) predicatives of `being` - they represent a permanent quality or feature
eg: He looks nice. They appear happy.
These are all redicible to the stative meaning `to be`
b) predicatives of `becoming` - these denote some new feature or quality
eg: She became a nurse. The sky turned red.
These are all reducible to `become`.
The milk went sour. = became

2. According to the degree of connection With the Vlink, predicates can be :

a) extra-positional predicative outside the clause proper
eg: He reached the house dishabille and hungry.
This type is very loosely connected with the Vlink and can be omitted.
b) Supplementary P
This type is more closely integrated with the Vlink as compared to type `a)` above. Here the Vlink has
attained some lexical meaning and has a double function Vlink on the one hand + a lexical verb on
the other
Eg: She married young. He died a beggar.
These are the so-called double predicates (cf: Compound Nominal Predicate )
Supplementary predicatives are also used with activo-passive verbs:
Eg: The meat cuts tender. = The meat is tender to cut.
The house sold dear.
(activo-passive verbs )
The supplementary predicative occurs also as part of a Nexus Object after a passive form ( i.e. the
Vlink can have a passive form )
Eg: The door was painted green.
c) True Predicatives in this case the Vlink has no residual lexical meaning and the connection with
the Predicative is very strong. The Predicative cannot be omitted (which is not the case with type
`a)` and type `b)` above.)
Eg: She is nice. * She is.
The sky turned pink. *The sky turned.
i.e. in this case the integration between Cs and Vlink is inseparable.
Some verbs may take both Supplementary or True Predicatives;
Cf: She stood six feet in her stockings. ( double Pr., Supplementary Pr. )
He stood godfather to the child. ( no lexical meaning True P. )
III. Morphological realisation of the Predicative:
1. Adjective or adj. Phrase since the Predicative denotes features and properties of the Subject, the
adjective is its most typical realisation because adjectives denote features and properties.
Eg: Everything went black. He appeared glad to see me.
head modifier
His theory proved entirely wrong.
Mod. Head
Adj. Phrases can be Predicatives in passive sentences.
Eg: Mr Smith was found guilty.
Passive verb Cs
2. Noun phrase or noun this the the second most typical realisation of the Predicative
Eg: Martin will make a good husband.
Become noun phrase
The president`s death remained a mystery.
Acapulco is the best place there is to spend a holiday.
Her son came home a decrepit wreck.
Suppl. Pr. Cs
NB~ Since the prototypical Predicative is the adjective when nouns/noun phrases function as
Predicatives they may acquire adjectival features such as :
a) degrees of comparison
eg: The king was less statesman than warrior.
/ comparison Cs
The room was all confusion.
Highest degree
b) neutralisation of gender this can be attested only indirectly by relative pronouns `who`animate
versus `which` (no animacy, no gender )
eg: When a good person, which my friend was, goes away, life becomes harder. (loss of gender)
c) loss of article
eg: He turned traitor. He stood sentry. He is chairman of the committee.

d) possessive pronouns lose their determinative force

cf: My friend came last night. ( S )
Will you be my friend? ( S )

3. A prepositional phrase
Eg: He looks of about my age. ( Prep. Cs )

4. A finite clause
Eg: His theory is that mutations are not brought about by chance.Things remained as they had been in
the past.

5. A non-finite clause : with an infinitive or -ing form.

Eg: His priority is to become a writer.
Her conduct was putting the cart before the horse.
NB~ If the infinitive is associated with a separate Subject of its own it has be introduced by `for`.
Eg: The thing to do is for us to take the appropriate measures.


I. Definition Object is a secondary part of the Sentence denoting a participant (or thing)
directly or indirect affected by / involved in the verbal action; like the Subject it is typically a
substantival constituent and follows the verb in the English clause.
While the Subject presents the primary perspective (vantage point) of the linguistic expression the
starting point / what we are talking about, the Object represents the end point, the goal of the verbal
action - the secondary perspective ( secondary vantage point)
Eg: John kicked the door. ( O )
II. Types basically Objects are subdivided in terms of their affectedness / involvement in the
verbal action : direct and indirect Objects respectively.
1. The direct Object is the only Object which follows monotransitive verbs. It refers to a participant
directly affected bt the verbal action.
Eg: John broke the bottle.
i.e. : if there is only one Object the verb it must be Odirect;

2. The O indirect is the second Object along with the Od which follows ditransitive verbs like show,
send, give.
Eg: She sent her mother a letter.
Oi Od
Features of the Oi:
A) it cannot stand alone, it must be accompanied by Od
cf: She sent her mother. ( . )
NB! There is no Oi proper ( in the strict sense ) in Bulgarian.
What is commonly called Oi proper in BG is in fact a prepositional Object.
Eg: .
B) The Oi paraphrases into a prepositional Object with `to` ( if it is a benefective - `for` )
Cf: She sent a letter to her mother.
She cooked a meal for her mother.
Od Oprep
She cooked her mother a meal.
Oben Od
C) The Oi always precedes the Od the only exception is when the Od is a pronoun.
Eg: She sent it her.
D) The Oi is always animate (human). The Od may be a `thing` , human.
The feature human explains why the Oi always precedes the Od. Since language is an androcentric
( ) phenomenon (human-oriented) human is more central, more importantnthan
Since the Oi is aleays human it takes precedence over the Od and comes closer to the verb i.e. it
immediately follows the verb.
NB! There is a small group of transitive verbs in English where the dustinction between the Od and Oi
is hard to tell.
Eg: To forgive the girl her stupidity.
Presumably `the girl` is an Oi and `her stupidity` is Od. However `the girl` isn`t `normal` Oi because :
1. It can stand alone; 2. It doesn`t paraphrase as an Oprep.
Cf: *He forgave the stupidity to the girl.
Otherwise `the girl` above is pretty much like a regular Oi because it is human and it it comes first
before the Object. Actually because it`s human it comes first.
For such reasons cases like `forgive` are treated as verbs (according to Dim. Spassov) to teach sb sth,
envy, strike sb a blow
Note : Any Object in English can become a Subject in a corresponding passive expression in fact this
is reliable test of Object-hood.
Eg: I have a car. ( Predicator Complement )

- O d The door was opened by the wind.

A letter was sent to her mother.
Od S Oprep
- Her mother was sent a letter. Oi
OiS Oprep
The girl was looked at.
Oprep S

III. Semantiv classification of Object

1. The Od can have the following semantic specifications :
a) affected participant an animate or inanimate participant which / who directly involved / affected
by the verbal action.
Eg: John moved the radio. (affected Od)
b) affected participant created by, resulting from, coming into existence by virtue of (due to) a
verbal action.
Eg: John invented the radio.
Effected Objects are the result of / effect of the verbal action
Eg: to write a letter, paint a picture, devise a plan, build a house
The difference between affected and effected Objects is in fact coded in the meaning of the verb and is
a covert category thid distinction can only be made explicit by the so-called `do to` test which is
logically acceptable only with affected Objects.
Cf: What did John do to the radio? He moved it. ok affected
- He invented it. not ok effected

c) locative Object - denotes location; such Objects usually result from prepositional adverbial
modifiers where the preposition has been omitted.
Eg: He walked 8 the streets. (along adverbial modifier)
To swim * the river (across) ; to pas * the house (by) ; The horse jumped 8 the fence. (over)
This phenomenon seems to be gaining ground in current English because English is a very rational
language and any element which can be guessed may be omitted. The same phenomenon exists in BG ,
too but is very limited. Eg: !

d) cognate Object from the same or a similar root as the predicate

eg: sing a song, dream a dream, fight a fight, run a race, act a part

2. Oi can have the following semantiv specifications in most cases the Oi has the semantic role
Recipient ( a dativ participant ) and it is always [human].
Cf: I found your mother a place in the house.
Human Oi
I found the television a place in the house.
Not human, not recipient
Correct: I found a place for the TV in the house.
There is only one exception when Oi isn`t recipient / human:
Eg: I gave the door three kicks. I gave the car a wash.
/ \
affected Oi effected Oi

I\/. Morphological realisation of the Object

Morphologically Objects fall into two main groups :
a) non-prepositional ( Oi and Od )
b) prepositional

Oprep can be with different prepositions `to` or `for` for `Dativ` or `benefective` relations respectively
- to the girl
-for the girl
or other prepositions like `at`, `for` for akusativ relations.
NB! The Oprep should be distinguished from the prepositional adverbial modifier. The preposition of
the Oprep is determined (governed) by the verb.
Look at girl, house, tree... wait at corner / on table / under bed
With a prepositional adverbial modifier the preposition does not depend on the verb but it is determined
by the meaning of the adverbial modifier itself.
An additional morphological type of O is the complex Object (consists of two parts). There are two
kinds of Ocomplex:
a) the true, prototypical Ocomplex is a nexus construction (contains non-finite verb form)
eg: I heard her snore. I noticed him disappear.

This type is undisputed , accepted in all grammars.

b) another (more arguable type) of Ocomplex consists of O + Co - not accepted in all grammars
Eg: She made him a fool. They elected him president.
Od Co
And finally there is a mixed type of Ocomplex with the ``
Eg: They waited for the lecture to be over. (prep. Ocomplex) And over it was

I. Definition these are structures based on non-finite verb forms the infinitive , -ing form and
the past participle to solve the problem was her ambition. (nexus has the function of
II. NC vs `Regular clauses`
Both the NC and the RC are based on predicativity; the difference between them is that the syntagmatic
relations in the clause are overtly indicated and fixed in time.
Eg: He works hard. vs He worked hard.
On the other hand the NC does not indicate the syntagmatic and tense relations explicitly, it is covert
and is Subject to decoding / interpretation depending on the general context.
Eg: Working hard he got rich
we shall never get rich
you might get sick
Obviously the NC is an implicit structure and needs further interpretation on part of the listener i.e.
commands greater attention. Thus NC s are more universal (they fit in different contexts) and they are a
greater challenge for the listener i.e. they are more informationally loaded. For these reasons NCs are
widely used in current English.
NB! In BG however such constructions are to be avoided ( God knows why!)
III. Syntactic functions of NC
The NC may have different functions in the sentence:
1. Subject
Eg:Settling down to married life brings out the worst in people.
2. Object
Eg: I have seen the play performed in Oxford.
3. Predicative
Eg: She appeared to like it ( Cs; NC infinitive)
4. Attribute
Eg: His anxiety to meet you is unabated. (attribute to `anxiety`)
5. Adverbial Modifier
Eg: John made a fortune by selling junk food. (AM of manner)

I\/. Relations between the constituents of N C

a) Subject Predivate
I saw the man run.
b) Predicate Object
Seeing the chocolates on the table I grabbed one.
Adverbial modifier
c) Predicate adverbial modifier
Walking slowly, he reached the house.
N C (A M)
d) Subject Predicative thi is often the case in verbless N C
The girl happy, they decided to leave the house.
N C (A M)

\/. N C with the infinitive:

1. The Akusativ with the infinitive
This construction serves as a Nexus Complex Object in the clause
Eg: I saw him arrive. I heard them leave.
The relation among the constituents used with the following types of verbs:
a) verbs of sense perception see, watch; usually without `to`
NB! There is however + `to` when the verb denotes mental perception to know, understand
Eg: I believe him to be a decent fellow.
b) verbs of command, desire and permission usually + to
eg: I want them to leave. I forbid you to go.
Exception w/o `to` - let; Let them go! Leave them be!
c) verbs of causation to cause; make; force; compell; get; have; usually + `to`
eg: I forced her to read the book. I caused this to happen.
Exception w/o `to` - make, have
I made him write the letter. I`ll have him paint the door.
Help + to ...
W/o to is more colloquial;
The word order in in Accusativus cum infinitivo construction is for akusativ to precede infinitive. In
rare cases we may have a reversed word order usually with `let`.
Eg: I let go her hand. She let fall the book.
Such constructions are used for emphatic purposess.
2. The Nominativus cum infinitivo
This is in a way a reversed ACI; it is in most cases the passive counterpart of the ACI
Cf: I saw him run. Vs He was seen to run.
A major difference between the two structures is that tha ACI is an integral structure whereas the NCI
is a discontinuous (segmented, split apart) structure.
In most cases the verb is in the passive voice and there is always `to`; the only exception is `let` (w/o
Eg: The book was let fall. (NCI)

The NCI may also occur wirh intransitive non-passive verbs like `see`, `appear`, `happen`;
Eg: I happened to meet them there. (NCI)
INP verb
She appeared to enjoy that.

Here belong also phrases like : `be sure`, `be certain`, `be likely`
Eg: He is certain to come next week. (NCI)
They are likely to like it. (NCI)

3. The `` construction

This structure is a means of specifying the subject of the infinitive when it is different from the main
subject of the sentence.
To live in London was her ambition.
All I neede was for her to call me.
The `` construction may have thefollowing syntactic functions:
a) Subject
Eg: For Jane to marry John would be a social disaster.
b) Predicative
Eg: The most important thing was for the book to appear next week.
c) attribute
eg: I gave permission for them to leave. (NCI- attribute to `permission`)

d) Object
Eg: He proposes for them to join us. (O)

e) adverbial modifier
eg: She streched her hand out for me to look at. (adverbial modifier of purpose)

\/I. NC with the ing form

1. The extrapositional attribute

This is a supplementive clause / structure w/o a Subject of its own, it usually refers to the main subject.
Eg: Whistling loudly, he ransacked my belongings.

2. The absolute construction self-conatained/self-sufficient

A supplementive structure with its own subject.
Eg: Nobody saying a word, the meating was adjourned.
AC can be verbless.
Eg: Dinner over, we retired to the smoking room.
3. The unattached participle
In this case there is no subject and the construction refers to nothing in particular, it has generic
Eg: Lookong up the hill, a cottage is seen.
-ing NC
no subject, generic referrence

Another for the UP is `dangling modifier`.

The unattache Participle appears in certain set phrases such as :
Eg: Barring accidents, he should arrive tomorrow.
(Unless there are...)

4. The Nexus Object this structure is in rivalrywith the ACI

Eg: I saw him running. (-ing NC) ( saw the process)
Cf: I saw him run. (ACI) (the fact)

\/II. NC with the past participle

They are the same types as those with the ing form.

1. extrapositional attribute
eg: Broken in spirit, he retired to his casttle.
2. absolute construction
eg: The job done, we went home.
3. unattached participle
eg: Once married, what could people say. (very rare!!!)
4. Nexus Object
eg: I heard the problem discussed in class.
NC object


I. Introduction- because of the very `economical` morphological marking in English (almost complete
lack of verbal inflections) the word order in that language is very rigid (non-flexible) and fixed. The
basic (declarative, non-negative, non-emphatic, non-interrogative) word order sequence in English is
S V X where X is some complement or Object.
There are two major deviations from the basic word order pattern : inversion and dislocation.
1. Inversion mainly has a grammatical function to indicate that the clause is not declarative; eg: to
indicate questions, etc;
Inversion is : S V V S, that is a change in the S-V sequence; depending on what kind of verb
comes before the Subject we have two subtypes of inversin:
a) partial when the auxiliary verb is before the Subject.
Vaux S .....Vfull
Eg: I know this. Do I know this?
S V O Vaux / Vfull /O
b) full inversion when Vfull comes before the subject in a pattern like this:
.......Vfull S......
eg: Here comes the sun.
Vfull S
Full inversion
2, Dislocation this is shifting some clausal constituent to initial position like this:
S V X X S V A`-` inversion or X V S B `+` inversion (dislocation of X)
In some case the dislocation of some cvonstituent X does not entail inversion (case A)
eg: This I know. (dislocation of the object)
In other cases the dislocation of some element X entails also inversion.
Eg: Never have I seen such a fool. (dislocated adverbial modifier, partial inversion)
AM Vaux S Vfull O (Vaux S Vfull)
Summary: inversion is a phenomenon with mainly grammatical function it indicates interrogation,
exclamation, etc, grammatical processes.
Dislocation on the other gand, has mainly a communicative function- it indicates emphasis, focus of
some element placed in clause initial osition; in some class dislocation may entail inversion.
Types of inversion : A partial ( Vaux S...)
Full (Vfull S...)
B when inversion has grammatical function it is called functional; when inversion
is caused by dislocation it is called dislocational.

II. Functional inversion

The main syntactic funvtion of inversion is to indicate that a clause is not declarative, which can be the
case in:
1. Questions
Eg: Have you seen her?
2. Optative sentences
Eg: Long live peace! Full inversion
So be it! May our children never see another war!

3. Imperative sentences only in the case of the so-called enhanced negative imperative
Don`t you go there!

4. Exclamatory sentences this type is very restricted and is used mainly in literary style
How boring is this lecture!
How beautiful is this valley!

5. Conditional clauses when `if` is dropped

Eg: If I were you I would.......
Were I you I would
Full inversion
Had I had money I would have bought it.
Vaux S Vfull

III. Dislocation since the second type of inversion (dislocational) isa caused by the dislocation
of some clausal constituent, it should be described along with the different cases of
The following constituents can be dislocated:
1. Dislocation of the Subkect
Since the Subject is in initial position anyway we can speak of this location of the Subject only in the
case of complex discontinued Subjects with anticipatory (introductory) `it`.
Eg: It is hard to do this. (complex discontinued Subject)

2. Dislocation of the verb

Normally placing verb in the initial position before Subject would mean invertion. There is however a
specific structure in English which makes it possible to place the verb before the Subject (or else the
Subject after the verb) quite legitimately without the effects of invertion and this is the existential
construction with `there`.
Eg: There came the day that we met.
The construction with `there` is very important in English because it is a major means of shifting the
Subject in past verbal position. This may be necessary for communicative reasons (the most important
sailient information is placed in the end of the expression) or because long burky constituents tend to
be placed in the end of the expression.
Eg: There arrived a stranger in town.

3. Dislocation of the Object

a) + invertion this is when the Object is accompanied by a negative or a strongly limited modifier.
Eg: Not a word did she utter.
Object Vaux S Vfull
A partial invertion
Hardly a sign did he give.
Strongly limited modifier

b) invertion when the O is accompanied by a stressed demonstrative

eg: A: Do you know that?
B: Yes, that i know. (dislocated O, no invertion)
with link emphasis
eg: A fine trade you are learning!

In expressions of contrast like `some...other(s)....`

Eg: Some things I can do, others I simply cannot! (S)

4. Dislocation of the Predicative (Cs)

a) + invertion
in connection with negative or quantitive limiting modifiers.
Eg: No fool was he. S
| \
Emphatic Vlink; verb of clause

in concessive clauses
although / in spite of / regardless with as
eg: Tired as was the student she persisted.
Cs V S
Full invertion
NB! If a Sibject is a pronoun there is no invertion, however.
Eg: Tired as she was....

b) invertion
when Cs is a stressed demonstrative
eg: He is a fool! That he certainly is!
| S V
stressed demonstrative
with link emphasis
eg: I expected her to be nice and nice she was.
In colloquial exclamations
Right you are!
Cs Sv
A confounded nuisance (wo)men are!
NB! In literary style however exclamations are usually + invertion.
Eg: Green is the valley, blue is the sky!

5. Dislocation of the adverbial modifier

Since AM is the least fixed clausal constituent of interest are only the cases when its appearance in
initial position (dislocation) entails invertion.
a) when AM has a negative or restrictive meaning
eg: Never have I seen such a sight.
| |
Negative AM partial invertion

Hardly had he done anything wrong.

b) when the AM denotes degree of frequency

eg: Often have I visited the place.
| Vaux Vfull
adverbial of degree

So shall we end this lecture.

I\/. Other cases of invertion

1. In repeatedstatement with a substitute verb

NB! In such cases there is an invertion only when the referrant of the Subject in the repeated statement
is different from the one in the original sentence.
A: I am ready.
B: So am i.
I (A) is different from I (B).
If the referrant of Subject is the same then there is no invertion.
A: You (John) look tired.
B: So I (John) am.
You = I no invertion

2. There si full dislocational invertion in transitive verbs + postfix when the postfix is dislocated in
initial position (placed at the beginning)
Out went the lights, in rushe the guests. (full invertion) (communicatively loaded)

3. There is invertion in the comment phrase of direct speech when the verb is a commonly used one.
Eg: `No`, said he.
This type of invertion occurs even when the comment phrase precedes the direct speech.
Eg: -said he, `No.`
NB! This invertion is to be avoided when the comment verb is less common not so frequently used
like ;`to declare`. ` to add`.
Invertion in such cases is not acceptable when the comment phrase is more complex, which can be the
case in:
a) when it contains some object complement
eg: `No`, he told me.
*`No`, told he me.
b) when the comment phrase contains analytical verb forms.
Eg: `No`, he has said.
*`No`, has he said.