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Lecture 15

The pn Junction Diode (II)

Outline
IV characteristics
Forward Bias
Reverse Bias

Reading Assignment:
Howe and Sodini; Chapter 6, Sections 6.4 6.5

6.012 Spring 2009 Lecture 15 1


1. IV Characteristics (contd.)

Diode Current equation:

VVth
I = I o e 1

Physics of forward bias:

Fn
n p
Fp

Potential drop across SCR reduced by V


minority carrier injection in QNRs
Minority carrier diffusion through QNRs
Minority carrier recombination at contacts to the QNRs
(and surfaces)
Large supply of carriers injected into the QNRs


Ie
[]V
Vth

6.012 Spring 2009 Lecture 15 2


Fn
n p
Fp

Physics of reverse bias:

Potential drop across SCR increased by V

minority carrier extraction from QNRs

Minority carrier diffusion through QNRs


Minority carrier generation at surfaces & contacts
of QNRs
Very small supply of carriers available for
extraction

I saturates to small value

6.012 Spring 2009 Lecture 15 3


Development of analytical current model:

1. Calculate the concentration of minority carriers at


edges of SCR;

2. Find the spatial distribution of the minority carrier


concentrations in each QNR;

3. Calculate minority carrier diffusion current at SCR


edge.

4. Sum minority carrier electron and hole diffusion


currents at SCR edge.

(ptype) np (x) pn(x) (ntype)

contact to
p region contact to
n region
VD Vth VD Vth
n p( x p) = n po e p n(x n) = p no e p n(Wn) = p no
<< pno
<< npo
np(Wp)=npo

Wp xp xn Wn x

Reverse Bias

6.012 Spring 2009 Lecture 15 4


Total and Excess Concentrations
Forward Bias (Step 1)
Total Carrier Concentration (n & p)
np(x) pn(x)
(contact) (contact)
(ptype) (ntype)

p n(x n)
VD VD
Vth Vth
n po e pnoe
n p( xp )

W p xp xn Wn x
np (W p) = np o p n(W n) = p no

Excess Carrier Concentration (n & p) Subtract npo and pno


n p(x) pn(x)
(contact) (contact)
(ptype) (ntype)

p n(x n)
VD VD
Vth Vth
n po (e 1) pno (e 1)
n p(x p)

W p xp xn Wn x
n p( W p) = 0 p n(W n) = 0

6.012 Spring 2009 Lecture 15 5


SteadyState Diffusion
Ink Diffusion Example

Flux is number of ink molecules passing a plane/cm2sec


No molecules vanish in the water (NO recombination)
Ink concentration is a constant at x = 0
Ink concentration is zero at x = W (ohmic contact)
Result Ink concentration falls linearly from x=0 to x=W
ll tube

ink vacuum
ink water

0 W x
Injects (a)
ll tube
minority
carriers water
Carriers
ink vacuum
ink
recombine at
ohmic contact
0 W x
(b)

nI (x)
nI*

0 W
(c)

6.012 Spring 2009 Lecture 15 6


Minority Carrier Spatial Distribution

(Step 2)

Concentration linearly decreases from SCR edge to


ohmic contact. The expressions assumes no
recombination in the QNR.
n' (x )
n' p (x) = n' p (xp ) +
p p

Wp x p
x + xp ( )
p' n (xn )
p' n (x) = p' n (xn ) (x xn )

Wn xn
n p (x) p n (x)
(contact) (contact)
(ptype) (ntype)

p n( x n)

n p( x p)

W p x p x n Wn x
n p ( W p ) = 0 p n (W n ) = 0

Steadystate> minority carriers are continuously


injected across the junction to maintain the value at the
SCR edge set by the applied bias. The same number
continuously recombine at ohmic contact.
6.012 Spring 2009 Lecture 15 7
Minority Carrier Diffusion Current at

SCR Edge (Step 3)

Gradient in minority carrier concentrations across


the n & p QNRs
n = no + n > dn/dx = dn/dx
Transport occurs by diffusion
Ignore drift component since minority carriers

At xp electron diffusion current:


dn' p n' p (x p ) 0
Jn = qDn = qDn

dx Wp x p

[]
V
n (e Vth 1)
po
Jn = qDn

Wp x p

Jn = q
2
ni

Dn

e
( ) 1
V
Vth

Na Wp x p

6.012 Spring 2009 Lecture 15 8


Sum minority carrier diffusion
currents at SCR edge (Step 4)

Hole diffusion current at xn by same reasoning:

2
ni Dp (qV )
Jp = q e kT 1
Nd Wn xn


2 1
J = J n + J p = qni
Dn
+
1

Dp

( ) 1
qV

e
kT
N
a Wp x p Nd Wn xn

Current is:
1 qV
2
I = qAni
Dn
+
1

D p e
(kT )

1

Na Wp x p N d Wn x n

Often written as:


qV
kT
I = Io e 1

6.012 Spring 2009 Lecture 15 9


f Picture of Total Diode Current\
Forward Bias
Minority carriers are injected fiom the other side of the junction
Minority carriers diffuse fi-om SCR edge to the ohmic contact
with no recombination and recombine at contact
Total current found by summing the minority carrier difhsion
currents at SCR edges and assuming no recombination in SCR
.
n' (4 4 P' ,Id

*Majoritycarriers are transported to the junction fiom the ohmic


contact by drift and difhsion.

6.012Spring 2000 Lecture 15


Minority Carrier Spatial Distribution
( Reverse Bias)
Diode current derivation same for forward and
reverse bias. (same equations for spatial distribution)
Minority carrier concentration at SCR is near zero
under reverse bias.
Concentration linearly increases from SCR edge to
ohmic contact.
Minority carriers flow from contacts to SCR and are
swept across the junction.
(ptype) np (x) pn(x) (ntype)

contact to
p region contact to\
n region
VD Vth VD Vth
n p( x p) = n po e p n(x n) = p no e p n(Wn) = p no
<< pno
<< npo
np(Wp)=npo

Wp xp xn Wn x

Steadystate> minority carriers are continuously


extracted across the junction to maintain the value at the
SCR edge set by the applied bias. The same number
continuously are generated at ohmic contact.

6.012 Spring 2009 Lecture 15 11


IV Characteristics

Diode Current equation:


I = Io e
( ) V
Vth

1

I lg |I|

0.43 q
kT
=60 mV/dec @ 300K
Io

0
0 V 0 V
Io
linear scale semilogarithmic scale

6.012 Spring 2009 Lecture 15 12


What did we learn today?

Summary of Key Concepts

Diode Current can be analytically


determined by summing the minority
carrier current at both sides of SCR

I = Io
[ ] qV
(e 1)

kT

Under forward bias:


Minority carriers are injected across the
junction and diffuse to the contact where they
recombine
Under reverse bias:
Minority carriers are generated at the contact

and diffuse to the junction where they are

extracted across the junction

6.012 Spring 2009 Lecture 15 13


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6.012 Microelectronic Devices and Circuits


Spring 2009

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