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The Feasibility of Different Bougainvillea (Bougainvillea glabra) Petal Decoction

and Cassava (Manihot esculenta) Peeling Starch as Colored Chalk

Submitted by:

Zhane Marizze M. Esguerra

Submitted to:

Mrs. Annah Rey Bardelosa-Colongon


INTRODUCTION

Chalks are very useful to humans. It is commonly used by teachers, students, and

artists. Chalk is an inexpensive and available in several forms and uses. Typical

blackboard chalk is appropriate on blackboards as teaching aid especially to those who

are not using modern teaching method. Some chalk, made specifically for chalk drawings

is more expensive but worth the cost because it produces vibrant colors. These colored

chalks are used by the artists and some students for their art works. Aside from this is the

sidewalk chalk which is designed to wash away with water, usually has a detergent

component. It is also larger than the regular chalk which makes it easier to use on cement.

Because there are still many children today want to draw with colorful chalks, I decided

to make colored chalk that is cheaper and less fungal infection.

According to Dr. Joseph Mercola (1997-2016) cassava (Manihot esculenta), also

known as manioc or yuca (not yucca), belongs to the spurge family of plants called

Euphorbiaceae. It most likely originated in South American forest regions, but it's also

grown very inexpensively in parts of Asia, Africa and the Southern U.S. For centuries, it's

been a food mainstay for millions. Different varieties of cassava are generally classified

into two main types: sweet cassava and bitter cassava. Sweet cassava roots contain less

than 50 mg per kilogram hydrogen cyanide on fresh weight basis, whereas that of the

bitter variety may contain up to 400 mg per kilogram (Hong Kong Center for Food

Safety).

Bougainvillea glabra is a vigorous climbing species, which flowers at an earlier

age than most kinds. It is a subtropical woody plant armed with spines. Though normally
climbers as seen outdoors in warm climates they can be trained and pruned to keep

them bushy indoors and there are some recently introduced dwarf-growing kinds that

remain bushy without special attention. Their oval leaves are sparse and uninteresting,

but they have decorative papery bracts surrounding small cream-white colored flowers.

The bracts appear in clusters of 10 to 20. Purple or magenta bracts are produced in late

summer and fall and the varieties include other colors. They tend to flower all year round

in equatorial regions. Elsewhere, they are seasonal, with bloom cycles typically four to

six weeks. But the real flowers are tucked away inside the papery bracts from summer to

autumn.

We are all aware that education is one of the important things that we should

never forget and neglect because it will lead us to victory. And to support this, every

school should have the facilities and various teaching aids to make it easier for students

to learn. We know that we already have some modernized equipments, but still, for those

schools who are not using modernized teaching aids there are still whiteboards that just

need markers that can also be used in teaching. But still, the origin of those is just

a simple blackboard and a piece of chalk. So I will make some trial and errors from some

raw materials to be made into more durable colored chalk. Until to that moment that I

will succeed to one of my trials in order to make a chalk out of cassava peelings starch

and bougainvillea petal decoction.

Generally this study aims to discover the potential of cassava peelings starch and

different bougainvillea petal decoction as an alternative colored chalk that can prevent or

lessen fungal infection and skin irritation.


Statement of the Problem

Generally, this study aims to determine the feasibility of bougainvillea petal

decoction and cassava peelings starch as an alternative colored chalk.

Specifically, this study aims to answer the following questions:

1. How will the use of cassava peelings and bougainvillea affect the produced

colored chalk in terms of:

a.) brittleness

b.) dust

c.) compaction

2. How will the effect of the produced colored chalk made from cassava

peelings and bougainvillea differ from in terms of:

a.) brittleness

b.) dust

c.) compaction

Hypotheses

1. There is no significant difference on how the use of cassava peelings and

bougainvillea affect the produced colored chalk in terms of:


a.) brittleness
b.) dust
c.) compaction
2. There is no significant difference on the effect of the produced colored

chalks made from cassava peelings and bougainvillea differ in terms of:
a.) brittleness
b.) dust
c.) compaction

Objectives of the Study

The general objective of the study is to determine the feasibility of bougainvillea

petal decoction and cassava peelings starch as an alternative colored chalk.

More specifically it aims:

1. To know the use of cassava peelings and bougainvillea as it affects the

produced colored chalk in terms of:

a.) brittleness
b.) dust
c.) compaction
2. To identify the effect of the produced colored chalks made from cassava

peelings and bougainvillea differ in terms of:


a.) brittleness
b.) dust
c.) compaction

Significance of the Study

This study opens another way for us people to be able to save and make chalks

that is much durable with long-lasting use that will take part in our study. The study will

be conducted as a remedy for the common problem of spending much in. And it will also

help us to gain money when you make this as your business affair. We can also make
some raw materials that we thought to be useless, transformed into a much useful and

improved thing.

The result of the study will play significant roles to the following sectors

especially to the people who avoid using chalks because of its dust.

This study will help those people who are easily irritated by the chalk dust just

like asthmatic people, those who have skin irritation and those children who have

allergies. Usage of chalk would not hinder them because of this study.

This study may help those people who are often exposed day in and day out in

chalk just like students, especially the teachers just because they are not the same in other

schools using modern technology for their teaching.

The results will benefit people who want to have their own business but could not

start due to lack of investment and also because some of them are scared to draw money.

This will help future business men and women to save money because of its easy-to-find

materials.

This study provides the most information than other person that will read this

research. This study will serve as a reference to future researchers in broadening their

knowledge. After this research was proven, the researcher can make of cassava peelings

and bougainvillea starch anywhere, and the researcher can save some money. Other

researcher can benefit in this research the best.

Scope and Limitations of the Study


This study will focus on the feasibility of bougainvillea petal decoction and

cassava peelings starch as an alternative colored chalk. This study is limited to the

evaluation of its physical properties in terms of its durability, dust, and compaction.

The study will start on December 2016- 2017 and will be conducted at

researchers house in Banaba Cerca.

Definition of Terms

The following terms will be defined to have a common understanding of the key

terms that will be used in the study. This will be used to better understand the study.

Bougainvillea is a vigorous climbing species, which flowers at an earlier age than

most kinds. It is a subtropical woody plant armed with spines. Their oval leaves are

sparse and uninteresting, but they have decorative papery bracts surrounding small

cream-white colored flowers.

Cassava is a long tuberous starchy root about two inches around and eight inches

long. The root has a brown fibrous skin and snowy white interior flesh. Because it bruises

easily, its often sold covered in a protective wax coating.

Colored Chalk is a soft, earthy substance, of any color, consisting of calcium

carbonate, and having the same composition as common limestone

Decoction is a process wherein the drug is boiled in water for 15 to 60 minutes

(depending on the plant or the active ingredient to extract), its cooled, strained and added

enough cold water through the drug to obtain the desired volume.
Starch is a white, granular, organic chemical that is produced by all green plants.

Starch is a soft, white, tasteless powder that is insoluble in cold water, alcohol, or other

solvents. The basic chemical formula of the starch molecule is (C6H10O5)n. Starch is

a polysaccharide comprising glucose monomers joined in 1,4 linkages. The simplest

form of starch is the linear polymer amylose; amylopectin is the branched form.

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE


This chapter presents the wealth of literature and studies, gathered from books

and most recent journals, pertinent to the present study. First, it will give summary about

cassava properties, and its chemical composition. Next, it will discuss bougainvillea

varieties, properties and its chemical composition.

Chalk (Calcium carbonate)

Chalk, a soft, fine-grained, easily pulverized white-to-grayish variety

of limestone is composed of the shells of such minute marine organisms as foraminifera,

coccoliths, and rhabdoliths. The purest varieties contain up to 99 percent calcium

carbonate in the form of the mineral calcite. The sponge spicules, diatom and radiolarian

tests (shells), detrital grains of quartz, and chert nodules (flint) found in chalk contribute

small amounts of silica to its composition. Small proportions of clay minerals, glauconite,

and calcium phosphate also are present. (Encyclopedia Britannica, 2016)

Uses of Chalk

Chalk may be used for its properties as a base. In agriculture, chalk is used for

raising pH in soils with high acidity. Small doses of chalk can also be used as an antacid.

Additionally, the small particles of chalk make it a substance ideal for cleaning and

polishing. For example, toothpaste commonly contains small amounts of chalk, which

serves as a mild abrasive. Polishing chalk is chalk prepared with a carefully controlled

grain size, for very fine polishing of metals. Chalk can also be used as fingerprint

powder.

The chalkboard is only as effective as the lesson it accompanies. One must assume,

therefore, that the lesson is carefully prepared so that those aspects of it which are
suitable for visualization are presented by that means, while those parts which are

essentially verbal/oral or given by practical means are handled differently (The

Chalkboard: A Link Between the teacher and the learner, 1981)

According to A. W. Bartram, the need for variety in the learning process is very

important in order to maintain interest and avoid both mental and physical fatigueboth

in respect of the pupils and, although he may not realize it, the teacher as well. The

chalkboard provides many opportunities for variety and change in a lesson presentation.

Teaching with chalk reduces the amount of time it takes to prepare lectures. It

forces the instructor to drill down to the key facts and work to know them well without

wasting time on PowerPoint slides (Buddle, C., April 11, 2012). Many teachers and

professors much prefer to use chalkboard as an instrument in teaching rather than using

PowerPoint. According to C. Conway, the chalkboard is dynamic, changeable, sensitive,

immediate, and completely in the classroom moment. It models note taking and

underlines the value of trial and error thinking and brainstorming, skills that are vital to

analytical thinking. He also cited that using chalkboard freed him to be more responsive

to the needs of his students.

Chemical Composition

The chemical formula for chalk is CaCO 3, calcium carbonate, and it has a

calcite crystal structure. A calcium carbonate is classified as a mineral group that contains

one or more metallic elements plus the carbonate compound of CO3. Chalk has the same

chemical composition as limestone, marble and precipitated calcium carbonate.

Additionally, since chalk is a carbonate, it is also lightly colored and transparent when
pure. Carbonates are soft, brittle and fizz or bubble when exposed to hydrochloric acid

(Demand Media, 1999).

Effects of Chalk Dust

The effects of chalk dust on respiratory system have been demonstrated in a few

studies. Ohtsuka Y, Munakata M, Homma Y and et. al. studied three patients with chronic

interstitial pneumonia with many bullae in the lower lung fields whose lifetime

occupation was teaching school. Pathological examination of autopsy lungs was done.

Mineral content of two of them was analyzed and compared with mineral content of four

control cases with idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (whose occupations were not

teaching). Findings of this study showed that dust particles and minerals which are

usually present in chalk were high in teachers lung suggesting that chalk dust is a cause

of interstitial pneumonia in teachers. A survey conducted in Spain shown that chalk dust

is associated with an increased risk of many respiratory symptoms like wheezing,

frequent respiratory infections and hoarseness. Our findings are consistent with findings

of studies conducted in chalk powder (CaCO3) plants. In the chalk powder plant, all

airflow parameters declined significantly with increasing dustiness and workers in

dustiest workplace (chalk sacking) showed significantly lower airflow parameters than

workers in other workstations. Chalk dust behaves like any other particulate matter and

remains suspended in air for sometime before settling on the floor and body parts of

teachers and students. Nasopharynx is quite efficient in filtering larger particles. Particles,

smaller than 5 m, can penetrate to lungs and be deposited in alveoli. These particles

irritate respiratory passage causing inflammation, fibrosis and smooth muscle


hypertrophy. All these may lead to airway narrowing and this may be the cause for less

PEFR in teachers than control. (Int J Med Health Sci. Oct 2013, Vol-2; Issue-4)

Cassava (Manihot esculenta)

Cassava (Manihot esculenta), also called manioc, mandioca, or yuca, tuberous

edible plant of the spurge family (Euphorbiaceae) from the American tropics. It is

cultivated throughout the tropical world for its tuberous roots, from which cassava flour,

breads, tapioca, a laundry starch, and an alcoholic beverage are derived. Cassava

probably was first cultivated by the Maya in Yucatn. A cyanide-producing sugar

derivative occurs in varying amounts in most varieties. Indigenous peoples developed a

complex refining system to remove the poison by grating, pressing, and heating

the tubers. The poison (hydrocyanic acid) has been used for darts and arrows.

(Encyclopedia Britannica, 2016)

According to Umesh Rudrappa ( 2009-16), cassava (yuca or manioc) is a nutty

flavored, starch-tuber in the spurge family (Euphorbiaceae) of plants. It thought to have

originated from the South-American forests. Its sweet, chewy underground tuber is one of

the popular edible root-vegetables. Indigenous people of many parts of Africa, Asia and

South American continents used it as staple food source since centuries. Together with

other tropical roots and starch-rich foods like yam, taro, plantains, potato, etc, it too is an

indispensable part of carbohydrate diet for millions of inhabitants living in these regions.

It is a long tuberous starchy root about two inches around and eight inches long. The root

has a brown fibrous skin and snowy white interior flesh. Because it bruises easily, its

often sold covered in a protective wax coating. (2016 By Hector Rodriguez Latin

Caribbean Food Expert).


The cassava plant is somewhat unusual, and even infamous, because both the

roots and leaves can be toxic to consume. The toxicity of cassava is due to the presence

of cyanogenic glucosides (compounds of cyanide and glucose) which liberate hydrogen

cyanide (HCN), a potent toxin, when the plant tissue is damaged. Cyanogenic glucosides

are found throughout the plant and in all varieties of cassava. Varieties referred to as

"sweet" or low-cyanide, have low levels of cyanogenic glucosides in the flesh of the root

and can be peeled and cooked like other root vegetables. Those referred to as "bitter," or

high-cyanide, have higher levels of cyanogenic glucosides throughout the root (peel and

flesh) and require more extensive processing before they are safe to consume. A number

of different processing techniques are used (grating, fermenting, sun drying), all of which

serve to damage the plant tissue and hence cause the liberation and volitalization of HCN.

The potential toxicity of cassava foods depends on the effectiveness of processing and

preparation techniques; high-cyanide roots can be processed to remove all most all traces

of cyanide-containing compounds. Many farmers prefer to cultivate the high-cyanide

varieties for reasons that are not entirely clear. (Encyclopedia of Food and Culture;

Encyclopedia.com. 27 Oct. 2016)

It is a perennial woody shrub with an edible root, which grows in tropical and

subtropical areas of the world. Cassava originated from tropical America and was first

introduced into Africa in the Congo basin by the Portuguese around 1558. The leaves are

palmate (hand-shaped) and dark green in color. The cone-shaped roots are starch storage

organs covered with a papery bark and a pink to white cortex. The flesh ranges from

bright white to soft yellow. Over five thousand varieties of cassava are known, each of

which has its own distinctive qualities and is adapted to different environmental
conditions (Encyclopedia of Food and Culture. Encyclopedia.com. 27 Oct. 2016). It is

a perennial plant with conspicuous, almost palmate (fan-shaped) leaves resembling those

of the related castor-oil plant but more deeply parted into five to nine lobes. The fleshy

roots are reminiscent of dahlia tubers. Different varieties range from low herbs to

branching shrubs and slender unbranched trees. Some are adapted to dry areas of alkaline

soil and others to acid mud banks along rivers. (Encyclopedia Britannica, 2016)

Cassava is a good source of dietary fiber as well as vitamin C, thiamin, folic

acid, manganese, and potassium (Encyclopedia Britannica, 2016). It is rich in

carbohydrates, calcium, vitamins B and C, and essential minerals. However, nutrient

composition differs according to variety and age of the harvested crop, and soil

conditions, climate, and other environmental factors during cultivation (IITA

Headquarters). Cassava contains about 1-2% protein which makes it a predominantly

starchy food (Charles et al., 2005). The protein content is low at 1% to 3% on a dry

matter basis (Buitrago, 1990) and between 0.4 and 1.5 g/100 g fresh weight (Bradbury

and Holloway, 1988). In contrast, maize and sorghum have about 10 g protein/100 g fresh

weights (Montagnac, 2009). As human food, it has been criticized for its low and poor

quality protein content, but the plant produces more weight of carbohydrate per unit area

than other staple food crop under comparable agro-climatic conditions. About 50% of the

crude protein in the roots consists of whole protein and the other 50% is free amino acids

(predominantly glutamic and aspartic acids) and non-protein components such as nitrite,

nitrate and cyanogenic compounds (Zvinavashe et al., 2011). (International Food

Research Journal 2012, Emmanuel, O. A., Clement, A., Agnes, S. B., Chiwona-Karltun,

L. and Drinah, B. N)
Bougainvillea (Bougainvillea glabra)

Bougainvillea glabra is a native of Brazil but now it cultivates all tropical and

subtropical countries as ornamental plants. This is an evergreen, climbing woody vine.

Tiny multi-color flowers usually appear in clusters surrounded by colorful papery bracts,

so that it called paper flower. They have various colored flowers like as magenta, purple,

red, orange, pink, yellow, white, violate etc. They tend to flower all year round in

equatorial regions. Elsewhere, they are seasonal, with bloom cycles typically four to six

weeks. But the real flowers are tucked away inside the papery bracts from summer to

autumn. Single and double flower forms are available. The woody trunk tends to be

twisted and the thin stem has sharp thorns and dark green leaves. The leaves are alternate,

simple ovate-acuminate, 413 cm long and 26 cm broad. Bougainvilleas can be easily

grown as a hedge, an arch or a tree on the ground and in pots. It is available in a variety

of species, is ideal for bonsai.

(treesplanet.blogspot.com bougainvillea-glabra-paper)

It is growing in well drained sandy desert soils, slopes, mesas and disturbed rocky soil in

a broad elevation range, anywhere from sea level to 750m (0-2500 feet). Its natural

habitat is equatorial where day and night lengths are almost equal. Bougainvillea glabra

in these areas tend to bloom year round. Elsewhere, best blooming occurs when the night

length and day length are almost equal (in spring or fall). (Plants & Flowers Copyright

2010-2016).

Bougainvillea (genus Bougainvillea), a genus of about 18 species of shrubs,

vines, or small trees, belonging to the four-oclock family (Nyctaginaceae), native to

South America. Many species are thorny. Only the woody vines have attained wide
popularity; several species have produced very showy cultivated varieties, which are

often grown indoors and in conservatories. The inconspicuous flowers are surrounded by

brightly coloured papery bracts, for which one species, B. glabra, from Brazil, is

called paper flower; the bracts are purple or magenta to lighter tints in certain varieties.

The stem of B. glabra may be 20 to 30 metres (about 60 to 100 feet) long in warm

climates, and the plant is in flower throughout most of the year. The stem of B.

spectabilis is covered with many short hairs, and the flowers are relatively short-lived.

The combination of bract plus inconspicuous flower itself resembles a flower with

conspicuous petals. B. peruviana, from Colombia to Peru, has risen to magenta

bracts. B. buttiana, a probable hybrid of B. glabra and B. peruviana, has given rise to

varieties having lemon yellow (Golden Glow), orange (Louis Wathen), and crimson

(Mrs. Butt) bracts. Bougainvilleas are hardy in warm climates (Encyclopedia

Britannica, 2014).

It is a subtropical woody plant armed with spines. Though normally climbers as

seen outdoors in warm climates they can be trained and pruned to keep them bushy

indoors and there are some recently introduced dwarf-growing kinds that remain bushy

without special attention. Their oval leaves are sparse and uninteresting, but they have

decorative papery bracts surrounding small cream-white coloured flowers. The bracts

appear in clusters of 10 to 20. Purple or magenta bracts are produced in late summer and

fall and the varieties include other colours. They tend to flower all year round in

equatorial regions. Elsewhere, they are seasonal, with bloom cycles typically four to six

weeks. But the real flowers are tucked away inside the papery bracts from summer to

autumn. (Plants & Flowers Copyright 2010-2016)


The Bougainvillea is an immensely showy, floriferous and hardy plant. Virtually

pest-free and disease resistant, it rewards its owner with an abundance of color and

vitality when it is well looked after. The bougainvilleas versatility is legendary. It can be

coaxed into a small manageable pot plant or a sizeable tree, to spread itself vertically on a

wall, or climb up a trellis and form a luscious crown or burst forth into graceful arches. It

makes one of the best hedges, bushes, and curb-liners. And as for bonsai or topiary

purposes, it has few equals, lending its complex branching to the pruning shears, which

promote even more unique and graceful forms. It is probably true to say that without the

bougainvillea, our roads, parks, and private gardens would be a lot less colorful that what

we see today. Almost everywhere we go, its brilliant hues and cheerful bursts punctuate

the lush green mantle that cloaks our tropical environment while other flowering plants

certainly pale in comparison. (Bougainvillea Growers International BGI Fertilizers).

Along with palms, sunshine, and beaches, the cascading blooms of bougainvillea

provide one of Floridas signature tropical images. As a profuse bloomer, bougainvillea is

most striking during the winter, when it is at its peak and few other plants are able to

provide color. Although it is frost-sensitive and hardy in zones 9b and 10, bougainvillea

can be used as a houseplant or hanging basket in cooler climates. In the landscape, it

makes an excellent hot season plant, and its drought tolerance makes bougainvillea ideal

for warm climates year-round. Native to the coasts of Brazil, bougainvillea has a high salt

tolerance, which makes it a natural choice for south Florida and other coastal regions. As

a woody clambering vine, bougainvillea will stand alone and can be pruned into a

standard, but it is perfect along fence lines, on walls, in containers and hanging baskets,

and as a hedge or an accent plant. Its long arching branches are thorny, and bear heart-
shaped leaves and masses of papery bracts in white, pink, orange, purple, and burgundy.

Many cultivars, including double flowered and variegated, is available. (Bougainvillea

Growers International BGI Fertilizers)

Bougainvillea has thinner branches that spread in many directions and have

distinctive pointed triangle-shaped bracts that come in a range of whites, lilacs, mauves,

and purples. Thorns are short, thin, and curved at the tips. Leaves are fairly evenly

elliptical, widest about the middle. The small cream flowers are relatively big and tube-

shaped. They also tend to flower virtually continuously, and often down the entire length

of the branch (Bougainvillea Growers International BGI Fertilizers).


METHODOLOGY

A. Research Design
This study will use the experimental research method. This method

involves a careful study, observation and detailed description of the qualitative

and quantitative characteristics of the produced colored chalk in terms of

brittleness, dust, and compaction.


B. Materials and Equipment
The materials and equipments that will be used in making colored chalk are:
Cassava
Knife
Blender
Bowl
Cloth
Bougainvillea
Water
Pot
C. Procedure
(Making starch from cassava peelings)
1. Collect cassava then peel.
2. Cut into small pieces to blend easily.
3. Blend with a generous quantity of water.
4. Tie a chiffon cloth over a bowl and pour some blended cassava.
5. Rinse some cassava blend with cold water until chaff is left.
6. Wringed the chaff when done and repeat the process for the rest of the blend.
7. Set aside and allow the starch to settle for about 3 hours.
8. Decant the water

(Decoction of different bougainvillea petals)

1. Collect different bougainvillea petals.


2. Place the water into a pot made from non-reactive metal (such as stainless or

enamel; do not use aluminum).


3. Cut or crush the herb or root and add it to the water in the pot. (Do not cut or

crush the herb or root in advance, as vital constituents can be lost.)


4. Turn on the heat to medium. Simmer your decoction with the lid off until the

volume of water is reduced by one-quarter (so, three-quarters of a pint

remains).
5. Cool and strain. Store in the fridge for no more than 72 hours.
6. Take in divided doses according to use.

(Making of colored chalk)

1. Mix the cassava starch and the bougainvillea petal decoction.


2. Mold the mixture into different sizes according to your desire.
3. Place it under the sun and wait until it dries up and is ready to be used.