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Prepared by Asst.

Professor Mohammad (AERO)

B.S. ABDUR RAHMAN UNIVERSITY


Fluid Mechanics & Machinery (ME202) B.E.-3(MECH)
Internal Test III (24.09.2013)
Answer all the questions and dont mix-up Part-A with other answers.
Only non-programmable calculator is allowed
Part A (Marks: 5 x 2 = 10)
1. Define Major Loss in flow through pipes.
2. List out the different methods of representing boundary layer thickness.
3. Define hydraulic efficiency of turbine.
4. Mention the purpose of a draft tube.
5. What is the need for priming?
Part B (Marks: 2 x 20 = 40)
6 (a) (i) Derive an expression for the loss of head due to sudden contraction. (5)
(ii) Two reservoirs are connected by a pipeline consisting of two pipes. The first (15)
pipe is of 15cm diameter and a length 6m and the other pipe is of 22.5cm
diameter and 16m length. The difference of the water level in the two
reservoirs is 6m. Calculate the discharge and also draw the energy gradient
line. Take f = 0.04.
(OR)
(b) (i) Derive an expression for Darcys equation of loss of head due to friction in (10)
pipe flow.
(ii) In a pipe of diameter 250mm and length 85m is flowing at a velocity of (10)
2.8m/s. find the head loss due to friction using Darcy-Weisbach formula and
Chezys formula for which C = 55. Assume kinematic viscosity of water as
0.012stoke.
7 (a) (i) Explain the constructional details and the working of a Francis turbine with (15)
the help of top and front view.
(ii) A jet of water of 60mm diameter strikes a curved vane at its centre with a (5)
velocity of 18m/s. Curved vane is moving with a velocity of 6m/s in the
direction of jet. The jet is deflected through an angle of 160 0 . Assuming the
plate to be smooth, find thrust on the plate in the direction of jet, the power
developed and efficiency of the jet.
(OR)

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(b) (i) A single jet Pelton wheel runs at 300rpm under the head of 510m. The jet (12)
diameter is 200mm, its deflection inside the bucket is 165 0 and its relative
velocity is reduced by 15% due to friction. Determine water power, resultant
force on the bucket and overall efficiency. Take coefficient of velocity = 0.98,
speed ratio = 0.46 and mechanical losses as 3%.
(ii) With a neat sketch explain the working of a reciprocating pump. (8)

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Answers
Part A
1. When the flow through pipe takes place, there comes a lot of loss of head due to so many different
reasons. The loss of head which takes place due to friction between fluid and pipe surface is called
major loss.
2. Boundary layer can be represented by so many different ways. It can be shown using mass flow
rate deficit, momentum deficit or energy deficit. Correspondingly they are called displacement
thickness, momentum thickness and energy thickness.
3. Hydraulic efficiency of turbine is defined as the ratio of the power developed in the runner to
the hydraulic power supplied.
Power developed by the runner
=
Hydraulic input
4. Draft tube is employed in the turbines to channel out the flow once it has already passed through
the turbine blades. It is a gradually expanding tube connects the runner exit to the tailrace. It helps
in the safe and efficiency passage of the used water after turbine.
5. When the penstock is not fully filled, it may contain some cavities at some places, and when the
turbine is running, it may generate less energy than required as per the expectation. To avoid this
first the pipe carrying water to the turbine is filled before switching on the turbine. This process
is called priming.

Part B
6. (a) (i) Loss of head due to sudden contraction:
Let us consider the situation of pipe carrying liquid whose cross sectional area at a certain
section reduces abruptly from 1 to 2 as shown in the picture.

Flow through sudden contraction

We consider the two sections before and after the contraction. Due to sudden contraction
the streamlines converge to a smaller cross section as per the solid boundary. In between

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there comes the minimum area called Vena Contracta. After this only stream lines expand
to fill the downstream pipe.
We shall denote the velocity, area and pressure with , and with the appropriate
subscript denoting the location. Apart from these there will be two more parameters playing
role here:
= Loss of head due to sudden contraction
Actually = Loss of head up to Vena-Contracta + Loss of head due to sudden enlargement
beyond Vena-Contracta, but since loss up to Vena-Contracta is very small and may be
neglected.
So from the idea of sudden enlargement:
( 2 )2
= ()
2g
Here we have taken the initial velocity as the velocity at the contracta. From the continuity
equation:
2 1 1
= 2 2 = = =
2
2
2
= ()

Here is the coefficient of contraction. Now putting the velocity at the contracta in
equation (i):
2
(2 2 ) 22 1 2
=
= ( 1)
2g 2g
22
=
2g
1 2
Where, = ( 1)


It must be noted that or K is not constant; it depends on the ratio 2 .
1

Generally the value of K varies from 0.375 to 0.5. If value or K is not given, then the
head loss due to friction is taken as
.
=

(a) (ii) The given situation is as below:
1 = 15, 1 = 6, 2 = 22.5, 2 = 16, = 6, = 0.02

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As per the situation there will be some losses in the available head. They are as below:
a. Loss due to entrance in the pipe 1
b. Loss due friction in pipe 1
c. Loss due to sudden enlargement in pipe 1
d. Loss due to friction in pipe 2
e. Loss due to exit again
Head loss at the entrance in the pipe 1:
0.5 12 0.5 12
1 = = = 0.0255 12
2g 2 9.81
Head loss due to friction in pipe 1:
1 12 0.04 6 12
1 = = = 0.082 12
2 g 1 2 9.81 0.15
By the equation of continuity:
1 2 (0.15)2
1 1 = 2 2 2 = 1 = 12 1 = = 0.444 1
2 2 (0.225)2 1
Head loss due to enlargement at the pipe junction:
(1 2 )2 (1 0.444 1 )2
= = = 0.0157 12
2g 2 9.81
Head loss due to friction in pipe 2:
1 22 0.04 16 (0.444 1 )2
2 = = = 0.0286 12
2 g 1 2 9.81 0.225
Head loss due to exit at the pipe 2:
22 (0.444 1 )2
= = = 0.01 12
2g 2 9.81

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Total head loss is:


= 1 + 1 + + 2 +

= (0.0255 + 0.082 + 0.0157 + 0.0286 + 0.01) 12


= 0.1618 12
Applying Bernoulli's equation:
2 2
+ + = + + +
2 2
The situation in the first tank is denoted by subscript A and in the second tank is being
depicted by subscript B. The static pressure both the tanks are same and velocity in both
can be assumed to be zero. What differs is the head datum difference. So:
=

6 m
6 = 0.1065 12 1 = = 6.0896
0.1618 s

Discharge:

= 1 1 = ( 12 ) 1 = (0.15)2 6.0896 = .
4 4
There will be two sudden falls in the HGL and entire head will be lost at the end.

(b) (i) Darcys equation for the head loss in the pipe flow due to friction:
When the flow through pipe takes place, there takes place the losses due to friction. The
losses due to friction depend upon three factors primarily.

1. Length of the pipe, ( )


2. The wetted perimeter, () and
3. The velocity factor,

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Now applying Bernoulli's equation between these two stations:

1 12 2
+ + 1 = 2 + 2 + 2 +
2g 2g
Since there is no change in area and the fluid is incompressible, there will be no change in
velocity as well as in the elevation due to pipe being horizontal.

1 2
= + = ()

Now let be the frictional resistance per unit area at unit velocity with the consideration
of its index. Then the total frictional resistance will be given by:
=
= ()
Here is the wetted perimeter of the pipe inner surface and is the length of pipe under
consideration. Under the fully developed condition, net force acting on the fluid element
will be zero.

1 = 2 + (1 2 ) =
(1 2 )
=

On substituting from equation (i):

=


= ( )


= ()


The ratio ( ) = and is called Hydraulic Mean Depth (H.M.D.) or Hydraulic Radius and
is represented by it has a dimension of length.
( 4) 2
HMD, = ( ) = =
4
Substituting this value in (iii):

=
4

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Now the whole thing depends upon the velocity index. Assume = 2 for commercial
pipes:
4 2
=

Again multiplying both sides by 2g:
4 2 2g
=
2g
2g 4 2
=
2g
2g
In the above expression is a non-dimensional quantity and can be replaced by another

constant , then:
4 2
=
2g

=

Above is called Darcy-Weisbach equation and is termed as the Darcy coefficient of
friction. Sometimes the equation is also written as:

=

where 1 is the Darcys friction factor.
(b) (ii) The given data are:
m
= 250mm, = 85m, = 2.8 , = 55, = 0.012Stoke
s
Using Darcy-Weisbach formula:
Reynolds number:
2.8 0.25
= = = 583333.33
0.012 104
The Reynolds number is more than 4000 so the flow is a turbulent in nature.
0.079 0.079
= = = 0.00286
( ) 0.25 (58333.33)0.25
So the head loss due to friction will be:
4 2 4 0.00286 85 (2.8)2
= = = .
2g 2 9.81 0.25

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Using Chezys formula:


Hydraulic Mean Depth (m) =
0.25
= = = 0.0625
4 4
= 2.8 = 550.0625
2.8 2 1
=( ) = 0.0414
55 0.0625
This is the head loss per unit length. Total head loss is:
= 85 0.0414 = .
7. (a) (i) Francis Turbine: A Francis turbine typically looks like below:

Various parts of the turbine are as shown in the picture. First the water from a high head
passes through the penstock and reaches to the turbine runner area. From penstock it goes
to the scroll duct which is a contracting area conduit type structure. The main purpose of
the scroll casing is to distribute the water flow almost evenly to the entire runner side area.
Water from scroll casing passes to the stay vanes which guide the flow to the guide vanes
at an appropriate angle. These stay vanes are usually half in number compared to guide
vanes. Guide vanes guide the flow to the runner vanes which creates a reaction on the vane
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blades. As a result of it runner starts rotating and mechanical energy is generated by


exchanging the potential and kinetic energy of the fluid.
After the flow has passed through entire process, it is safely drafted to the tailrace of the
reservoir though a draft tube which is expanding area duct as shown in the picture.
(a) (ii) It is the case of an impulse turbine:
m m
1 = 18 , = 60mm, =6 , deflection angle = 1600
s s
From the above data:
= 1800 1600 = 200
At the inlet condition:
m
1 = 1 = 18 6 = 12
s
m
1 = 1 = 18
s
At the outlet condition:
m
2 = 1 = 12
s

2 = 2 cos = 12 cos 200 6 = 5.276

Force exerted by the water jet in the direction of motion is:

= 1 (1 + 2 ) = ( 2 ) 1 (1 + 2 )
4

= 1000 { (0.06)2 } 18 (18 + 5.276)
4
= .
The power developed:
= = 1421.5 6 = .
Jet efficiency:
2(1 + 2 )
=
12
2(18 + 5.276) 6
= = 0.862
182
= . %
(b) (i) Given data are:

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= 300rpm, = 510m, = 200mm, deflection angle = 1650 ,


= 15%, = 0.98, = 0.46, = 3%
= 1800 1650 = 150
Jet velocity and Wheel velocity:
m
1 = 2g = 0.98 2 9.81 510 = 98.0
s
m
= 2g = 0.46 2 9.81 510 = 46
s
At the inlet:
m
1 = 1 = 98 46 = 52
s
m
1 = 1 = 98
s
At the outlet:
m
2 = 1 = 0.85 52 = 44.2
s
2 = 2 cos = 44.2 cos 150 46

= 3.3

Water power is the energy available at the jet:

= 1 (1 + 2 ) = { ( 2 ) 1 (1 + 2 )}
4

= [1000 { (0.2)2 } 98 (98 3.3)] 46
4
= 13.411 106 Watt
Force on the bucket:

= 1 (1 + 2 ) = ( 2 ) 1 (1 + 2 )
4

= 1000 { (0.2)2 } 98 (98 3.3)
4
= .
Hydraulic energy is converted to mechanical energy in the runner and then there is
mechanical loss and final energy output is available on the shaft. Nothing has been
mentioned about the volume efficiency, so we can take it to be 100%. Mechanical losses
are 3% so mechanical efficiency can be taken as 97%. What is not known is hydraulic
efficiency.

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(1 + 2 )
=
g
(98 3.3) 46
= = 0.8707
9.81 510
= . %
So the overall efficiency:
= 0.8707 0.97 = 0.8446
= . %

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