Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Unit Test 3 (BSAU)

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Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Unit Test 3 (BSAU)

© All Rights Reserved

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Fluid Mechanics & Machinery (ME202) B.E.-3(MECH)

Internal Test III (24.09.2013)

Answer all the questions and dont mix-up Part-A with other answers.

Only non-programmable calculator is allowed

Part A (Marks: 5 x 2 = 10)

1. Define Major Loss in flow through pipes.

2. List out the different methods of representing boundary layer thickness.

3. Define hydraulic efficiency of turbine.

4. Mention the purpose of a draft tube.

5. What is the need for priming?

Part B (Marks: 2 x 20 = 40)

6 (a) (i) Derive an expression for the loss of head due to sudden contraction. (5)

(ii) Two reservoirs are connected by a pipeline consisting of two pipes. The first (15)

pipe is of 15cm diameter and a length 6m and the other pipe is of 22.5cm

diameter and 16m length. The difference of the water level in the two

reservoirs is 6m. Calculate the discharge and also draw the energy gradient

line. Take f = 0.04.

(OR)

(b) (i) Derive an expression for Darcys equation of loss of head due to friction in (10)

pipe flow.

(ii) In a pipe of diameter 250mm and length 85m is flowing at a velocity of (10)

2.8m/s. find the head loss due to friction using Darcy-Weisbach formula and

Chezys formula for which C = 55. Assume kinematic viscosity of water as

0.012stoke.

7 (a) (i) Explain the constructional details and the working of a Francis turbine with (15)

the help of top and front view.

(ii) A jet of water of 60mm diameter strikes a curved vane at its centre with a (5)

velocity of 18m/s. Curved vane is moving with a velocity of 6m/s in the

direction of jet. The jet is deflected through an angle of 160 0 . Assuming the

plate to be smooth, find thrust on the plate in the direction of jet, the power

developed and efficiency of the jet.

(OR)

Page 1 of 12

Prepared by Asst. Professor Mohammad (AERO)

(b) (i) A single jet Pelton wheel runs at 300rpm under the head of 510m. The jet (12)

diameter is 200mm, its deflection inside the bucket is 165 0 and its relative

velocity is reduced by 15% due to friction. Determine water power, resultant

force on the bucket and overall efficiency. Take coefficient of velocity = 0.98,

speed ratio = 0.46 and mechanical losses as 3%.

(ii) With a neat sketch explain the working of a reciprocating pump. (8)

Page 2 of 12

Prepared by Asst. Professor Mohammad (AERO)

Answers

Part A

1. When the flow through pipe takes place, there comes a lot of loss of head due to so many different

reasons. The loss of head which takes place due to friction between fluid and pipe surface is called

major loss.

2. Boundary layer can be represented by so many different ways. It can be shown using mass flow

rate deficit, momentum deficit or energy deficit. Correspondingly they are called displacement

thickness, momentum thickness and energy thickness.

3. Hydraulic efficiency of turbine is defined as the ratio of the power developed in the runner to

the hydraulic power supplied.

Power developed by the runner

=

Hydraulic input

4. Draft tube is employed in the turbines to channel out the flow once it has already passed through

the turbine blades. It is a gradually expanding tube connects the runner exit to the tailrace. It helps

in the safe and efficiency passage of the used water after turbine.

5. When the penstock is not fully filled, it may contain some cavities at some places, and when the

turbine is running, it may generate less energy than required as per the expectation. To avoid this

first the pipe carrying water to the turbine is filled before switching on the turbine. This process

is called priming.

Part B

6. (a) (i) Loss of head due to sudden contraction:

Let us consider the situation of pipe carrying liquid whose cross sectional area at a certain

section reduces abruptly from 1 to 2 as shown in the picture.

We consider the two sections before and after the contraction. Due to sudden contraction

the streamlines converge to a smaller cross section as per the solid boundary. In between

Page 3 of 12

Prepared by Asst. Professor Mohammad (AERO)

there comes the minimum area called Vena Contracta. After this only stream lines expand

to fill the downstream pipe.

We shall denote the velocity, area and pressure with , and with the appropriate

subscript denoting the location. Apart from these there will be two more parameters playing

role here:

= Loss of head due to sudden contraction

Actually = Loss of head up to Vena-Contracta + Loss of head due to sudden enlargement

beyond Vena-Contracta, but since loss up to Vena-Contracta is very small and may be

neglected.

So from the idea of sudden enlargement:

( 2 )2

= ()

2g

Here we have taken the initial velocity as the velocity at the contracta. From the continuity

equation:

2 1 1

= 2 2 = = =

2

2

2

= ()

Here is the coefficient of contraction. Now putting the velocity at the contracta in

equation (i):

2

(2 2 ) 22 1 2

=

= ( 1)

2g 2g

22

=

2g

1 2

Where, = ( 1)

It must be noted that or K is not constant; it depends on the ratio 2 .

1

Generally the value of K varies from 0.375 to 0.5. If value or K is not given, then the

head loss due to friction is taken as

.

=

(a) (ii) The given situation is as below:

1 = 15, 1 = 6, 2 = 22.5, 2 = 16, = 6, = 0.02

Page 4 of 12

Prepared by Asst. Professor Mohammad (AERO)

As per the situation there will be some losses in the available head. They are as below:

a. Loss due to entrance in the pipe 1

b. Loss due friction in pipe 1

c. Loss due to sudden enlargement in pipe 1

d. Loss due to friction in pipe 2

e. Loss due to exit again

Head loss at the entrance in the pipe 1:

0.5 12 0.5 12

1 = = = 0.0255 12

2g 2 9.81

Head loss due to friction in pipe 1:

1 12 0.04 6 12

1 = = = 0.082 12

2 g 1 2 9.81 0.15

By the equation of continuity:

1 2 (0.15)2

1 1 = 2 2 2 = 1 = 12 1 = = 0.444 1

2 2 (0.225)2 1

Head loss due to enlargement at the pipe junction:

(1 2 )2 (1 0.444 1 )2

= = = 0.0157 12

2g 2 9.81

Head loss due to friction in pipe 2:

1 22 0.04 16 (0.444 1 )2

2 = = = 0.0286 12

2 g 1 2 9.81 0.225

Head loss due to exit at the pipe 2:

22 (0.444 1 )2

= = = 0.01 12

2g 2 9.81

Page 5 of 12

Prepared by Asst. Professor Mohammad (AERO)

= 1 + 1 + + 2 +

= 0.1618 12

Applying Bernoulli's equation:

2 2

+ + = + + +

2 2

The situation in the first tank is denoted by subscript A and in the second tank is being

depicted by subscript B. The static pressure both the tanks are same and velocity in both

can be assumed to be zero. What differs is the head datum difference. So:

=

6 m

6 = 0.1065 12 1 = = 6.0896

0.1618 s

Discharge:

= 1 1 = ( 12 ) 1 = (0.15)2 6.0896 = .

4 4

There will be two sudden falls in the HGL and entire head will be lost at the end.

(b) (i) Darcys equation for the head loss in the pipe flow due to friction:

When the flow through pipe takes place, there takes place the losses due to friction. The

losses due to friction depend upon three factors primarily.

2. The wetted perimeter, () and

3. The velocity factor,

Page 6 of 12

Prepared by Asst. Professor Mohammad (AERO)

1 12 2

+ + 1 = 2 + 2 + 2 +

2g 2g

Since there is no change in area and the fluid is incompressible, there will be no change in

velocity as well as in the elevation due to pipe being horizontal.

1 2

= + = ()

Now let be the frictional resistance per unit area at unit velocity with the consideration

of its index. Then the total frictional resistance will be given by:

=

= ()

Here is the wetted perimeter of the pipe inner surface and is the length of pipe under

consideration. Under the fully developed condition, net force acting on the fluid element

will be zero.

1 = 2 + (1 2 ) =

(1 2 )

=

On substituting from equation (i):

=

= ( )

= ()

The ratio ( ) = and is called Hydraulic Mean Depth (H.M.D.) or Hydraulic Radius and

is represented by it has a dimension of length.

( 4) 2

HMD, = ( ) = =

4

Substituting this value in (iii):

=

4

Page 7 of 12

Prepared by Asst. Professor Mohammad (AERO)

Now the whole thing depends upon the velocity index. Assume = 2 for commercial

pipes:

4 2

=

Again multiplying both sides by 2g:

4 2 2g

=

2g

2g 4 2

=

2g

2g

In the above expression is a non-dimensional quantity and can be replaced by another

constant , then:

4 2

=

2g

=

Above is called Darcy-Weisbach equation and is termed as the Darcy coefficient of

friction. Sometimes the equation is also written as:

=

where 1 is the Darcys friction factor.

(b) (ii) The given data are:

m

= 250mm, = 85m, = 2.8 , = 55, = 0.012Stoke

s

Using Darcy-Weisbach formula:

Reynolds number:

2.8 0.25

= = = 583333.33

0.012 104

The Reynolds number is more than 4000 so the flow is a turbulent in nature.

0.079 0.079

= = = 0.00286

( ) 0.25 (58333.33)0.25

So the head loss due to friction will be:

4 2 4 0.00286 85 (2.8)2

= = = .

2g 2 9.81 0.25

Page 8 of 12

Prepared by Asst. Professor Mohammad (AERO)

Hydraulic Mean Depth (m) =

0.25

= = = 0.0625

4 4

= 2.8 = 550.0625

2.8 2 1

=( ) = 0.0414

55 0.0625

This is the head loss per unit length. Total head loss is:

= 85 0.0414 = .

7. (a) (i) Francis Turbine: A Francis turbine typically looks like below:

Various parts of the turbine are as shown in the picture. First the water from a high head

passes through the penstock and reaches to the turbine runner area. From penstock it goes

to the scroll duct which is a contracting area conduit type structure. The main purpose of

the scroll casing is to distribute the water flow almost evenly to the entire runner side area.

Water from scroll casing passes to the stay vanes which guide the flow to the guide vanes

at an appropriate angle. These stay vanes are usually half in number compared to guide

vanes. Guide vanes guide the flow to the runner vanes which creates a reaction on the vane

Page 9 of 12

Prepared by Asst. Professor Mohammad (AERO)

exchanging the potential and kinetic energy of the fluid.

After the flow has passed through entire process, it is safely drafted to the tailrace of the

reservoir though a draft tube which is expanding area duct as shown in the picture.

(a) (ii) It is the case of an impulse turbine:

m m

1 = 18 , = 60mm, =6 , deflection angle = 1600

s s

From the above data:

= 1800 1600 = 200

At the inlet condition:

m

1 = 1 = 18 6 = 12

s

m

1 = 1 = 18

s

At the outlet condition:

m

2 = 1 = 12

s

2 = 2 cos = 12 cos 200 6 = 5.276

Force exerted by the water jet in the direction of motion is:

= 1 (1 + 2 ) = ( 2 ) 1 (1 + 2 )

4

= 1000 { (0.06)2 } 18 (18 + 5.276)

4

= .

The power developed:

= = 1421.5 6 = .

Jet efficiency:

2(1 + 2 )

=

12

2(18 + 5.276) 6

= = 0.862

182

= . %

(b) (i) Given data are:

Page 10 of 12

Prepared by Asst. Professor Mohammad (AERO)

= 15%, = 0.98, = 0.46, = 3%

= 1800 1650 = 150

Jet velocity and Wheel velocity:

m

1 = 2g = 0.98 2 9.81 510 = 98.0

s

m

= 2g = 0.46 2 9.81 510 = 46

s

At the inlet:

m

1 = 1 = 98 46 = 52

s

m

1 = 1 = 98

s

At the outlet:

m

2 = 1 = 0.85 52 = 44.2

s

2 = 2 cos = 44.2 cos 150 46

= 3.3

Water power is the energy available at the jet:

= 1 (1 + 2 ) = { ( 2 ) 1 (1 + 2 )}

4

= [1000 { (0.2)2 } 98 (98 3.3)] 46

4

= 13.411 106 Watt

Force on the bucket:

= 1 (1 + 2 ) = ( 2 ) 1 (1 + 2 )

4

= 1000 { (0.2)2 } 98 (98 3.3)

4

= .

Hydraulic energy is converted to mechanical energy in the runner and then there is

mechanical loss and final energy output is available on the shaft. Nothing has been

mentioned about the volume efficiency, so we can take it to be 100%. Mechanical losses

are 3% so mechanical efficiency can be taken as 97%. What is not known is hydraulic

efficiency.

Page 11 of 12

Prepared by Asst. Professor Mohammad (AERO)

(1 + 2 )

=

g

(98 3.3) 46

= = 0.8707

9.81 510

= . %

So the overall efficiency:

= 0.8707 0.97 = 0.8446

= . %

Page 12 of 12

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