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Insulator Using MATLAB

1

Vishal Kahar,2Ch.v.sivakumar, 3Dr.Basavaraja.B

Department of Electrical Engineering

1,2

Parul Institute of Engineering &Technology, Vadodara, Gujarat, India.

3

GITAM University, Hyderabad. Andhra Pradesh, India.

1

vishalkahar28@gmail.com,2 sivakumar_veera@live.in,3 banakara36@gmail.com

Abstract: This paper presents the analysis of potential and Similarly, for high voltage insulators, during the first

electric distribution characteristics of outdoor polymer three quarters of the 20th century, the only material of choice

insulator. Silicone rubber provides an alternative to porcelain for an outdoor high voltage insulator was porcelain. Natural

and glass regarding to high voltage (HV) insulators and it has occurring resins and gums that were available within the early

been widely used by power utilities since 1980s owing to their part of the 20th century were shellac. Later, in 1907, rubber is

superior contaminant performances. Failure of outdoor high created by Dr Baekland synthetic phenol formaldehyde. These

voltage (HV) insulator often involves the solid air interface two early polymer materials had good indoor properties, but

insulation. As result, knowledge of the field distribution being organic, with a carbon backbone in its chain, had a very

around high voltage (HV) insulators is very important to poor track resistance. Later, during 1930s and 1940s, newer

determine the electric field stress occurring on the insulator synthetic resins were developed and some of the earliest

surface, particularly on the air side of the interface. Thus, polymer insulators were made of butyl and acrylic materials.

concerning to this matter, this project would analyze the However, while they enjoy some commercial success, they

electric field distribution of energized silicone rubber high quickly become obsolete because of high cost, limited

voltage (HV) insulator. And the simulation results of electric manufacturing, versatility and most importantly, inadequate

field and potential distributions along surface of silicone performance for high voltage application in outdoor

rubber polymer insulators under clean and contamination environments The development and application of

conditions. For comparative purposes, the analysis is based on cycloaliphatic epoxy helped to address the resin deficiency but

two conditions, which are silicon rubber insulators with clean did not able to address the coefficient of thermal expansion

surfaces and silicon rubber insulators with effect of water problem at the fiberglass rod or housing interface.

droplets on the insulator surface. Finite element method Compounding materials to correct this compatibility problem

(FEM) is adopted for this work. The electric field distribution resulted in depolymerization of the molded sheds in warm,

computation is accomplished using MAT LAB-PDE TOOL humid environments which led to electromechanical failure

software that performs two dimensions finite element method. Structure of a polymer insulator is shown in Fig. 1. The basic

The objective of this work is to comparison of both the design of a polymer insulator is as follows; fiber reinforced

alternative shed and straight shed type insulators under the plastic (FRP) core, attached with two metal fittings, is used as

effect of contamination on potential and electric field the load bearing structure. The presence of dirt and moisture in

distributions along the insulator surface when water droplets combination with electrical stress results in the occurrence of

exist on the insulator surface local discharges causing the material deterioration such as

tracking and erosion. In order to protect the FRP core from

Key Words: Silicon rubber Insulator, Finite Element various environmental stresses, such as ultraviolet, acid, ozone

method, Electricfielddistribution, Potential distribution. etc., and to provide a leakage distance With in a limited

insulator length under contaminated and wet conditions,

I. INTRODUCTION weather sheds are installed outside the FRP core. Silicone

Silicon rubber composite insulators, which are now rubber is mainly used for polymer insulators or composite

extensively accepted, did not come out until 1970s, and insulators as housing material.

Germany is the first country developing and using this kind of

insulator. Compared to conventional porcelain and glass

insulators, composite insulators such as silicon rubber

insulator offer more advantages in its application. For further

information, this chapter would mainly discussed issue that

related to silicon rubber insulator. The experience of outdoor

insulator goes back to the introduction of telegraphic lines, in

the 19th century. Service experience and product development

with high voltage insulators made from glass and porcelain Fig.1 Structure of a polymer insulator

materials have been gathered over more than hundreds years. The early development of modern polymeric insulators can

Porcelain and glass insulators completely dominated the be illustrated by the work of the German manufacturer

market until the introduction of polymeric alternatives. The Rosenthal, later called Hoechst Ceram Tec. Their development

first polymeric insulator (epoxy) was made in United State of started in 1964 and prototypes for field installation were offered

America in 1959, but it suffered from severe tracking and in 1967. However, it took until middle of the 1970s before a

erosion. number of manufacturer offered commercial products of the first

IJEDRCP1402005 23

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Finite Element Analysis on Post Type Silicon Rubber Insulator Using MATLAB | ISSN: 2321-9939

generation polymeric transmission line insulator [6] as given in B. FEM analysis of the electric field distribution :

Table .1 First generation commercial polymeric transmission

line insulator The finite element method is one of numerical analysis

methods based on the variation approach and has been Widely

TABLE -1 used in electric and magnetic field analysis since the late

POLYMERIC TRANSMISSION LINE INSULATOR

1970s. Supposing that the domain under consideration does

COMPANY HOUSING YEAR COUNTRY not contain any space and surface charges, two-dimensional

MATERIAL functional F(u) in the Cartesian system of coordinates can be

Ceraver EPR* 1975 France formed as follows[2]:

Ohio Brass EPR 1976 USA

Rosenthal SIR* 1976 Germany

1 du du

2 2

F u x y dxdy

Sediver EPR 1977 USA

(5)

TDL CE* 1977 England

2 D dx dy

Lapp EPR 1980 USA

Reliable SIR 1983 USA

Where x and y are x- and y-components of dielectric

* Ethylene propylene rubber

constant in the Cartesian system of coordinates and u is the

* Silicon rubber

electric potential. In case of isotropic permittivity

* Cycloaliphatic epoxy

distribution ( x y ) Equation (5) can be rewritten ass

II. DIMENSIONS OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF INSULATORS:

1 du du

2 2

F u y dxdy (6)

2 D dx dy

Distribution is considered, the complex functional F(u) should

be taken into account as

du 2 du 2

1

2 D

F(U) 0 j .tg dxdy (7)

dx dy

a) Straight shed b) Alternate shed

Fig.2.Basic Model Insulator where is angular frequency 0 is the permittivity of

free space (8.85 10-12 F/m), tg is tangent of the dielectric

III. PROBLEM SOLUTION EQUATION

loss angle, and u is the complex potential. Inside each sub

A. Electric field and potential distributions calculation domain De a linear variation of the electric potential is

assumed.

One simple way for electric field calculation is to

calculate electric potential distribution. Then, electric field ue ( x, y) e1 e2 x e3 y ; (e 1,2,3,.....ne) (8)

distribution is directly obtained by minus gradient of electric

potential distribution. In electrostatic field problem, electric Where ue ( x, y) is the electric potential of any arbitrary

field distribution can be written as follows [1]:

point inside each sub-domain De, e1, e2 and e3 represent

E V (1)

the computational coefficients for a triangle element e, ne is

From Maxwells equation

the total number of triangle elements. The calculation of the

E / (2) electric potential at every knot in the total network composed

Where is resistivity / m , of many triangle elements was carried out by minimizing the

functional F(u), that is,

is material dielectric constant ( 0 r ) and

F (ui )

0 is free space dielectric constant (8.8541012F/m) 0; i 1,2,...np (9)

ui

r is relative dielectric constant of dielectric material placing

Where np stands for the total number of knots in the

equation(1) into equation(2) Poisson equation is obtained.

network then a compact matrix expression

(V ) (3)

Without space charge =0, poissions equation becomes s {u } {T }

ji i j i, j 1,2,3....np (10)

Laplace equation

(V ) 0 (4)

IJEDRCP1402005 24

(Two Day National Conference (RTEECE-2014) -17th ,18th January 2014)

Finite Element Analysis on Post Type Silicon Rubber Insulator Using MATLAB | ISSN: 2321-9939

ji i is the within an element is a polynomial approximation. PDE Tool

in MATLAB is used for finite element discretization. The

vector of unknown potentials at the knots and {T j } is the results of FEM discretization for clean and contamination

vector of free terms. After (10) is successfully formed, the conditions illustrate in Fig. 4

unknown potentials can be accordingly solved.

equation such as Laplaces and Poisson equation. The most

widely used methods are Finite Difference Method (FDM),

Finite Element Method (FEM), Boundary Element Method

(BEM) and Charge Simulation Method (CSM). In contrast to

other methods, the Finite Element Method (FEM) takes into

accounts for the no homogeneity of the solution region. Also,

the systematic generality of the methods makes it a versatile

tool for a wide range of problems. The following topics in this

chapter would describe briefly on the concept of Finite

Element Method (FEM)

Straight sheds polymer insulator was selected to simulate

electric field and potential distributions in this study. The a)Straight sheds b) Alternated Sheds

basic design of a polymer insulator is as follows; A fiber Fig4. Finite element discretization results

reinforced plastic (FRP) core having relative dielectric

constant of 7.1, attached with two metal fittings, is used as the V. SIMULATION RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

load bearing structure. Weather sheds made of HTV silicone

rubber having relative dielectric constant of 4.3 are installed In this study, clean and contamination conditions are

outside the FRP core. Surrounding of the insulator is air simulated using FEM via PDE Tool in MATLAB. Potential

having relative dielectric constant 1.0. A 15 kV voltage source Distribution results are shown in Fig. 5(c) and electric field

directly applies to the lower electrode while the upper distribution are shown in Fig. 5(d).Comparison of potential

electrode connected to ground. Two dimensions of the and electric field distribution along surface of the two type

alternate sheds polymer insulators for FEM analysis are shown polymer insulators are shown in Fig.5 and Fig. 6, respectively.

in Fig. 3 The most common form of approximation solution Although nonlinear potential distribution along leakage

for the voltage within an element is polynomial distance of the two type specimens, no significant different

approximation. PDE Tool in MATLAB issued for finite can be seen on the straight sheds specimen comparing with the

element discretization. The obtaining results are 1,653 nodes alternate shed specimen, as shown in Fig. 9 In spite of clean

and 3,180 elements for straight sheds type insulator and condition, electric field distribution on the straight sheds

2,086 nodes and 4,030 elements for alternate sheds type specimen is slightly higher than the alternate sheds specimen

insulator, respectively. The obtaining results are shown as shown in Fig 9. Contamination condition is simulated by

in Fig.4 place 12 water droplets on the two type insulator surfaces as

shown in Fig. 7a and Fig. 8a. The simulation results of electric

field and potential distributions are illustrated in Fig. 7(c) and

Fig.8(c), respectively. Comparison of potential and electric

field distribution along surface of the two type polymer

insulators are shown in Fig. 9. In case of contamination

condition, although nonlinear potential distribution along

leakage distance of the two type specimens, no significant

different can be seen on the straight sheds specimen

comparing with the alternate shed specimen, as shown in

Fig.7.

a) Straight sheds b) Alternated sheds for a straight sheds insulator as shown in blow Figs.

Fig 3. Two dimension of the two type polymer insulators for

FEM analysis

divided into small triangular areas called

domain.Thepotentials, which were unknown throughout the

problem domain, were approximated in each of these elements

n terms of the potential in their vertices called nodes. Details

of Finite Element discretization are found in [5]. The most

common form of approximation solution for the voltage

IJEDRCP1402005 25

(Two Day National Conference (RTEECE-2014) -17th ,18th January 2014)

Finite Element Analysis on Post Type Silicon Rubber Insulator Using MATLAB | ISSN: 2321-9939

Fig5. (a). Straight Sheds Insulator

The Results on Electric field and potential distributions

for a Alternate sheds insulator as shown in blow Figs.

Fig5. (c) Potential distribution under clean condition

IJEDRCP1402005 26

(Two Day National Conference (RTEECE-2014) -17th ,18th January 2014)

Finite Element Analysis on Post Type Silicon Rubber Insulator Using MATLAB | ISSN: 2321-9939

Fig6. (d). Electric Field Distribution under clean Fig7. (d). Electric Field Distribution under Contamination

Contamination

The Results on Electric field and potential distributions The Results on Electric field and potential distributions

for a Straight sheds insulator under contamination as shown in for a Alternate sheds insulator under contamination as shown

blow Figs. in blow Figs.

Fig7. (a). Straight Sheds insulator with Contamination Fig8. (a). Alternated shed insulator with Contamination

Fig8. (b). Finite element discretization results

Fig8. (c). Potentital Distribution under contamination

IJEDRCP1402005 27

(Two Day National Conference (RTEECE-2014) -17th ,18th January 2014)

Finite Element Analysis on Post Type Silicon Rubber Insulator Using MATLAB | ISSN: 2321-9939

discharge and High Voltage Engineering.

E-mail: vishalkahar28@gmail.com.

2

Ch.V.Siva Kumar received the B.Tech in Electrical

and Electronics Engineering from Acharya

Nagarjuna University Guntur in 2008 and M.Tech in Power

electronics and Power systems from K.L.University Guntur in

Fig.9 Comparison of Potential Distribution under 2011.Presently working as Asst.Proff in Electrical Department,Parul

contamination condition Institute of Engineering & Technology,Vadodara. His research

The Fig.9 shows the comparison of straight shed & alternate interests include Power Systems, Finite Element method and High

shed with different environments conditions like water, dust Voltage Engineering.

and it gives the information that potential E-mail: sivakumar_veera@yahoo.com.

distribution of the straight shed insulator is 3

Dr.Basavaraja Banakara was born in 1970.He is IEEE Member

large than that of alternate shed type

since 2005. Fellow of IE(I). Presently he is an Executive member for

insulator ISTE Andhra Pradesh Section. He obtained his B.Tech (EEE) degree

VI. CONCLUSION

from Gulbarga University and M.Tech from Karnataka University,

In this paper, electric field and potential India and he did his Doctoral program at National Institute of

distributions on Technology, Warangal, India. He worked as a Lecturer, Associate

Straight sheds & Alternate shed silicone rubber polymer Professor, Professor, Principal and director at different

insulators under clean and various contamination conditions Institutes/Universities. Presently he is working has a Vice Principal

were investigated by using FEM Considering a silicon rubber and HOD of EEE in GITAM. University. His areas of interest include

surface with water droplets & dust as contamination on the power electronics and drives, High voltage Engineering and EMTP

surface of the silicon rubber. And concluded that potential applications.

distribution of the straight shed insulator is large than that of E-mail: banakara36@gmail.com.

alternate shed type insulator. This situation is has potential to

initiate sport discharges and possible flashover within

operating conditions.

REFERENCES

Potential Distribution along Surface of Silicon Rubber Polymer

Insulators Using Finite Element Method International Journal

of Electrical and Electronics Engineering 3:10 2009.

[2]. B. Marungsri, W. Onchantuek, A. Oonsivilai and

T.Kulworawanichpong Analysis of electric Field and

Potential Distributions along Surface of Silicone Rubber

Insulators under contamination Conditions Using Finite

Element Method World Academy of Science, Engineering and

Technology .

[3]. CIGRE TF33.04.07, Natural and Artificial Ageing and

Pollution Testing of Polymer Insulators,CIGRE Pub. 142,

June 1999.

[4]. R. S. Gorur, E. A. Cherney and R. Hackam, A Comparative

Study of Polymer Insulating Materials under Salt Fog Test,

IEEE Trans. On Electrical Insulation, Vol. EI 21, No. 2,

April 1986, pp. 175.

[5]. M. C. Arklove and J. C. G. Wheeler, Salt Fog Testing of

Composite Insulators, 7th Int. Conf. on Dielctric Material,

Measurements and Applications, Conf. Pub. No. 430,

September 1996, pp. 296 302.

[6]. B. Marungsri, H. Shinokubo, R. Matsuoka and S.Kumagai,

Effect of Specimen Configuration on Deterioration of Silicone

Rubber for Polymer Insulators in Salt Fog Ageing Test, IEEE

Trans. on DEI, Vol.13, No. 1 , February 2006, pp. 129 138.

AUTHORS BIOGRAPHY

1

Vishal Kahar received the B.E. in Electrical Engineering from M.S.

University Vadodara in 2009. Presently perusing as PG Student

in Electrical Department, Parul Institute of Engineering &

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