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ESO203A: Introduction to Electrical Engineering

ESO203A:IntroductiontoElectricalEngineering

ModuleI
Single Phase Circuits
SinglePhaseCircuits
Lecture2
PreviousLecture
Current
EMF
Voltage
Graphtheory
Graph theory
DCandACsignals
RMSandaveragevalue
RMS and average value
Phasors
IdealActivesources
Ideal Active sources

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IndependentSource
Anactiveelementwhichprovidesaspecifiedvoltage/
currentandisindependentofothercircuitelements(e.g.
Battery,generator)whichmayormaynotbeideal
Anidealindependentvoltagesourcehaszerointernal
resistance and can never be short circuited
resistanceandcanneverbeshortcircuited
Anidealindependentcurrentsourcehasinfiniteinternal
resistance and can never be open circuited
resistanceandcanneverbeopencircuited

Fig.9:
g Independent
p AC or
DC voltage source, DC
voltage source and current
source, respectively

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DependentSource
voltageorcurrentrelatedtoanothercircuitelement(e.g.
operationalamplifier,transistor)
Itmayormaynotbeideal

Fig.10: Representation of (a) dependent voltage source,

(b) d
dependent
d t currentt source

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DependentSourcecontd.
Fourpossibletypesofdependentsources:
Voltagecontrolledvoltagesource(VCVS)

Vs K1Vx
Currentcontrolledvoltagesource(CCVS)
g ( )
Vs K 2 I x
Voltagecontrolledcurrentsource(VCCS)
Voltagecontrolled current source (VCCS)
I s K 3Vx
Currentcontrolledcurrentsource(CCCS)
C ll d (CCCS)
Is K4I x

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Power
Poweristimerateofexpendingorabsorbingenergy
measuredinWatts(W)
Instantaneouspower d
dw d dq
dw d
p vi
Powerisabsorbedifpositive dt dq dt
Power is supplied if negative
Powerissuppliedifnegative
Currentandvoltagepolaritydeterminesignofpower
Powerisabsorbedwhen
+ve currententers+ve polarityofvoltage
+ve currentexitsve polarityofvoltage
ve
ve currententers
current enters ve
ve polarityofvoltage
polarity of voltage
ve currentexits+ve polarityofvoltage
Viceversacasesforwhenpowerissupplied

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Powercontd.

Fig.11: Power absorbed Fig.12: Power Supplied

EnergyorworkdonemeasuredinJoules(J)
t t
Ep
pd vid
0 0
Powersuppliedmustbesameaspowerabsorbedinacircuit
LAWOFCONSERVATIONOFENERGY
LAW OF CONSERVATION OF ENERGY

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Resistance
Resistorresiststheflowofcurrent
i i h fl f
Ohmslaw:Thevoltagev acrossanidealresistorislinearly
proportional to the current i flowingthroughit
proportionaltothecurrenti flowing through it
i
v iR
G
R istheresistancemeasuredinOhm()
G istheconductancemeasuredinMho/Siemens( )
Powerisconsumedbyaresistoranddissipatedinformof
Power is consumed by a resistor and dissipated in form of
heatandthusalossy element p vi i 2 R

Fig.13: Circuit symbol of fixed and variable resistance

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Resistivity
Resistanceisdeterminedbyphysicaldimensionsofa
i i d i d b h i l di i f
conductor l l
R
A A
Resistivityisphysicalconstantofa
conductoratagiventemperature
Itgenerallyvarieslinearlywithtemperature
UnitofisOhmmetre(m)
is conductivity theinverseof
isconductivity, the inverse of
Unitof is /m Fig.14: Parameters
affecting resistance at
constant temperature

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Capacitance
Acapacitorconsistsoftwoconductingplatesseparatedby
Anidealcapacitorstoresenergyinformof
An ideal capacitor stores energy in form of
electrostaticfieldwithnolosses
q v Cv
coloumb/V)
colo mb/V)
Capacitanceisaconstantdeterminedbythe
g
geometricconfigurationofconductorsand
g
thepropertyofdielectricmedium
Fig. 15: Capacitor
and circuit symbol

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Capacitancecontd.
Capacitanceisdefinedas
A 0 r A
C
d d
- permittivity of dielectric ( F / m)
0 - permittivity of vacuum (8.842 10 12 F/m)
r - relative permittivity
Capacitanceincreaseswithincreaseincross
Capacitance increases with increase in cross
sectionarea,highpermittivitycoreor
decreaseindistancebetweenplates Fig. 16: Parameters
affecting
ff i
Thisgeometricdependenceisusedto capacitance
designvariablecapacitance

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Capacitancecontd.
dq dv
Currentthroughacapacitoris i C
dt dt
Voltageacrossthecapacitorattimet is
t t
1 1
v id v(0) id
C0 C0
v(0) is
i initial
i iti l voltage
lt across the
th capacitor
it
Voltagechangeacrossacapacitorcantbeinstantaneous!
For a DC voltage source across a capacitor current is 0 as
thusbehavesasanopencircuit
Instantaneouspowerdeliveredtoacapacitoris
dv
p vi Cv
dt

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Capacitancecontd.
Energystoredinacapacitoris
t t
1 2t 1
E pd C vdv Cv C{v 2 (t ) v 2 (0)}
0 0
2 0 2
Powerisabsorbedorenergyisstoredifv(t)>v(0)
Powerisdeliveredorenergyisreleasedifv(t)<v(0)
Thereisaninherentdifferencebetweenpowerincase
ofacapacitorandpowerincaseofaresistor
of a capacitor and power in case of a resistor
TheformerisREACTIVEPOWERwhilelatterisACTIVE
POWER(wewilldiscussmoreinfurtherlectures)

Capacitanceispropertyofacapacitorwhichopposes
the change of potential difference or voltage across it
thechangeofpotentialdifferenceorvoltageacrossit

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Inductance
Aninductorconsistsofaconductingcoilwoundona
magneticcore
Anidealinductorstoresenergyinformof
An ideal inductor stores energy in form of
magneticfieldwithnolosses
Currentinducesmagneticflux(),
g ()
measuredinWebers (Wb)
N isnumberofturnsofcoil,totalflux
linkage () is N nit being Wb t rns
Inductor
i Li N and
circuit
i it
UnitofinductanceL isHenry(H) symbol
Inductancedependsonphysicaldimension
ofconductorandpropertyofcore
f d t d t f

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Inductancecontd.
Inductance isdefinedas
N 2 N 2 A N 2 0 r A
L
l l
is reluctance of magnetic
g structure (turn 2 / H )
is permeability of core ( H / m)
Fig. 18:
0 is ppermeabilityy of vacuum (4 10 H / m)
7
Parameters
affecting
r is relative permeability inductance

Inductanceincreaseswithincreaseinnumberofturnsof
Inductance increases with increase in number of turns of
coil,highpermeablecore,increasedcrosssectionareaor
reducedcoillength
g

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Inductancecontd.
law of electromagnetic induction (for fixed
inductance) d d ( N ) d ( Li ) di
v(t ) L
dt dt dt dt
Currentthroughinductorattimet is
t t
1 1
i vd i (0) vd
L0 L0
i (0) is initial current through inductor
Currentcannotchangeinstantaneouslythroughaninductor!
behavesasashortcircuit
b h h t i it
Mathematically,inductorandcapacitorareduali.e.terminal
relationshipscanbeobtainedbyinterchangingvandi,and
p y g g ,
alsointerchangingLandC.
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Inductancecontd.
Instantaneouspowerdeliveredtoaninductor
Instantaneous power delivered to an inductor
di
p vi Li
dt
Energystoredis
t t
1 2t 1
E pd L idi Li L{i 2 (t ) i 2 (0)}
0 0
2 0 2
Powerisabsorbedorenergyisstoredifi(t)>i(0)
gy () ( )
Powerisdeliveredorenergyisreleasedifi(t)<i(0)
ThispowerisREACTIVEPOWER

Inductanceispropertyofaninductorwhichopposesthe
changeofflowofcurrentthroughit
g g

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PropertyofIdealPassiveElements
Linear v v1 v2 , i i1 i2
v v1 v2 i1 R i2 R iR
dv1 dv2 dv
i i1 i2 C C C
dt dt dt
di1 di2 di
v v1 v2 L L L
dt dt dt
Timeinvariant theirvaluesdonotchangewithtime
g
Bilateral ifvoltagepolarityreverses,thencurrentalso
reversesandviceversa
Lumped
i f ti b t th i ti l
locationincircuit(validaslongasdimensionofcircuitis
smallthanwavelengthofhighestfrequencyofinterest)
g g q y )

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Phasor relationship
LetACcurrentthrougharesistorR be
~
i (t ) 2I cos(t ) or I I0
ByOhmslaw
~ ~
V I R IR0 V0

Thecurrentandvoltagephasor havenophasedifference
i e they are in phase
i.e.theyareinphase

Fig. 19: Phasor diagram for a Resistor

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Phasor relationshipcontd.
LetACcurrentthroughacapacitorC be
~
i (t ) 2I cos(t ) or I I0
Bypropertyofcapacitance
dv(t ) 1 2I
i (t ) C v(t ) i (t )dt sin(t )
dt C C
~ ~ I
I I0 V 90 V 90
C
Voltagelagscurrentby90degrees

Fig. 20: Phasor diagram for a Capacitor

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Phasor relationshipcontd.
LetACcurrentthroughainductorL be
~
i (t ) 2I cos(t ) or I I0
Bypropertyofinductance
di (t )
v(t ) L v(t ) 2IL cos(t 90 )
dt
~ ~
I I0 V IL90 V90

Fig. 21: Phasor diagram for Inductor

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Impedance
Impedance(Z)forACcircuitsisdefinedas ~
V
Z isacomplexnumber,unitis Z ~
I
For a resistor
Foraresistor ZR
Foracapacitor
~
V I 90 1
Z ~ j jX c
I CI0 C
Foraninductor ~
V IL90
Z ~ jL jX l
I I0
Xc/Xl/X iscalledReactance(unitis)
Ingeneral Z R jX
where X is -X c or X l or combination of both

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1
Y
Z
Y isalsoacomplexnumber,unitis

Y G jB
G isconductanceandB issusceptance,unitsare
Ingeneral
In general Z R jX
1 R X
Y G jB 2 j 2
R jX R X 2
R X2
R X
G 2 ,B 2
R X 2
R X2

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Kirchhoffs CurrentLaw(KCL)
Algebraicsumofcurrentsentering(orleaving)anode(ora
closedboundary)mustbezeroatanytimeinstant
Alternatively,netcurrententeringanodemustequalnet
Alternatively net current entering a node must equal net
currentleavinganode
Mathematically, N
i
k 1
k 0

N iss no.
o. o
of b
branches
a c es incident
c de t at node
ode
Acircuitcannotcontaintwocurrents
i1 i2 i3 i4 i5 0
I1 andI2 inseriesunlessI1 =I2
KCLisdirectimplicationoflawof i1 i3 i4 i2 i5
conservationofcharge Fig. 22: Illustrating KCL

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Kirchhoffs VoltageLaw(KVL)
Algebraicsumofvoltagedropsaroundaloopiszeroatany
instantoftime
Loopcanbetraversedinclockwiseoranticlockwisefashion
Loop can be traversed in clockwise or anticlockwise fashion
Startwithvoltageatany
node
Traverseindirectionof
assumedcurrent
Voltage drop is negative of
Voltagedropisnegativeof
polarityoffirstterminal
encounteredforall
elements va v1 v2 v4 v3 v5 va
Accumulateallsuchdrops v1 v2 v3 v4 v5
Returntovoltageof
originatingnode v1 iz1 , v2 iz 2 , v3 iz3
Fig. 23: Illustrating KVL
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