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Composite Structures 108 (2014) 667676

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Composite Structures
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/compstruct

An efcient shear deformation theory for free vibration of functionally


graded thick rectangular plates on elastic foundation
S.S. Akavci
Department of Architecture, University of Cukurova, 01330 Balcali, Adana, Turkey

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: Free vibration analysis of plates made of functionally graded materials and resting on elastic foundation
Available online 15 October 2013 is presented by taking into account the effect of transverse shear deformations. The foundation is
described by the Pasternak (two-parameter) model. The material properties of the plate are assumed
Keywords: to vary continuously in the thickness direction by a simple power law distribution in terms of the volume
Functionally graded plates fractions of the constituents. The formulation is based on a higher order hyperbolic shear deformation
Shear deformation theory theory. The equation of motion for thick functionally graded plates is obtained through the Hamiltons
Elastic foundation
principle. The closed form solutions are obtained by using Navier technique and then fundamental fre-
Natural frequency
quencies are found by solving the results of eigenvalue problems. Accuracy of the present formulation
is shown by comparing the results of numerical examples with the ones available in literature.
2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction foundation based on three-dimensional elasticity. Zhao et al. [7],


presented a free vibration analysis of metal and ceramic function-
Functionally graded material is a type of heterogeneous com- ally graded plates by using the element-free kp-Ritz method. Chen
posite material that exhibits a continuous variation of mechanical et al. [8], analyzed the vibration and stability of functionally graded
properties from one point to another. This material is produced by plates based on a higher-order deformation theory. Malekzadeh
mixing two or more materials in a certain volume ratio. Material [9], presented the free vibration analysis of thick FG plates sup-
properties of functionally graded material vary along the material ported on two-parameter elastic foundation based on the three-
size depending on a function. The concept of functionally graded dimensional elasticity theory. Zenkour [10], presented a sinusoidal
material was rst considered in Japan in 1984 during a space plane shear deformation theory for functionally graded sandwich plates
project. by considering the effect of rotatory inertia. Neves et al. [11,12],
Several studies have been performed to analyze the vibration of presented a sinusoidal shear deformation formulation and a hybrid
functionally graded plates. Vel and Batra [1], presented a three quasi-3D hyperbolic shear deformation theory for bending and free
dimensional exact solution for free and forced vibrations of simply vibration analysis of functionally graded plates.
supported functionally graded rectangular plates. Ferreira et al. [2], The purpose of this study to investigate the efciency of an im-
analyzed the free vibrations of functionally graded plates by using proved version of a hyperbolic shear deformation theory developed
a global collocation method, the rst and the third-order shear by Akavci [13] for free vibration analysis of functionally grade
deformation plate theories. Qian et al. [3], analyzed static deforma- plates. This non-polynomial higher order shear deformation theory
tions, and free and forced vibrations of a thick rectangular func- is rather simple to use and accounts for a parabolic transverse
tionally graded elastic plate by using a higher order shear and shear deformation shape function and satises shear stress free
normal deformable plate theory. Uymaz and Aydogdu [4], pre- boundary conditions of top and bottom surfaces of the plate with-
sented a three dimensional vibration solution for rectangular func- out using shear correction factors. Besides, this generalized formu-
tionally graded plates. Matsunaga [5], analyzed natural frequencies lation can be used for the free vibration analysis of functionally
and buckling stresses of plates made of functionally graded mate- grade plates by using another non-polynomial higher order shear
rials by taking into account the effects of transverse shear and nor- deformation theory with the changing of the shape function. Gov-
mal deformations and rotatory inertia. Lu et al. [6], carried out free erning equations are derived from the principle of minimum total
vibration analysis of functionally graded thick plates on elastic potential energy. Navier solution is used to obtain the closed form
solutions for simply supported functionally graded plates. Compar-
Tel.: +90 322 3386084x2913; fax: +90 322 3386126. ison studies are performed to verify the validity of the present
E-mail address: akavci@cukurova.edu.tr results.

0263-8223/$ - see front matter 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compstruct.2013.10.019
668 S.S. Akavci / Composite Structures 108 (2014) 667676

2. Fundamental formulations For the functionally graded plates, the stressstrain relation-
ships for plane-stress state can be expressed as:
In the present study, a functionally graded simply supported 8 9 2 38 9
rectangular plate which has the uniform thickness h, the length >
> rxx >
> Q 11 Q 12 0 0 0 >
> exx >
>
>
> >
> 6 >
7> e > >
> > 0 7> >
a, and the width b is considered. The geometry of the plate and < ryy >
> = 6 Q 12
6
Q 22 0 0
7
>
< yy >
=
coordinate system are shown in Fig. 1. The material properties of sxy 6
6 0 0 Q 66 0 7
0 7 cxy
functionally graded plate are assumed to vary continuously >
> >
> 6 7>
> >
>
>
> syz >
> 4 0 0 0 Q 44 0 5> > cyz >
>
through the thickness of the plate in according to the power law >
> >
> >
> >
> 6
: ; :
distribution as follows: sxz 0 0 0 0 Q 55 cxz ;
 p Q 11 Q 22 Ez=1  t2
1 z
Pz Pm Pm  Pc 1 in which : Q 12 tEz=1  t2
2 h
Q 44 Q 55 Q 66 Ez=21 m
where P denotes the effective material property like Youngs mod-
ulus E and mass density q, Pm and Pc denotes the property of the
top and the bottom faces of the plate, respectively, and p is the vol- 3. Energy expressions and Navier solution of the vibration
ume fraction exponent. The Poissons ratio m is assumed to be problem
constant.
Basic assumptions for the displacement eld of the plate are gi- The total potential energy of the considered functionally graded
ven as below: plate is expressed as:
P V Ve  T 7
ux; y; z; t u0 x; y; t  zw0;x f zhx x; y; t
where V is the strain energy and T is the kinetic energy of FG plate
v x; y; z; t v 0 x; y; t  zw0;y f zhy x; y; t 2
and can be written as:
wx; y; z; t w0 x; y; t Z
1
where u, v, w are displacements in the x, y, z directions, u0, v0 and w0 V rxx exx ryy eyy rzz ezz sxy cxy sxz cxz syz cyz dV 8
2 V
are mid-plane displacements, hx and hy are rotations of normals to
Z
the midplane about y- and x-axis and (),x and (),y are partial deriv- 1
atives with respect to x and y, respectively. f(z) represents the shape T qzu;t 2 v ;t 2 w;t 2 dV 9
2 V
function for determining the distributions of the transverse shear
strains and stresses along the thickness and given as: and Ve is potential energy of elastic foundation:
Z ( " 
2  2 #)
f z Tanhrz=h  rz=hSech r=2
2
3 1 2 @w @w
Ve k0 w k1 dA 10
2 A @x @y
The parameter r in Eq. (3) needs to be calculated therefore an
optimization procedure is performed for determining the suitable in which q(z) is mass density per unit volume and (,t) represents the
r parameter by comparing the results of present theory and three derivative with respect to time and k0 and k1 are the Winkler foun-
dimensional solutions for a wide range of examples [1,4,1416]. dation stiffness and the shear stiffness of the elastic foundation.
Selection of parameter r will be discussed in numerical results Hamiltons principle is used herein to derive the equations of
section. motion appropriate to the displacement eld and the constitutive
Using the displacement eld in Eq. (2) within the application of equations. The principle can be stated in analytical form as:
the linear, small-strain elasticity theory, normal and shear strains Z t2
are obtained as:
8 9 8 9 d V V e  Tdt 0 11
t1
>
> exx >
> >
> u0;x  zw0;xx f zhx;x >
>
>
> >
> >
> >
>
> > >v 0;y  z w0;yy f zhy;y >
< eyy >
> = >
< >
= Substituting the Eqs. (8)(10) into the Eq. (11), then taking the
cxy u0;y v 0;x  2zw0;xy f zhx;y hy;x 4 variation and integrating by parts yields the following integral
>
> > > > equation:
>
>
> cyz >
>
>
>
>
>
>
> f 0 zhy
>
>
>
>
>
: >
; >
: >
; Z t2 Z h
cxz f 0 zhx
rxx dexx ryy deyy sxy dcxy syz dcyz szx dczx
t1 V
df z qzudu v dv wdwd
v
where f 0 z 5
dz Z    
@w @dw @w @dw
k0 wdw k1 dA dt 0 12
A @x @x @y @y
Using the generalized displacementstrain relations (4) and
z stressstrain relations (6), and the fundamentals of calculus of
a variations and collecting the coefcients of du, dv, dw, dhx, and
Ceramic dhy in Eq. (12), the equations of motion are obtained as:
b x
Metal
0  I2 w
Nx;x Nxy;y I1 u 0;x I4 hx
0;y I4 hy
Nxy;x Ny;y I1 v 0  I2 w
h
Shear layer (k1) M x;xx 2M xy;xy M y;yy  k0 w0 k1 w0;xx w0;yy
13
y I1 w 0;x v 0;y  I3 w
0 I 2 u 0;yy I5 hx;x hy;y
0;xx w
Winkler layer (k0)
Px;x Pxy;y  Rx I4 u 0  I5 w 0;x I6 hx
Fig. 1. Geometry and coordinates of the considered FG plate which is resting on
0;y I6 hy
Pxy;x Py;y  Ry I4 v 0  I5 w
elastic foundation.
S.S. Akavci / Composite Structures 108 (2014) 667676 669

where stress and moment resultants are dened as: where [K] and [M], stiffness and mass matrices, respectively, and
8 9 2 38 9 represented as:
2 3
<N>
> = Aij Bij < e >
C ij > = a11 a12 a13 a14 a15
6 7 6 7
M 4 Bij Dij Eij 5 j i; j 1; 2; 6; 6 a22 a23 a24 a25 7
>
: > ; >
: > 14
P C ij Eij Gij jh ; 6
K 6 a33 a34
7
a35 7
6 7;
fRg F ij fhg i; j 4; 5 6 7
4 SYM a44 a45 5
in which a55
2 3
8 9 8 9 8 9 I1 0 aI2 I4 0
< Nx >
> = < Mx >
> = < Px >
> = 
Rx
 6 7
6 I1 bI2 0 I4 7
N Ny ; M My ; P Py ; R ; 15 6 7
>
: >
; >
: >
; >
: >
; Ry M 6 I1 I3 a2 b2 I5 a I5 b 7 20
Nxy Mxy Pxy 6 7;
6 7
4 SYM I6 0 5
8 9 8 9
u0;x I6
>
< >
= < w0;xx >
> = 8 9
e v 0;y ; j  w0;yy ; >
> Amn > >
>
: >
; >
: >
; >
> >
>
> >
u0;y v 0;x 2w0;xy < Bmn >
> =
8 9 16
fDg C mn
< hx;x
> >
= 
hx
 >
> >
>
>
> T xmn >
>
jh hy;y ; h >
> >
>
>
: >
; hy : ;
hx;y hy;x T ymn

and stiffness components and inertias are given as: in which:



Aij ; Bij ; C ij ; Dij ; Eij ; Gij a11 A11 a2 A66 b2
Z h=2 n o a12 abA12 A66
2
1; z; f z; z2 ; zf z; f z Q ij dz i; j 1; 2; 6
h=2 a13 B11 a3  ab2 B12 2B66
Z h=2
2 17 a14 C 11 a2 C 66 b2
fF ij g f 0 z Q ij dz i; j 4; 5
h=2 a15 abC 12 C 66
Z h=2
a22 A66 a2 A22 b2
I1 ; I2 ; I 3 ; I 4 ; I5 ; I6 qz1; z; z2 ; f z; zf z; f z2 dz
h=2 a23 B22 b3  a2 bB12 2B66
For the analytical solution of the partial differential Eq. (13), the a24 abC 12 C 66
Navier method, based on double Fourier series, is used under the a25 C 66 a2 C 22 b2
specied boundary conditions. Using Naviers procedure, the
solution of the displacement variables satisfying the above bound- a33 D11 a4 2D12 a2 b2 4D66 a2 b2 D22 b4 k0 k1 a2 b2
ary conditions can be expressed in the following Fourier series: a34 E11 a3  ab2 E12 2E66
a35 E22 b3  a2 bE12 2E66
X1 X 1
mpx npy ixt
u0 x; y; t Amn cos sin e a44 F 55 G11 a2 G66 b2
m1 n1
a b
a45 abG12 G66
X1 X 1
mpx npy ixt
v 0 x; y; t Bmn sin cos e a55 F 44 G66 a2 G22 b2
m1 n1
a b
X1 X 1 21
mpx npy ixt
w0 x; y; t C mn sin sin e 18
a b and a map ; b nbp.
m1 n1
X1 X 1 The natural frequencies of FG plate can be found from the non-
mpx npy ixt
hx x; y; t T xmn cos sin e trivial solution of Eq. (19).
m1 n1
a b
X1 X 1
mpx npy ixt 4. Numerical examples
hy x; y; t T ymn sin cos e
m1 n1
a b
In this section various numerical examples are presented and
where Amn, Bmn, Cmn, Txmn, Tymn are arbitrary parameters to be deter- discussed to verify the accuracy of the present theory in predicting
mined and x is the natural frequency. the free vibration responses of simply supported FG plates.
The displacement functions given in Eq. (18) satisfy the kine- Two types of FG plates of Al/Al2O3 and Al/ZrO2 are used in this
matic boundary conditions of the simply supported plate which study. The material properties of FG plates are listed in Table 1.
are given below: Unless otherwise has been stated, the following relations
have been used for presentations of non-dimensional natural
Nx v w M x Px Ry hy 0 at x 0; a frequencies and non-dimensional coefcients of foundation;

Ny u w M y Py Rx hx 0 at y 0; b Table 1
Material properties used in the functionally graded plates.
Substituting Eqs. (14)(18) into equations of motion (13) we get
Material Properties
below eigenvalue equation for any xed value of m and n, for free
vibration problem: E (GPa) m q (kg/m3)
Aluminum (Al) 70 0.3 2702
K  x2 MfDg f0g 19 Alumina (Al2O3) 380 0.3 3800
Zirconia (ZrO2) 200 0.3 5700
670 S.S. Akavci / Composite Structures 108 (2014) 667676

Fig. 2. Variation of non-dimensional fundamental frequencies of isotropic Al square plates with parameter r (m, n = 1).

1.9

1.8

1.7 Present Model, Fully Ceramic Uymaz and Aydogdu [4], Fully Ceramic
Present Model, p=2 Uymaz and Aydogdu [4], p=2
Present Model, p=5 Uymaz and Aydogdu [4], p=5
1.6
Present Model, p=10 Uymaz and Aydogdu [4], p=10
w
Present Model, Fully Metallic Uymaz and Aydogdu [4], Fully Metallic
1.5

1.4

1.3

1.2
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5
r
2 2
Fig. 3. Variation of non-dimensional fundamental frequency w2 121  t2 qm x2 a2 b =p4 h EM of Al/ZrO2 functionally graded square plates with parameter r for different
power law index (a/h = 5, m, n = 1).

Table 2 p
^ xa2 qh=D0 for simply supported isotropic square plate.
Non-dimensional natural frequencies x

h/a Source Mode


1,1 1,2 2,1 2,2 3,1 1,3 3,2 2,3
0.001 Leissa [17] 19.7392 49.348 49.348 78.9568 98.696 98.696 128.3021 128.3021
Zhou et al. [18] 19.7115 49.347 49.347 78.9528 98.6911 98.6911 128.3048 128.3048
Present study 19.7391 49.3476 49.3476 78.9557 98.6943 98.6943 128.3020 128.3020
00.01 Liu et al. [19] 19.7319 49.3027 49.3027 78.8410 98.5150 98.5150 127.9993 127.9993
Nagino et al. [20] 19.732 49.305 49.305 78.846 98.525 98.525 128.01 128.01
Present study 19.7322 49.3045 49.3045 78.8456 98.5223 98.5223 128.012 128.012
00.1 Liu et al. [19] 19.0584 45.4478 45.4478 69.7167 84.9264 84.9264 106.5154 106.5154
Hosseini et al. [21] 19.0653 45.4869 45.4869 69.8093 85.0646 85.0646 106.7350 106.7350
Present study 19.0850 45.5957 45.5957 70.0595 85.4315 85.4315 107.3040 107.3040
00.2 Shufrin et al. [22] 17.4524 38.1884 38.1884 55.2539 65.3130 65.3130 78.9864 78.9864
Hosseini et al. [21] 17.4523 38.1883 38.1883 55.2543 65.3135 65.3135 78.9865 78.9865
Present study 17.5149 38.4722 38.4722 55.8358 66.1207 66.1207 80.1637 80.1637

p
^ xa2 qh=D0 for isotropic plates where D0 = Et3/(12(1  t2))
x characterize dynamic behavior of functionally graded plates. It is
p p p
and x~ xa2 =h qM =EM , b xh qC =EC , x xh qM =EM , important to mention in the selection of the f(z) shape function
2
p
b xa =h qC =EC for the functionally graded plates and that, it should satisfy the realistic parabolic transverse shear strain
3
K 0 k0 a4 =A and K 1 k1 a2 =A where A h =121  t2 p 8 3p distribution and boundary conditions of top and bottom surfaces of
p2 EM 32 p p2 EC =1 p2 p3 p. the plate. The shape function which is given in Eq. (3) satises both
of the conditions previously mentioned. For determining the r
4.1. Selection of the parameter r in f(z) shape function parameter in f(z) shape function an optimization procedure which
given in Refs. [1416] is performed comparing the results of pres-
In this study, an improved version of a hyperbolic shear ent theory and three dimensional solutions for a wide range of
strain shape function presented by Akavci [13] is used in order to examples. In Figs. 2 and 3 variations of non-dimensional natural
S.S. Akavci / Composite Structures 108 (2014) 667676 671

Table 3 p
^ xa2 qh=D0 for simply supported square plate resting on elastic foundation (h/b = 0.2).
Non-dimensional natural frequencies x

K0a K1a x
^ 11 x
^ 12 x
^ 13

Matsunaga [23] Thai et al. [24] Present study Matsunaga [23] Thai et al. [24] Present study Matsunaga [23] Thai et al. [24] Present study
0 0 17.5260 17.4523 17.5149 38.4827 38.1883 38.4722 65.9961 65.3135 66.1207
10 17.7847 17.7248 17.7859 38.5929 38.3098 38.5929 66.0569 65.3841 66.1899
102 19.9528 20.0076 20.0603 39.5669 39.3895 39.6620 66.5995 66.0138 66.8087
103 34.3395 35.5039 35.5261 47.8667 48.8772 47.0757 71.5577 72.0036 72.6997
104 45.5260 45.5255 45.5260 71.9829 71.9829 71.9829 97.4964 101.7990 101.7990
105 45.5260 45.5255 45.5260 71.9829 71.9829 71.9830 101.7992 101.7990 101.7990
0 10 22.0429 22.2145 22.2607 43.4816 43.7943 44.0294 71.4914 71.9198 72.6178
10 22.2453 22.4286 22.4745 43.5747 43.9009 44.1347 71.5423 71.9839 72.6806
102 23.9830 24.2723 24.3133 44.3994 44.8445 45.0711 71.9964 72.5554 73.2430
103 36.6276 38.0650 38.0839 51.6029 53.3580 53.5296 76.1848 78.0290 78.6389
104 45.5260 45.5255 45.5260 71.9829 71.9829 71.9829 99.0187 101.7990 101.7990
105 45.5260 45.5255 45.5260 71.9829 71.9829 71.9829 101.7992 101.7990 101.7990
a
K0 = k0a4/D0, K1 = k1a2/D0.

frequencies of isotropic Al and Al/ZrO2 functionally graded plates thickness-to-length ratios are computed and compared with other
with parameter r. According to these gures the proper value published results in Table 2. The results reported by Leissa [17]
of r is around 3 when compared the 3D solutions of Vel and Batra were based on three dimensional exact solution, Zhou et al. [18]
[1] and Uymaz and Aydogdu [4]. Based on the results, the opti- were based on a three dimensional Ritz method with Chebyshev
mized value is chosen as r = 3 in the present work. polynomials, Liu and Liew [19] were based on a differential quad-
rature element method, Nagino et al. [20] were based on a three
4.2. Isotropic plates dimensional B-spline Ritz method, Hosseini-Hashemi et al. [21]
based on a exact closed form Levy-type solution and Shufrin
As the rst example, simply supported isotropic square plates et al. [22] were based on two dimensional higher order shear
are chosen for the convergence study of the present theory. deformation theories. As can be seen from the table that, not only
The rst eight non-dimensional natural frequencies for different for thin plates but also thick plates, the natural frequencies are
predicted as accurately by the present method.
Another comparative study for evaluating the accuracy of pres-
ent study is carried out for an isotropic square plate resting on
Table 4 p elastic foundation. The rst three non-dimensional natural fre-
Comparison of non-dimensional fundamental frequencies x xh qM =EM of Al/ZrO2
quencies of a square plate on elastic foundation are given in Table 3
functionally graded square plates (a/h = 5).
and compared with the results of different higher order shear
Source p=2 p=3 p=5 deformation theories of Matsunaga [23] and Thai et al. [24]. The re-
Vel et al. [1] 0.2197 0.2211 0.2225 sults in Table 3 show good agreement in all cases.
Neves et al. [11] (ez = 0) 0.2189 0.2202 0.2215
Neves et al. [11] (ez 0) 0.2198 0.2212 0.2225
4.3. Functionally graded plates
Neves et al. [12] (ez = 0) 0.2191 0.2205 0.2220
Neves et al. [12] (ez 0) 0.2201 0.2216 0.2230
Matsunaga [5] 0.2264 0.2270 0.2280 In this section, to verify the accuracy of present study for func-
Hosseini-Hashemi et al. [21] 0.2264 0.2276 0.2291 tionally graded plates, natural frequencies of the plates with sim-
Present study 0.2263 0.2268 0.2277 ply supported edges are analyzed.

Table 5 p
~ xa2 =h qM =EM of Al/ZrO2 functionally graded square plates (m = n = 1).
Comparison of non-dimensional natural frequencies x

Mode no. Source p = 0a p=1 a/h = 5


p
a/h = 10 a/h = 10 a/h = 5 a/h = 10 a/h = 20 p=2 p=3 p=5

1 Vel et al. [1] 4.6582 5.7769 5.4806 5.9609 6.1076 5.4923 5.5285 5.5632
Matsunaga [5] 4.6582 5.7769 5.7123 6.1932 6.3390 5.6599 5.6757 5.7020
Present study 4.6569 5.7754 5.7110 6.1924 6.3388 5.6593 5.6718 5.6941
2 Vel et al. [1] 8.7132 27.554 14.558 29.123 58.250 14.278 14.150 14.026
Matsunaga [5] 8.7132 27.554 15.339 30.685 61.374 14.970 14.742 14.476
Present study 8.7132 27.554 15.341 30.686 61.374 14.972 14.743 14.477
3 Vel et al. [1] 14.463 46.503 24.381 49.013 98.145 23.909 23.696 23.494
Matsunaga [5] 14.463 46.503 25.776 51.795 103.71 25.140 24.741 24.278
Present study 14.728 46.574 25.926 51.866 103.74 25.296 24.909 24.461
4 Vel et al. [1] 21.343 196.77 53.366 207.50 823.92 50.376 48.825 47.687
Matsunaga [5] 21.343 196.77 57.114 222.43 883.59 53.188 50.790 48.772
Present 21.550 199.02 55.050 226.21 898.81 54.158 51.480 49.117
5 Vel et al. [1] 24.830 201.34 57.620 212.22 828.78 54.685 53.179 52.068
Matsunaga [5] 24.830 201.34 61.509 227.29 888.60 57.576 55.237 53.288
Present study 25.427 203.98 62.886 231.52 904.25 58.993 56.373 54.067
a
p
~ x a2 =h qC =EC .
x
672 S.S. Akavci / Composite Structures 108 (2014) 667676

Table 6
p
The rst eight non-dimensional natural frequencies b xh qC =EC for simply supported square Al/Al2O3 plate.

h/b p Source Mode no.


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
0.1 Mode 1,0,1 1,1,1 2,0,1 1,2,1 1,0,2 2,2,1 3,0,1 1,3,1
0 Matsunaga [5] 0.02936 0.0577 0.1120 0.1381 0.1948 0.2121 0.2357 0.2587
Present study 0.02936 0.0577 0.1119 0.1379 0.1948 0.2120 0.2355 0.2585
0.5 Matsunaga [5] 0.0249 0.0491 0.0956 0.1180 0.1749 0.1819 0.2022 0.2222
Present study 0.0249 0.0490 0.0954 0.1176 0.1749 0.1813 0.2016 0.2214
1 Matsunaga [5] 0.0224 0.0442 0.0861 0.1063 0.1620 0.1640 0.1824 0.2004
Present study 0.0224 0.0442 0.0860 0.1061 0.1620 0.1636 0.1819 0.1999
4 Matsunaga [5] 0.0194 0.0381 0.0735 0.0904 0.1308 0.1383 0.1534 0.1681
Present study 0.0194 0.0380 0.07342 0.0902 0.1308 0.1379 0.1529 0.1677
10 Matsunaga [5] 0.0186 0.0364 0.0699 0.0858 0.1153 0.1306 0.1446 0.1583
Present study 0.0186 0.0364 0.0699 0.0858 0.1153 0.1305 0.1445 0.1582
1 Matsunaga [5] 0.0149 0.0283 0.0568 0.0701 0.0989 0.1077 0.1197 0.1313
Present study 0.0149 0.0294 0.0570 0.0702 0.0991 0.1079 0.1199 0.1316
0.2 Mode 1,0,1 1,1,1 2,0,1 1,0,2 1,2,1 1,1,2 1,0,3 2,2,1
0 Matsunaga [5] 0.1120 0.2121 0.3874 0.3897 0.4658 0.5511 0.6566 0.6753
Present study 0.1119 0.2120 0.3872 0.3897 0.4657 0.5510 0.6587 0.6759
0.5 Matsunaga [5] 0.0956 0.1819 0.3343 0.3497 0.4040 0.4941 0.5878 0.5891
Present study 0.0954 0.1813 0.3330 0.3495 0.4015 0.4940 0.5905 0.5856
1 Matsunaga [5] 0.0861 0.1640 0.3020 0.3236 0.3644 0.4567 0.5325 0.5444
Present study 0.0860 0.1636 0.3009 0.3236 0.3629 0.4569 0.5461 0.5302
4 Matsunaga [5] 0.0735 0.1383 0.2502 0.2607 0.3000 0.3668 0.4325 0.4362
Present study 0.0734 0.1379 0.2493 0.2606 0.2987 0.3668 0.4381 0.4304
10 Matsunaga [5] 0.0699 0.1306 0.2300 0.2337 0.2790 0.3243 0.3855 0.3981
Present study 0.0699 0.1305 0.2337 0.2300 0.2792 0.3245 0.3878 0.3991
1 Matsunaga [5] 0.0568 0.1077 0.1967 0.1979 0.2365 0.2798 0.3334 0.3429
Present study 0.0570 0.1079 0.1971 0.1983 0.2370 0.2804 0.3352 0.3440

Table 7 p
Comparison of rst four non-dimensional natural frequencies b xa2 =h qC =EC of Al/Al2O3 functionally graded rectangular plate (b/a = 2).

a/h Mode no. (m, n) Source p


0 0.5 1 2 5 8 10
5 1 (1, 1) Hosseini et al. [26] 3.4409 2.9322 2.6473 2.4017 2.2528 2.1985 2.1677
Thai et al. [25] 3.4412 2.9347 2.6475 2.3949 2.2272 2.1697 2.1407
Present study 3.4495 2.9408 2.6529 2.3989 2.2275 2.1724 2.1455
2 (1, 2) Hosseini et al. [26] 5.2802 4.5122 4.0773 3.6953 3.4492 3.3587 3.3094
Thai et al. [25] 5.2813 4.5180 4.0781 3.6805 3.3938 3.2964 3.2514
Present study 5.3003 4.5321 4.0906 3.6900 3.3952 3.3031 3.2626
3 (1, 3) Hosseini et al. [26] 8.0710 6.9231 6.2636 5.6695 5.2579 5.1045 5.0253
Thai et al. [25] 8.0749 6.9366 6.2663 5.6390 5.1425 4.9758 4.9055
Present study 8.1179 6.9690 6.2950 5.6614 5.1479 4.9921 4.9313
4 (2, 1) Hosseini et al. [26] 9.7416 8.6926 7.8711 7.1189 6.5749 5.9062 5.7518
Thai et al. [25] 10.1164 8.7138 7.8762 7.0751 6.4074 6.1846 6.0954
Present study 10.1828 8.7640 7.9209 7.1105 6.4181 6.2111 6.1355
10 1 (1, 1) Hosseini et al. [26] 3.6518 3.0983 2.7937 2.5386 2.3998 2.3504 2.3197
Thai et al. [25] 3.6518 3.0990 2.7937 2.5364 2.3916 2.3411 2.3110
Present study 3.6542 3.1008 2.7952 2.5376 2.3915 2.3418 2.3124
2 (1, 2) Hosseini et al. [26] 5.7693 4.8997 4.4192 4.0142 3.7881 3.7072 3.6580
Thai et al. [25] 5.7694 4.9014 4.4192 4.0090 3.7682 3.6846 3.6368
Present study 5.7754 4.9059 4.4231 4.0118 3.7682 3.6864 3.6403
3 (1, 3) Hosseini et al. [26] 9.1876 7.8145 7.0512 6.4015 6.0247 5.8887 5.8086
Thai et al. [25] 9.1880 7.8189 7.0515 6.3886 5.9765 5.8341 5.7575
Present study 9.2029 7.8299 7.0612 6.3959 5.9766 5.8388 5.7662
4 (2, 1) Hosseini et al. [26] 11.8310 10.074 9.0928 8.2515 7.7505 7.5688 7.4639
Thai et al. [25] 11.8315 10.081 9.0933 8.2309 7.6731 7.4813 7.3821
Present study 11.8560 10.099 9.1093 8.2428 7.6738 7.4892 7.3965
20 1 (1, 1) Hosseini et al. [26] 3.7123 3.1456 2.8352 2.5777 2.4425 2.3948 2.3642
Thai et al. [25] 3.7123 3.1458 2.8352 2.5771 2.4403 2.3923 2.3619
Present study 3.7129 3.1463 2.8357 2.5774 2.4402 2.3924 2.3623
2 (1, 2) Hosseini et al. [26] 5.9198 5.0175 4.5228 4.1115 3.8939 3.8170 3.7681
Thai et al. [25] 5.9199 5.0180 4.5228 4.1100 3.8884 3.8107 3.7622
Present study 5.9215 5.0191 4.5238 4.1108 3.8883 3.8112 3.7632
3 (1, 3) Hosseini et al. [26] 9.5668 8.1121 7.3132 6.6471 6.2903 6.1639 6.0843
Thai et al. [25] 9.5669 8.1133 7.3132 6.6433 6.2760 6.1476 6.0690
Present study 9.5711 8.1164 7.3159 6.6453 6.2759 6.1488 6.0715
4 (2, 1) Hosseini et al. [26] 12.4560 10.5660 9.5261 8.6572 8.1875 8.0207 7.9166
Thai et al. [25] 12.4562 10.5677 9.5261 8.6509 8.1636 7.9934 7.8909
Present study 12.4633 10.5729 9.5307 8.6542 8.1634 7.9954 7.8950
S.S. Akavci / Composite Structures 108 (2014) 667676 673

Table 8
p
Comparison of non-dimensional fundamental frequencies b xh qC =EC of Al/ZrO2 functionally graded rectangular plates (a/b = 1.5).

(K0, K1)a h/a p Source


Baferani et al. [27] Hosseini et al. [26] Present study
(0, 0) 0.05 0 0.02392 0.02393
0.25 0.02269 0.02309
1 0.02156 0.02202
5 0.02180 0.02244
1 0.02046 0.02056
0.1 0 0.09188 0.09203
0.25 0.08603 0.08895
1 0.08155 0.08489
5 0.08171 0.08576
1 0.07895 0.07908
0.2 0 0.32284 0.32471
0.25 0.31003 0.31531
1 0.29399 0.30152
5 0.29099 0.31860
1 0.27788 0.27902
(250, 25) 0.05 0 0.03421 0.03421 0.03422
0.25 0.03321 0.03285 0.03312
1 0.03249 0.03184 0.03213
5 0.03314 0.03235 0.03277
1 0.02937 0.02940
0.1 0 0.13365 0.13365 0.13375
0.25 0.13004 0.12771 0.12959
1 0.12749 0.12381 0.12585
5 0.12950 0.12533 0.12778
1 0.11484 0.11492
0.2 0 0.43246 0.49945 0.50044
0.25 0.42868 0.48327 0.48594
1 0.46406 0.46997 0.47298
5 0.44824 0.47400 0.47637
1 0.43001 0.43000
a
K0 = k0a4/A, K1 = k1a2/A.

Table 9 p
Comparison of non-dimensional fundamental frequencies b xh qC =EC of Al/Al2O3 functionally graded rectangular plates (h/a = 0.15).

(K0, K1)a a/b p Source


Baferani et al. [27] Hosseini et al. [26] Present study
(0, 0) 0.5 0 0.08006 0.08018
0.25 0.07320 0.07335
1 0.06335 0.06148
5 0.05379 0.05215
1 0.04100 0.04081
1 0 0.12480 0.12508
0.25 0.11354 0.11457
1 0.09644 0.09613
5 0.08027 0.08089
1 0.063352 0.06366
2 0 0.28513 0.28659
0.25 0.25555 0.26356
1 0.20592 0.22189
5 0.16315 0.18232
1 0.14591 0.14587
(100, 10) 0.5 0 0.12869 0.12870 0.12876
0.25 0.11885 0.11842 0.11847
1 0.10498 0.10519 0.10388
5 0.09227 0.09223 0.09098
1 0.06591 0.06554
1 0 0.17020 0.17020 0.17039
0.25 0.15734 0.15599 0.15665
1 0.13854 0.13652 0.13592
5 0.12077 0.11786 0.11774
1 0.08663 0.08673
2 0 0.31449 0.32768 0.32889
0.25 0.30484 0.29612 0.30297
1 0.26966 0.24674 0.25901
5 0.22932 0.20359 0.21785
1 0.16773 0.16741
a
K0 = k0a4/A, K1 = k1a2/A.
674 S.S. Akavci / Composite Structures 108 (2014) 667676

The next two examples are performed for Al/ZrO2 functionally shear deformation theory of Thai et al. [25] and exact closed-form
graded square plates. In Table 4, non-dimensional fundamental fre- Mindlin theory of Hosseini-Hashemi et al. [26]. It can be concluded
quencies of plate are computed for three different power law index from the table that there is an excellent agreement with the results
and compared with three dimensional exact solution of Vel and Ba- of present theory and those of the higher order shear deformation
tra [1], quasi three-dimensional sinusoidal and hyperbolic shear theory of Thai et al. [25].
deformation theories of Neves et al. [11,12] and two dimensional
higher order shear deformation theories of Matsunaga [5] and Hos- 4.4. Functionally graded plates on elastic foundation
seini-Hashemi et al. [21]. It can be seen from the table that the re-
sults of the present theory agree with the results of other two and In this section, to verify the accuracy of present study for func-
three dimensional deformation theories. In Table 5, non-dimen- tionally graded plates on elastic foundation, natural frequencies of
sional natural frequencies, obtained by the present theory, are the plates are compared with those reported in literature.
compared with the three dimensional theory of Vel and Batra [1] Table 8 shows non-dimensional fundamental frequencies of Al/
and two dimensional higher order shear deformation theory of ZrO2 functionally graded rectangular plates resting on elastic foun-
Matsunaga [5]. It can be seen from the table that a good agreement dation. The results of present theory are compared with the results
is achieved between the results of present theory and those of of the rst order shear deformation theory of Hosseini-Hashemi
other theory. et al. [26] and higher order shear deformation theory of Baferani
To verify the higher order modes, the rst eight and four fre- et al. [27]. It can be seen from the Table 8 that, the results of pres-
quencies of the Al/Al2O3 functionally graded square and rectangu- ent theory are in good agreement with the results of other theories.
lar plates are computed and presented in Tables 6 and 7. In Table 6, The next two examples are performed for the Al/Al2O3 function-
the rst eight non-dimensional natural frequencies of FG square ally graded rectangular plates on elastic foundation. In Table 9,
plates are compared with those reported by Matsunaga [5] using non-dimensional fundamental frequencies for different aspect ra-
another two dimensional higher order deformation theory. A good tios are computed and compared with other published solutions
agreement between the results is observed for both thin and thick by using higher order shear deformation theory [27] and the rst
plates. In Table 7, the rst four non-dimensional natural frequen- order shear deformation theory [26]. It can be seen from the table
cies of FG rectangular plates for different thickness-to-length ratios that, the present theory agrees well with the other shear deforma-
are presented as compared with two-dimensional higher order tion theories. Table 10 shows the comparison of non-dimensional

Table 10 p
~ xa2 =h qM =EM of Al/Al2O3 functionally graded rectangular plates.
Comparison of non-dimensional fundamental frequencies x

(K0, K1)a a/b a/h p


0 1 5 10
Thai et al. [24] Present study Thai et al. [24] Present study Thai et al. [24] Present study Thai et al. [24] Present study
(0, 0) 0.5 5 6.7610 6.7771 5.2016 5.2122 4.3757 4.3763 4.2058 4.2153
10 7.1746 7.1794 5.4887 5.4918 4.6987 4.6986 4.5404 4.5432
20 7.2936 7.2948 5.5704 5.5712 4.7943 4.7943 4.6404 4.6411
1 5 10.3761 10.4133 8.0122 8.0368 6.6678 6.6705 6.3879 6.4099
10 11.3351 11.3468 8.6824 8.6899 7.4034 7.4033 7.1453 7.1521
20 11.6307 11.6338 8.8859 8.8879 7.6394 7.6393 7.3916 7.3934
2 5 22.7045 22.8734 17.7148 17.8289 14.3312 14.3625 13.6095 13.7120
10 27.0439 27.1085 20.8063 20.8487 17.5028 17.5051 16.8232 16.8613
20 28.6985 28.7174 21.9548 21.9670 18.7950 18.7946 18.1616 18.1727
(0, 100) 0.5 5 11.1150 11.1237 10.8450 10.8489 10.9919 10.9925 11.0793 11.0818
10 11.4474 11.4503 11.0926 11.0940 11.2538 11.2538 11.3302 11.3313
20 11.5467 11.5474 11.1656 11.1660 11.3343 11.3343 11.4090 11.4093
1 5 15.1867 15.2095 14.3818 14.3923 14.3052 14.3071 14.3759 14.3829
10 15.9732 15.9813 14.9401 14.9443 14.8692 14.8693 14.9162 14.9193
20 16.2263 16.2285 15.1177 15.1189 15.0607 15.0607 15.1047 15.1056
2 5 28.5409 28.6623 25.6294 25.6912 24.3453 24.3625 24.2696 24.3109
10 32.2917 32.3444 28.2023 28.2316 26.7201 26.7223 26.5362 26.5586
20 33.7917 33.8076 29.2181 29.2272 27.7772 27.7770 27.5847 27.5919
(100, 0) 0.5 5 7.2126 7.2276 5.8654 5.8746 5.2355 5.2360 5.1212 5.1288
10 7.6108 7.6153 6.1366 6.1393 5.5277 5.5276 5.4176 5.4199
20 7.7260 7.7272 6.2144 6.2152 5.6157 5.6156 5.5080 5.5087
1 5 10.6723 10.7082 8.4517 8.4748 7.2534 7.2560 7.0175 7.0373
10 11.6147 11.6261 9.1035 9.1107 7.9521 7.9520 7.7293 7.7356
20 11.9062 11.99093 9.3025 9.3044 8.1790 8.1789 7.9640 7.9658
2 5 22.8378 23.0053 17.9108 18.0231 14.6057 14.6363 13.9101 14.0098
10 27.1603 27.2246 20.9821 21.0241 17.7373 17.7396 17.0751 17.1126
20 28.8106 28.8295 22.1257 22.1378 19.0192 19.0187 18.4005 18.4115
(100, 100) 0.5 5 11.3952 11.4036 11.1780 11.1817 11.3593 11.3598 11.4558 11.4581
10 11.7257 11.7285 11.4270 11.4284 11.6243 11.6243 11.7093 11.7103
20 11.8246 11.8253 11.5005 11.5008 11.7054 11.7054 11.7886 11.7888
1 5 15.3904 15.4127 14.6305 14.6407 14.5843 14.5862 14.6636 14.6702
10 16.1728 16.1808 15.1887 15.1927 15.1497 15.1498 15.2045 15.2075
20 16.4249 16.4271 15.3663 15.3674 15.3414 15.3414 15.3929 15.3938
2 5 28.6467 28.7674 25.7640 25.8251 24.5036 24.5206 24.4352 24.4759
10 32.3893 32.4417 28.3322 28.3613 26.8741 26.8763 26.6964 26.7186
20 33.8869 33.9029 29.3467 29.3557 27.9294 27.9292 27.7426 27.7497
a
K0 = k0a4/DM, K1 = k1a2/DM where; DM = EMh3/12(1  t2).
S.S. Akavci / Composite Structures 108 (2014) 667676 675

fundamental frequencies of FG rectangular plates on elastic foun- plates with respect to power law index are plotted. It is seen from
dation with those reported by Thai et al. [24] using higher order the gure that, increasing value of power law index causes to de-
shear deformation theory. It can be seen from the Table 10 that, crease in the fundamental frequency.
the results of present theory are in excellent agreement with the Fig. 5 shows the variations of non-dimensional natural frequen-
results of Thai et al. [24]. cies of simply supported Al/Al2O3 functionally graded square plates
resting on elastic foundation with respect to power law index. In
4.5. Parametric studies the presence of elastic foundation, also, with the increase of power
law index, the natural frequencies decrease. It can be observed
In this section, some parametric studies have been presented form the gure that, increasing value of Winkler and Pasternak
for free vibration analysis of functionally graded plates resting on coefcients causes to increase in the natural frequency. The gure
elastic foundation. shows also, Pasternak coefcient of foundation has more signi-
In Fig. 4, the variations of non-dimensional fundamental fre- cant effect than Winkler coefcient on the fundamental frequency
quencies of simply supported Al/Al2O3 functionally graded square of plate.
In Figs. 6a and b, the variations of non-dimensional fundamen-
tal frequency of simply supported Al/Al2O3 functionally graded
6.0 square plate resting on Winkler and Pasternak foundations with
a/h=5
5.5 respect to Winkler coefcient of foundation are shown. It is seen
a/h=10 from the gure that, increasing the power law index decreases
5.0
a/h=20 the fundamental frequency for both of the foundations. It is also
4.5 seen from the gure that, increasing value of power law index in-
a/h=50
4.0 a/h=100
creases the effect of elastic foundation on natural frequency. The
3.5 gure shows also, although increasing value of power law index
causes to decrease in the natural frequency, if the value of power
3.0
law index is more than 5, the effect of it on the natural frequency
2.5 is negligible.
2.0
0 20 40 60 80 100 5. Conclusions
p
p In the present study, analytical solutions for free vibration anal-
Fig. 4. Variation of non-dimensional fundamental frequency b xa2 =h qC =EC of
Al/Al2O3 functionally graded square plates with power law index. ysis of functionally graded plates are developed on the assumption
that transverse shear displacements vary as a hyperbolic function
through the thickness of plate. Equilibrium equations and associ-
0.3 ated boundary conditions are obtained using Hamiltons principle.
Ko=10^3,K1=10 Ko=10^3,K1=0
The Navier method is used for the analytical solutions of the func-
Ko=10^2,K1=10 Ko=10^2,K1=0
Ko=10^1,K1=10 Ko=10^1,K1=0
tionally graded plate with simply supported boundary conditions.
0.25 Ko=0, K1=0 Then fundamental frequencies are found by solving the eigenvalue
problem. In order to verify the accuracy of the present theory,
some numerical examples are solved and compared with other
0.2
published solutions by using exact 3D analysis and other higher or-
der shear deformation theories.
0.15 The results obtained by the present method can be summarized
as follows:

0.1  It has been shown that the present analytical method can accu-
0 20 40 60 80 100
rately predict natural frequencies of functionally graded plates
p
resting on elastic foundation.
p
Fig. 5. Variation of non-dimensional fundamental frequency b xh qC =EC of Al/  The natural frequencies of plate decrease with the increase of
Al2O3 functionally graded square plates resting on elastic foundation with power power law index.
law index (a/h = 5).

8.5 9.0
8.0 8.5
7.5 8.0
7.0 7.5
6.5 7.0
6.0 6.5 p=0
p=0
5.5 6.0
p=1 p=1
5.0 5.5
p=5 p=5
4.5 5.0
4.0 p=10 4.5 p=10
3.5 4.0
0 500 1000 1500 2000 0 500 1000 1500 2000
K K
(a) K1=0 (b) K1=10
p
Fig. 6. Variation of non-dimensional fundamental frequency b xa2 =h qC =EC of Al/Al2O3 functionally graded square plates resting on elastic foundation with Winkler
coefcient (a/h = 10) (a) K1 = 0, (b) K1 = 10.
676 S.S. Akavci / Composite Structures 108 (2014) 667676

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