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BORIS CINTULA, ANETA ELESCHOV, ANTON BEL, MARTIN LIKA

Department of Electrical Power Engineering

Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava

Ilkoviova 3, 812 19 Bratislava

SLOVAKIA

boris.cintula@gmail.com, http://www.kee.fei.stuba.sk

Abstract: - The paper deals with the issue of dynamic stability of synchronous generator, in the first part are

described the indicators of dynamic stability and basic principles of the solution. The second part contains the

results of dynamic simulations analysis of selected events which are compared in terms of the significance of

their impact on the synchronous generator dynamic stability.

Key-Words: - Synchronous Generator, Dynamic Stability, Method of Area Equality, Critical Clearing Time,

Short Circuit, Breaker Failure Relay

1 Introduction d 2 0 P

= , (1)

During the power system operation arise a lot of fast dt 2 Tm S n

changes, which can cause a disproportion between 0 nominal angular velocity of generator; Tm

production and consumption of electricity what also mechanical time constant of generator; Sn nominal

means big changes of rotor angles. Fast changes in power of generator.

power system consist for example of switching

operations, source or load outages, but the most For theoretical analysis of dynamic stability

frequently the short circuits, what is associated with using the method of area equality can be used the

step change of impedance of power system. simplified model of power system in Fig.1 and its

Synchronous generators respond to fast changes equivalent scheme in Fig.2. The method of area

in electromechanical swings and during these equality application for transient state (short circuit

swings can generators get into a situation when the on one of the power lines) is shown in Fig.3, curve I

rotor angle stabilises at a new value or the rotor - state before short circuit, II short circuit on the

angle will grow to a loss of synchronism. [1] line, III outage the line after short circuit.

In real operation, each generator complies with The border of dynamic stability (crit) is

condition of static stability. But it is necessary to determined by method of area equality

add that a generator which complies with accelerating and breaking area, what means to

a condition of static stability does not have to comply with a following condition:

comply with dynamic stability. The main difference

S+ < S (2)

between the assessment of static and dynamic

stability is that in static stability is determined the

ability of generator to operate in a steady state and

in dynamic stability is determined and investigated

the impact and course of transient state to

Fig.1 Simplified model of power system for

synchronous generator.

transient stability for examination of generator

For qualitative assessment of the synchronous

generator dynamic stability is used method of area

equality, the solution which is defined the border of Fig.2 Equivalent scheme of simplified model of

the dynamic stability critical angle crit. Further power system

solution of kinetic equation (1) can be provided the

critical clearing time (CCT).

ISBN: 978-1-61804-128-9 47

Advances in Power and Energy Systems

come to a loss of generator synchronism.

It is possible to determine the CCT duration

by simulation experiment or calculation come out

from the kinetic equation (1)

2M

0 P0

(3)

0 nominal angular velocity of generator; M

mechanical rotor torque of generator; P0 generator

power before short circuit; 0 rotor angle of

generator (by P0); crit critical rotor angle of

Fig.3 Graphic application of method of area

generator.

equality for transient state short circuit on

power line [1]

But this equation is valid only if the power from

generator is during the 3-phase short circuit equal

The most serious failure in terms of dynamic

zero, i.e. it is 3-phase short circuit on the bus bar

stability is 3-phase short circuit. In Fig.4 are shown

where the generator power is connected to. [1]

the power characteristics of 3-phase bus bar short

The time courses of generator rotor angle

circuit.

are in Fig.5, where the tripping is shown at:

1 critical time (CCT),

2 shorter time than CCT

3 longer time than CCT.

short circuit on the bus bar [2]

synchronous generator can be classified into three Fig.5 Time behaviour of generator rotor angle [1]

basic states:

1) if S+ = S - border of dynamic stability

(critical angle value) 2.1 Factors Affecting the Length of CCT

2) if S+ < S - preservation of dynamic stability The factors affecting the CCT duration are:

3) if S+ > S - loss of dynamic stability short circuit power in substation, where the

power from the generator is exported,

value of voltage in substation, where the

3 Critical Clearing Time (CCT) power from the generator is exported,

Critical clearing time (CCT) is important indicator operational condition of generator, i.e.

of dynamic stability and to know its duration is underexcited or overexcited generator. [3]

considered a practical assessment of dynamical

stability of synchronous generator. In Fig.6 is shown the CCT course of the voltage

CCT indicates how long the generator is in the substation, where the generator power is

able to work in 3-phase short circuit at the nearest connected to. In the course it is possible to see that

bus bar where the generator is connected to and the CCT duration strongly depends on operational

after the short circuit preserve in synchronous generator conditions, i.e. if the generator works in

operation. underexcited or overexcited state.

If the short circuit tripping takes shorter In Fig.7 is shown the CCT course of the short

than CCT duration, then the generator is circuit power in the substation, where the generator

dynamically stable. In case the short circuit tripping power is connected to. Point of this course is to

ISBN: 978-1-61804-128-9 48

Advances in Power and Energy Systems

power as well, but from figure it is clear is not very 5 Dynamic Simulations of Selected

significant.

Based on the facts above it is necessary to

Events

Simulations of the dynamic stability of synchronous

consider in determining CCT duration with

generator were realised in according to simplified

calculations for overexcited state (Qgen=max),

model of power system in Fig.8.

underexcited state (Qgen=min) and zero reactive

power supply (Qgen=0).

transient stability (G1-Synchronous Generator;

T1-Generator Transformer; BFR-Breaker Failure

Relay; QM-Circuit Breaker; V1-Power Line)

Fig.6 Influence of voltage on CCT duration in

transmission power substation [3] The aim of this part was to simulate and compare

the selected events (events N-1 and N-k), which can

arise in the power system and therefore it is

necessary to consider these events in the analysis of

dynamic stability.

Dynamic simulations were realised in the following

generator operational parameters G1:

Sn = 259MVA, Un=15,8kV,

PG = 221,7MW, QG= 29,9MVAr (overexcited state).

selected events:

1) bus bar short circuit in substation with three

Fig.7 Influence of short circuit power on CCT circuit breakers per two branches where the

duration in transmission power substation [3] generator power is exported,

2) 3-phase short circuit on power line V1,

3) 3-phase short circuit on power line V1 with

4 Assessment of Dynamic Stability of failure of circuit breaker QM1,

4) 3-phase short circuit on power line V1 with

Power System failure of circuit breaker QM2,

Dynamic stability can be investigated for one 5) 3-phase short circuit on power line V1 with

generator but also for the whole power system. The failure of circuit breakers QM1, QM2.

procedure for the power system assessment of

dynamic stability consists of the CCT determination

for all generators connected to power system. The

most often used method for dynamic stability 5.1 3-phase Busbar Short Circuit in

assessment is dynamic simulations of power system Substation with Three Circuit Breakers per

mathematical model. This way can be also Two Branches

evaluated the dynamic simulations for events N-1, The simulation of dynamic stability was focused on

N-k or break-up points verification. monitoring of generator behavior during the 3-phase

CCT calculations are realised the most in bus bar short circuit in the substation with three

developing of defense plans, connecting new circuit breakers per two branches (Fig.9).

sources, operation preparations and maintenance This substation is characterised by the

states. operational safety (highly strong side), what also

confirm the simulation. The most often, this type of

ISBN: 978-1-61804-128-9 49

Advances in Power and Energy Systems

substation is used for power export from power breakers per two branches caused a generator

plants. swinging but this failure did not cause a generator

emergency shutdown. The generator stabilised

approximately 10s after the failure at a new balance

value and it is dynamically stable.

The generator G1 behaviour is shown in Fig.11.

From this figure it is clear that the failure caused a

swinging but still remained in operation and it is

dynamically stable. Generator stabilised at a new

Fig.9 Substation with three circuit breakers per balance value approximately 9s after the failure.

two branches [4]

modelled for the 3-phase short circuit arising on bus

bar W2 when both bus bars are in operation at time

of short circuit.

Differential bus bar protection on W2

responds on this failure and sends trip commands to

the circuit breakers QM13 and QM23, which are

disconnected at time 100ms after the failure and the Fig.11 Behavior of the synchronous generator after

substation remains in continuous operation. the short circuit on the line V1 (vt-voltage at the

Ability to remain in continuous operation after generator terminals; ang-rotor angle, efd-

3-phase bus bar short circuit is the highly strong electromotive voltage; it-current; pg-active power;

side of this type of substation in comparison with spd-frequency)

other classical substation with single bus bar. In

case of 3-phase bus bar short circuit in substation

with single bus bar for power export from power 5.3 3-phase Short Circuit on Power Line V1

plant has to be the generator emergency shutdown. with Failure of Circuit Breaker QM1

It is necessary to add that despite generator The next modelled situation was the 3-phase short

maintaining continuous operation, this failure has a circuit on the line V1 with the failure of circuit

significant impact on the dynamic stability. The breaker QM1.

generator behavior under the given operational The line is protected by distance protection in

parameters and modeled event (at the time until 10s protection zone where the short circuit arose.

after the failure) is shown in Fig.10. Distance protection responded on this failure and

sent the trip commands to the circuit breakers at the

beginning and the end of the line (QM1, QM2). The

circuit breaker QM2 tripped the line until 100ms,

but the circuit breaker QM1 failed. In case of circuit

breaker failure on the line the nearest BFR (Breaker

Failure Relay) responds to this failure.

BFR is installed in every substation and its

tripping time is longer than the circuit breaker

tripping time, i.e. more than 100ms.

Fig.10 Behavior of the synchronous generator after In this modelled situation was the BFR

the bus bar short circuit in the substation with 1,5 tripping time set for 350ms (where is included

circuit breaker for a branch (vt-voltage at the circuit breaker tripping time 100ms and BFR

generator terminals; ang-rotor angle, efd- setting time 250ms).

electromotive voltage; it-current; pg-active power; BFR1 responded to the circuit breaker failure

spd-frequency) at time 350ms after the short circuit and sent the trip

commands to circuit breakers on all bus bar

In Fig.10 it can be seen that the 3-phase bus branches.

bar short circuit in substation with three circuit

ISBN: 978-1-61804-128-9 50

Advances in Power and Energy Systems

Synchronous generator response to this event circuit breaker QM2 (vt-voltage at the generator

is shown in Fig.12, where it can be seen the terminals; ang-rotor angle, efd-electromotive

generator stabilisation at new balance value after the voltage; it-current; pg-active power; spd-frequency)

swinging approximately until 11s after the short

circuit. Generator is dynamically stable.

5.5 3-phase Short Circuit on Power Line V1

with Failure of Circuit Breakers QM1, QM2

The simulation of dynamic stability was focused on

monitoring of generator behavior during the 3-phase

bus bar short circuit in the substation with three

circuit breakers per two branches (Fig.9).

The circuit breaker failure on both sides of the line

belongs among very low probability events but the

dynamic simulations have to be verified anyway.

Fig.12 Behavior of the synchronous generator after

Short circuit arose on the line V1; the distance

the short circuit on the line V1 with the failure of

protection responded and sent the trip commands to

circuit breaker QM1 (vt-voltage at the generator

the circuit breakers on both sides of the line (QM1,

terminals; ang-rotor angle, efd-electromotive

QM2) which failed. Therefore, the BFR responded

voltage; it-current; pg-active power; spd-frequency)

on both sides of the line at time 350ms and all

branches of both bus bars were tripped.

The generator swung after both BFR

5.4 3-phase Short Circuit on Power Line V1 responding the most and stabilised at a new balance

with Failure of Circuit Breaker QM2 value until 11s, i.e. generator is dynamically stable

The next modelled situation was the 3-phase short and even this event did not cause a loss of

circuit on the line V1 with the failure of circuit synchronism (Fig.14).

breaker QM2. At first sight, it is a similar situation

as the one above, but in fact it is significantly

different situation because the power system model

(Fig.8) is interconnected system what means that the

tripping times change will also strongly change an

impact on the dynamic stability of the generator.

Finally, the simulation confirms this fact.

Equally as the situation above, the line is

protected by distance protections. The short circuit

arose in the protected zone of distance protection on Fig.14 Behavior of the synchronous generator after

the line V1. The distance protection sent the trip the short circuit on the line V1 with the failure of

commands to the circuit breakers at the beginning circuit breakers QM1 and QM2 (vt-voltage at the

and the end of the line (QM1 and QM2). The circuit generator terminals; ang-rotor angle, efd-

breaker QM1 tripped the line until 100ms, but the electromotive voltage; it-current; pg-active power;

circuit breaker QM2 failed. Subsequently, the BFR2 spd-frequency)

responds to the circuit breaker QM2 failure and trips

all bus bar branches at time 350ms.

The generator (Fig.13) is after the BFR 6 Conclusion

responding swung again but until 9s is stabilised at a The simulated events in this paper can be sorted in

new balance value, i.e. it is dynamically stable. terms of the significance of their impact on the

dynamic stability of synchronous generator from the

most affecting as follows:

1. 3-phase short circuit on power line V1 with

failure of circuit breakers QM1, QM2

2. 3-phase short circuit on power line V1 with

failure of circuit breaker QM1

3. 3-phase short circuit on power line V1 with

failure of circuit breaker QM2

4. 3-phase short circuit on power line V1

Fig.13 Behavior of the synchronous generator after

the short circuit on the line V1 with the failure of

ISBN: 978-1-61804-128-9 51

Advances in Power and Energy Systems

circuit. But this only one is quite relevant to [1] Revkov, D., Eleschov, ., Bel, A.,

compare with other events because in this situation Prechodn javy v elektrizanch sstavch,

there is a special type of substation and an Bratislava, Vydavatestvo STU, 2008, 180 s,

electrically near short circuit will have always more ISBN 978-80-227-2868-3.

significant impact on the dynamic stability of

synchronous generator than other short circuits at [2] Eleschov, ., Bel, A., CCT Basic Criteria

different power system points. of Power System Transient Stability, The 11th

Resulting from the simulations can be stated International Scientific Conference EPE 2010,

that short circuit tripped at fast time (100ms) do not Brno, 2010, pp. 157-161, ISBN 978-80-214-

jeopardise the dynamic stability as significant as the 4094-4.

short circuits tripped at slow time (BFR in case of [3] Eleschov, ., Bel, A., Factors affecting the

this paper 350ms). length of critical clearing time, The 9th

International Scientific Conference Control of

Power System 2010, Tatransk Matliare, 2010,

Table 1 Values of monitored parameters in the pp. 1-7, ISBN 978-8089402-20-5.

simulation of dynamic stability of synchronous [4] Janek, F., Arnold, A., Gorta, Z., Elektrick

generator stanice, Bratislava, Vydavatestvo STU, 2001,

286 s, ISBN 80-227-1630-8.

Voltage at [5] Paar, M., Toman, P., Distribution Network

Active

the Generator Rotor Angle Current

Event Terminals [ ] [kA]

Power Reconfiguration Based on Minimal Power

[MW]

[kV] Losses, The 9th International Scientific

Conference Electric Power Engineering 2008,

Brno, 2008, pp. 211-215, ISBN 978-80-214-

min max min max min max min max 3650- 3.

[6] Orsgov, J., Toman, P., Evaluation of

bus bar Negative Effects of Distributed Generation,

short 5,46 16,46 2,90 44,07 4,5 27,9 6,5 371,7

circuit The Power Quality and Supply Reliability,

Tallin, 2008, pp. 131-135, ISBN 978-1-4244-

3-p short 2500-6.

circuit on

11,42 16,12 12,01 29,70 6,8 12,9 120,2 286,7

power line

V1

3-p short

Acknowledgement

circuit on These publications are the result of implementation

power line

10,16 16,76 3,49 51,34 3,8 18,4 107,9 392,6

of the project: Increase of Power Safety of the

V1 with Slovak Republic (ITMS:26220220077) supported

failure of

QM1 by the Research & Development Operational

Programme funded by the ERDF.

3-p short

circuit on

power line

11,42 16,48 7,90 28,81 6,2 12,9 120,2 296,3

V1 with

failure of

QM2

3-p short

circuit on

power line

This work was done during implementation of the

10,68 16,77 1,40 56,23 3,2 17,5 89,8 401,8 project Effective control of production and

V1 with

failure of consumption of energy from renewable resources,

QM1,QM2

ITMS code 26240220028, supported by the

Research and Development Operational Program

funded by the ERDF.

ISBN: 978-1-61804-128-9 52

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