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# Advances in Power and Energy Systems

## Transient Stability of Synchronous Generator for Selected Events

BORIS CINTULA, ANETA ELESCHOV, ANTON BEL, MARTIN LIKA
Department of Electrical Power Engineering
Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava
Ilkoviova 3, 812 19 Bratislava
SLOVAKIA
boris.cintula@gmail.com, http://www.kee.fei.stuba.sk

Abstract: - The paper deals with the issue of dynamic stability of synchronous generator, in the first part are
described the indicators of dynamic stability and basic principles of the solution. The second part contains the
results of dynamic simulations analysis of selected events which are compared in terms of the significance of
their impact on the synchronous generator dynamic stability.

Key-Words: - Synchronous Generator, Dynamic Stability, Method of Area Equality, Critical Clearing Time,
Short Circuit, Breaker Failure Relay

1 Introduction d 2 0 P
= , (1)
During the power system operation arise a lot of fast dt 2 Tm S n
changes, which can cause a disproportion between 0 nominal angular velocity of generator; Tm
production and consumption of electricity what also mechanical time constant of generator; Sn nominal
means big changes of rotor angles. Fast changes in power of generator.
power system consist for example of switching
operations, source or load outages, but the most For theoretical analysis of dynamic stability
frequently the short circuits, what is associated with using the method of area equality can be used the
step change of impedance of power system. simplified model of power system in Fig.1 and its
Synchronous generators respond to fast changes equivalent scheme in Fig.2. The method of area
in electromechanical swings and during these equality application for transient state (short circuit
swings can generators get into a situation when the on one of the power lines) is shown in Fig.3, curve I
rotor angle stabilises at a new value or the rotor - state before short circuit, II short circuit on the
angle will grow to a loss of synchronism. [1] line, III outage the line after short circuit.
In real operation, each generator complies with The border of dynamic stability (crit) is
condition of static stability. But it is necessary to determined by method of area equality
add that a generator which complies with accelerating and breaking area, what means to
a condition of static stability does not have to comply with a following condition:
comply with dynamic stability. The main difference
S+ < S (2)
between the assessment of static and dynamic
stability is that in static stability is determined the
ability of generator to operate in a steady state and
in dynamic stability is determined and investigated
the impact and course of transient state to
Fig.1 Simplified model of power system for
synchronous generator.
transient stability for examination of generator

## 2 Assessment of Dynamic Stability

For qualitative assessment of the synchronous
generator dynamic stability is used method of area
equality, the solution which is defined the border of Fig.2 Equivalent scheme of simplified model of
the dynamic stability critical angle crit. Further power system
solution of kinetic equation (1) can be provided the
critical clearing time (CCT).

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Advances in Power and Energy Systems

## takes longer than CCT duration, then it is possible to

come to a loss of generator synchronism.
It is possible to determine the CCT duration
by simulation experiment or calculation come out
from the kinetic equation (1)

## t crit (CCT ) = ( crit 0 ),

2M
0 P0
(3)
0 nominal angular velocity of generator; M
mechanical rotor torque of generator; P0 generator
power before short circuit; 0 rotor angle of
generator (by P0); crit critical rotor angle of
Fig.3 Graphic application of method of area
generator.
equality for transient state short circuit on
power line [1]
But this equation is valid only if the power from
generator is during the 3-phase short circuit equal
The most serious failure in terms of dynamic
zero, i.e. it is 3-phase short circuit on the bus bar
stability is 3-phase short circuit. In Fig.4 are shown
where the generator power is connected to. [1]
the power characteristics of 3-phase bus bar short
The time courses of generator rotor angle
circuit.
are in Fig.5, where the tripping is shown at:
1 critical time (CCT),
2 shorter time than CCT
3 longer time than CCT.

## Fig.4 Transient stability assessment for 3-phase

short circuit on the bus bar [2]

## Based on above the dynamic stability of

synchronous generator can be classified into three Fig.5 Time behaviour of generator rotor angle [1]
basic states:
1) if S+ = S - border of dynamic stability
(critical angle value) 2.1 Factors Affecting the Length of CCT
2) if S+ < S - preservation of dynamic stability The factors affecting the CCT duration are:
3) if S+ > S - loss of dynamic stability short circuit power in substation, where the
power from the generator is exported,
value of voltage in substation, where the
3 Critical Clearing Time (CCT) power from the generator is exported,
Critical clearing time (CCT) is important indicator operational condition of generator, i.e.
of dynamic stability and to know its duration is underexcited or overexcited generator. [3]
considered a practical assessment of dynamical
stability of synchronous generator. In Fig.6 is shown the CCT course of the voltage
CCT indicates how long the generator is in the substation, where the generator power is
able to work in 3-phase short circuit at the nearest connected to. In the course it is possible to see that
bus bar where the generator is connected to and the CCT duration strongly depends on operational
after the short circuit preserve in synchronous generator conditions, i.e. if the generator works in
operation. underexcited or overexcited state.
If the short circuit tripping takes shorter In Fig.7 is shown the CCT course of the short
than CCT duration, then the generator is circuit power in the substation, where the generator
dynamically stable. In case the short circuit tripping power is connected to. Point of this course is to

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## show that CCT duration depends on short circuit

power as well, but from figure it is clear is not very 5 Dynamic Simulations of Selected
significant.
Based on the facts above it is necessary to
Events
Simulations of the dynamic stability of synchronous
consider in determining CCT duration with
generator were realised in according to simplified
calculations for overexcited state (Qgen=max),
model of power system in Fig.8.
underexcited state (Qgen=min) and zero reactive
power supply (Qgen=0).

## Fig.8 Model of power system for assessment of

transient stability (G1-Synchronous Generator;
T1-Generator Transformer; BFR-Breaker Failure
Relay; QM-Circuit Breaker; V1-Power Line)
Fig.6 Influence of voltage on CCT duration in
transmission power substation [3] The aim of this part was to simulate and compare
the selected events (events N-1 and N-k), which can
arise in the power system and therefore it is
necessary to consider these events in the analysis of
dynamic stability.
Dynamic simulations were realised in the following
generator operational parameters G1:
Sn = 259MVA, Un=15,8kV,
PG = 221,7MW, QG= 29,9MVAr (overexcited state).

## Dynamic simulations were realised for the following

selected events:
1) bus bar short circuit in substation with three
Fig.7 Influence of short circuit power on CCT circuit breakers per two branches where the
duration in transmission power substation [3] generator power is exported,
2) 3-phase short circuit on power line V1,
3) 3-phase short circuit on power line V1 with
4 Assessment of Dynamic Stability of failure of circuit breaker QM1,
4) 3-phase short circuit on power line V1 with
Power System failure of circuit breaker QM2,
Dynamic stability can be investigated for one 5) 3-phase short circuit on power line V1 with
generator but also for the whole power system. The failure of circuit breakers QM1, QM2.
procedure for the power system assessment of
dynamic stability consists of the CCT determination
for all generators connected to power system. The
most often used method for dynamic stability 5.1 3-phase Busbar Short Circuit in
assessment is dynamic simulations of power system Substation with Three Circuit Breakers per
mathematical model. This way can be also Two Branches
evaluated the dynamic simulations for events N-1, The simulation of dynamic stability was focused on
N-k or break-up points verification. monitoring of generator behavior during the 3-phase
CCT calculations are realised the most in bus bar short circuit in the substation with three
developing of defense plans, connecting new circuit breakers per two branches (Fig.9).
sources, operation preparations and maintenance This substation is characterised by the
states. operational safety (highly strong side), what also
confirm the simulation. The most often, this type of

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substation is used for power export from power breakers per two branches caused a generator
plants. swinging but this failure did not cause a generator
emergency shutdown. The generator stabilised
approximately 10s after the failure at a new balance
value and it is dynamically stable.

## 5.2 3-phase Short Circuit on Power Line V1

The generator G1 behaviour is shown in Fig.11.
From this figure it is clear that the failure caused a
swinging but still remained in operation and it is
dynamically stable. Generator stabilised at a new
Fig.9 Substation with three circuit breakers per balance value approximately 9s after the failure.
two branches [4]

## The simulation of the dynamic stability was

modelled for the 3-phase short circuit arising on bus
bar W2 when both bus bars are in operation at time
of short circuit.
Differential bus bar protection on W2
responds on this failure and sends trip commands to
the circuit breakers QM13 and QM23, which are
disconnected at time 100ms after the failure and the Fig.11 Behavior of the synchronous generator after
substation remains in continuous operation. the short circuit on the line V1 (vt-voltage at the
Ability to remain in continuous operation after generator terminals; ang-rotor angle, efd-
3-phase bus bar short circuit is the highly strong electromotive voltage; it-current; pg-active power;
side of this type of substation in comparison with spd-frequency)
other classical substation with single bus bar. In
case of 3-phase bus bar short circuit in substation
with single bus bar for power export from power 5.3 3-phase Short Circuit on Power Line V1
plant has to be the generator emergency shutdown. with Failure of Circuit Breaker QM1
It is necessary to add that despite generator The next modelled situation was the 3-phase short
maintaining continuous operation, this failure has a circuit on the line V1 with the failure of circuit
significant impact on the dynamic stability. The breaker QM1.
generator behavior under the given operational The line is protected by distance protection in
parameters and modeled event (at the time until 10s protection zone where the short circuit arose.
after the failure) is shown in Fig.10. Distance protection responded on this failure and
sent the trip commands to the circuit breakers at the
beginning and the end of the line (QM1, QM2). The
circuit breaker QM2 tripped the line until 100ms,
but the circuit breaker QM1 failed. In case of circuit
breaker failure on the line the nearest BFR (Breaker
Failure Relay) responds to this failure.
BFR is installed in every substation and its
tripping time is longer than the circuit breaker
tripping time, i.e. more than 100ms.
Fig.10 Behavior of the synchronous generator after In this modelled situation was the BFR
the bus bar short circuit in the substation with 1,5 tripping time set for 350ms (where is included
circuit breaker for a branch (vt-voltage at the circuit breaker tripping time 100ms and BFR
generator terminals; ang-rotor angle, efd- setting time 250ms).
electromotive voltage; it-current; pg-active power; BFR1 responded to the circuit breaker failure
spd-frequency) at time 350ms after the short circuit and sent the trip
commands to circuit breakers on all bus bar
In Fig.10 it can be seen that the 3-phase bus branches.
bar short circuit in substation with three circuit

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Synchronous generator response to this event circuit breaker QM2 (vt-voltage at the generator
is shown in Fig.12, where it can be seen the terminals; ang-rotor angle, efd-electromotive
generator stabilisation at new balance value after the voltage; it-current; pg-active power; spd-frequency)
swinging approximately until 11s after the short
circuit. Generator is dynamically stable.
5.5 3-phase Short Circuit on Power Line V1
with Failure of Circuit Breakers QM1, QM2
The simulation of dynamic stability was focused on
monitoring of generator behavior during the 3-phase
bus bar short circuit in the substation with three
circuit breakers per two branches (Fig.9).
The circuit breaker failure on both sides of the line
belongs among very low probability events but the
dynamic simulations have to be verified anyway.
Fig.12 Behavior of the synchronous generator after
Short circuit arose on the line V1; the distance
the short circuit on the line V1 with the failure of
protection responded and sent the trip commands to
circuit breaker QM1 (vt-voltage at the generator
the circuit breakers on both sides of the line (QM1,
terminals; ang-rotor angle, efd-electromotive
QM2) which failed. Therefore, the BFR responded
voltage; it-current; pg-active power; spd-frequency)
on both sides of the line at time 350ms and all
branches of both bus bars were tripped.
The generator swung after both BFR
5.4 3-phase Short Circuit on Power Line V1 responding the most and stabilised at a new balance
with Failure of Circuit Breaker QM2 value until 11s, i.e. generator is dynamically stable
The next modelled situation was the 3-phase short and even this event did not cause a loss of
circuit on the line V1 with the failure of circuit synchronism (Fig.14).
breaker QM2. At first sight, it is a similar situation
as the one above, but in fact it is significantly
different situation because the power system model
(Fig.8) is interconnected system what means that the
tripping times change will also strongly change an
impact on the dynamic stability of the generator.
Finally, the simulation confirms this fact.
Equally as the situation above, the line is
protected by distance protections. The short circuit
arose in the protected zone of distance protection on Fig.14 Behavior of the synchronous generator after
the line V1. The distance protection sent the trip the short circuit on the line V1 with the failure of
commands to the circuit breakers at the beginning circuit breakers QM1 and QM2 (vt-voltage at the
and the end of the line (QM1 and QM2). The circuit generator terminals; ang-rotor angle, efd-
breaker QM1 tripped the line until 100ms, but the electromotive voltage; it-current; pg-active power;
circuit breaker QM2 failed. Subsequently, the BFR2 spd-frequency)
responds to the circuit breaker QM2 failure and trips
all bus bar branches at time 350ms.
The generator (Fig.13) is after the BFR 6 Conclusion
responding swung again but until 9s is stabilised at a The simulated events in this paper can be sorted in
new balance value, i.e. it is dynamically stable. terms of the significance of their impact on the
dynamic stability of synchronous generator from the
most affecting as follows:
1. 3-phase short circuit on power line V1 with
failure of circuit breakers QM1, QM2
2. 3-phase short circuit on power line V1 with
failure of circuit breaker QM1
3. 3-phase short circuit on power line V1 with
failure of circuit breaker QM2
4. 3-phase short circuit on power line V1
Fig.13 Behavior of the synchronous generator after
the short circuit on the line V1 with the failure of

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## One of all simulated events is the bus bar short References:

circuit. But this only one is quite relevant to [1] Revkov, D., Eleschov, ., Bel, A.,
compare with other events because in this situation Prechodn javy v elektrizanch sstavch,
there is a special type of substation and an Bratislava, Vydavatestvo STU, 2008, 180 s,
electrically near short circuit will have always more ISBN 978-80-227-2868-3.
significant impact on the dynamic stability of
synchronous generator than other short circuits at [2] Eleschov, ., Bel, A., CCT Basic Criteria
different power system points. of Power System Transient Stability, The 11th
Resulting from the simulations can be stated International Scientific Conference EPE 2010,
that short circuit tripped at fast time (100ms) do not Brno, 2010, pp. 157-161, ISBN 978-80-214-
jeopardise the dynamic stability as significant as the 4094-4.
short circuits tripped at slow time (BFR in case of [3] Eleschov, ., Bel, A., Factors affecting the
this paper 350ms). length of critical clearing time, The 9th
International Scientific Conference Control of
Power System 2010, Tatransk Matliare, 2010,
Table 1 Values of monitored parameters in the pp. 1-7, ISBN 978-8089402-20-5.
simulation of dynamic stability of synchronous [4] Janek, F., Arnold, A., Gorta, Z., Elektrick
generator stanice, Bratislava, Vydavatestvo STU, 2001,
286 s, ISBN 80-227-1630-8.
Voltage at [5] Paar, M., Toman, P., Distribution Network
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the Generator Rotor Angle Current
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min max min max min max min max 3650- 3.
[6] Orsgov, J., Toman, P., Evaluation of
bus bar Negative Effects of Distributed Generation,
short 5,46 16,46 2,90 44,07 4,5 27,9 6,5 371,7
circuit The Power Quality and Supply Reliability,
Tallin, 2008, pp. 131-135, ISBN 978-1-4244-
3-p short 2500-6.
circuit on
11,42 16,12 12,01 29,70 6,8 12,9 120,2 286,7
power line
V1

3-p short
Acknowledgement
circuit on These publications are the result of implementation
power line
10,16 16,76 3,49 51,34 3,8 18,4 107,9 392,6
of the project: Increase of Power Safety of the
V1 with Slovak Republic (ITMS:26220220077) supported
failure of
QM1 by the Research & Development Operational
Programme funded by the ERDF.
3-p short
circuit on
power line
11,42 16,48 7,90 28,81 6,2 12,9 120,2 296,3
V1 with
failure of
QM2

3-p short
circuit on
power line
This work was done during implementation of the
10,68 16,77 1,40 56,23 3,2 17,5 89,8 401,8 project Effective control of production and
V1 with
failure of consumption of energy from renewable resources,
QM1,QM2
ITMS code 26240220028, supported by the
Research and Development Operational Program
funded by the ERDF.

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