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11, NOVEMBER 1989 1345

An Impedance-Matching Technique for Increasing

the Bandwidth of Microstrip Antennas

Abshnct-The nature of the inherent narrow bandwidth of conven- antennas [9], [lo]. The method is unique in that it does not
tional microstrip patch antennas is considered. It is observed that, except alter the radiating element itself. Instead, a reactive matching
for single-feed circularly polarized elements, their bandwidth is limited
only by the resonant behavior of the input impedance and not by radia-
network is added to compensate for the rapid frequency vari-
tion pattern or gain variations, which usually are negligible over a mod- ations of the input impedance. The validity of the technique is
erate 10 to 20 percent bandwidth. Therefore, broad-band impedance- based upon the relative frequency insensitivity of the radiation
matching is proposed as a natural solution to increase the bandwidth. pattern and gain characteristics as compared to the resonant
The maximum obtainable bandwidth is calculated using Fanos broad- behavior of the input impedance. This is explained in Section
band matching theory. It is found that by using an optimally designed
impedance-matching network, the bandwidth can be increased by a fac-
11. In Section 111, both the normally obtained bandwidth and
tor of at least 3.9, the exact value depending OD the degree of matching the bandwidth that can be obtained using broad-band match-
required. In view of practical realizations, a transmission-line proto- ing, are calculated. Dividing the latter quantity by the former
type for a proper matching network is developed. Attention is paid to one, a bandwidth-enlargement factor is found which depends
the translation of this prototype network into a practical structure (e.g. only on the bandwidth criterion expressed as a maximum al-
a microstrip or stripline circuit). Practical design examples along with
lowable voltage standing-wave ratio (VSWR). In Section IV, a
experimental results are given which clearly show the validity of the
technique. transmission-line matching-network prototype is derived that
can serve as a basis for practical designs. A complete de-
sign procedure for an impedance-matched microstrip antenna
is outlined in Section V. It is indicated that because of ap-

M ICROSTRIP ANTENNAS have many interesting prop-

erties (e.g., low profile, light weight, cheapness), but
their application in many systems is impeded by their in-
proximations in both the derivation of the prototype and the
translation of this prototype to a practical structure, good final
designs can be obtained only if proper use is made of com-
herent narrow bandwidth [l]. Many elements with enhanced puter simulation and optimization. Finally, in Section VI, two
bandwidth have already been investigated; e.g., electrically practical design examples are described. Both concern S-band
thick elements [2], stacked multipatch, multilayer elements [3], microstrip antenna elements: a single substrate rectangular el-
multiple-resonator elements [4], [5]. All these wider band el- ement with a coplanar microstrip matching network, and a
ements, however, are characterized by increased complexity square multilayer element with a stripline matching network.
and/or enlarged size of the radiating structure. Mostly, their
increased impedance bandwidth is also paid for by poorer II. FREQUENCY
radiation characteristics. For example, multiple-resonator el- An experimental investigation of the frequency depen-
ements [4], [5] exhibit frequency-dependent array effects that dence of the operational characteristics of common microstrip
disturb, more or less, the radiation pattern. Increasing the patch antennas clearly shows that the impedance variations
substrate thickness 121, [3], causes increased excitation of are the dominant bandwidth-limiting factor, whereas the gain
substrate waves [6]. Apart from lowering the radiation ef- (=directivity x radiation efficiency) and radiation pattern vari-
ficiency, these substrate waves diffract at the substrate edges ations are almost negligible over a moderate 10 to 20 percent
and deteriorate the quality of the radiation pattern. Although bandwidth. This behavior can be explained easily using the
the excitation of substrate waves can be largely avoided by us- theory of modal expansion in cavities [111 as applied in mi-
ing substrate materials with very low dielectric constant (i.e., crostrip antenna cavity analysis models [121. According to
er x l), the application of electrically thick antennas only be- these models, the total input impedance can be written as
comes feasible if proper feeding techniques can be developed a sum of modal impedances where each modal impedance
[11,[31, ~71. behaves as a parallel-resonant circuit. In the same way, the
In this paper, broad-band impedance-matching [8] is pro- total radiation field can be written as a vector sum of modal
posed as a method for bandwidth enhancement of microstrip radiation fields where each modal field is given as the prod-
uct of a nearly frequency independent normalized pattern and
Manuscript received October 9, 1987; revised March 24, 1988. a frequency dependent scalar excitation coefficient. Thus, it
H.F. Pues is with Emerson & Cuming Europe N.V., Nijverheidsstraat 7, follows that in all cases where only one dominant mode is ex-
2431 Westerlo, Belgium.
A. R. Van de Capelle is with the Department of Elektrotechniek, Afd.
cited, the input impedance will behave as a parallel-resonant
Microgolven and Lasers, B-3030 Leuven-Heverlee, Belgium. circuit, whereas the (relative) radiation pattern will show al-
IEEE Log Number 8929284. most no frequency variation. Because the operation of single-

0018-926X/89/1100-1345$01.00 O 1989 IEEE


feed circularly polarized (SFCP) microstrip antennas [121,

[13] is based upon the simultaneous excitation of two orthog-
onal modes, the above does not apply for SFCP elements. But
in nearly all other cases, there will exist a band of some 10 to
20 percent, where the excitation level of higher order modes is
negligible, and the impedance is the only bandwidth-limiting
factor. This even applies to microwave scanning arrays [14]. feed l i n e r e a c t i v e matching r a d i a t i n g element
FACTOR Fig. 1. Principle of broad-band matching.
In the vicinity of its fundamental resonant frequency, the
Note, however, that, in order to maximize B,it would be best
input impedance of a microstrip antenna can be modeled by
to take T = Topt# 1 where
either a series-resonant or a parallel-resonant RLC circuit.
Indeed, it suffices to choose a proper reference plane on the
feed line (preferably as close as possible to the element) or
to devise some very simple impedance-transforming circuit,
Topt= I
2 (S + i).
for such a behavior to occur in a more or less approximate The application of (8) turns out to be the most elementary form
fashion. So, assuming an exp (jut)time dependence, the input of broad-band impedance-matching (case n = 1 as explained
impedance can be written as either below).
It is evident that the above-calculated bandwidth (7) can
be increased, at least in principle, by using an impedance-
matching network, as shown in Fig. 1. Ideally, this network
in the series-resonant case, or as would transform the frequency-dependent complex antenna
RO impedance Zi, to a pure real resistance ZO over as large a
zi, = ~

1 +jQu bandwidth as required. However, there appear to exist some

in the parallel-resonant case. In these equations Ro is the res- theoretical limitations on such a transformation which are im-
posed by nature itself [8]. Indeed, it is impossible to realize a
onant resistance, Q is the quality factor and
perfect match over a continuous band of frequencies by means
of a purely reactive (i.e., linear, passive and lossless) network.
(3) The best one can do is to realize a constant (but not perfect)
Jr J
match within the band of operation and a total mismatch out-
where f is the frequency variable and f r the resonant fre- side this band. In that way, one can either optimize the degree
quency. If the feed line has a characteristic impedance Zo, of matching if the bandwidth is given a priori, or maximize
the input VSWR is given by the bandwidth if the degree of matching (e.g., VSWR 5 S)
is given. The maximum VSWR = S bandwidth obtainable
(4) for a series- or parallel-resonant circuit, can be calculated in
a straightforward manner using Fano's theory 181, 1151. The
If the bandwidth criterion is taken to be VSWR 5 S, and f, result is given by
and f2 are the lower and upper band edge frequencies, respec-
tively, so that VSWRCfl) = VSWR(j.2) = S , the bandwidth
is given by
This equation expresses that the maximum realizable band-
width is inversely proportional to both the element quality
factor and the specified return loss (expressed in dB).
It follows from (1)-(5) that Because (9) represents the optimum that is theoreti-
cally achievable using broad-band matching and (7) gives
the normally obtained bandwidth, the maximum bandwidth-
enlargement factor is found by dividing both quantities:
where T = ZO/ROin the series-resonant case, and T = Ro/Zo
in the parallel-resonant case. Because, normdy, an antenna
is designed to be perfectly matched at its resonant frequency
(e.g., by properly locating the position of a coxial feed probe Fig. 2 shows this factor which only depends on S and has a
or by using a quarter-wavelength transformer), T normally minimum value of 3.90 for S = 2.64.
equals unity. Equation (6) then reduces to the well-known ex-
pression [121 IV. ~ N S M I S S I O N - LMATCHING-NETWORK
For increasing the bandwidth by impedance matching, a
proper matching network has to be designed. In this sec-
tion, a transmission-line matching-network consisting of half-

Fig. 4. Intermediate matching-network prototype consisting of open-

circuited transmission-line stubs and admittance inverters (series-resonant

and fLp is the low-pass frequency variable. By this frequency

transformation, parallel-C elements are transformed into par-
J1 1 allel open-circuited half-wavelength stubs and series-L ele-
s- ments into series short-circuited half-wavelength stubs. Be-
Fig. 2. Bandwidth-enlargement factor versus specified VSWR cause the latter are not physically realizable, they are removed
from the matching network by using admittance inverters J
characterized by their Y-matrix
% ,
Zc 1 I
(a) (b) In this way, the intermediate matching-network of Fig. 4 is
Fig. 3. Transmission-line models for antenna impedance. (a) Parallel- obtained in the series-resonant case, and a similar one (con-
resonant case. @) Series-resonant case.
taining an additional inverter J12) in the parallel-resonant case.
The transmission-line resonant models of Fig. 3 are almost
wavelength open-circuited stubs and quarter-wavelength inter- equivalent (at least over a moderate bandwidth) to the lumped-
connecting lines, is derived that is useful as a prototype for element RLC-circuits used in Section I11 (using f L p = V / B
practical realizations at microwave frequencies. This proto- instead of (1 1) would have yielded these). Their quality factor
type has enough degrees of freedom to ensure practical real- is given by
izability in microstrip or stripline, if the design bandwidth is
not less than about 4 percent. It is clear that other prototypes
could be devised depending on the desired practical realization
form of the matching network (e. g ., quasi-lumped-element
in the parallel-resonant case (Fig. 3(a)), and
prototypes for MMIC realizations or coupled-transmission-
line prorotypes for compact interdigital realizations), but such
other prototypes are not considered in this paper (except for
some short references to lumped-element approaches in this
and the following section). in the series-resonant case (Fig. 3(b)).
In general, the design of a broad-band matching network With respect to Figs. 3 and 4, it can be observed that all line
is a difficult network synthesis problem. Therefore, published sections are a half-wavelength long at the resonant frequency
results are used as much as possible in the present derivation. f r , Ro is the resonant antenna resistance, Yci(Zci) is the
Particularly, the modified Chebyshev equal-ripple character- characteristic admittance (impedance) of the ith transmission-
istic as proposed by Fano [8], is adopted. In [16], normalized line resonator, Jij+l is the admittance inverter between res-
low-pass prototype element values for an LC-ladder circuit onators i and i + 1,Jn,,,+1 is a final impedance-scaling admit-
having this characteristic, are given for the case of either a tance inverter, and 2 0 is the (real) system impedance (usually
parallel-RC or a series-RL load. These normalized design pa- 50 0). It can be seen that the first resonator (i = 1) be-
rameters (called gi -parameters) are used below to synthesize longs to the antenna model itself, whereas the following ones
the present prototype. (i = 2 , 3, . . . ,n) belong to the matching network. If one re-
The parallel-RC or series-RL loads of the low-pass proto- stricts the antenna model to the patch element proper so it does
type are transformed to the band-pass resonant models of Fig. not include a possible feed probe inductance, the latter can be
3 by setting included in the i = 2 resonator [7], [17], [18], as discussed
in Section V.
The different network parameters Yci and J i j + l must satisfy
the following:
where I

t tan ( ; B ) (parallel-resonant case) (16)


microstrip antenna element. First, the antenna impedance is

made to be resonant at the center frequency of the band, as
explained in Section 111. Then, the antenna model parame-
ters f ?, Ro, and Q are determined. This has to be done very
carefully, by preference trough accurate measurements, be-
cause most analysis models are not accurate enough for this
Fig. 5 . Final transmission-lineprototype for broad-band matching network purpose [ 151.
(series-resonantcase). Once the antenna parameters are known, the order n and the
bandwidth B (if not given a priori) are to be determined. Us-
ing (20) and [161, a deliberate choice can be made. The choice
yC2= (series-resonant case) (17) of n typically reflects a trade-off between increased bandwidth
and/or degree of matching (the larger n , the nearer the opti-
mum (9) will be approached) on the one hand and increased
complexity (the network will become larger and lossier) on
the other. Typical values for n are 2, 3, or 4. The case n = 1
is trivial and has been dealt with in Section I11 (8). The ap-
proaches of [7] and [17] could be described as n = 1.5 (feed
probe inductance resonated by series capacitor at center fre-
quency without first optimizing the inductance value) whereas
The g;-parameters are found from [16], and are a function of [ 181 gives a real n = 2 lumped-element approach.
the order of the network n (to be chosen by the designer) and Knowing n and 6, the g;-parameters (i = 2, 3, . . . ,n ) are
the decrement found from [16]. The parameters of the intermediate proto-
7r type (Fig. 4) then follow from (16) or (17), (18) and (19).
A=- (20) Subsequently, the parameters of the final prototype are de-
rived from (21)-(23). In this process, there are 2n - 3 de-
Observe that, by definition, go = 1 and g l = 1/6. grees of freedom in the series-resonant case and 2n - 2 in the
To obtain a prototype that is practically realizable, the ad- parallel-resonant case. One could, for example, choose freely
mittance inverters are replaced by quarter-wavelength lines. the Yc;-parameters (except Yc2 in the series-resonant case)
Furthermore, to increase the number of degrees of free- and the a;-parameters. By making these choices in a delib-
dom, the half-wavelength stubs are splitted up in two quarter- erate fashion, it is normally possible to obtain a practically
wavelength sections with different characteristic impedances. realizable prototype, i.e., a prototype that, when translated to
In this way, the final prototype is obtained which is depicted in a physical lay-out, yields line widths that are neither too wide
Fig. 5 for the series-resonant case. For the networks of Fig. nor too narrow.
4 and Fig. 5 (series-resonant case) and their corresponding The final step of translating the prototype to a practical
ones (parallel-resonant case) to be approximately equivalent, circuit is a very critical one. Indeed, for getting good re-
the following equations have to be satisfied for i = 2, 3, . . . ,n sults, it is absolutely essential that the effects of discontinuities
[15]: (such as open ends, steps and T-junctions) are compensated.
Therefore, to avoid lengthy trial-and-error tuning procedures,
y Y + l = J ; j + l cos (:B) the application of computer simulation and optimization tech-
niques is highly desirable. This also allows to compensate for
the different approximations in the design of the prototype it-
self, i.e., the use of approximate transmission-line models for
the antenna impedance (Fig. 3) and the approximation of the
intermediate prototype (Fig. 4) by the final prototype (Fig.

r =tan (:B) A . Single-Substrate Impedance-Matched

Rectangular Antenna
and the ai-parameters can be freely chosen. In the parallel- The first design example concerns an integrated impedance-
resonant case, (21) also applies for i = 1, and in the series-
matched antenna consisting of a rectangular microstrip antenna
and a coplanar microstrip impedance-matching network. The
resonant case, the first term between the inner parentheses in
(22) vanishes for i = 2. whole structure is laid out on top of a 20 cm x 15 cm x 1.6 mm
RT/duroid 5880 substrate (er = 2.20), as shown in Fig. 6. A
V. DESIGN PROCEDURE FOR AN IMPEDANCE-MATCHED ANTENNA similar antenna with a shielded-microstrip matching network
This section summarizes the complete procedure for de- (where the shield height was tuned to optimize the network
signing a broad-band impedance-matching network for a given response), has been described elswehere [lo], [ 191.

Fig. 6 . Layout of rectangular impedance-matched antenna (antenna #l). Fig. 7. Layout of reference antenna (antenna #2).

The following antenna parameters, calculated from an im- Si1 L M l o g MAG

REF 0 . 0 dB
proved transmission-line model [20], were used in the present 2 . 5 dB/
design: fr = 3.027 GHz, Ro = 48.88 R and Q = 22.64
(parallel-resonant case). The design of the circuit was based
on the following choices: n = 3, B = 10 percent, Z:3 = 130
R, Yc2 = Yc3, and a2 = a3 = 1 . With Z O = 50 51, this
yielded: 2: = 65.72 R, Z:4 = 72.28 R, ZL2 = 2: = 25.78
R and ZL3 = Z f 3 = 25.33 R. When translating these values
to the microstrip circuit shown in Fig. 6, both the i = 2 and
i = 3 resonators were realized as two parallel identical stubs
in order to reduce their line width.
To be able to judge the performance of this impedance-
matched antenna properly, a reference antenna (Fig. 7) has
been built in the same process (a piece of substrate cut from
the same sheet was used). This reference antenna is completely
identical to the impedance-matched antenna except that the V

matching network is replaced by a simple 50 R microstrip line.

Note that the calculated edge-fed impedance of the antenna el-
ement (i.e., 48.88 51) is very nearly equal to 50 R. Hence, START 2.600000000 GHz
STCP 3.600000800 R l z
the reference antenna should be well matched at f = fr. Fig.
Fig. 8. Return loss versus frequency of antennas #1 and #2.
8 shows the return loss of both antennas. The reference an-
tenna has its best match at 3.025 GHz (-21.5 dB) and has
a higher order mode dip at 3.424 GHz. This higher order fr, the mismatch loss of antenna #1 (impedance-matched an-
mode dip is very much suppressed by the matching network tenna) within its band of operation is less than that of antenna
as shown by the other curve. Within the band of operation, #2 (reference antenna). However, because the matching net-
the impedance-matched antenna has its worst match at 3.035 work will inevitably be somewhat lossy, one could ask if the
GHz (-8.8 dB). It can be seen, that the bandwidth at this decrease of the mismatch loss is not annihilated by the increase
level (S = 2.14) has been increased by a factor of 3.2 to of the dissipation loss. That this is not the case, is demon-
a value of 275 MHz or 9.1 percent, whereas the theoreti- strated by Fig. 9 which shows the transmission performance
cal maximum bandwidth-enlargement factor for this degree of both antennas. Particularly, a radiation link was established
of matching equals 4.0 (Fig. 2). between a standard gain horn on the one side and antenna #1
It is clear from Fig. 8 that, except in a small band around _ _ &2
or _ the
,, - on . ~other.
. ~ ~ . The figure shows the transmission co-
~~~~ --U

Sal 8 M l o g MAG
REF - 2 8 . 0 dB
2 . 0 dB/

START 2.600000000 GHz

STOP 3.400000000 GHz
Fig. 9. Transmission characteristic versus frequency of antennas #1 and

+ +
Cu - C l a d

Fig. 10 Multdayer impedance-matched antenna (antenna #3).

efficient measured in these two cases. This characteristic is They do not show any appreciable difference, which proves
almost proportional to the realized gain. It follows that an- that the matching network, although it is coplanar with the
tenna #1 is a more efficient radiator over the 2.832 - 2.988 patch, does not affect the radiation characteristics. It is to be
GHz band and the 3.055 - 3.174 GHz band, whereas antenna observed, however, that only copolar patterns were measured.
#2 is more efficient in between. The maximum difference
in this center band equals 0.61 dB and occurs at 3.026 GHz B . Multilayer Impedance-Matched Square Antenna
(i.e., the frequency of best match of antenna #2). The second design example concerns a multilayer square
Concerning radiation patterns, E- and H-plane cuts for both microstrip antenna with a stripline matching network situ-
antennas have been measured at 2.9, 3.0, and 3.1 GHz [15]. ated underneath the antenna ground plane. A similar antenna

521 B M l o g MAG
REF - 2 5 . 0 dB
2 . 5 dB/
v - 2 9 . 4 8 dB

START 2.800000000 GHz
STOP 3.800000000 GHz
Fig. 12. Transmission characteristic of antenna #3 and standard gain horn (antenna #4).

with an underneath microstrip matching network has been de- aided simulation and optimization, adjustments were made to
scribed elsewhere [2 l]. compensate for the different approximations. The measured
The present antenna is shown in Fig. 10. It is a sandwich return loss diagram is shown in Fig. 11. Considering the
structure consisting of (from top to bottom) a 0.5 mm Cu-Clad -16.44 dB (or S = 1.35) level, which is the maximum level
217 substrate bearing the antenna patch, a 6.4 mm Eccofoam in the band of operation, a bandwidth of 324 MHz or 9.9
PP-2 layer, a first metal ground plate (the antenna ground percent is obtained. Using (7) and (15), the unmatched an-
plane), two 1.6 mm Cu-Clad 217 substrate layers bearing the tenna is found to have a bandwidth of only 4.2 percent at
stripline matching netwbrk, and a second bottom ground plate this level. Observe also that a better match than -14 dE3 is
onto which an OSM 203-1 stripline connector is attached. obtained within the design bandwidth of 12 percent.
The overall dimensions (apart from the connector and four The transmission performance is illustrated in Fig. 12.
connecting screws) are 70 mm x 70 mm x 14 mm. This figure shows the transmission coefficient between a
The antenna model parameters were fr = 3.28 GHz, log-periodic dipole array antenna on the one side and the
RO = 33.3 R and Z,1 = 151.5 R (series-resonant case). impedance-matched antenna or a standard gain horn (Narda
Choosing n = 2, b = 12 percent, a2 = 0.3 and Z O = 50 R, Model 644)on the other side. It follows that the realized gain
the design was carried out straightforwardly. Using computer- is about 8 dB over a bandwidth of 12 percent. This high gain

, dB


-10 dB

Fig. 13. (a) Measured radiation patterns at 3.100 GHz of antenna #3. (b) Measured radiation patterns at 3.300 GHz of antenna #3.
(c) Measured radiation patterns at 3.500 GHz of antenna #3.

Fig. 13. (Continued.)

value for a single square element is partly due to the delib- of an arbitrarily shaped microstrip patch antenna, ZEEE Trans. An-
erate choice of the horizontal dimensions (70 mm x 70 mm). tennas Propagat., vol. AP-34, pp. 1181-1188, Oct. 1986.
K. S. Fong, H. F. Pues, and M. J. Withers, Wideband multilayer
Mounted on a large ground plane, the gain would be some- coaxial-fed microstrip antenna element, Elactron. Lett., vol. 21, pp.
what less. 497-499, May 23, 1985.
Finally, Fig. 13 shows the E- and H-plane CO-and cross- R. M. Fano, Theoretical limitations on the broadband matching of ar-
bitrary impedances, J. Franklin Inst., vol. 249, nos. 1-2, pp. 57-83
polar patterns at 3.1, 3.3, and 3.5 GHz. These patterns do and 139-154, Jan.-Feb. 1950.
not show any significant change within the band of operation. H. F. Pues and A. R. Van de Capelle, Impedance-matching of mi-
crostrip resonator antennas, in URSZ North Amer. Radio Sci. Meet.
Dig., Quebec, June 1980, p. 189.
VII. CONCLUSION Broad-band microstrip antenna, U.S. Patent 4445 122, Apr. 24,
In this paper, broad-band impedance matching has been 1984.
R. F. Harrington, Time-Harmonic Electromagnetic Fields. New
proposed as a powerful technique to increase the bandwidth of York: McGraw-Hill, 1961, pp. 431-440.
microstrip antennas. The theoretical limitations have been de- K. R. Carver and J. W. Mink, Microstrip antenna technology, ZEEE
scribed and a practical design method for the required match- Trans. Antennas Propagat., vol. AP-29, pp. 2-24, Jan. 1981.
P. C. Sharma and K. C. Gupta, Analysis and optimized design of
ing networks has been outlined. The validity of this design pro- single feed circularly polarized microstrip antennas, ZEEE Trans.
cedure has been illustrated by two representative design exam- Antennas Propagat., vol. AP-31, pp. 949-955, Nov. 1983.
ples. However, it should be stressed that impedance-matching J. S. Lee and W. J. Furlong, An extremely lightweight fuselage-
integrated phased array for airborne applications, ZEEE Trans. An-
is a very general technique and that many other design proce- tennas Propagat., vol. AP-29, pp. 178-182, Jan. 1981.
dures and realization forms could be devised, which possibly H. F. Pues, Study of the bandwidth of microwave integrated antennas:
could yield better results. Development of design models for wideband microstrip antennas (in
Dutch), Ph.D. dissertation, Microwaves and Lasers Div., Catholic
Univ. Louvain, Louvain, Belgium, 1983.
G. L. Matthaei, L. Young, and E. M. T. Jones, Microwave Filters,
[l] D. M. Pozar, An update on microstrip antenna theory and design Impedance-Matching Networks, and Coupling Structures. New
including some novel feeding techniques, ZEEE Antennas Propagat. York: McGraw-Hill, 1964, sec. 4.09-4.10.
Soc.Newsletter, vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 5-9, Oct. 1986. J. M. Griffin and J. R. Forrest, Broadband circular disc microstrip
[2] E. Chang, S. A. Long, and W. F. Richards, An experimental inves- antenna, Electron. Lett., vol. 18, pp. 266-269, Mar. 18, 1982.
tigation of electrically thick rectangular microstrip antennas, ZEEE D. A. Paschen, Practical examples of integral broadband matching of
Trans. Antennas Propagat., vol. AP-34, pp. 767-772, June 1986. microstrip antenna elements, in Proc. 1986 Antenna Appl. Symp.,
[3] C. H. Chen, A. Tulintseff, and R. M. Sorbello, Broadband two-layer Monticello, IL, Sept. 17-19, 1986.
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Dig., 1984, pp. 251-254. microstrip resonator antennas, in Inst. Elec. Eng. Conf. Pub. 195
141 G. Kumar and K. C. Gupta, Directly coupled multiple resonator (Antennas and Propagation), pt. 1, pp. 402-405, Apr. 1981.
wideband microstrip antennas, ZEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., -, Accurate transmission-line model for the rectangular microstrip
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[5] H. Pues, J. Bogaers, R. Pieck, and A. Van de Capelle, Wideband 1984.
quasi-log-periodic microstrip antenna, Inst. Elec. Eng. P m . , vol. H. Pues, A. Van Kauteren, J. Vercruysse, and A. Van de Capelle,
128, pt. H, pp. 159-163, June 1981. Broadband microstrip radar antenna element, in Proc. Znt. Conf.
[6] A. K. Bhattacharyya and R. Garg, Effect of substrate on the efficiency Radar, Paris, May 1984, pp. 298-303.

Hugo F. Pues (S76-M82) was born in Leuven, Antoine R. Van de Capelle (S70-M84) was born
Belgium, on May 2, 1954. He received the degrees in Nazareth, Belgium, in 1946. He received the
of Electromechanical Engineer in 1977 and Doctor M.Sc., Ph.D., and Special Doctors degrees from
in Applied Sciences in 1983, both from the Katho- the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven in 1970, 1973,
lieke Universiteit Leuven. and 1979, respectively
His doctoral research focused on bandwidth- In 1970 he joined the Department of Electrical
enhancement techniques for microstrip antennas. In Engineering of the K. U. Leuven, where he is now
1983-1984, he worked for ERA Technology Ltd., a Professor. In 1974 he established a research group
Leatherhead, UK, in the field of antenna design and on antennas, which for the past 15 years has been
numerical analysis of electromagnetic problems. He concentrating on microstrip antennas. The groups
then returned to the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven current research programs involve radio communi-
where he was involved in research work on microstrip antennas and circuits, cation systems with projects on maritime satellite terminals, antenna mea-
nucrowave power applications and numerical analysis. Since January 1987, surement techniques, propagation on high-frequency communication links,
he has worked for Grace N.V., (formerly Emerson & Cuming Europe N.V ), S.S.R.-radar systems and mobile telephone systems. As a Professor at the K.
Westerlo, Belgium, where he is now the R & D manager of the Microwave U. Leuven, he teaches courses on telecommunication systems and antennas
Product Line with interests mainly directed towards computer-aided measure- and propagation.
ment and design of advanced absorbing materials.