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Units of Measurement and Payment for Civil Works

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CONSTRUCTION WORKS

The cost of construction project highly depends on the requirements of

labour for various activities during construction. There are direct and

indirect costs associated with the labour. They are the salary of labours,

their accommodation, food, insurance cost etc. Thus it is essential to

understand the number labours required for each activity of the

construction to estimate the final cost of project.

There are different types of labours that are required for the

construction:

Skilled labours

Semi-skilled labours

Unskilled labours

All these types of labours have different skills and different salaries. Their

optimum use in every work in construction is essential to minimize the

construction cost.

various civil engineering/building/construction works:

S. Recomme

Description of work Unit Labour

No. in days.

(hard/dense soil),depth up to 1.5m

and removal (up to one meter from Labour 0.62

edge)

loose soil),for foundations not

exceeding 1.5m in width and for Mate 0.05

2) shafts, wells, cesspits and the like, M3

depth up to 1.5m and removal(up

to one meter away from edge)

ramming of excavated earth in

3) layers not exceeding 20 cm in M3 Labour 0.25

depth, watering, well ramming and

leveling, lead up to 50m Bhisti 0.02

Labour

0.50

Concrete : Bhisti

0.10

Mixing by machine (mixer) at

4) M3

banker, cement concrete (with Mixer

0.07

20mm graded coarse aggregate) operator

0.07

Mixer

mason

0.10

Labour

1.63

bhisti

0.70

5) Mixer mixed cement concrete M3

mixer

0.07

operator

0.07

mixer

0.07

vibrator

mason

0.17

2.00

situ in foundations, footings, bases

bhisti

for columns, etc excluding form 0.90

6) work and reinforcement. (The M3

mixer

constants for items include mixing, 0.07

operator

pouring, consolidating and curing.

0.07

This does not include fair finish.) mixer

0.07

vibrator

mason

0.24

Labour

2.50

Reinforced cement concrete in bhisti

0.90

situ in suspended floors/roofs

7) M3

excluding form work, and mixer

0.07

reinforcement. operator

0.07

mixer

0.07

vibrator

Mortars:

Mixing by hand, cement mortar of

Labour 0.75

any mix/proportions (Labour

8) M3

required will be approximately

Bhisti 0.07

same for different mix

proportions.)

Brick work in walls exceeding one

brick thick, in cement / lime mortar Labour 1.80

bhisti 0.20

involved in scaffolding.)

10) M2 Labour 0.40

constants could be adopted for

brick work with any mix or mortar.) bhisti 0.10

Carpente

Formwork / Shuttering: r

0.25

a) fabrication and erection with all

Labour

supports, struts, braces, etc, and 0.20

dressing with oil as cleaning of Carpente

M3 0.23

formwork: r

11) M2

1) rectangular column and walls M2 0.20

Labour

Carpente

r 0.20

3) sides and soffits of beam

Labour

Reinforcement:

Bar reinforcement including cutting

to length, hooked ends, cranking or Bar

1.00

bending, hoisting and placing in bender

12) Quintal

any position, binding wire and

1.00

holding firmly so as not to be Labour

disturbed while placing and

ramming of concrete

a) 15mm thick cement plaster to M2

ceiling including mixing of mortar. M2 Labour 0.10

mason 0.06

mixing of mortar

bhisti 0.10

mason 0.10

masonry in cement mortar

including mixing mortar. Labour 0.15

bhisti 0.10

a) Laying damp proof course 40mm

14) thick cement concrete including

form work and fair finishing to

edges and mixing.

Calculate Quantities of Materials for

Concrete

Home/ Concrete / Calculate Quantities of Materials for Concrete

of given mix proportions can be calculated by absolute volume method.

This method is based on the principle that the volume of fully compacted

concrete is equal to the absolute volume of all the materials of concrete,

i.e. cement, sand, coarse aggregates and water.

foundations etc. based on type of structure. The volume of concrete

required for concrete structure can be calculated by summing up the

volumes of each structural member or each parts of members. The

volume of a rectangular cross sectional member can be calculated as

length x width x height (or depth or thickness). Suitable formula shall be

used for different cross-sectional shapes of members.

concrete is given by:

W =Mass of water

C = Mass of cement

Sc, Sfa and Sca are the specific gravities of cement, fine aggregates and

coarse aggregates respectively.

into account the mix proportions from design mix or nominal mixes for

structural strength and durability requirement.

or cubic yards concrete

cement, 1.5 is part of fine aggregates and 3 is part of coarse aggregates

of maximum size of 20mm. The water cement ratio required for mixing of

concrete is taken as 0.45.

and cubic yards as follows:

Cement = 3.15

Sand = 2.6

expressed in terms of masses as:

follows =

= 1 : 1.7 : 3.3

with one bag of cement (i.e. 50 kg cement) for the mass proportions of

concrete materials.

Thus, for the proportion of mix considered, with one bag of cement of 50

kg, 0.1345 m3of concrete can be produced.

concrete for 1 cubic meter of compacted concrete construction will be = 1

-0.02 = 0.98 m3.

Thus, the quantity of cement required for 1 cubic meter of concrete =

0.98/0.1345 = 7.29 bags of cement.

calculated as follows:

QUANTITIES OF MATERIALS PER CUBIC

METRE OF CONCRETE

Home/ How To Guide / QUANTITIES OF MATERIALS PER CUBIC METRE OF CONCRETE

required per cubic meter of concrete and mortar varies with the mix

design of the concrete and mortar respectively. Following table gives the

estimated quantity of materials required per cubic meter of mortar and

concrete for various nominal mixes.

ER

WAT CRUS

PER

ER SAN HED

50K

CEM D STON

G BY

ENT BY (CU ES

BAG NUM

CEM F.A C. RATI WEI M) (CUM

OF BER

ENT . A. O GHT )

CEM OF

ENT (KG)

BAGS

0.71

1 1 0.25 12.5 1015 20.3

0

0.85

1 1.5 0.28 14 815 16.3

5

0.96

1 2 0.3 15 687 13.74

3

3

1 3 0.4 20 505 10.1 1.06

1.10

1 4 0.53 26.5 395 7.9

6

1.19

1 6 0.7 35 285 5.7

7

1.23

1 8 0.9 45 220 4.4

2

0.39

1 1 2 0.3 15 560 11.2 0.784

2

0.60

1 2 2 0.42 21 430 8.6 0.602

2

0.41

1 1.5 3 0.42 21 395 7.9 0.828

4

1 0.48 24 363 7.26 0.838

6 3 9

9

0.46

1 2 3.5 0.53 26.5 330 6.6 0.808

2

0.43

1 2 4 0.55 27.5 310 6.2 0.868

4

0.53

1 2.5 3.5 0.57 28.5 305 6.1 0.748

4

0.49

1 2.5 4 0.6 30 285 5.7 0.798

9

0.55

1 3 4 0.65 32.5 265 5.3 0.742

6

0.44

1 2.5 5 0.65 32.5 255 5.1 0.892

6

0.50

1 3 5 0.69 34.5 240 4.8 0.84

4

2

0.46

1 4 8 0.95 47.5 165 3.3 0.924

2

Notes:

2. The table is based on assumption that the voids in sand and crushed

stone are 40 and 45 percent respectively.

2 percent and coarse aggregate in proportion to fine aggregate in mix.

4. No allowance has been made in the table for bulking of sand and

wastage.

MEASUREMENT OF REINFORCED

CONCRETE WORKS

Measurement of reinforced concrete works such as foundation, columns,

beams, slabs pedestal are needed for calculation of actual cost of

construction and payment to the contractor. This article provides

guidelines for the measurement including formulas for the calculation of

quantities of various reinforced concrete works.

1. The Quantities can be rounded off to the nearest two decimals.

each be measured separately.

Opening up to 0.1 m2

Volume occupied by reinforcement.

100cm2 each in cross-section.

Moulds, drips moulding, chamfers, splays rounded or covered angles,

beds, grooves and rebates up to 10 cm in girth.

Trapezoidal Footing, Volume of Concrete is calculated in two parts. Bottom

Rectangular portion is calculated separately and Trapezoidal volume is

calculated separately.

Rectangular Volume = L x B x D

footing.

Where V= Volume; h= height;

floor slab and subsequently from top of floor slab to underside of floor

slab above. In case of Columns for flat slabs, flare of column shall be

included with column for Measurement.

Beams shall be measured from face to face of columns and shall include

haunches, if any, between columns and beams. The depth of beams shall

be measured from bottom of slab to bottom of the beam except in case of

inverted beam where it shall be measured from top of slab to top of

beam.

depending on site conditions. If measured up to bottom of Plinth beam

then Ground floor column can be measured from Bottom of plinth beam to

underside of slab. The Height of Pedestal can be arrived from levels of

footing and plinth beam. The Height shall be crosschecked with site also.

METHODS & UNITS OF MEASUREMENTS

OF CIVIL WORKS

The units of measurements for civil engineering works are mainly

categorised for their nature, shape and size and for making payments to

the contractor. The principle of units of measurements normally consists

the following:

a) Single units work like doors, windows, trusses etc., are expressed in

numbers.

length like cornice, fencing, hand rail, bands of

specified width etc., are expressed in running

metres (RM)

plastering, white washing, partitions of specified thickness etc., and are

expressed in square meters (m2)

d) Works consists cubical contents which involve volume like earth work,

cement concrete, Masonry etc are expressed in Cubic metres.

engineering works based on IS 1200.

Sl. Units of Units of

Particulars of item

No. measurement payment

1 Earthwork

1. Earthwork in excavation CUM Per CUM

2. Earthwork in filling in foundation trenches CUM Per CUM

3. Earth work in filling in plinth CUM Per CUM

2 Concrete

1. Lime concrete in foundation

2. Cement concrete in lintels

3. RCC in slab

4. Cement concrete or RCC in chujja, sunshade

5. Lean concrete in roof terracing (thickness

SQM Per SQM

specified)

6. Cement concrete bed CUM Per CUM

7. Reinforced concrete sunshade (specified width

CUM Per CUM

and height)

3 Damp proof course (DPC) thickness mentioned SQM Per SQM

4 Brick work

1. Brickwork in foundation CUM Per CUM

2. Brickwork in plinth

3. Brickwork in super structure

4. Thin partition walls SQM Per SQM

5. Brickwork in arches CUM Per SQM

6. Reinforced brickwork CUM Per CUM

5 Stone work

1. Stone masonry CUM Per CUM

6 Wood work

1. Doors and windows frames or chaukhats, rafters,

CUM Per CUM

beams

2. Shutters of doors and windows (thickness

SQM Per SQM

specified)

3. Doors and windows fittings (like hinges, tower

Earch Per Each

bolts, sliding bolts, handles)

7 Steel work

1. Steel reinforcement bars etc in RCC and

Quintal Per Quintal

reinforced brick work

2. Bending, binding of steel reinforcement Quintal Per quintal

3. Rivets, bolts and nuts, anchor bolts, lewis bolts,

Quintal Per quintal

holding down bolts

4. Iron hold fasts

5. Iron railing (height and types specified)

6. Iron grills SQM Per SQM

8 Roofing

1. RCC and RB slab roof (excluding steel) CUM Per CUM

2. Lean concrete roof over and inclusive of tiles or

SQM Per SQM

brick or stone slab etc (thickness specified)

3. Centering and shuttering formwork SQM Per SQM

4. AC sheet roofing SQM Per SQM

9 Plastering, points and finishing

1. Plastering cement or lime mortar (thickness

SQM Per SQM

and proportion specified)

2. Pointing SQM Per SQM

3. White washing, colour washing, cement washing,

SQM Per SQM

(number of coats specified)

4. Distempering (number of coats specified) SQM Per SQM

5. Painting, varnishing (number of coats specified) SQM Per SQM

10 Flooring

1. 25mm cement concrete over 75mm lime

SQM Per SQM

concrete floor (including lean concrete)

2. 25mm or 40mm cement concrete floor SQM Per SQM

3. Doors and window sills (CC or cement mortar

SQM Per SQM

plain)

11 Rain water pipe / plain pipe RM Per RM

12 Steel wooden truss Each Per each

13 Glass panels (supply) SQM Per SQM

14 Fixing of glass panels or cleaning Each Per Each

Note:

SQM = Square meter

RM = Running meter

The rules for measurement of each item are invariably described in IS

1200. However some of the general rules are listed below:

each item shall include materials, transport, labour, fabrication tools and

plant and all types of overheads for finished the work in required shape,

size and specification.

height or thickness.

measured separately under separate items.

workmanships and accurately represent the work to be executed.

categories shall be measured separately and the heights shall be

described as:

UNITS OF MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT

FOR CIVIL WORKS

Particulars of items

No. measurement payment

2 Surface dressing m2 m2

6 Jail works m2 m2

16 m2 m2

trenches, partition, etc

18 cm2 cm2

angles, plates, tees

21 Iron railing m m

22 m2 m2

(thickness specified)

23 Centering, shuttering m2 m2

27 painting; varnishing; polishing; coal tarring; m2 m2

removing of paints

31 Grouting m2 m2

35 Supply of steel, G.I. sheet, bare electric line Quintal Per quintal

36 Supply of GI sheet m2 m2

SIZE AND QUANTITY OF

REINFORCEMENT FOR BUILDING

WORKS

Reinforcement is required for reinforced concrete members such as

footings, beams, columns, slabs, lintels etc. Estimation of reinforcement

quantity is required prior to tendering stage to calculate approximate cost

of project or construction work.

and its size generally used for various building works:

Sl. Quantity in

RCC Member Size of reinforcement required

No kg/m3

2 Grade beams 100

Stirrups 6mm or 8mm 15%

3 Plinth beams 125

Stirrups 6mm 15%

4 Columns 225

Ties 6mm or 8mm 10%

5 Lintel beam 125

Stirrups 6 mm or 8mm 15%

6 Sunshades 60

Distributer 6mm 25%

10mm dia 80%

7 Canopy slab upto 2.0 m span 125

Distributor bars 6mm or 8mm 20%

8 Staircase waist slab 150

Distributor 8mm dia 15%

9 Roof slab

80

(a) One way slab

Distributor 6mm 30%

(b) Two way slab

size

10 Main beams above 6m 250

Stirrups 8mm 15 20%

All above mentioned steel are round tapered steel. This data is just for

estimation of quantity of steel for various RCC works. This does not

provide actual steel required for all the members. Actual quantity of steel

required can be calculated from the drawings prepared after structural

design.

ESTIMATION METHODS OF BUILDING

WORKS

Home/ Construction / ESTIMATION METHODS OF BUILDING WORKS

brickwork in plinth and super structure etc., can be workout by any of

following two methods:

In this method, the wall along the length of room is considered to be long

wall while the wall perpendicular to long wall is said to be short wall. To

get the length of long wall or short wall, calculate first the centre line

lengths of individual walls. Then the length of long wall, (out to out) may

be calculated after adding half breadth at each end to its centre line

length. Thus the length of short wall measured into in and may be found

by deducting half breadth from its centre line length at each end. The

length of long wall usually decreases from earth work to brick work in

super structure while the short wall increases. These lengths are

multiplied by breadth and depth to get quantities.

This method is suitable for walls of similar cross sections. Here the total

centre line length is multiplied by breadth and depth of respective item to

get the total quantity at a time. When cross walls or partitions or

verandah walls join with main wall, the centre line length gets reduced by

half of breadth for each junction. Such junction or joints are studied

carefully while calculating total centre line length. The estimates prepared

by this method are most accurate and quick.

This method is adopted when external (i.e., around the building) wall is of

one thickness and the internal walls having different thicknesses. In such

cases, centre line method is applied to external walls and long wall-short

wall method is used to internal walls. This method suits for different

thicknesses walls and different level of foundations. Because of this

reason, all Engineering departments are practicing this method.

Practical-Guide / Reinforcement

Category : Construction

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Procurement, Construction Risks, Construction Projects, cost estimation of

the projetc.

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