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St.

MARTINS ENGINEERING COLLEGE DEPARTMENT OF EEE

POWER ELECTRONICSAND SIMULATION LAB


3rd YEAR-II SEMESTER

NAME OF THE STUDENT :

REGISTERNUMBER :

YEAR/ SEMESTER :

STAFF INCHARGE : Mr. G.SRIDHAR BABU Assoc.Prof/EEE


: Ms. D. NAVITHA REDDY Asst.Prof/EEE
St. MARTINS ENGINEERING COLLEGE DEPARTMENT OF EEE

General Instructions to students for EEE Lab courses

Be punctual to the lab class.

Attend the laboratory classes wearing the prescribed uniform and shoes.

Avoid wearing any metallic rings, straps or bangles as they are likely to prove dangerous at
times.

Girls should put their plait inside their overcoat

Boys students should tuck in their uniform to avoid the loose cloth getting into contact with
rotating machines.

Acquire a good knowledge of the surrounding of your worktable. Know where the various
live points are situated in your table.

In case of any unwanted things happening, immediately switch off the mains in the
worktable.

This must be done when there is a power break during the experiment being carried out.

Before entering into the lab class, you must be well prepared for the experiment that you
are going to do on that day.

Get the circuit diagram approved.

Prepare the list of equipments and components required for the experiment and get the
indent approved.

Make connections as per the approved circuit diagram and get the same verified.
After getting the approval only supply must be switched on.

Get the reading verified. Then inform the technician so that supply to the worktable can be
switched off.

You must get the observation note corrected within two days from the date of completion
of experiment. Write the answer for all the discussion questions in the observation note. If
not, marks for concerned observation will be proportionately reduced.

Submit the record note book for the experiment completed in the next class.

If you miss any practical class due to unavoidable reasons, intimate the staff in charge and
do the missed experiment in the repetition class.

Such of those students who fail to put in a minimum of 75% attendance in the laboratory
class will run the risk of not being allowed for the University Practical Examination.
St. MARTINS ENGINEERING COLLEGE DEPARTMENT OF EEE

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS
Any eight of the experiments in power electronics lab
1. Study of characteristics of SCR, MOSFET, & IGBT.

2. Gate firing circuit for SCRs.

3. Single phase AC voltage controller with R AND RL loads.

4. Single phase fully controlled bridge converter with R load and RL loads

5. Forced commutation circuits (Class A, Class B, Class C, Class D & Class E).

6. DC Jones chopper with R and RL loads.

7. Single phase parallel inverter with R and RL loads.

8. Single phase cycloconverter with R and RL loads.

9. Single phase half controlled converter with R loads.

10. Three phase half controlled bridge converter with R loads.

11. Single phase series inverter with R and RL loads.

12. Single phase bridge converter with R and Rl loads.

13. Single phase dual converter with RL loads.

14. Operation of MOSFET based chopper.

Any two simulation experiments with PSPICE/PSIM

15. PSPICE simulation of single phase full converter using RLE loads and single phase
AC voltage controller using RLE loads.
16. PSPICE simulation of resonant pulse commutation circuit and buck chopper.
17. PSPICE simulation of single phase inverter with PWM control.
St. MARTINS ENGINEERING COLLEGE DEPARTMENT OF EEE

LIST OF CYCLE-I

1. Single phase AC voltage controller with R AND RL loads.

2. DC Jones chopper with R and RL loads.

3. Single phase parallel inverter with R and RL loads.

4. Single phase half controlled converter with R loads.

5. PSPICE simulation of single phase full converter using RLE loads and single phase
AC voltage controller using RLE loads.

LIST OF CYCLE-II

6. Gate firing circuit for SCRs.

7. Single phase fully controlled bridge converter with R load and RL loads.

8. Forced commutation circuits (Class A, Class B, Class C, Class D & Class E).

9. Single phase cycloconverter with R and RL loads

10. PSPICE simulation of single phase inverter with PWM control.

.
St. MARTINS ENGINEERING COLLEGE DEPARTMENT OF EEE

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Sl.N Experiment Name Experiment Submission Marks Signature


o Date date
1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.
St. MARTINS ENGINEERING COLLEGE DEPARTMENT OF EEE

SUBJECT INCHARGE INTERNAL MARK---------


Exp. No.: Date:

SINGLE PHASE AC VOLTAGE CONTROLLER WITH R AND RL LOADS

1.1 OBJECTIVE:
To study the module and waveforms of a 1- AC voltage controller with R and RL loads.

1.2 RESOURCES:

S. No. Name of the Apparatus Range Type Quantity


1 AC voltage regulator
1 - - 1
power module
2 Loading Rheostat 50, 2A - 1
3 Loading Inductor 150mH, 2A - 1
4 CRO & probe 20MHz Dual 1
5 Connecting wires - As required

1.3 SPECIFICATIONS:
1. Input 1, 230V, 50Hz AC Supply
2. Load R and RL.
3. Thyristors 12A, 600V, type 25 RIA 120.
4. TRIACs 10A, 600V, BT136.
5. MCB Two pole 230V/16A.
6. Fuses 16A HRC.
7. Step down transformer 230V/24V-0-24V, 2A.

1.4 PRECAUTIONS:
1. Make sure all the connecting links are tightly fixed.
2. Ensure all the controlling knobs in fully counterclockwise position before starting experiment.
3. Handle everything with care.
4. Make sure the firing pulses are proper before connecting to the power circuit.
5. Make sure to connect firing pulses from the firing circuit to their corresponding SCRs/TRIAC
in the power circuit.
St. MARTINS ENGINEERING COLLEGE DEPARTMENT OF EEE

1.5 MODEL GRAPH:

Vi (v) Input Waveform

0 2 3 4
t (ms)

Output Waveform Across R and RL- Load =00

VL (v)
t (ms)
0

Output Waveform Across R- Load


=900
VL (v)

0 t (ms)

Output Waveform Across RL- Load


=900
VL (v)

0 t (ms)
St. MARTINS ENGINEERING COLLEGE DEPARTMENT OF EEE

1.6 PROCEDURE:
1. Switch ON the mains supply to the firing circuit. Observe the trigger outputs by varying firing
angle potentiometer and by operating On/OFF and SCR/TRIAC selector switch. Make sure the
firing pulses are proper before connecting to the power circuit.
2. Make the connections as per the circuit diagram.
3. Connect firing pulses from the firing circuit to the corresponding SCRs/TRIAC in the power
circuit.
4. Switch ON the step down transformer supply (MCB) and now switch ON the trigger pulses by
operating ON/OFF switch in the firing circuit.
5. Observe the output voltage waveform across load using oscilloscope.
6. Note down the input voltage, firing angle and output voltage readings in the TABULAR
FORMS.
7. Draw the waveforms in the graph at 0, 45, 90, 135 and 180 Deg. firing angles.
FORMULAE USED:

1 sin 2
2
Output voltage, V0 = Vs
St. MARTINS ENGINEERING COLLEGE DEPARTMENT OF EEE

SINGLE PHASE AC VOLTAGE CONTROLLER WITH RL LOAD USING SCRS

T1
A1 K1
G
P 2 TYN616 1
G2
A2
230V 24V K2
T2 R LOAD
1 , 230V, K1 G1 50 ,2A
0V K2 G2
50Hz, AC L
FIRING
0V 24V CIRCUIT

SINGLE PHASE AC VOLTAGE CONTROLLER WITH RL LOAD USING


TRIAC
TRIAC
BT136 G

MT2
MT1
P

230V 24V
G MT2 R LOAD
FIRING 50 ,2A
1 , 230V,
0V CIRCUIT 0-250mH, 2A
50Hz, AC
L
0V 24V

N
St. MARTINS ENGINEERING COLLEGE DEPARTMENT OF EEE

SINGLE PHASE AC VOLTAGE CONTROLLER WITH R LOAD USING SCRS

T1
A1 K1
G
P 2 TYN616 1
G2
A2
230V 24V K2
T2
1 , 230V, K1 G1 LOAD
0V R 50 ,2A
50Hz, AC K2 G2
FIRING
0V 24V CIRCUIT

1.7 TABULAR FORMS: 1. for R load


Theoretical
Firing Output voltage
S.No. Input voltage (V) output
angle ( ) (V)
voltage (V)

1.7 TABULAR FORMS: 2. RL load:

Theoretical
Firing Output voltage
S.No. Input voltage (V) output
angle ( ) (V)
voltage (V)

1.8 MODEL CALCULATIONS:


St. MARTINS ENGINEERING COLLEGE DEPARTMENT OF EEE

1.9 RESULT:
Thus the single phase AC voltage controller with R & RL loads is studied and we plotted the
waveforms of different firing angle.

1.10 PRE LAB QUESTIONS:-

1. Why should the two trigger sources be isolated?

2. What are the advantages and the disadvantages of phase control?

3. What is phase control?

4. What are the advantages of bidirectional controllers?

5. What is meant by duty cycle in ON-OFF control method?

1.11 POST LAB QUESTIONS:-


1. What type of commutation is used in this circuit?

2. What are the effects of load inductance on the performance of AC voltage controllers?

3. What is extinction angle?

4. What are the disadvantages of unidirectional controllers?

5. What are the advantages of ON-OFF control?


Exp. No.: Date:
DC JONES CHOPPER WITH R AND RL LOADS

2.1 OBJECTIVE:
St. MARTINS ENGINEERING COLLEGE DEPARTMENT OF EEE

To study the module and waveforms of a DC Jones chopper with R and RL loads.

2.2 RESOURCES:

Name of the
S. No. Range Type Quantity
Apparatus
Jones chopper firing
1 circuit module and - - 1
power circuit module
2 Loading Rheostat 50, 2A - 1
3 Loading Inductor 150mH, 2A - 1
4 CRO & probe 20MHz Dual 1
5 Connecting wires - As required

2.3 SPECIFICATIONS:
1. Input: 0 230V 1 AC supply.
2. Load R, & RL
3. Thyristors 25A, 1200V, type 25 RIA 120.
4. Diodes: 25A, 1200V.
5. Commutating Capacitor 25F, 440V
6. MCB Two pole 230V/16A.
7. Fuses 16A HRC

2.4 PRECAUTIONS:
1. Make sure all the connecting links are tightly fixed.
2. Ensure all the controlling knobs in fully counterclockwise position before starting experiment.
3. Handle everything with care.
4. Make sure the firing pulses are proper before connecting to the power circuit.
5. Make sure to connect firing pulses from the firing circuit to their respective SCRs in the power
circuit.

2.5 MODEL GRAPH:


Voltage and Current waveforms in the Jones Chopper

Ig1 t

Ig2
t
St. MARTINS ENGINEERING COLLEGE DEPARTMENT OF EEE

t
ISCR2

VSCR2 t

Vc t

Ic t

ISCR1
t

`
t
VSCR1

VL
t

2.6 PROCEDURE:
1. Switch On the mains supply to the firing circuit. Observe the trigger on by varying duty cycle
and frequency potentiometer by keeping the c switch in INT position. Make sure the firing
pulses are proper be connecting to the power circuit.
2. Make the connections as per the circuit diagram.
St. MARTINS ENGINEERING COLLEGE DEPARTMENT OF EEE

3. Connect firing pulses from the firing circuit to the respective SCRs power circuit.
4. Initially set the input DC supply to 5V.
5. At the beginning, keep the ON/OFF switch in the firing circuit in OFF position.
6. Switch ON the DC supply and now ON the trigger pulses by open On/OFF switch in the firing
circuit.
7. Observe the DC chopped voltage waveform across load using oscilloscope.
8. If the commutation fails, pure DC voltage can be observed across the then switch OFF the DC
supply and trigger pulses. Check the connect and try again.
9. Observe the voltage waveform across load, capacitor, main SCR auxiliary SCR by varying the
duty-cycle potentiometer and frequency potentiometer, using oscilloscope.
10. Now, vary the DC supply up to the rated voltage, 30VDC.
11. Note down the readings in the TABULAR FORMS.
12. Draw the waveforms in the graph at different duty cycles and at different
Formula used:
Theoretical value = Ton/T100
T= Ton +Toff

2.7CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:
2.7.1 Circuit Diagram of DC Jones Chopper with RL Load
St. MARTINS ENGINEERING COLLEGE DEPARTMENT OF EEE

2.7.2Circuit Diagram of DC Jones Chopper with R Load

T1

+
TA
R
DC V
To CRO
Supply

L1 L2
D1
St. MARTINS ENGINEERING COLLEGE DEPARTMENT OF EEE

2.8 TABULAR FORMS:


2.8.1 At F1 (middle)
S. Input Time in milli sec. Duty Output Theoretical
No. voltage cycle voltage value =
Ton(ms) Toff(ms)
(Vin) (%) (V0) Ton/T100

2.8.2 At F2 (maximum)
S. Input Time in milli sec. Duty Output Theoretical
No. voltage cycle voltage value =
(Vin) Ton(ms) Toff(ms) (%) (V0) Ton/T100

2.9 RESULT:
Thus the module and waveforms of a DC Jones chopper with R and RL loads was studied.

2.10 PRE LAB QUESTIONS:-

1. What is a chopper? Where it is normally employed?


2. Explain the principle of operation of a chopper.
3. What are the control strategies used for a chopper?
4. What is time ratio control (TRC) of a chopper? How is it classified?

2.11 POSTLAB QUESTIONS:-

1. Why is forced commutation required in dc choppers?


2. What are the effects of turn on and turn off times of thyristor on the performance of the chopper.
3. What are the merits and demerits of this circuit?
4. What is current limit control of a chopper?

Exp. No.: Date:


St. MARTINS ENGINEERING COLLEGE DEPARTMENT OF EEE

SINGLE PHASE PARALLEL INVERTER WITH R AND RL LOADS

3.1 OBJECTIVE:
To study the module and waveforms of a 1- Parallel inverter with R and RL loads.

3.2 RESOURCES:

Name of the
S. No. Range Type Quantity
Apparatus
1- parallel inverter
1 firing module and - - 1
power circuit module
2 Loading Rheostat 50, 2A - 1
3 Loading Inductor 150mH, 2A - 1
4 CRO & probe 20MHz Dual 1
5 Connecting wires - As required

3.3 SPECIFICATION:
1. Input 230V, 50Hz, 1- AC supply.
2. Load R and RL.
3. Thyristors 10A, 600V.
4. Diodes 10A, 600V.
5. Capacitors 6.8F, 100V.
7. Inductor 300mH, 2A.
9. Fuses 2A Glass fuse.

3.4 PRECAUTIONS:
1. Make sure all the connecting links are tightly fixed.
2. Ensure all the controlling knobs in fully counterclockwise position before starting experiment.
3. Handle everything with care.
4. Make sure the firing pulses are proper before connecting to the power circuit.
5. Make sure to connect firing pulses form the firing circuit to their respective SCRs in the power
circuit.
6. Ensure to switch OFF the input supply first and then trigger pulses to short circuit.
St. MARTINS ENGINEERING COLLEGE DEPARTMENT OF EEE

3.5 MODEL GRAPH:

TRIGGER OUTPUTS

T1

T2

+VDC

--VDC

3.6 PROCEDURE:
1. Switch ON the mains supply to the firing circuit. Observe the trigger output in the firing circuit
by varying frequency potentiometer and by operating OFF switch. Make sure the firing pulses
are proper before connecting to the power circuit.
2. Make the connections as per the circuit diagram.
3. Connect firing pulses form the firing circuit to the respective SCRs in power circuit.
4. Connect the DC input from a 30V, 2A regulated power supply.
5. Switch ON the DC supply, set input voltage to 15V and switch ON the trigger pulses by
operating ON/OFF switch in the firing circuit.
6. Observe the voltage waveform across load using oscilloscope.
7. Vary the frequency and observe the voltage waveforms across load with without freewheeling
diode.
8. Draw the waveforms in the graph at different frequencies.
9. To switch off the inverter, switch OFF the input supply first and then trigger pulses.
10. Since the parallel inverter works on forced commutation, there is a chopper commutation
failure. If the commutation fails, switch off the DC supply and then trigger outputs. Check the
connections and try again.
3.7 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM
St. MARTINS ENGINEERING COLLEGE DEPARTMENT OF EEE

3.7.1 Single Phase Parallel Inverter with R load

D1

T
1
R
L
0V - 50 ,
L C
L 2A
T o
RPS
+ a
(0-30)V 2

DC - d
Supply D2

3.7.2 Single Phase Parallel Inverter with RL load


D1

T
1
RL
L L 50 ,
0V
C o 150mH

a 2A
T d
RPS
+
(0-30)V 2

DC -
D2
Supply

3.8 TABULAR FORMS:


St. MARTINS ENGINEERING COLLEGE DEPARTMENT OF EEE

3.8.1For R Load:
S. Input Time in milli sec. Amplitude Output Theoretical
No. voltage in (V) average output
Ton(ms) Toff(ms)
(Vin) Vm voltage frequency
(V0) in Hz

3.8.2 For R-L Load:


S. Input Time in milli sec. Amplitude Output Theoretical
No. voltage in (V) average output
Ton(ms) Toff(ms)
(Vin) voltage frequency
V1 V2
(V0) in Hz

3.9 RESULT:
Thus the module and waveforms of a 1- Parallel inverter with R and RL loads was studied.
3.10PRE LAB QUESTIONS:-

1. What is parallel inverter? Why is it called so?


2. What is the purpose of capacitor in the parallel inverter?
3. What is the purpose of transformer in the parallel inverter?
4. IS the parallel inverter naturally commutated or force commutated?
5. What are the advantages of parallel resonant inverters?

3.11 POST LAB QUESTIONS:-

1. What is the purpose of the inductor in the parallel inverter?


2. During its operation, capacitor voltage reaches 2Vs. How?
3. What is the significance of the split phase transformer?
4. During operation, what is the voltage across primary winding of the transformer?
5. Capacitor current flows in how many modes of the operation of parallel inverter?

Exp. No.: Date:


SINGLE PHASE HALF CONTROLLED CONVERTER WITH R LOAD
St. MARTINS ENGINEERING COLLEGE DEPARTMENT OF EEE

4.1 OBJECTIVE:
To study the module and waveforms of a 1- Half controlled converter with R load at different firing
angles.
4.2 RESOURCES:

S. No. Name of the Apparatus Range Type Quantity


1 Half controlled
1 converter power and - - 1
firing module
2 Loading Rheostat 150, 5A - 1
3 Loading Inductor 150mH, 5A - 1
4 CRO & probe 20MHz Dual 1
5 Connecting wires - As required
4.3 SPECIFICATIONS:
1. Input : 1, 230V , 50Hz AC supply.
2. Load : R, RL
3. Thyristors : 25A, 1200V, type 25 RIA 120/TYN616.
4. Diode : 25A, 1200V, BY126/BY127.
5. MCB : Two pole 230V/16A
6. Fuses : 16A HRC.
7. Field Supply bridge rectifier : 10A, 600V.
8. Field Supply : 220V + 10%.

4.4 PRECAUTIONS:
1. Make sure all the connecting links are tightly fixed.
2. Ensure all the controlling knobs in fully counterclockwise position before starting experiment.
3. Handle everything with care.
4. Make sure the firing pulses are proper before connecting to the power circuit.
5. If the output is zero even after all power connections, switch OFF the MCB and just
interchange AC input connections to the power circuit. This is to make the firing circuit and
power circuit to synchronize.

Vi (v)
4.5 MODEL GRAPH:

Input Waveform t (ms)


0 2 3 4
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Output Waveform R and RL - Load at =00

VL (v)
t (ms)
0
Output Waveform R and RL -Load at =450
VL (v)

t (ms)
0

Output Waveform R and RL - Load at =900


VL (v)
0
t (ms)

Output Waveform R and RL - Load at =1350

t (ms)
0

4.6 PROCEDURE:
St. MARTINS ENGINEERING COLLEGE DEPARTMENT OF EEE

1. Switch ON the main supply to the firing circuit. Observe the trigger output by varying firing

angle potentiometer and by operating ON/OFF switch and their phase sequence. Make sure the

firing pulses are proper before connecting to the power circuit.

2. Make the connections as per the circuit diagram.

3. Connect 30V tapping of the transformer secondary to the power circuit.

4. Connect firing pulses 0from the firing circuit to their respective SCRs in power circuit.

5. Switch ON the MCB and now switch ON the trigger pulses by operate ON/OFF switch in the

firing circuit.

6. Observe the output voltage waveforms across load and devices us oscilloscope.

7. Note down the input voltage, firing angle, Output voltage and output circuit reading in the

TABULAR FORMS.

8. Repeat the same for different input voltage up to max. voltage as provided in the isolation

transformer.

9. Repeat the same for R-L and RLE loads with and without freewheeling diode.

10. Draw the waveforms in the graph at firing angles 00, 450, 900, 1350 and 1800.

FORMULAE USED:

Output voltage V0 = Vdc = Vm/ (1 + cos )

4.7 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:


St. MARTINS ENGINEERING COLLEGE DEPARTMENT OF EEE

4.7.1SINGLE PHASE HALF CONTROLLED CONVERTER WITH R LOAD


2 TYN61
6
P K1
G1 K2 G2

230 30 T1 T2
V V A1 A2 R LOAD
1 , 150 ,
230V, 5A
K1 K2
50Hz,
0 0
AC D1 D2
V V
A1 A2
N
2 1N400
7

4.7.2 SINGLE PHASE HALF CONTROLLED CONVERTER


WITH RL LOAD
2 TYN6
16
P K1
G 1 K2 G2

230 30 T1 T2
V V A1 R LOAD
A2
1 , 150 ,
230V, 5A
0-150mH,
50Hz, K2 L 5A
AC K1
0 0
V V D1 D2

A1 A2
N

2 1N400
7

S. No. Input Firing Output voltage Output


St. MARTINS ENGINEERING COLLEGE DEPARTMENT OF EEE

voltage angle (a) (V) Theoretical


(V) voltage

4.8 TABULAR FORMS: for R load

S. No. Input Firing Output voltage Output


voltage angle (a) (V) Theoretical
(V) voltage

4.9 MODEL CALCULATIONS:

4.10 RESULT:
Thus the single phase half controlled converter with R and RL load is studied and also we
plotted the waveforms of different firing angles.
4.11 PRE LAB QUESTIONS:-
1. What is the delay angle control of converters?
2. What is natural or line commutation?
3. What is the principle of phase control?
4. What is extinction angle?
5. Can a freewheeling diode be used in this circuit and justify the reason?

4.12 POSTLAB QUESTIONS:-


1. What is conduction angle?
2. What are the effects of adding freewheeling diode in this circuit?
3. What are the effects of removing the freewheeling diode in single phase semi converter?
4. Why is the power factor of semi converters better than that of full converters?
5. What is the inversion mode of converters?
Exp. No.: Date:
PSPICE SIMULATION OF SINGLE PHASE FULL CONVERTER AND SINGLE PHASE AC
VOLTAGE CONTROLLER USING RLE LOADS
St. MARTINS ENGINEERING COLLEGE DEPARTMENT OF EEE

5.1OBJECTIVE:
To study the output waveforms of single-phase full converter using RLE loads and single-phase AC
voltage controller using RLE loads using PSPICE simulation.
5.2 RESOURCES: PSPICE Software
AC Model of SCR:

F1= P1Ig + P2Ia


= 50Ig + 11Ia

5.3 Circuit diagram of single phase full converter:


St. MARTINS ENGINEERING COLLEGE DEPARTMENT OF EEE

5.4Circuit file for Single phase full converter:

VS 10 0 SIN (0 169.7V 60HZ)


VG1 6 2 PULSE (0V 10V 2777.8US 1NS 1NS 100US 16666.7US)
VG2 7 0 PULSE (0V 10V 2777.8US 1NS 1NS 100US 16666.7US)
VG3 8 2 PULSE (0V 10V 11111.1US 1NS 1NS 100US 16666.7US)
VG4 9 1 PULSE (0V 10V 11111.1US 1NS 1NS 100US 16666.7US)
R 2 4 10
L 4 5 20MH
C 2 11 793UF
RX 11 3 0.1
VX 5 3 DC 10V
VY 10 1 DC 0V
* SUBCIRCUIT CALLS FOR THYRISTOR MODEL
XT1 1 6 2 SCR
XT2 0 8 2 SCR
XT3 3 7 0 SCR
XT4 3 9 1 SCR
. SUBCKT SCR 1 3 2
S1 1 5 6 2 SMOD
RG 3 4 50
VX 4 2 DC 0V
VY 5 2 DC 0V
St. MARTINS ENGINEERING COLLEGE DEPARTMENT OF EEE

RT 2 6 1
CT 6 2 10UF
F1 2 6 POLY (2) VX VY 0 50 11
.MODEL SMOD VSWITCH (RON=0.01 ROFF=10E+5 VON=0.1V VOFF=0V)
.ENDS SCR
.TRAN 10US 35MS 16.67MS
.PROBE
.OPTIONS ABSTOL=1.00U RELTOL=1.0M VNTOL=0.1 ITL5=10000
.FOUR 120HZ I (VX)
.END
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5.5 Circuit diagram of single phase Ac Voltage Controller:

5.6 Circuit file for Single phase ac voltage controller:

VS 10 0 SIN (0 169.7V 60HZ)


VG1 2 4 PULSE (0V 10V 4166.7US 1NS 1NS 100US 16666.7US)
VG2 3 1 PULSE (0V 10V 12500.0US 1NS 1NS 100US 16666.7US)
R 4 5 2.5
L 5 6 6.5MH
VX 6 0 DC 0V
CS 1 7 0.1UF
RS 7 4 750
* SUBCIRCUIT CALLS FOR THYRISTOR MODEL
XT1 1 2 4 SCR
XT2 4 3 1 SCR
. SUBCKT SCR 1 3 2
S1 1 5 6 2 SMOD
RG 3 4 50
VX 4 2 DC 0V
VY 5 2 DC 0V
RT 2 6 1
St. MARTINS ENGINEERING COLLEGE DEPARTMENT OF EEE

CT 6 2 10UF
F1 2 6 POLY (2) VX VY 0 50 11
.MODEL SMOD VSWITCH (RON=0.01 ROFF=10E+5 VON=0.1V VOFF=0V)
.ENDS SCR
.TRAN 10US 33.33MS
.PROBE
.OPTIONS ABSTOL= 1.00N RELTOL = 1.0M VNTOL=1.0M ITL5=10000
.FOUR 60HZ V (4)
.END

5.7RESULT :
The output waveforms of single-phase full converter using RLE loads and single-phase AC voltage
controller using RLE loads using PSPICE simulation are studied.

5.8 PRE LAB QUESTIONS:-


1. What is the difference between a diode rectifier and a thyristor rectifier?
2. What is controlled rectification?
3. What is meant by firing angle of a converter?
4. What is an ac voltage controller?
5. How does the load inductance effect the conduction angle of a controller?

5.9 POST LAB QUESTIONS:-


1. What is an integral cycle control?
2. What is phase control?
3. What is discontinuous in thyristor power converters?
4. How is it achieved in thyristor power converters?
5. What are the effects of load inductance on the performance of a power converter?

Exp. No.: Date:


St. MARTINS ENGINEERING COLLEGE DEPARTMENT OF EEE

GATE FIRING CIRCUITS FOR SCRs

6.1 OBJECTIVE:
To study the following various firing schemes for triggering SCRs when they are different converter
topologies employing line commutation.
1. Resistance firing circuit.
2. Resistance capacitance (RC) firing circuit.
3. UJT firing scheme.

6.2 RESOURCES:
Name of the
S. No. Range Type Quantity
Apparatus
1 R & RC power module - - 1
2 UJT power module - - 1
3 R load 50, 2A - 1
4 CRO & probe Dual - 1
5 Connecting wires - As required

6.3 SPECIFICATIONS:
1. SCRs : 400V, 4A, type 106 D
2. Diodes : 1N4007
3. Diacs : D3202U
4. Zeners : 20V, 1W
5. UJTs : 2N2646
6. Pulse transformer : 1:1:1

6.4 PRECAUTIONS:
1. Make sure all the connections are tight.
2. Ensure all the controlling knobs are kept in fully counterclockwise position before starting
experiment.
3. Handle everything with care.

6.5 MODEL GRAPH:


St. MARTINS ENGINEERING COLLEGE DEPARTMENT OF EEE

Vi (v) Input Waveform

0 2 3 4 t (ms)

Output Waveform =0 0

VL (v)
t (ms)
0
VSCR (v)
0
t (ms)

Output Waveform =90 0


VL (v)

0 t (ms)
VSCR (v)
0
t (ms)

6.6 PROCEDURE:
(a). R firing circuit:
St. MARTINS ENGINEERING COLLEGE DEPARTMENT OF EEE

1. Make the connections as per the circuit diagram.


2. Connect a load rheostat of 50, 2 A between the load points
3. Switch ON the power supply
4. Vary the control pot and observe the voltage waveforms across load and at different points in
the circuit using oscilloscope.
5. Draw the waveforms in the graph at firing angles 00, 450, 900, 1350.
6. Bring the pot to the original position.
7. Switch OFF the power Supply.
(b). RC firing circuit:
1. Make the connections as per the circuit diagram.
2. Connect a load rheostat of 50, 2 A between the load points
3. Switch ON the power supply
4. Vary the control pot and observe the voltage waveforms across load and at different points
in the circuit using oscilloscope.
5. Draw the waveforms in the graph at firing angles 00, 450, 900, 1350 and 1800.
6. Bring the pot to the original position.
7. Switch OFF the power Supply.

(c). UJT firing circuit:


1. Make the connections as per the circuit diagram.
2. Connect a load rheostat of 50, 2 A between the load points
3. Switch ON the power supply
4. Vary the control pot and observe the voltage waveforms across load and at different points
in the circuit using oscilloscope.
5. Draw the waveforms in the graph at firing angles 00, 450, 900, 1350 and 1800.
6. Bring the pot to the original position.
7. Switch OFF the power Supply.

FORMULAE USED:
180 0
3
* t (deg rees )
Firing Angle = 10 * 10

6.7 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM


St. MARTINS ENGINEERING COLLEGE DEPARTMENT OF EEE
GATE FIRING CIRCUIT FOR SCRS-RESISTANCE FIRING
CIRUCIT

R LOAD

50 , 2A

20V, 2A R
AC T1
RC TYN616
K1
D
A K Rg

1N4007

6.8 TABULAR FORMS:


A. i. Resistance Firing Circuit: -

Sl. Resistance (R) in Firing angle


No. ( ) in s
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

ii. Resistance Firing Circuit: - across SCR and Load


Firing
Sl. (R) in angle
Ton Toff Amplitude
No. ( ) in
s
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
St. MARTINS ENGINEERING COLLEGE DEPARTMENT OF EEE

GATE FIRING CIRCUIT FOR SCRS-RESISTANCE CAPACITANCE (RC)


FIRING CIRUCIT

R LOAD

50 , 2A

A1
20V, 2A R
AC T1
RC TYN616
D1
K1
D2 G1
A K Rg

C
4.7 F 1N4007

B. i. Resistance Capacitance Firing Circuit: -

Sl. Resistance (R) Capacitance Firing angle ( )


No. in (c) in Fd in s
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

ii. Resistance Capacitance Firing Circuit: -

Firing
Sl. (R) in angle
Ton Toff Amplitude
No. ( ) in
s
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
St. MARTINS ENGINEERING COLLEGE DEPARTMENT OF EEE

C. i. UJT Firing Circuit: -


S. Resistance (R) in Firing angle
No. ( ) in s
1.
GATE FIRING CIRCUIT FOR SCRS-UJT FIRING CIRUCIT
2. R
3.
R
4. P 50 L
5. R , O
D1 D3 2A A
A
RC D
1 , 230V, K T1
50Hz AC 20V, UJT G
C K
2A 2N2646
1000 F ZD A

C AC
D4 D2 20V, 2A
4.7 F
N

Pulse TFR
1:1:1
ii. UJT Firing Circuit: -

Firing
Sl. (R) in angle
Ton Toff Amplitude
No. ( ) in
s
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
St. MARTINS ENGINEERING COLLEGE DEPARTMENT OF EEE

6.9 RESULT:
Thus the different types of gate firing circuits of SCRs i. R Firing circuit, ii. RC Firing circuit and iii.
UJT firing circuit is studied and also plotted its waveforms.

6.10 PRE LAB QUESTIONS:-

1. UJT triggering circuit is also known as?


2. Types of triggering circuit?
3. What is the purpose of series resistor?
4. What is the condition for triggering the circuit?
5. What is the function of pulse transformer in firing circuit?

6.11 POST LAB QUESTIONS:-

1. Explain how synchronization of the triggering circuit with the supply voltage across SCR is
achieved?
2. How can the capacitor charging be controlled?
3. What is the maximum value of firing angle which can be obtained from the circuit?
4. How is the output power to the triggering circuit controlled?
5. Compare UJT triggering circuit with RC firing circuit?
St. MARTINS ENGINEERING COLLEGE DEPARTMENT OF EEE

Exp. No.: Date:


SINGLE PHASE FULLY CONTROLLED BRIDGE CONVERTER WITH R AND RL LOADS

7.1 OBJECTIVE:
To study the module and waveforms of a 1- Full Bridge Converter with RL and RL loads.

7.2 RESOURCES:

S. No. Name of the Apparatus Range Type Quantity


1 Full bridge
controlled converter
1 - - 1
power and firing
module
2 Loading Rheostat 150, 5A - 1
3 Loading Inductor 150mH, 5A - 1
5 CRO & probe 20MHz Dual 1
6 Connecting wires - As required

7.3 SPECIFICATIONS:
1. Input : 1, 230V 50Hz, AC supply.
2. Load : R and RL loads.
3. Thyristors : 16A, 1200V, type 16 TTS/TYN616
4. Diode : 25A, 1200V, BY126/BY127
5. MCB : Two pole 230V/16A
6. Fuses : 16A HRC.
7. Field Supply bridge rectifier: 10A, 600V.
8. Field Supply : 220V + 10%.

7.4 PRECAUTIONS:
1. Make sure all the connecting links are tightly fixed.
2. Ensure all the controlling knobs in fully counterclockwise position before starting experiment.
3. Handle everything with care.
4. Make sure the firing pulses are proper before connecting to the power circuit.
5. If the output is zero even after all power connections, switch OFF the MCB and just
interchange AC input connections to the power circuit. This is to make the firing circuit and
power circuit to synchronize.
St. MARTINS ENGINEERING COLLEGE DEPARTMENT OF EEE

7.5 MODEL GRAPH:


Input Waveform
Vi (v)

t (ms)
0 2 3 4

Output Waveform R- Load at =00


VL (v)
t (ms)
0
VL (v) Output Waveform R- Load at =450

t (ms)
0
VL (v) RL- Load at =450

t (ms)
0

VL (v) R- Load at =900


0
t (ms)

VL (v) RL- Load at =900

t (ms)
0
R- Load at =1350
VL (v)
t (ms)
0

7.6 PROCEDURE:
St. MARTINS ENGINEERING COLLEGE DEPARTMENT OF EEE

1. Switch ON the main supply to the firing circuit. Observe the trigger output by varying firing
angle potentiometer and by operating ON/OFF switch their phase sequence. Make sure the
firing pulses are proper before connecting to the power circuit.
2. Make the connections as per the circuit diagram.
3. Connect 30V tapping of the transformer secondary to the power circuit.
4. Connect firing pulses from the firing circuit to their respective SCRs in power circuit.
5. Switch ON the MCB and now switch ON the trigger pulses by operate ON/OFF switch in the
firing circuit.
6. Observe the output voltage waveforms across load and devices us oscilloscope.
7. Note down the input voltage, firing angle, Output voltage and output circuit reading in the
TABULAR FORMS.
8. Repeat the same for different input voltage up to max. voltage as provided in the isolation
transformer.
9. Repeat the same for R-L and RLE loads with and without freewheeling diode.
10. Draw the waveforms in the graph at firing angles 00, 450, 900, 1350 and 1800.

FORMULAE USED:
Vm
1 cos
Average output voltage R load, VAvg=
2Vm
cos
Average output voltage RL load, VAvg=

7.7CIRCUIT DIAGRAM :
St. MARTINS ENGINEERING COLLEGE DEPARTMENT OF EEE

SINGLE PHASE FULL CONTROLLED BRIDGE CONVERTER WITH R


LOAD

4 TYN616

P K1 K3
G1 G3

230V 30V T1 T3
A1 A3
1 , 230V, LOAD
50Hz, AC R 150 , 5A
G4 G2
0V 0V K4 K2

T4 T2
N
A4 A2

7.8TABULAR FORMS:
a. For R load
Theoretical
Firing Output voltage
S.No. Input voltage (V) Output
angle ( ) (V)
voltage (V)
St. MARTINS ENGINEERING COLLEGE DEPARTMENT OF EEE

SINGLE PHASE FULL CONTROLLED BRIDGE CONVERTER WITH RL


LOAD

4 TYN616

P K1 K3
G1 G3

230V 30V T1 T3
A1 R LOAD
A3
1 , 230V, 150 , 5A
50Hz, AC 0-150mH, 5A
L
G4 G2
0V 0V K4 K2

T4 T2
N
A4 A2

b. For RL load without freewheeling diode:


Theoretical
Firing Output voltage
S.No. Input voltage (V) Output
angle ( ) (V)
voltage (V)
St. MARTINS ENGINEERING COLLEGE DEPARTMENT OF EEE

SINGLE PHASE FULL CONTROLLED BRIDGE CONVERTER WITH FREEWHEELING


DIODE FED RL LOAD

4 TYN616

P K1 K3
G1 G3

230V 30V T1 T3
A1 K R LOAD
A3
1 , 230V, 150 , 5A
50Hz, AC FD 0-150mH, 5A
L
G4 G2 A
0V 0V K4 K2

T4 T2
N
A4 A2

c. For RL load with freewheeling diode:


Theoretical
Firing Output voltage
S.No. Input voltage (V) Output
angle ( ) (V)
voltage (V)

7.9 MODEL CALCULATIONS:


St. MARTINS ENGINEERING COLLEGE DEPARTMENT OF EEE

7.10 RESULT:
Thus the single phase Full controlled bridge converter with R and RL load is studied and also
plotted the waveforms of different firing angles.

7.11 PRE LAB QUESTIONS:-


1. State the type of commutation used in this circuit?

2. What will happen if the firing angle is greater than 90 degrees?

3. What are the performance parameters of rectifier?

4. What are the advantages of three phase rectifier over a single phase rectifier?

5. What is the difference between half wave and full wave rectifier?

7.12POST LAB QUESTIONS:-

1. If firing angle is greater than 90 degrees, the inverter circuit formed is called as?

2. What is Dc output voltage of single phase full wave controller?

3. What are the effects of source inductance on the output voltage of a rectifier?

4. What is commutation angle of a rectifier?

5. What are the advantages of three phase rectifier over a single phase rectifier?
St. MARTINS ENGINEERING COLLEGE DEPARTMENT OF EEE

Exp. No.: Date:


STUDY OF FORCED COMMUTATION CIRCUITS

8.1 OBJECTIVE: To Verify the different types of forced commutation circuits by connecting a
resistive load.
8.2 RESOURCES:
S.No EQUIPMENT Qty
1. Forced commutation Kit 1
2. Regulated Power Supply 1
3. Rheostat 2
4. CRO 1
5. Patch cards

8.3 PRECAUTIONS:
1. Make sure all the connecting links are tightly fixed.
2. Ensure all the controlling knobs in fully counterclockwise position before starting experiment.
3. Handle everything with care.
4. Make sure the firing pulses are proper before connecting to the power circuit.
5. If the output is zero even after all power connections, switch OFF the MCB and just
interchange AC input connections to the power circuit. This is to make the firing circuit and
power circuit to synchronize.
St. MARTINS ENGINEERING COLLEGE DEPARTMENT OF EEE

8.4 MODEL GRAPHS:


CLASS-A COMMUTATION:

CLASS-B COMMUTATION:

CLASS-C COMMUTATION:

CLASS-D COMMUTATION:

8.5 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:


St. MARTINS ENGINEERING COLLEGE DEPARTMENT OF EEE

CLASS-A COMMUTATION: CLASS-B COMMUTATION:


T1

L
L
T1
C
(0-15V) R
C To CRO
(0-15V)

R
To CRO

CLASS-C COMMUTATION: CLASS-D COMMUTATION:

T1

R1 R2
+
C
TA

R

(0-15V) (0-30V)
T1 T2

L
D

8.6 PROCEDURE:
CLASS-A COMMUTATION:
St. MARTINS ENGINEERING COLLEGE DEPARTMENT OF EEE

1. Connect the circuit as shown in the circuit.


2. Connect Trigger output T1 to gate and cathode of SCR T1
3. Switch on the DC supply to the power circuit and observe the voltage waveform across load by
varying the frequency potentiometer.
4. Repeat the same for different values of L, C and R.
CLASS-B COMMUTATION:
1. Connect the circuit as shown in the circuit.
2. Connect Trigger output T1 to gate and cathode of SCR T1
3. Switch on the DC supply to the power circuit and observe the voltage waveform across load by
varying the frequency potentiometer.
4. Repeat the same for different values of L,C and R.
Note: Same procedure for Class-A and Class-B Commutation.

CLASS-C COMMUTATION:
1. Connect the circuit as shown in the circuit.
2. Connect T1 and T2 from firing circuit to gate and cathode of Thyristor T1 and T2.
3. Observe the waveforms across R1,R2 and C by varying frequency and also duty cycle
potentiometer.
4. Repeat the same for different values of C and R.

CLASS-D COMMUTATION:
1. Connect the circuit as shown in the circuit.
2. Connect T1 and T2 gate pulse from the firing circuit to the corresponding SCRs in the power
circuit.
3. Initially keep the trigger ON/OFF at OFF position to initially charge the capacitor, this can be
observed by connecting CRO across the capacitor.
4. Now switch ON the trigger output switch and observe the voltage waveform across the load
T1, T2 and capacitor. Note down the voltage waveforms at different frequency of chopping and
also at different duty cycle.
5. Repeat the experiment for different values of load Resistance, commutation inductance and
capacitance.

8.7 TABULAR FORMS:


St. MARTINS ENGINEERING COLLEGE DEPARTMENT OF EEE

S.No. Classes Time in milli sec. Amplitude in Volts


Ton(ms) Toff(ms) VL VSCR Vc
+V V
A
A

S.No. Classes Time in milli sec. Amplitude in Volts


Ton(ms) Toff(ms) VL VSCR VC
+V V +V V
B
B
B

S.No. Classes Time in milli sec. Amplitude in Volts


Ton(ms) Toff(ms) VL VSCR VC
V1 V2 +V V +V V
C
C
C

S.No. Classes Time in milli sec. Amplitude in Volts


Ton(ms) Toff(ms) VL VSCR VC
+V V +V V
D
D
D

8.8 RESULT: The operations of class- A, B, C, and D are observed.

8.9 PRE LAB QUESTIONS:-

1. What is meant by commutation?


St. MARTINS ENGINEERING COLLEGE DEPARTMENT OF EEE

2. List out the commutation techniques?


3. Why is forced commutation required in dc choppers?
4. Explain the working principle of type E Chopper?

8.10 POST LAB QUESTIONS:-


1. What is a four quadrant chopper?
2. What is the commutation angle of a rectifier?
3. What are the effects of source inductances on the output voltage of a rectifier?
4. What is a commutation of diodes?

Exp. No.: Date:


SINGLE PHASE CYCLO CONVERTER WITH R & RL LOADS

9.1OBJECTIVE:

To verify the operation of single phase Cyclo Converter with R and RL Loads and to observe
the output and input waveforms
9.2 RESOURCES:
St. MARTINS ENGINEERING COLLEGE DEPARTMENT OF EEE

S.No EQUIPMENT Qty


I- Center tapped
1. 1
Transformer
I- Cyclo Converter power
2. 1
circuit with firing unit
3. Rheostat 1
4. Inductive load 1
5. Voltmeter(MI) 1
6. CRO with (1:10) Probe 1
7. Patch cards 1 set

9.3 PRECAUTIONS:
1. Make sure all the connecting links are tightly fixed.
2. Ensure all the controlling knobs in fully counterclockwise position before starting experiment.
3. Handle everything with care.
4. Make sure the firing pulses are proper before connecting to the power circuit.
5. If the output is zero even after all power connections, switch OFF the MCB and just
interchange AC input connections to the power circuit. This is to make the firing circuit and
power circuit to synchronize.

9.4 MODEL GRAPHS:

1/2f cycloconverter waveforms


St. MARTINS ENGINEERING COLLEGE DEPARTMENT OF EEE

1/3f cyclo converter waveforms

1/4f cycloconverter waveforms

9.5 CIRCUIT DIAGRAMS:


St. MARTINS ENGINEERING COLLEGE DEPARTMENT OF EEE

T1

Ph

T3
1-, 230V 50Hz To CRO
AC Supply R

T2

N
center tapped
transformer
T4

Fig1-Single phase cyclo converter with R-load

T1

Ph

T3 R
1-, 230V To CRO
50Hz
AC Supply
T2
L

N
center tapped
transformer
T4
Fig2-Single phase cyclo converter with RL-loadFig-2

9.6 PROCEDURE:
St. MARTINS ENGINEERING COLLEGE DEPARTMENT OF EEE

A) For R-Load:
1. Connect the circuit as shown in figure.
2. Verify the connections from the lab instructor before switch on the supply.
3. Keep the rheostat position value given by the lab instructor
4. Switch ON the supply and note down the frequency of input voltage from the CRO.
5. Set the frequency division switch at 2 and note the readings of time period of output
voltage waveform for different set of firing angles
6. Calculate the practical value of output frequency by reciprocating the value of time
period and theoretical value of frequency will be found from frequency division setting
7. Repeat the above process from step 5 to 6 for frequency division of 3 and 4.
B). For RL-Load:
1. Connect the circuit as shown in figure.
2. Connect an inductance of given value in series with the load resistance.
3. Verify the connections from the lab instructor before switch on the supply.
4. Keep the rheostat position value given by the lab instructor
5. Switch ON the supply and note down the frequency of input voltage from the CRO.
6. Set the frequency division switch at 2 and note the readings of time period of output
voltage waveform for different set of firing angles
7. Calculate the practical value of output frequency by reciprocating the value of time
period and theoretical value of frequency will be found from frequency division
setting
8. Repeat the above process from step 5 to 6 for frequency division of 3 and 4.

9.7 TABULAR FORMS:


St. MARTINS ENGINEERING COLLEGE DEPARTMENT OF EEE

A) For R-Load:
The input voltage Vph = V (As given by the instructor)
Value of load resistance RL= (As given by the instructor)
Input frequency = Hz
S.NO. Frequency Firing angle() Time period in Frequency Frequency
division in degrees msec (practical) (theoretical)

B) For RL-Load:
The input voltage Vph = V (As given by the instructor)
Value of load resistance RL= (As given by the instructor)
Value of Load inductance L= mH(As given by the instructor)

S.NO. Frequency Firing angle() Time period in Frequency Frequency


division in degrees msec (practical) (theoretical)

9.8 RESULT: The operation of I- cyclo converter is verified and the theoretical and practical values
of output frequencies at different frequency divisions are found both for R & RL loads

9.9PRE LAB QUESTIONS:-


1. On what principle does cycloconverter works?
2. What is the major difference between AC voltage controller and cycloconverter?
3. What type of commutation is employed in cycloconverter?

9.10 POST LAB QUESTIONS:-

1. What is the purpose of reactor connected in cycloconverter?


2. What happens to the output if the frequency of operation is beyond suggested limit?
3. What are the applications of cycloconverter?

Exp. No.: Date:


PSPICE SIMULATION OF SINGLE PHASE INVERTER WITH PWM CONTROL
St. MARTINS ENGINEERING COLLEGE DEPARTMENT OF EEE

10.1 OBJECTIVE: To study the output of single phase Inverter with PWM control using PSPICE
simulation.
10.2 Resources: PSPICE Software

10.3CIRCUIT DIAGRAMS OF SINGLE PHASE INVERTER WITH PWM CONTROL

(a) Circuit

(b) PWM generator


St. MARTINS ENGINEERING COLLEGE DEPARTMENT OF EEE

(c) carrier and reference signals

10.4 CIRCUIT MODEL FOR SINGLE PHASE INVERTER WITH PWM CONTROL
VS 1 0 DC 100V
VR 17 0 PULSE (50V 0V 0 833.33US 833.33US 1NS 16666.67US)
RR 17 0 2MEG
VC1 15 0 PULSE (0 -30V 0 1NS 1NS 8333.33US 16666.67US)
RC1 15 0 2MEG
VC3 16 0 PULSE (0 -30V 8333.33US 1NS 1NS 8333.33US 16666.67US)
RC3 16 0 2MEG
R 4 5 2.5
L 5 6 10MH
VX 3 4 DC 0V
VY 1 2 DC 0V
D1 3 2 DMOD
D2 0 6 DMOD
D3 6 2 DMOD
D4 0 3 DMOD
.MODEL DMOD D (IS=2.2E-15 BV=1800V TT=0)
Q1 2 7 3 QMOD
Q2 6 9 0 QMOD
Q3 2 11 6 QMOD
Q4 3 13 0 QMOD
.MODEL QMOD NPN(IS=6.734F BF=416.4 CJC=3.638P CJE=4.493P)
RG1 8 7 100
RG2 10 9 100
RG3 12 11 100
RG4 14 13 100
* SUBCIRCUIT CALL FOR PWM CONTROL
XPW1 17 15 8 3 PWM
St. MARTINS ENGINEERING COLLEGE DEPARTMENT OF EEE

XPW2 17 15 10 0 PWM
XP3 17 16 12 6 PWM
XP4 17 16 14 0 PWM
* SUBCIRCUIT FOR PWM CONTROL
.SUBCKT PWM 1 2 3 4
R1 1 5 1K
R2 2 5 1K
RIN 5 0 2MEG
RF 5 3 100K
RO 6 3 75
CO 3 4 10PF
E1 6 4 0 5 2E+5
.ENDS PWM
.TRAN 10US 16.67MS 0 10US
.PROBE
.OPTIONS ABSTOL 1.00N RELTOL=0.01 VNTOL=0.1 ITL5=20000
.FOUR 60HZ V (3, 6)
.END

10.5 RESULT:
PSPICE simulation of single phase Inverter with PWM control is studied and output
waveforms are observed.

10.6PRE LAB QUESTIONS:-

1. What are the disadvantages of PWM control?


2. What are the methods of reduction of harmonic content?
3. What is meant by PWM control?
4. What are the main classifications of inverter?
10.7POST LAB QUESTIONS:-

1. What is meant by inverter?


2. What is McMurray Inverter?
3. How is the inverter circuit classified based on commutation circuitry?
4. What are the applications of an inverter?
St. MARTINS ENGINEERING COLLEGE DEPARTMENT OF EEE

Exp. No.: Date:


PSPICE SIMULATION OF BUCK CHOPPER AND RESONANT PULSE COMMUTATION

11.1OBJECTIVE:
Study of resonant pulse commutation circuit and Buck chopper with PSPICE simulation
11.2 RESOURCES: PSPICE Software
11.3 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OF RESONANT PULSE COMMUTATION

11.4 CIRCUIT FILE FOR RESONANT PULSE COMMUTATION


VS 1 0 DC 12V
VY 1 2 DC 0V
VG 8 0 PULSE(0V 20V 0 1NS 1NS 12.24US 40US)
RB 8 7 250
R 6 0 10
LE 2 3 25.47UH
CE 3 0 1.38UF
C 3 4 0.0958UF
L 5 6 445.63UH
VX 4 5 DC 0V
Q1 3 7 0 MODQ1
.MODEL MODQ1NPN (IS=6.734F BF=416.4 ISE=6.734F BR=.7371
+ CJE=3.637P MJC=0.3085 VJC=.75 CJE=4.493P MJE=.2593 VJE=.75
+ TR=239.5N TF=301.2P)
.TRAN 2US 300US 180US 1US UIC
.PROBE
.OPTIONS ABSTOL=1.00N VNTOL=0.1 ITL5=20000
.END
St. MARTINS ENGINEERING COLLEGE DEPARTMENT OF EEE

11.5 Circuit diagram of buck converter

11.6 CIRCUIT MODEL FOR BUCK CHOPPER


VS 1 0 DC 110V
VY 1 2 DC 0V
VG 7 3 PULSE (0V 20V 0 0.1NS 0.1 NS 27.28US 50US
RB 7 6 250
LE 3 4 681.82UHCE 4 0 8.33UF IC=60V
L 4 8 40.91UH
R853
VX 5 0 DC 0V
DM 0 3 DMOD
.MODEL DMOD D (IS=2.2E-15 BV=1800V TT=0)
Q1 2 6 3 QMOD
.MODEL QMOD NPN (IS=6.734F BF=416.4 BR=.7371 CJC=3.638P
+ CJE=4.493P TR=239.5N TF=301.2P)
.TRAN 1US 1.6MS 1US UIC
.PROBE
.OPTIONS ABSTOL=1.00N RELTOL=0.01 VNTOL=0.1 ITL5=50000
.FOUR 20KHZ I(VY)
.END

11.7 RESULT: PSPICE simulation of resonant pulse commutation circuit and Buck chopper is studied
and output waveforms are observed.
St. MARTINS ENGINEERING COLLEGE DEPARTMENT OF EEE

11.8 PRE LAB QUESTIONS:-

1. What is PSPICE?

2. What is the principle of Buck Chopper?

3. What are the different types of chopper with respect to commutation process?

11.9 POST LAB QUESTIONS:-

1. What are the applications of dc chopper?

2. What is commutation angle or overlap?

3. What are the advantages of current commutated chopper?


St. MARTINS ENGINEERING COLLEGE DEPARTMENT OF EEE

Exp. No.: Date:


STUDY OF CHARACTERISTICS OF SCR, MOSFET & IGBT

A. STUDY THE CHARACTERISTICS OF SCR.


12.1 OBJECTIVE:
To plot the forward characteristics of SCR and the find the forward Resistance.

12.2 RESOURCES:
Name of the
S. No. Range Type Quantity
Apparatus
1 SCR TYN 616 - 1
2 Ammeter (0 100)mA MC 1
3 Ammeter (0 25)mA MC 1
4 DMW (0 5)V MC 1
5 RPSU (0 30)V DC 2
6 Connecting wires - - As required

12.3 PROCEDURE:
1. Make the connections as per the circuit diagram.
2. Keep E1 & E2 (RPSU) at minimum position.
3. Set load potentiometer in minimum position.
4. Switch ON the supply and to set some value of Vak voltage (5V to 7V).
5. BY adjusting E2 and set some value of IG (constant).
6. Slowly vary E1 and note down the corresponding Vak and meter readings.
7. By varying E2 (or) Gate current potentiometer R2, adjust IG to some other values (constant).
8. Repeat the same procedure step 6 to obtain the different values of Vak and Ia.
9. Bring back everything to minimum position then switch off the supply.
10. Draw the graph Vak Vs Ia.
11. Then from the forward characteristics take the slope and find out forward resistance by using
the formulae
Vak
( )
Rf = I a
St. MARTINS ENGINEERING COLLEGE DEPARTMENT OF EEE

STUDY OF CHARACTERISTICS OF SCR


(0-100mA)mc
R1 = 1k
+ Ia -

A +
TYN Vak (0-5V)mc
(0-25mA)mc
R2 616
+ - -
Ig
G K
+ V1
V2 +
RPS
RPS - (0
(0 - 30V)
30V)

12.4TABULAR FORMS:
IG1 =__________ (mA)
S.No. VAK (volts) IA (mA)

IG2 = ________ (mA)


S.No. VAK (volts) IA (mA)

12.5 MODEL GRAPH:


St. MARTINS ENGINEERING COLLEGE DEPARTMENT OF EEE

Ia
(ma)

IA2
IL
IA1 IG1 > IG2
IG2 IG1
IH

VAK1 VAk2
O VBO1 VBO2 VAK (Volts)

12.6 RESULT:
Thus the characteristics of SCRs is studied and we plotted the forward characteristics of
SCRs also found the forward resistance, RF=____ ()
St. MARTINS ENGINEERING COLLEGE DEPARTMENT OF EEE

B. TO STUDY THE CHARACTERISTICS OF MOSFET

12.7 OBJECTIVE:
To plot the transfer characteristics and drain characteristics of MOSFET.

12.8 RESOURCES:
S. No. Name of the Apparatus Range Type Quantity
1 MOSFET IRF 740 - 1
2 Ammeter (0 500)MA MC 1
3 Voltmeter (0 20V) MC 1
4 Voltmeter (0 50V) MC 1
5 RPS (0 30)V DC 2
6 Connecting wires - - As required

12.9 PROCEDURE:
a. Transfer characteristics:-
1. Make the connections as per the circuit diagram.
2. Keep E1 &E2 (RPS) at minimum position initially.
3. Switch on the power supply.
4. Set E1 to some voltage (constant) and note down the readings of ID AND Vgs in steps by
adjusting E2 in step of 0.5 volt.
5. Bring back E1 & E2 to minimum position and switch off the power supply.
6. Plot the graph Vgs Vs ID.

FORMULAE USED:
Trans conductance (GM) = Change in Drain current / Change in Gate source voltage
= ID/VGS
St. MARTINS ENGINEERING COLLEGE DEPARTMENT OF EEE

12.10TABULAR FORMS:
Trans conductance characteristics: VDS = _____ (V)

S.No. ID (A) VGS (V)

b. Drain Characteristics:

12.11PROCEDURE:
1. Make the connections as per the circuit diagram.
2. Switch ON the supply.
3. Initially set some value of VGS by adjusting E2.
4. Slowly vary E1 and note down the readings of ID and VDS
5. Set some other values of VGS and repeat the procedure step 4.
6. Bring back E1 and E2 position in minimum and switch off the power supply.
7. Plot the graph ID Vs VDS

FORMULAE USED:
Drain Resistance (RD) = VDS/ID
St. MARTINS ENGINEERING COLLEGE DEPARTMENT OF EEE

STUDY OF CHARACTERISTICS OF MOSFET


(0-500mA)mc
R1
+ Id -

D
A +
IRF Vds (0-50V)mc
740
-
G
S
+ V1
V2 + +
RPS
RPS Vgs (0-20V)mc
(0-30V) - (0
- - 30V)

12.12 TABULATION:
Drain characteristic:- VGS = _________(V)

S.No. ID (A) VDS (V)

12.13 MODEL GRAPH:


TRANS CONDUCTANCE CHARACTERISTICS
St. MARTINS ENGINEERING COLLEGE DEPARTMENT OF EEE

ID

V DS = 15V

ID
(on)

V GS (Th) V GS (on) V DS
3.5V

DRAIN CHARACTERISTICS

ID in
mA

V GS = 3.6V

V GS = 3.55V
V GS = 3.5V

V DS

12.14RESULT:
Thus the characteristics of MOSFET is studied and we plotted the Trans conductance and drain
characteristics of MOSFET and also found the Trans conductance, Gm=____ ( ), Drain Resistance
Rd=______ ()
St. MARTINS ENGINEERING COLLEGE DEPARTMENT OF EEE

C. STUDY CHARACTERISTICS OF IGBT


12.15OBJECTIVE:
To obtain transfer and output characteristics of IGBT.
12.16 RESOURCES:
Name of the
S. No. Range Type Quantity
Apparatus
1 IGBT IRGBC 205 - 1
2 Ammeter (0 500)MA MC 1
3 Voltmeter (0 20V) MC 1
4 Voltmeter (0 50V) MC 1
5 RPS (0 30)V DC 2
6 Connecting wires - - As required
12.17 PROCEDURE:
Transfer characteristics:
1. Make connection as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set E1& E2 (RPS) to minimum position Initially.
3. Switch ON the supply.
4. Set some value of VCE (constant) by adjusting E1.
5. Vary E2 in steps and note down the corresponding reading of VGE and IC.
6. Bring back E1 & E2 to original position and switch off the power supply.
7. Plot the graph VGE Vs IC.

O/P or Collector characteristics:


1. Make the connections as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set some value of VGE (constant) and by adjusting E2.
3. Slowly vary E1 and note down the readings of VCE and IC values.
4. For some other value of VGE (constant), repeat the procedure step 3.
5. Bring back E1 & E2 to minimum position and switch off the power supply.
6. Plot the graph VCE Vs IC.
St. MARTINS ENGINEERING COLLEGE DEPARTMENT OF EEE

STUDY OF CHARACTERISTICS OF IGBT


(0-500mA)mc
R1
+ Ic -

IRBGC
20S C
G +
Vce (0-50V)mc
-
E
+ V1
V2 + +
RPS
RPS Vge (0-20V)mc - (0
(0 - 30V)
-
30V)

12.18 TABULAR FORMS:-


a. Transfer characteristics:
VCE = _________ (V)

S.No. VGE (V) IC (mA)


St. MARTINS ENGINEERING COLLEGE DEPARTMENT OF EEE

b. O / P or collector characteristics:
VGE = _________ (V)

S.No. VCE (V) IC (mA)

12.19MODEL GRAPH:
TRANSFER CHARACTERISTICS

IC

V CE = 15V

IC
(on)

V CE (Th) V CE (on) V CE
5V

COLLECTOR CHARACTERISTICS

IC in V GE = 5.25V
mA
V GE = 5.2V

V GE = 5.15V

V GE = 5.1V

V CE

12.20 RESULT:
Thus the characteristic of IGBT is studied and we plotted the Transfer and collector
characteristics of IGBT.
St. MARTINS ENGINEERING COLLEGE DEPARTMENT OF EEE

Exp. No.: Date:


SINGLE PHASE SERIES INVERTER WITH R AND RL LOADS

13.1 OBJECTIVE:
To study the operation of Single-phase series inverter with R and RL loads and plot its output
waveform.

13.2 RESOURCES:
S.No. ITEM RANGE TYPE QUANTITY
1 Series inverter power circuit kits 1 ,230 V , 2 A 1
2 Series inverter firing circuit kit 1 ,230 V , 2 A 1
3 Loading rheostat 100 / 2A 1
4 Loading Inductor 150mH, 5A - 1
5 Regulated power supply (0 30 V) / 2 A 1
6 CRO 20 MHZ 1
7 Patch chords 15
13.3 MODEL GRAPH (SERIES INVERTER):

T1

T2 t

ec1 t

t
ec2

eo

t
St. MARTINS ENGINEERING COLLEGE DEPARTMENT OF EEE

13.4 PROCEDURE (SERIES INVERTER) :


1. Make the connections as per the circuit diagram.
2. Switch on the thyristor firing circuit
3. Keep the frequency knob of the firing circuit kit below the resonance Frequency of power
circuit kit
4. Switch on the DC power supply connected to the power circuit kit and Switch on the firing
circuit kit
5. Vary the frequency knob of the firing circuit kit
6. Observe the waveform from the CRO.
7. Repeat the same procedure for different values of L,C and load resistance.
8. Switch of the power supply and disconnect the connection
9. Calculate the frequency of the output waveform.

13.5 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM -SERIES INVERTER

T1 C1
(0-30V), M.I
D1
FUSE2A)
V
L1

(0-30)V LOAD
RPS L2
CR
O
T2 C2
D2
St. MARTINS ENGINEERING COLLEGE DEPARTMENT OF EEE

13.6 TABULAR FORMS (SERIES INVERTER):

RESONANCE FREQUENCY = ____________: FIRING ANGLE = __________

S.No. Input Voltage Frequency Of Firing Output Voltage


(Vi) Volts Circuit (Hz) Vo (Volts)

13.7 RESULT:
Thus a single-phase series inverter operation was studied and its output waveform was plotted.

13.8 PRE LAB QUESTIONS:-


1. What is series inverter?
2. What are the advantages of basic series inverter?
3. Compare basic &modified series inverter?

13.9 POST LAB QUESTIONS:-


1. What is the condition for resonant circuit behave like a capacitive load and
inductive load in series resonant inverter
2. What are the drawbacks of a basic series inverter?
3. What are the applications of series inverters?
4. Why are the inductors L1, L2 and why are two capacitors needed?
St. MARTINS ENGINEERING COLLEGE DEPARTMENT OF EEE

Exp. No.: Date:


THREE PHASE HALF CONTROLLED BRIDGE CONVERTER WITH R LOADS.

14.1 OBJECTIVE
The objective of Experiment is to analyze the operation (Switching) of three phase half
controlled rectifiers with resistive load.

14.2 RESOURCES:

S. No. Name of the Apparatus Range Type Quantity


3 Half controlled
1 converter power and - - 1
firing module
2 Loading Rheostat 150, 5A - 1
4 CRO & probe 20MHz Dual 1
5 Connecting wires - As required

14.3 SPECIFICATIONS:
Input Supply : 415V / 3ph. Supply for phase synchronization and 230V, 50Hz
Single phase supply for the power supply
Output : Six pairs of pulse transformer isolated trigger pulses.
Gate drive current : 230mA.
Gate Voltage : Open circuit- 5.1V, SCR LOAD-1.2V.
Gate pulse width : Fixed 6.3 msec.
Firing angle control : Internal 180 to 0 phase control by Potentiometer
External 180 to 0 phase control obtained by external control
voltage between Vc and GND.
Test points : R, Y, B isolated signals for monitoring with respect to GND 1 to 8
provide the test signals at various points of the trigger circuit.

14.4 PRECAUTIONS:
1. Make sure all the connecting links are tightly fixed.
2. Ensure all the controlling knobs in fully counterclockwise position before starting experiment.
3. Handle everything with care.
4. Make sure the firing pulses are proper before connecting to the power circuit.
5. If the output is zero even after all power connections, switch OFF the MCB and just
interchange AC input connections to the power circuit. This is to make the firing circuit and
power circuit to synchronize.

14.5 Waveform:
St. MARTINS ENGINEERING COLLEGE DEPARTMENT OF EEE

14.6 Circuit diagram:


St. MARTINS ENGINEERING COLLEGE DEPARTMENT OF EEE

14.7 PROCEDURE :
1. Connect the three-phase half wave controlled rectifier circuit shown in Fig.(1) on the power
electronic trainer.
2. Turn on the power.
3. By use oscilloscope, plot the input and output waveforms on the same graph paper" same axis".
4. Measure the average and RMS output voltage by connect the AVO meter across load resistance.
5. Turn off the power
6. Use an inductive load. With L=10mH measure the output voltage and plot the output waveform.
7. Repeat step 6 with L=100mH measure the output voltage and plot the output waveforms.
8. Repeat step 6 & 7 with connect the freewheeling diode across the load

14.8 TABULAR FORMS: 1. for R load

S. No. Input Firing Output voltage Output


voltage angle (a) (V) Theoretical
(V) voltage

14.9 Result:
Thus the operation (Switching) of three phase half controlled rectifiers with resistive load was studied.

14.10PRE LAB QUESTIONS:-


1. What is the delay angle control of converters?
2. What is natural or line commutation?
3. What is extinction angle?
4. Can a freewheeling diode be used in this circuit and justify the reason?
14.11 POSTLAB QUESTIONS:-
1. What is conduction angle?
2. What are the effects of adding freewheeling diode in this circuit?
3. What are the effects of removing the freewheeling diode in three phase semi converter?

Exp. No.: Date:


SINGLE PHASE BRIDGE CONVERTER WITH R AND RL LOADS.
St. MARTINS ENGINEERING COLLEGE DEPARTMENT OF EEE

15.1OBJECTIVE:
To study the module and waveforms of a 1- Bridge Converter with RL and RL loads.

15.2 RESOURCES:

S. No. Name of the Apparatus Range Type Quantity


1 Full bridge
controlled converter
1 - - 1
power and firing
Vi (v) module
2 Loading Rheostat 150, 5A - 1
3 Loading Inductor 150mH, 5A - 1
t (ms)
4 0 CRO & probe 20MHz Dual 1
2 3 4
5 Connecting wires - As required

15.3 SPECIFICATIONS:
Output Waveform R- Load at =00
1. Input : 1, 230V 50Hz, AC supply.
VL (v)
2. Load : R and RL loads.
3. Thyristors : 16A, 1200V, type 16 TTS/TYN616 t (ms)
0
4. Diode : 25A, 1200V, BY126/BY127
VL (v) Output Waveform R- Load at =45 0
5. MCB : Two pole 230V/16A
6. Fuses : 16A HRC.
t (ms)
7.0 Field Supply bridge rectifier: 10A, 600V.

VL (v)
8. RL- Load at
Field Supply =450: 220V + 10%.

15.4 PRECAUTIONS: t (ms)


0
1. Make sure all the connecting links are tightly fixed.
2.V Ensure
R- Load at =900
(v) all the controlling knobs in fully counterclockwise position before starting experiment.
L
3. Handle
0 everything with care.
4. Make sure the firing pulses are proper before connecting to the power circuit. t (ms)
at =90
5. If the output is zero 0
RL- even
Loadafter all power connections, switch OFF the MCB and just
VL (v)
interchange AC input connections to the power circuit. This is to make the firing circuit and
power circuit to synchronize.
t (ms)
0 GRAPH:
15.5 MODEL
Input Waveform
R- Load at =135
0

VL (v)
t (ms)
0
St. MARTINS ENGINEERING COLLEGE DEPARTMENT OF EEE

15.6PROCEDURE:
St. MARTINS ENGINEERING COLLEGE DEPARTMENT OF EEE

1. Switch ON the main supply to the firing circuit. Observe the trigger output by varying firing
angle potentiometer and by operating ON/OFF switch their phase sequence. Make sure the
firing pulses are proper before connecting to the power circuit.
2. Make the connections as per the circuit diagram.
3. Connect 30V tapping of the transformer secondary to the power circuit.
4. Connect firing pulses from the firing circuit to their respective SCRs in power circuit.
5. Switch ON the MCB and now switch ON the trigger pulses by operate ON/OFF switch in the
firing circuit.
6. Observe the output voltage waveforms across load and devices us oscilloscope.
7. Note down the input voltage, firing angle, Output voltage and output circuit reading in the
TABULAR FORMS.
8. Repeat the same for different input voltage up to max. voltage as provided in the isolation
transformer.
9. Repeat the same for R-L and RLE loads with and without freewheeling diode.
10. Draw the waveforms in the graph at firing angles 00, 450, 900, 1350 and 1800.

FORMULAE USED:
Vm
1 cos
Average output voltage R load, VAvg=
2Vm
cos
Average output voltage RL load, VAvg=
St. MARTINS ENGINEERING COLLEGE DEPARTMENT OF EEE

SINGLE PHASE FULL CONTROLLED BRIDGE CONVERTER WITH R


LOAD

4 TYN616

P K1 K3
G1 G3

230V 30V T1 T3
A1 A3
1 , 230V, LOAD
50Hz, AC R 150 , 5A
G4 G2
0V 0V K4 K2
T4 T2
N
A4 A2

15.7TABULAR FORMS:
a. For R load
Theoretical
Firing Output voltage
S.No. Input voltage (V) Output
angle ( ) (V)
voltage (V)
St. MARTINS ENGINEERING COLLEGE DEPARTMENT OF EEE

SINGLE PHASE FULL CONTROLLED BRIDGE CONVERTER WITH RL


LOAD

4 TYN616

P K1 K3
G1 G3

230V 30V T1 T3
A1 R LOAD
A3
1 , 230V, 150 , 5A
50Hz, AC 0-150mH, 5A
L
G4 G2
0V 0V K4 K2

T4 T2
N
A4 A2

b. For RL load without freewheeling diode:


Theoretical
Firing Output voltage
S.No. Input voltage (V) Output
angle ( ) (V)
voltage (V)

15.8 MODEL CALCULATIONS:


St. MARTINS ENGINEERING COLLEGE DEPARTMENT OF EEE

15.9RESULT:
Thus the single phase Full controlled bridge converter with R and RL load is studied and
also plotted the waveforms of different firing angles.

15.10PRE LAB QUESTIONS:-


1. State the type of commutation used in this circuit?

2. What will happen if the firing angle is greater than 90 degrees?

3. What are the performance parameters of rectifier?

4. What are the advantages of three phase rectifier over a single phase rectifier?

5. What is the difference between half wave and full wave rectifier?

15.11 POST LAB QUESTIONS:-

1. If firing angle is greater than 90 degrees, the inverter circuit formed is called as?

2. What is Dc output voltage of single phase full wave controller?

3. What are the effects of source inductance on the output voltage of a rectifier?

4. What is commutation angle of a rectifier?

5. What are the advantages of three phase rectifier over a single phase rectifier?
St. MARTINS ENGINEERING COLLEGE DEPARTMENT OF EEE

Exp. No.: Date:


OPERATION OF MOSFET BASED CHOPPER.

16.1OBJECTIVE:
To study the Step up & Step down MOSFET based choppers and draw its output response
graph.

16.2 RESOURCES:
S.NO ITEM RANGE QUANTITY

Step up & Step down MOSFET - 1


1
based chopper kit
2 CRO 20 MHZ 1
3 Patch chords - 15

16.3 MODEL GRAPH (STEP UP CHOPPER) :

MODEL GRAPH (STEP DOWN CHOPPER) :


St. MARTINS ENGINEERING COLLEGE DEPARTMENT OF EEE

16.4PROCEDURE (STEP UP CHOPPER & STEP DOWN CHOPPER) :


1. Initially keep all the switches in the OFF position
2. Initially keep duty cycle POT in minimum position
3. Connect banana connector 24V DC source to 24V DC imput.
4. Connect the driver pulse [output to MOSFET input
5. Switch on the main supply
6. Check the test point waveforms with respect to ground.
7. Vary the duty cyle POT and tabulate the Ton, Toff & output voltage
8. Trace the waveforms of Vo Vs & Io
9. Draw the graph for Vo Vs Duty cycle, K

16.5 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM (STEP UP CHOPPER) :

16.6 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM (STEP DOWN CHOPPER):


St. MARTINS ENGINEERING COLLEGE DEPARTMENT OF EEE

16.7 TABULAR FORMS (STEP UP CHOPPER):


Vs = ____________ V

S.NO T ON TOFF T Duty Ratio, k=TON / T Vo=kVs(V)


(sec) (sec) (sec)

TABULAR FORMS (STEP DOWN CHOPPER):


Vs = ____________ V

S.NO T ON TOFF T Duty Ratio, k=TON / T Vo=kVs(V)


(sec) (sec) (sec)

16.8RESULT:
Thus the output response of Step down & Step up MOSFET based choppers was drawn.
16.9PRE LAB QUESTIONS:-
1. What is control methods used in f chopper?
2. What is meant by step-up and step-down chopper?
3. Power MOSFET is a voltage controlled device. Why?
4. What are the different types of power MOSFET?

16.10POST LAB QUESTIONS:-


1. What is meant by step-up and step-down chopper?
1. What are the advantages of three phase rectifier over a single phase rectifier?
2. What are the advantages of MOSFETs over BJTs?
Exp. No.: Date:
St. MARTINS ENGINEERING COLLEGE DEPARTMENT OF EEE

SINGLE PHASE DUAL CONVERTER WITH RL LOAD

17.1OBJECTIVE:
To study and observer the operation of single phase dual converter with RL loads.

17.2RESOURCES:

S. No. Name of the Apparatus Range Type Quantity


1 dual converter
1 power and firing - - 1
module
2 Loading Rheostat 150, 5A - 1
3 Loading Inductor 150mH, 5A - 1
4 CRO & probe 20MHz Dual 1
5 Connecting wires - As required

17.3SPECIFICATIONS:
1. Input : 1, 230V 50Hz, AC supply.
2. Load : R and RL loads.
3. Thyristors : 16A, 1200V, type 16 TTS/TYN616
4. Diode : 25A, 1200V, BY126/BY127
5. MCB : Two pole 230V/16A
6. Fuses : 16A HRC.

17.4 PRECAUTIONS:
1. Make sure all the connecting links are tightly fixed.
2. Ensure all the controlling knobs in fully counterclockwise position before starting experiment.
3. Handle everything with care.
4. Make sure the firing pulses are proper before connecting to the power circuit.
5. If the output is zero even after all power connections, switch OFF the MCB and just
interchange AC input connections to the power circuit. This is to make the firing circuit and
power circuit to synchronize.

17.5 MODEL GRAPH:


St. MARTINS ENGINEERING COLLEGE DEPARTMENT OF EEE

NON CIRCULATING CURRENT MODE:


P-TYPE CONVERTER AND N TYPE CONVERTER:

CIRCULATING CURRENT MODE:


N TYPE CONVERTER P TYPE CONVERTER

17.6 PROCEDURE:
1. Switch ON the single phase dual converter firing circuit. Make sure all the pulses are proper
before connecting to the power circuit.
2. Make the connections as per the circuit diagram for non circulating current mode.
3. Connect 30V tapping of the transformer secondary to the power circuit.
4. Connect firing pulses from the firing circuit to their respective SCRs in power circuit.
5. Switch ON the MCB and now switch ON the trigger pulses by operate ON/OFF switch in the
firing circuit.
6. Observe the output voltage waveforms across load and devices us oscilloscope.
7. Note down the input voltage, firing angle, Output voltage and output circuit reading in the
tabular forms.
8. Repeat the same for different input voltage up to max. Voltage as provided in the isolation
transformer.
9. Draw the waveforms in the graph at firing angles 00, 450, 900, 1350 and 1800.
10. Repeat the same step for circulating current mode also.
St. MARTINS ENGINEERING COLLEGE DEPARTMENT OF EEE

17.7 Circuit diagram:


Non circulating current mode:

Circulating current mode:

17.8 TABULAR FORMS:


For non circulating current mode
Firing Output voltage Ton +Toff
S.No. Input voltage (V)
angle ( ) (V) (sec)

For circulating current mode:


Firing Output voltage Ton +Toff
S.No. Input voltage (V)
angle ( ) (V) (sec)
St. MARTINS ENGINEERING COLLEGE DEPARTMENT OF EEE

17.9RESULT:
Thus the single phase dual converter with RL for circulating and non circulating mode of
current was studied and also plotted the waveforms of different firing angles.

17.10PRE LAB QUESTIONS:-


1. What is the four quadrant operation?

2. What will happen if the firing angle is greater than 90 degrees?

3. What are modes of operation carried out in dual converter?

4. What are the advantages of dual converter?

17.11POST LAB QUESTIONS:-

1. If firing angle is greater than 90 degrees, the inverter circuit formed is called as?

2. How to change the circulating to non circulating current mode?

3. Write advantages of dual converter?

4. What are the drawbacks of the dual converter?