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Report submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements

For the award of the degree of
Bachelor of Computer Science (Software Engineering)

Faculty of Computer Systems & Software Engineering

Universiti Malaysia Pahang

JUNE, 2012


Hostel Management is an application developed to manage the various activities in

hostel. The particular project is deal with the problems on managing the a hostel and
avoids the problem occurs when carried out manually. Identification of the drawbacks of
the existing system leads to the designing of computerized system that will be
compatible to the existing system with the system which is more friendly and more GUI
oriented. The objective of this project is to present a design of Hostel Management
System for SMA Pahang. Our research is a comparative study of software design in
development HMS for SMA Pahang. The study is focusly on fully utilize the OO
Diagram and functional-based diagram. Our focus is comparing the utilization and
significant of software design while developing the system using PHP for development
of HMS.


Pengurusan asrama adalah satu aplikasi yang dibangunkan untuk menguruskan

pelbagai aktiviti di asrama. Projek tertentu berurusan dengan masalah menguruskan
asrama dan mengelakkan masalah ini berlaku apabila dijalankan secara manual.
Pengenalan kelemahan system yang sedia ada membawa kepada mereka bentuk system
berkomputer yang akan menjadi serasi dengan system yang sedia ada dengan system
yang lebih mesra dan lebih berorientasikan GUI. Objektif projek ini adalah untuk
membentangkan reka bentuk Sistem Pengurusan Asrama untuk SMA Pahang.
Penyelidikan kami adalah satu kajian perbandingan reka bentuk perisian dalam
pembangunan HMS untuk SMA Pahang. Fokus kajian saya adalah menggunakan
sepenuhnya Rajah OO dan fungsi-berasaskan rajah.Tumpuan kami membandingkan
penggunaan dan reka bentuk perisian yang ketara pada masa yang sama membangunkan
system menggunakan PHP untuk pembangunan HMS.





1.1 Background 2
1.2 Problem Statement 3
1.3 Objectives 3
1.4 Scopes 4
1.5 Thesis Organization 5


2.1 Existing System Review 8

2.1.1 Hostel Management System 8 Screen Shot of Hostel Management 8
2.1.2 Hotel Decision Support System 11
2.1.3 College Management 12
2.1.4 Comparison of three (3) existing system 14
2.2 Software Design Review 15
2.2.1 Object Modeling Technique (OMT) 15 Introduction to OMT 15 What We Can Model With OMT 16 Example Diagram of OMT 17
2.2.2 Unified Modeling Language 20 Introduction to UML 20 What We Can Model With UML 21 Example Diagram of UML 22
2.2.3 Comparisons of OMT & UML 30
2.3 Tool for create dynamic and interactive Web pages 32
2.3.1 Adobe Dreamweaver 32 Advantages of Adobe 33
Dreamweaver Disadvantages of Adobe 34
2.3.2 PHP 35
2.3.3 ASP.NET 37
2.4 Database Languange 38
2.4.1 MySQL 38
2.4.2 Oracle 38


3.1 Iterative Incremental Development Methodology 40

3.2 Justification of Iterative and Incremental 41
Development Methodology
3.3 Iterative and Incremental Development Phases 42
3.3.1 Initial Planning 42
3.3.2 System Requirement 43 Hardware Requirement 44 Software Requirement 44
3.3.3 Analysis and Design 45 Logical Design 46 Entity Relationship Diagram 55
Design Systems Rules 56
3.3.4 Implementation and Testing 57 Coding 57 Testing 58
3.3.5 Evaluation and Deployment 58


4.1 System Interface 60

4.2 Scripting Technique 63
4.2.1 Declaration of variable in SQL statement 63
using PHP
4.2.2 SQL Statement 63


5.1 Introduction 65
5.2 Test Result 66
5.2.1 Test Login Functionality 66
5.2.2 Test Record Visitor Functionality 68

5.2.3 Test Search Student Functionality 69





2.1 Comparison of existing system 14

2.2 Comparison of OMT and UML 30
3.1 Hardware Specification 44
3.2 Software Requirement 45
3.3 Information Gathering 46
4.1 Explanation of the System Modules 60
5.1 Test case result (login functionality) 66
5.2 test case result (record visitor functionality) 68
5.3 test case result (search students outing 70



2.1 View of Room Information Interface 9

2.2 View of Listing Student Gate Pass In and Out at 10
Hostel Interface
2.3 OMT Object Diagram 17
2.4 OMT State Diagram 18
2.5 OMT Context Diagram 19
2.6 OMT Data Flow Diagram 19
2.7 Hierarchy of UML 2.0 Diagrams 21
2.8 UML Class Diagram 22
2.9 UML Component Diagram 22
2.10 UML Composite Structure Diagram 23
2.11 UML Deployment Diagram 23
2.12 UML Object Diagram 24
2.13 UML Package Diagram 24
2.14 UML Profile Diagram 25
2.15 UML Activity Diagram 25
2.16 UML Communication Diagram 26
2.17 UML Interaction Overview Diagram 27
2.18 UML Sequence Diagram 27
2.19 UML State Diagram 28

2.20 UML Timing Diagram 28

2.21 UML Use Case Diagram 29
3.1 Iterative and Incremental Development Methodologies 40
3.2 Context Diagram of Hostel Management System 47
3.3 Data Flow Diagram (DFD) Level 0 of HMS 48
3.4 Data Flow Diagram(DFD) Level 1 for Login 49
3.5 Data Flow Diagram (DFD) Level 1 for Setup Block 49
3.6 Data Flow Diagram (DFD) Level 1 for Setup Dorm 50
3.7 Data Flow Diagram (DFD) Level 1 for Assign Student 51
to Hostel
3.8 Data Flow Diagram (DFD) Level 1 for Generate 52
3.9 Data Flow Diagram (DFD) Level 1 for Outing Student 52
3.10 Data Flow Diagram (DFD) Level 1 for Apply Hostel 53
3.11 Data Flow Diagram (DFD) Level 1 for View Status 53
3.12 Data Flow Diagram (DFD) Level 1 for Record Visitor 54
3.13 Entity Relationship Diagram (ERD) of HMS 55
4.1 Interface of system 60
4.2 hostel application interface 61
4.3 Interface of Outing Management Module 62
4.4 interface of visitor management module 62
4.5 declaration of variable in PHP 63
4.6 INSERT SQL Statement 63
4.7 UPDATE SQL Statement 64
4,8 RETRIEVE SQL Statement 64
5.1 Login interface 66
5.2 record visitor interface 68
5.3 Search Student Form 69





This chapter briefly discuss on the overview of this research. It contains five
sections. The first section is introduction; follow by the problem statement. Next are
the objectives where the projects goal is determined. After that are the scopes of the
system and lastly is the thesis organization which briefly describes the structure of
this thesis.

1.1 Background

Hostel is a not a less than a home for students when staying away from their
home. It has large well ventilated dormitories and single rooms and is situated in the
school premises. Providing clean and calm hostel accommodation is one of the key
responsible of school management.

To manage the hostel facilities, a lot of data need to be maintained such as

number of student hostel can accommodate, hostel rules and regulation, hostel fee,
hostel in and out of student, guest and visitor record and so on. So, this need the
system which has an ability to capture all kind of data and information and analysis it
properly for smooth functioning of the hostel. Hostel warden can easily maintain the

Hostel Management in schools often involves administering of all activities

of students. All these still remains difficult and require some job for the top
management. Hostel Management functions and responsibilities in modern day
schools have always been a problem in managing, because of the manual system
method of tools they use. Hostel Management System is well designed specially to
meet challenges of administrative set up of any school.

HMS can be used to assist in students allocation, setup hostel information,

hostel application, student outing record and visitor management. In short, this
system will assist the staff in managing the hostel management at school.

1.2 Problem Statement

After make an observation on the current process of hostel management at

school, it found that every single thing is done completely by manual.

Currently, the SMA management at JAIP has decided to make computerized

system . It is because there are facing problem such as corrupted of data. The data
about information of student hostel are store and keep not very well and
systematically. In the current process, the data are stored into the file but not in the
database which is lead to data duplication, repetitive data, and isolation of data from
one to another. It is also worried of something happen to the file, then all the data will

In the current manual system, it will very difficult to find the hostel record
and other information of student manually. Because it has been keep on the paper and
it is easy to loss. It also consume time to search the paper of student hostel record one
by one.

The manual system requires longer time for allocation the student to
respective hostel, dorm, and bed.

Besides that, the manual application will lead toward a hassle data
management for faster student allocation as well as managing the data for faster task
such as students activities, student outing record and managing visitors.

1.3 Objectives

The objectives of this project are:-

(i) To develop an integrated system for hostel management system.

(ii) Providing online student application for student to apply the hostel.
(iii) To compare the efficiency of system design for a small IT project.

1.4 Scope

The scopes of the project that have been identified are:

(i) This system is only use by Sekolah Menengah Agama (SMA) Kerajaan
Negeri Pahang.

(ii) The user of this system are :

a. Schools Staff / warden: are responsible to setup the hostel information,

manage the student outing and students visitor
b. Student: apply hostel application

(iii) This system use web based application concept. The software to be used in
developing this system is Hypertext Preprocessors (PHP) language, Xampp
for the database and Adobe Dreamweaver CS3 for the interface design.

(iv) The module of this system are :-

a. Setup the information of hostel

- Add the information of hostel, block, and dorm and capacity of dorm
b. Hostel allocation
- Assign the student room based on their form

c. Hostel Application
- Student can apply the hostel by online and view the status of
application. The hostel application of student will be approved by
staff officer
d. Student Outing
- Staff will scan the barcode at outing book by using barcode scanner
and will be record to the system
e. Students Visitor
- Warden are responsible to record the detail of student visitor.

1.5 Thesis Organization

This thesis consists of four (6) chapters. Chapter 1 will discuss on

introduction to system/research. The purpose of this chapter is to introduce about the
system that will be develop. This chapter contain several part namely introduction,
problem statement, objectives, scope, and thesis organization.

Chapter 2 is about literature review. This chapter will explain about the
reviews for the chosen project and explain about research that was conducted by
other party. This chapter also will explain about the technique / method/ suitable
equipment or technology to take away in implementing project.

Chapter 3 is about methodology. This chapter will discuss about approach

and framework comprehensively adopt in project development. It used during design
and project implementation. This chapter also explains about the justification of
method or approach used and hardware and software necessity.

Chapter 4 is about implementation. This chapter will briefly summarize and

conclude the proposed project. will discuss about compilation if the processes
involves in project. This chapter involves data, the techniques of data and table that is
used based on SQL and PHP tools instructions.
Chapter 5 is about result and discussion. This chapter will elaborate about
the result from data analysis that have done by project research. The elements that
should have in this chapter include result analysis, the problems of build project, and
project solved

Chapter 6 is about conclusion. This chapter will briefly summarize and

conclude the proposed project.



This chapter briefly the describes the review on existing technique related
with Hostel Management System that will be developed later. This chapter
comprises four sections: The first section describes the comprehensive review on
existing related systems. The second section describes the review on software design.
The third section is describes the database language. And lastly, section fourth is
describe about the software development methodology.

2.1 Existing System Review

This section is to review the current system and existing system that related to hostel
management system. There are three (3) existing system that has been explored.

2.1.1 Hostel Management System

The Hostel Management System is a system specialty designed to centrally

manage Hostel Association. This system is stand alone system. It is customize and
user friendly software for Hostel. All administrative function and application system
data has been designed to be keep centrally and unique for entire organization [1].
Base file Hostel creation, Block creation and Room Facility are defined in
master file of hostel module and other main process such as room allocation, room
change and mess management facilities are available in transaction file of this module
[1]. Screen Shot of Hostel Management System

Figure 2.1 View of Room Information Interface

The figure 2.1 shows the room information at the first floor in hostel. Here, it shows
all the detail of room information such as room code, room number, and type of
room. Here also administrator can add new room information of another floor.

Figure 2.2 : View of Listing Student Gate Pass In and Out at Hostel Interface

The figure above shows the list of student in and out from hostel. Administrator can
add new the student check in and check out from hostel.

2.1.2 Hostel Decision Support System

Hostel Decision Support System which is specifically designed for the

Welfare Unit of Yaba College of Technology

This system involves identification of inputs, files, processing, output,

hardware, costs, accuracy, response times and control. The system has following
features such as:-

(i) It provide reliable security measures, which protect the data and the package
from accidental of deliberate threats that could cause unauthorized
modifications, disclosures of destruction of data and protection of the
information system by the use of password.
(ii) It provides an automated registration of bona-side students thus, storing
information on the system rather than using bulky files.
(iii) It provides input of data at anytime with the ability to update records in the
(iv) It allows automatic and manual allocation of room to bona-fide students
while allowing the user to use his/her digression.
(v) It provides efficient and effective means of producing hard copies of
information by generating reports on hostels, departmental allocation,
special rooms allocation etc.
(vi) It obtains greater speed and accuracy in handling data and generating
(vii) It gives room for addition of new residential if new residential hall(s) so as
to make the system effective due to the ever-increasing population of
students in the institution.
(viii) It provides a databank, which serves as a store of all records at the end of
each academic session by simply clicking on RESET button.

The system has four (4) input forms which include registration form, create
new hostel entry, add room entry/add hostel room and hostel management form.[2]

2.1.3 College Management [3]

The college is very fortunate in the quantity and the range of the
accommodation it has available to offer its graduate students. All graduate housing is
of a very high standard and most has been either built or refurbished in recent years.
Priority is given to the first year graduate students and merit from the college activity
that students involve.

According to Lau Chi Pang, Wong Wan Man (1998), the Birth of Student
Hostel: Whole Person Education at the Formative Stage, Lingnan College is the first
tertiary institution in Hong Kong to provide opportunities for all students to live and
work together in an academy community and to realize more fully the ethos of the
college as reflected in its motto "Education for Service", Lingnan College is currently
offered 1,500 hostel places to their student which is about 75% of the total student

According to Downing College, Graduate students in college

accommodation live either in college or in graduate hostels which are close by as
their studies usually require them to remain in Cambridge for virtually the whole
year. Graduate are able to participate as fully in college life as all other members.
Cooking is not allowed in the room including storing, preparing, cooking or consume
food to prevent smell and pest nuisance. Any damage to hostel property must be
reported immediately to the hostel management. Residents will have to pay for all
damages except those caused by normal wear and tear.

There are more than ten colleges at UiTM to allocate their student but it still
will not enough to allocate their entire student. Therefore, Student Affairs Office
must select the students based on the criteria that Student Affairs Office decide to
choose students that are qualified to stay at college along their study at UiTM.
According to Mark Drunmiond, a service requirement for graduation that program is
effective because it integrates the service component into the curriculum, which can
be quite costly.

The hostel management reserves the right to match those twin sharing
residents without a room-mate with same gender. Any damages to room facilities will
be shared equally with the roommate. The hostel management reserves the rights to
enter, inspect or spot checks the rooms in the interest of proper conduct of the
residents, or the orderly and efficient administration and proper use of the rooms, or
to maintain or repair the premises but only in the presence of the residents. Unless
time permits, a written notification shall be given in advance of the management's
intended entry. According to Austin, (1984), several researchers have explored the
relationship between residence hall living and satisfaction with the college
experience. Researcher has demonstrated that physical environment and social factors
can have a substantial impact on student's satisfaction with their residence hall
experiences. Residence hall experiences, in turn, have shown to have positive impact
on student perceptions of their undergraduate experiences, mend ships and faculty
student relations

2.1.4 Comparison of three (3) existing system

Table 2.1 : Comparison of existing system

Parameter Hostel Management Hostel Decision Support College Management

System System
Type of System Stand alone Stand alone Web based
Application Use Use VB language Use VB language Use WampServer
Objective of The Hostel Designed for the Welfare To identify all the
system Management System Unit of Yaba College of requirement
is a system specialty Technology. specification of
designed to centrally College Student
manage Hostel Allocation System
Advantages All administrative It provides efficient and improvement of
function and effective means of the college student
application system producing hard copies of allocation system to
data has been information by generating make it more effective
designed to be keep reports on hostels, in college
centrally and unique departmental allocation, management.
for entire organization special rooms allocation

2.2 Software Design Review

This section will review and comparing the technique of software design that
will be use in developing HMS. Our objective project is comparative study of
software design in developing HMS for SUK Pahang. The study is focusing on fully
utilization the UML diagram and OMT diagram. Our focus is comparing the
comparing the utilization and significant of software design while developing the
system using PHP for development of HMS.

2.2.1 Object Modeling Technique (OMT) Introduction to OMT

Object Modeling Technique (OMT) Methodology is one of the very popular

methodologies for analysis and design of application for database systems,
executive/enterprise information systems, collaborative computing systems, medical
information systems, and hypermedia system [4].

OMT is an object modeling language for software modeling and designing.

It was developed around 1991 by Rumbaugh, Blaha, Premerlani, Eddy, and Lorensen
as a method to develop object oriented system and to support object oriented
programming (Wikipedia) [5].The OMT software engineering methodology deals
with object oriented development in analysis and design phases.[6]

OMT was developed as an approach to software development. The purposes

of modeling according to Rumbaugh are to testing physical entities before building
them (simulation), communication with customer, visualization and reduction of

OMT is a predecessor of the Unified Modeling Language (UML). Many

OMT modeling elements are common to UML.