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Proposal For uPVC Windows Indian Standard

Windows & Doors Manufactured from


Multi-chambered un-plasticized Poly Vinyl Chloride Profiles

Released : 14th October 2011


Version : 1.0
Revision :0

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CONTENTS
Page no.

1. Foreword 3
2. Scope 3
3. Normative reference 3
4. Terminology 5
4.1 Profiles 5
4.2 6
5. Raw Materials 9
7.1 Profiles 9
6. Annexure: A- N 23-

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1. FOREWORD
This is the first standard prepared to provide key parameters required for manufacturing and
testing of uPVC windows & doors.

This standard covers aspects relating to input material to uPVC windows, testing of
windows and its components, relevant process and standards.

The methods of tests are primarily based on ISO, BIS and ASTM standards.

2. Scope

This standard covers the requirements for unplasticized polyvinyl chloride (uPVC) profiles
used for fabrication of windows and doors.

The standard covers multi chambered extruded and co-extruded profiles.

3. NORMATIVE REFERENCE

This Indian Standard incorporates, by dated or undated reference, provisions from other
publications. These normative references are cited at the appropriate places in the text, and
the publications are listed hereafter. For dated references, subsequent amendments to or
revisions of any of these publications apply to this Indian standard only when incorporated
in it by amendment or revision. For undated references the latest edition of the publication
referred to applies (including amendments).

ISO 305:1990 Plastics


Determination of thermal stability of poly (vinyl chloride), related chlorine-containing
homopolymers and copolymers and their compounds -- Discoloration method

ISO 527
Method of testing plastics-Mechanical Properties Tensile strength, Elongation & elastic
modulus

ISO 178
Plastics -Determination of flexural properties (ISO 178:1993)

ISO 179-2
Plastics- Determination of Charpy impact properties- Part 2: Instrumented impact test (ISO
179-2:1997)

ISO 306
Plastics-Thermoplastic materials- Determination of Vicat softening temperature (VST) (ISO
306:1994)

ISO 8256
Plastics-Determination of tensile impact strength (ISO 8256:1990, including technical
corrigendum 1:1991)

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ISO 1163-2:1999
Plastics-Unplasticized polyvinyl chloride (uPVC) molding and extrusion materials Part 12:
Preparation of test specimens and determination of properties (ISO 1163-2:1995)

ISO 4892-1:1999
Plastics- Methods of exposure to laboratory light sources -- Part 1: General guidance

ISO 4892-2:2006
Plastics-Method of exposure to laboratory light source- Part 2: Xenon arc source

ISO 291:2005
Plastics -- Standard atmospheres for conditioning and testing

4. Terminology

For the purpose of this Indian Standard, the following terms and definitions apply.

4.1 Profile

4.1.1 Main profile : Multi chambered continuous section of uPVC

Profile which has a load bearing function in the door and window. Main profiles are
broadly classified as Frame, Sash & Transom / Mullion

4.1.2 Auxiliary profile

Profile, which has a reduced load bearing function within the door and window and are
of supportive function. Auxiliary profiles are broadly classified as Beads, packer etc.

4.1.3 Co-extruded profile

Profile, which consist of two or more feedstock in different areas of its cross section

4.1.4 Sight Surface

Face surface of a profile that is seen from either side when the window is closed.

4.1.5 Nominal profile shape

Standard Shape and dimensions of the profile, as specified by the manufacturer

4.1.6 Deviation from straightness

This is also known as bow and is a deviation of the profiles longitudinal axis from the
straight line

4.1.7 Depth of a profile (D)

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Distance between the two faces of profile which is measured at right angles to the
glazing plane, (see figure 1)

4.1.8 Overall width of a profile (W)

Greatest distance, measured in the direction of the glazing plane and perpendicular to
the longitudinal axis of the profile (see figure 1)

FIGURE 1 W Sight
Surface

D
5. Profiles Raw Materials

UPVC profile is one of the major and critical input materials for windows. Detailed of the
profile requirement is elaborated in forthcoming sections.

Auxiliary profiles

Auxiliary profiles shall be similarly marked either on the profile itself or its packaging.

The marking of auxiliary profile shall contain the following minimum information
the name or trade mark of the manufacturer
reference to this Indian standard
production code sufficient to enable traceability

7.1.1 Material
Compound of uPVC in the form of granules or powder for the production of profiles for
the fabrication of windows and doors

a. Defined formulation
Stated formulation which is a controlled composition of polymer and its additives

b. Virgin Material
Material of defined formulation in granular or powder form, which has not been
processed, earlier other than required for its manufacture is virgin material. No re-
processable or recyclable material has been added.

c. Recyclable material

Own recyclable / re-processable material


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Material of defined formulation free of contamination and degradation, made from UPVC profiles
including off cuts from own fabricator, which is re-processable in the same factory in which it was
extruded. This can be used in the extrusion process with or without additional compounding to
adjust the specified properties of material, as stated in annexure A.

External recyclable /re-processable material

Material free of contamination and degradation, made from unused uPVC window
profiles, including off cuts from other fabricators, which has been originally processed by
a manufacturer other than that carrying out reprocessing. This material shall be used in
core of a profile. Any surface or parts of surfaces which may be visible after installation of
window, fabricated from the profiles, shall be completely covered by co extrusion by
virgin material. The thickness of co extruded outer surface layer shall not be less than 0.5
mm.

This standard does not allow using external re-processable uPVC material, not made for
uPVC window & door application.

d. Composition

Profile shall be made from material/additives constituting of un-plasticized polyvinyl


chloride (uPVC).

e. Physical Properties

Un-weathered uPVC material from which profiles are made shall conform to the
requirements in Table 1 when tested in accordance with the test method specified.

Tests shall be carried out on sample cut from the visible surfaces of extruded profiles
except for the apparent modulus of elasticity test for which samples shall be tested on
pressed plaques prepared from milled sheet under the conditions specified in ISO 1163-2

Table 1 Physical Properties of uPVC Compound

S. Properties Test Method Permissible Value


No.
i) Vicat Softening point ISO 306 75 C

ii) Apparent modulus of elasticity ISO 178 2200MPa

iii) Color Fastness ISO 4892-2 DE 5

iv) Heat Stability ISO 182 30 min

v) Charpy Impact strength (milled ISO 179 10 kJ/m


sheet)

vi) Retention of Charpy impact ISO 179 60 % of original


strength after artificial aging value

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7.1.2 Requirements of profile

A. Color
This standard applies to profiles in the color range of white to cream. Annexure C defines
the applicable color range and permissible tolerance.

B. Appearance
The appearance of the profile shall be the same and uniform on any surfaces and/or
parts of surfaces which may be visible after installation of the window fabricated from
the profile, when viewed in accordance with Annexure A

The surface of the profiles shall be flat, smooth and free from pitting, impurities,
cavities and other surface defects when viewed in accordance with Annexure A. The
edges of the profile shall be clean and free of burr.

Note1: Further arrangements with respect to appearance such as color range and tolerance on
the standard color should be made between the customer and the manufacturer and are not
part of this standard (see Annexure C).

Note 2: Extrusion lines, pitting, impurities, cavities & other surface defects caused by the
process are admissible so long as they are not visually intrusive from 1m.

C. Dimensions and tolerances

C.1 Shape
The cross section, perpendicular to longitudinal axis, shall conform to the nominal
shape of profile.

The tolerances of the external dimensions of the profile (see figure 1) with respect
to the nominal profile shape shall be in accordance with table 2.

Table 2 - Tolrances on external dimensions


All Dimensions in mm
External dimension Tolerance Diagram for Example
Depth (D) 80 0.3

> 80 0.5

Overall width (W) 0.5

All overall profile dimensions


shall be subject to a
tolerance of 0.5 mm

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Wall Thickness
Sight & non-sight surface 10 %
wall thickness 2.0mm .

Sight surface flatness


0.3 mm max
The difference between the
maximum & minimum
readings across the face

Squareness
0.3 mm max
The sight surface of outer
frame profile & its base shall
be perpendicular to each
other

Parallelism
0.4 mm max
The sight surfaces of sash
profile shall be parallel to
each other

The determinations of external dimensions is in accordance with Annexure A

C.2 Thickness of profile

Wall thickness of sight surfaces shall be uniform and determined in accordance with
Annexure A. The min wall thickness of sight surface should be 2.0 10%

C.3 Other dimensions

The dimensions of profile other than the thickness of external walls as well as their
tolerances shall be specified by the manufacturer.

C.4 Straightness of profiles

For main profiles like outer frame, transom and sash, the deviation from
straightness measured in accordance with Annexure A shall not be > 1 mm for a
length of 1m (table 2)

For auxiliary profiles like, glazing beads, decorative profiles, parkers etc., the
deviation from straightness measured in accordance with Annexure A shall be
specified by the manufacturer.
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D. Mass of profiles

When measured in accordance with Annexure A the mass per m length of profile
shall not be < 95 % of the nominal mass per m length specified by supplier.

E. Heat reversion

E.1 Main profile

When tested in accordance with Annexure I for each test specimen, the heat
reversion of the two largest opposing sight surfaces shall not be > 2.0 %

The difference in heat reversion for each test specimen between these sight
surfaces shall not be >0.4 %

E.2 Auxiliary profiles

When tested in accordance with Annexure I, the heat reversion for each test
specimen shall not be > 3.0 %

F. Resistance to impact of main profiles by falling mass

When tested in accordance with Annex E, there shall be no crack of the surface of test
specimen when subjected to free wall of mass from height of 1m. No more than one
test specimen shall show rupture in the wall.

For co extruded profiles the de-lamination of the co extruded layer is also considered
as failure.

G. Heat Aging Behavior at 150C

When tested in accordance with Annex F, the profiles shall show no defects as blisters,
cracks, surface peel off. For co extruded profiles the de-lamination of the co extruded
layer is also considered as failure.

H. Resistance to weathering

H.1 Exposure procedure

Test specimen (refer ISO 4892-1) taken from sight surfaces of main profiles shall be
exposed accordance with ISO 4892-2, Method A, for a time period of 6000 hr.
Calculation of exposure hours representing five years outdoor weathering is given in
Annexure D.

Note: For quality control purpose the time period can be decreased to representing two years
out door exposure.

H.2 Impact strength after artificial weathering

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After exposure in accordance with H.1 the reduction in impact strength expressed as a
percentage of the impact strength of the unexposed test specimen and the exposed
test specimen shall not be > 40%

The determination of the impact strength is in accordance with ISO 179.

Note: The value of 40 % is tentative and subjected to the results of current research.

H.3 Color fastness

After exposure in accordance with H.1, the change in color between the unexposed
and exposed test specimens expressed in E* shall not be > 5 and b* not > 3.

Note: The visual change in color can be determined using the methods specified in ISO 7724-1,
ISO 7724-2, and ISO 7724-3

I. Weld ability

For the determination of the Weldability of profiles, welded corners are tested in
accordance with Annex G. The calculated mean stress at maximum load of each
corner, t or c, shall not be < 25 N/mm for the tensile bending test and not be <
30 N/mm for the compression bending strength.

t = the failure stress by tensile bending (N/mm)

c = the failure stress by compression bending (N/mm)

The sample subjected to weld test shall not be finished by grooving, knifing etc,
except for the outside edge of 90 angle, which shall be cleaned to permit the sample
to sit fully onto the support.

J. Marking

Main profiles

Main profiles shall be legibly and visibly marked in an unobtrusive position not visible
when the window is closed at least once in every 1 m along the length of the profile.

The marking of the main profiles shall contain the following minimum information

the name or trade mark of the manufacturer


reference to this Indian standard
Production code sufficient to enable traceability (e.g. Date, machine, and/or shift
no.)
Example ABC LTD IS xxxx- Date-M/C-Shift

Optional additional information contained within the mark may include:


Profile type/code

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Table -3 provides guidelines on the test requirements of profiles

Table-3

Sr Characteristics Method of test Requirement


no as per section
i) Appearance Annexure A 7.B

ii) Dimensions & straightness Annexure A 7.C

iii) Mass of profile Annexure A 7.D

iv) Heat Reversion Annexure I 7.E

v) Heat aging Annexure F 7.G

vi) Resistance to impact Annexure E 7.F

vii) Color Fastness ISO 4892-2 7.H

viii) Weld ability Annexure G 7.I

Annexure - A
Test Methods for uPVC Profiles

A.1 Determination of the appearance

The appearance is determined by viewing by normal or corrected vision at a range of


1m, at 45 north sky light.

A.2 Determination of dimensions

Measuring devices
The measuring devices for the determination of the external dimensions and the wall
thickness shall have an accuracy of 0.05 mm and for the deviation from the
straightness shall have an accuracy of 0.1 mm

Test specimen
For the determination of the deviation from straightness the length of the profile to be
tested shall be 1000 5mm & for dimension measurement sample size shall be 300
5 mm. In case of dimension measurement on optical instruments, suitable sample size
shall be taken for measurement of dimension.

Conditioning
Condition the test specimen at 27 2C for at least 1 hour prior to testing

Procedure
Dimensions and wall thicknesses
Dimensions and wall thicknesses shall be measured with precision equipments (e.g.
Vernier Caliper, Projector, Scanner) having minimum accuracy of 0.05 mm as per
standard operating procedure of the equipment.
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Deviation from straightness
Put the test specimen on flat surface (e.g. Surface table). Measure the gap(s) between
the profile and the flat base with an appropriate measuring device (e.g. Distance
gauges, filler gauge).Rotate the sample in 90 and again check the gap(s). Report the
maximum gap observed between profile and flat surface.

A.3 Determination of the profile mass

Apparatus
Balance with accuracy of 1 gm
Use Measuring device with an accuracy of 0.5 mm for the determination of the profile
length.

Test specimen
The length of the profile to be tested shall be 200 mm to 300 mm

Conditioning
Condition the profiles before measuring at 27 2 C for at least 1 hour.

Procedure
Measure the length of the test specimen to 1mm, weigh the test specimen to 1 gm.
Determine the mass per length expressed in Kilogram per meter (Kg/m).

Annexure B
Material characteristics- Sample preparation and requirements

1) Scope

It covers sample preparation from uPVC profiles or from granules or powder for the
determination of the characteristics and the requirements for those characteristics.

2) Terminology

Material: Compound mix with PVC and suitable additive to facilitate processing and to
give the desired properties to end product.

3) Material properties

B.3.1 Vicat softening temperature

When tested in accordance with ISO 306 using method B with temperature rate of 50 5
C /h the Vicat Softening Temperature (VST) shall not be< 75 C

For non co extruded profiles the test specimens shall be taken directly from the profiles or
from pressed plaques

For Co extruded profiles the test specimens shall be taken directly from pressed plaques
made from materials separately

In case of dispute the test on pressed plaques is the reference method.

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B.3.2 Charpy Impact strength

When tested in accordance with ISO 179-2 at 27 2C with method designation 1eA the
Charpy impact strength shall not be <10 KJ/m

For non co extruded profiles the test specimens shall be taken from pressed plaques.

For co extruded profiles the test specimens shall be taken from pressed plaques made from
both materials separately. In case of dispute the test on pressed plaques is the reference
method.

B.3.3 Flexural modulus of elasticity

When tested at 27 2 C in accordance with ISO 178 the flexural modulus of elasticity
(Eb) shall not be <2200 N/mm

For non co extruded profiles the test specimens shall be taken directly from the profiles or
from the pressed plaques.

For co extruded profiles the test specimens shall be taken from pressed plaques made from
both materials separately. In case of dispute the test on pressed plaques is the reference
method.

B.3.4 Test specimen

The test specimens for the determination of the material characteristics according A.3 shall
be taken either from profiles or from pressed plaques.

B.3.5 Preparation of pressed plaques

The preparation of the pressed plaques shall be in accordance with the procedure given in
clause 3 of ISO 1163-2:1999 and with the following

the material used shall be shredded extruded uPVC profiles, granules or powder
materials
the differential speed between the two rolls of mixing mill shall be within the range
1:1.4 to 1:1.1
the pressed plaque shall have a thickness of 4 0.2 mm
the cooling of the plaque given in accordance 3.3.3 of ISO 1163-2:1999 shall be at
nominal rate 15 K/min

B.3.6 Test report

The test report shall include the following information;


reference to this annex
details of the test specimen
Standard for the Charpy impact strength
values obtained

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Annexure C
Color range & Permissible tolerance

C.1 Scope

This gives an advice on applicable color range and permissible tolerance.

C.2 Applicable color range and Permissible tolerances on standard color

The standard is applicable to uPVC profiles of following colour

L* 82 (chromaticity co-ordinate Y>=60)

-2.5 a* 5

-5 b*15

When determined according to ISO 7724-3 with the apparatus according to ISO 7724-1
and ISO 7724-2 with the following specifications:

employing CIE standard illuminant D65 including specular reflectance;


measuring condition 8/d or d/8 (without gloss trap for both)

It is advisable that no profile should have a difference in colour to the standard colour more
than the following

L* <= 1.0
a* <= 0.5
b* <= 0.8
E* <= 1.0

The colour of profiles used in an assembled window shall be uniform and consistent when
viewed by normal or corrected vision at a range of 1 m in 45 north sky light.

Note: the perception of colour on installed window is affected by orientation, ambient light,
length of time after installation and other factors.

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Annexure D
The radiation dose and exposure time to be used for artificial weathering

D.1 Scope
This describes duration of the exposure needed to assess resistance to artificial weathering.

D.2 Calculation

D.2.1 For the purpose of calculation the following assumption is made on the solar energy
for sever climate like India has, the amount of annual solar energy is estimated to
be between 5 8 GJ/m/year.

D.2.2 For usual practice in artificial weathering, it is necessary to consider solar radiation
energy falling in the ultraviolet and visible regions between 300nm to 800 nm. This
is about 60% of the total solar radiation energy. A further correction factor of 67%
is applied to allow for the fact, that not all this radiation is acting at higher summer
temperature and so will be less damaging to the effected surfaces.

For testing purpose, it is recommended to use 6 GJ/m/year radiation doses for the
wavelength range between 300 nm to 800 nm given in table 1
Table 1
GJ/m
1 years equivalent 2.4
5 years equivalent 12.0

D.2.3 For an artificial weathering device having a time average irradiance (I) of w/m in
the range 300nm to 800 nm the exposure time are given in table 2

Table 2
Recommended exposure times for the wavelength range 300nm to 800 nm
hours
1 years equivalent 6.6 x100000/I
5 years equivalent 3.3x 1000000/I

Where I = 550 W/m.

This means for 5 years equivalent radiation, minimum 6000 hours exposure time is
needed for Indian climatic Condition.

Note: This calculation method represents only approximate means of estimation. However it does put the
requirements on some sort of logical basis bearing in mind that natural weathering itself is a variable phenomenon
depending on location, aspect, shading etc.

D.3 Assessments of colour difference:


The change during exposure of the test piece from their initial color or the difference
between the test pieces and an unexposed reference piece shall be measured periodically
after weathering for approximately 24 h, 250h, 1000 h, 3000 h and 6000 hr. The samples
are measured after 24 hr removal from exposure and inspected visually and surface
erosion noted.

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Annexure E
Resistance to impact of main profiles by falling mass

E.1 Scope
This standard specifies a method for the determination of the resistance to impact by a
falling mass at -10 C (minus ten degree Celsius) of Unplasticized poly vinyl chloride
(uPVC) main profiles for the fabrication of windows and doors for the assessment of the
extrusion.

E.2 Principle
Test pieces cut from length of main profiles are subject to blow from a mass falling from a
known height on the sight surface at a mid way between two supporting webs at a fixed
temperature.

After testing the profiles are examined visually for failures.

E.3 Definitions
For the purpose of this Indian Standards following definitions apply:

E.4.1 main profiles


Profile having load bearing function in the door and window. Main profiles are
broadly classified as follows;

Outer Frame: Profile used to make door and window and which is fixed to the wall
/ structure.
Sash: profile used to make openable panel
Transom: profile used within the frame vertically or horizontally

E.4.2 sight surface


A face surface of a profile that is exposed to view from either side , when the
window or door is closed.

E.4.3 Web
A membrane connecting two walls of a profile.

E.4 Apparatus
An impact testing machine incorporating the following basic components (see figure 1)
shall be used:

E.4.1 main frames, rigidly fixed in the vertical position


E.4.2 guide rails, fixed to main frame to accommodate the falling mass and allowing
it to fall freely in the vertical plane
E.4.3 Test piece support, consisting of a rounded off support With a distance
between (200 1) mm. The support shall be made from Steel rigidly fixed in
a solid foundation or on a table with a mass of more than 50 kg
E.4.4 release mechanism, such that the falling mass can fall through a height which
can he adjusted up to (1500 +100 / -0) mm, measured from the top surface
of the test piece to be tested;

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E.4.5 Falling mass, of (10005) gm, this has a hemispherical striking surface of (25
0.5) mm radius. The striking surface shall be free from all imperfections.

E.5 Test pieces


Ten test pieces, each of length of 300 mm shall be taken from a main profile.

E.6 Conditioning
The test pieces shall be conditioned at a temperature of -10 + 0/-2 C for at least 1 hr
before testing. Each test piece shall be tested within 10 Seconds of removal from the
conditioning chamber.

E.7 Procedure
The test shall be executed on sight surface of the main profile (preferably on the sight
surface which is designed to be exposed to the weather).

Drop the falling mass from a given height as required in the product standard at a point
mid way between two supporting webs.

Note 1: wherever it is impracticable for the mass to hit the profile in accordance with 7.2 due to its
geometry other impact position for the falling mass should be agreed upon between the profile
manufacturer and testing laboratory.

Figure 1 Impact Test Apparatus

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Annexure F
Heat Aging Behavior at 150C

F.1 Scope
This standard specifies two methods for the determination of the effect of heat on
unplasticized poly vinyl chloride (uPVC) profiles for the fabrication of windows and doors.
The oven method is considered as the reference method.

F.2 Principle
A test piece of a specified length of profile is maintained in an oven or liquid bath at 150 C
for 30 min. and is inspected visually on the inside, outside and the cross section of the wall
for defects after heating.

F.3 F.3 Definition


For the purpose of this Indian standard the following definition applies
Defect: The visual appearance of blisters, cavities, or crack on any of the surfaces (inner or
outer) of the profile and of any delamination in the cross section.

F.4 Apparatus

F.4.1 Ventilated oven, thermostatically controlled, with air circulation, in which the test pieces
can e exposed to a temp. of 150 C. The oven shall be equipped with a thermo stat
capable of maintaining the temperature at 150 2 C. The capacity of the oven shall
be such that, after insertion of the test piece, the test temp. is regained with in 15 min.

F.4.2 Liquid bath, thermostatically controlled, in which the test pieces can be exposed to a
temp. of 150 C. The capacity of the bath shall be such that after insertion of the test
piece, the test temp. is regained with in 5 min.

The liquid to be used shall be glycerin or an aromatic free hydro-carbon. This liquid
shall be free of substances which may affect the properties of uPVC

F.4.3 Thermometer, graduated in 0.5 C

F.5 Test Piece

The test piece shall be as follows:

F.5.1 for testing in oven, a minimum length of 200 mm profile

F.5.2 for testing in liquid bath, a minimum length of 300 mm of profile

F.6 Test Procedure

F.6.1 Oven method

a. Set the oven temp. to 150 C

b. When the oven has reached 150 C, place the test piece
horizontally in oven.

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c. Maintain the test piece in the oven for 30 + 3 / -0 min, measuring
from the time when the oven temp has returned to 150 C

d. Remove the test piece from the oven, taking care not to distort or
otherwise damage it

e. Allow the test piece to cool in air. When the test piece is cool
enough for handling, examine it for defects.

F.6.2 Liquid bath method

a. Set the liquid bath temperature to 150 C

b. When the liquid bath has reached 150 C, hang the test piece vertically in the
test liquid, so that the upper part does not protrude more than 100 mm out of
the fluid. The means of suspending a test piece shall be such that it does not
touch either the floor or wall of the bath.

c. Keep the test pieces in the liquid bath for 30 +3/-0 min. measuring
from the time when the liquid bath temp. has returned to 150 C

d. Remove the test piece from the bath, taking care not to distort or otherwise
damage it.

e. Allow the test piece to cool in air. When the test piece is cool enough for
handling examine it for defects.

F.7 Expression of results

The nature and the location of any defects shall be noted

F.8 Test report

The test report shall include the following information:

a. reference to this Indian Standard;


b. the test laboratory;
c. full identification of profile;
d. the date of testing
e. the apparatus used and for the liquid bath method, the type of liquid
f. the result of the examination of the test piece;
g. all operating details not specified in this Indian standard, as well as any
incidents likely to have influence the results

When tested with surface covered profiles shall show no bubbles between the acrylic layer
and the foil of more than 1 mm, cracks, surface irregularities or delamitation.

Note: There is no requirement for the flexible element of rigid and flexible co-extrusion. An increase
in gloss does not constitute failure

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Annexure G
Determination of the strength of welded corners and T joints

G.1 Scope

This annexure specifies two test methods for the measurement of the failure load of welded
corners and T joints made from unplasticized poly vinyl chloride (uPVC) profile for the
fabrication of windows and doors.

G.2 Definitions

Failure load: That load at which yield occurs or if yield does not occur, the load at which
the test piece breaks.

G.3 Principle

Welded corners and T joints made from unplasticized poly vinyl chloride (uPVC) profiles are
subjected to a tensile bending or compression bending test at specified temperature and
test speed.
The failure load is recorded and the failure stress is calculated.

G.4 Apparatus

G.5.1 Tensile or compression testing machine with the following specifications;

a. measuring range of load :2kN to 20 kN;


b. load indication with zero point setting and peak recording
c. measurement accuracy:3%
d. test speed: 50 5 mm/min

G.5.2 Test arrangement

a. Corner weld sample for tensile bending test (see figure 1)


b. T joint weld samples for tensile bending test (see figure 2)
c. Corner weld sample for compression bending test (see figure 3)
d. T joint weld samples for compression bending test (see figure 4)

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3
3
1
1

F1

4
F1

1 Clamping device 1 Clamping device


2 Rigid support over a minimum clamping length of 400mm 2 Rigid support over a minimum clamping length of 400mm
3 Frame 3 Frame
4 Optional support block (5 +/- 0.5) mm 4 Optional support block (5 +/- 0.5) mm

Figure 1- Weld Test Apparatus Figure 2 : T Arragement

Fc

Figure 3

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Fc

Figure 4

G.5 Test piece

G.5.1 Welding of corner test piece

The test piece is a welded corner with as angle of 90 1C.Two lengths of profile
cut at 45 are heat welded

G.5.2 Welding of T joint test pieces

The test piece is welded T joint with an angle of 901.The joint is fabricated by heat
welding one piece of ,for instance, sash or outer frame profile at least 500 mm long and
one piece of ,for instance, transom profile at least 400 mm long.

Before welding the sash or outer frame profile is notched at 2 x 45 C to depth in


Accordance with the formula:

0.5 x (w-s) ,
Where,
w= width of transom profile
s= welded head stroke

The transom profile end is sawn into a symmetrical 90 point.

The position of the 90 notch in the sash or frame is such as to leave a minimum
400 mm leg measured from the top of the transom profile(see figure 2)

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G.5.3 Tensile bending test piece

a. The inside leg length of the test piece for the corner testing shall be at least 400
mm (see figure 1)

b. The T joint test piece is fabricated with the sash or frame arms of inside length at
least 400 mm and 100 mm, and the transom or mullion stem length at least 400
mm (see figure 2)

G.5.4 Compression bending test piece

The legs of the corner test piece are cut at an angle of 45 1 in such a way that the
neutral axes of the end sections are located vertically over the axes of rotation of the
carriage (approximately the middle of the main chamber of the profile (see figure3).The
inside length of the leg Li in millimeters is obtained from the following formula

Li = Ln -2e

Ln = 400 = 283
2

Li = 283 -2e

Where

Ln, the length of the neutral axis of the profile in millimeters

E, the distance between the inside of the section and the neutral axis in
millimeter

The short arm of the T joint test piece is cut off level with the outer face of the stem to
produce a 90 corner. Further preparation of the corner is accordance with 5.4.1

G.5.5 Tensile bending test piece

A minimum of three samples per profile type, all made on the same welder head, shall
be tested to obtain a mean value

G.6 Conditioning

The test pieces shall be conditioned at 275 c for at least two hours immediately prior to
testing

G.7 Procedure

Test temperature

The test is carried out at a temperature of 275 C

G.7.1 Tensile bending test

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Clamp the test piece in the apparatus as shown in figures 1 or 2.Contoured support block
may be used, if necessary, to limit twisting.

Apply the load to the test piece in such a way that the speed of application is 50 mm / min.

Continue until the test piece fails.

G.7.2 Compression bending test

Place the test piece on the trolley as shown in figures 3 or 4.In order to avoid excessive
deflection, the open frame end of the T joint can be supported in the corner area by
inserting a cavity filling block(e.g. a piece of metal reinforcement or wooden block).

Apply the load to the test piece in such a way that the speed of application is 50 mm/min.

Continue until the test piece fails

G.8 Test Report

The test report shall include the following information:

a. reference to this standard;


b. the name of the test laboratory;
c. full identification of the joint
1. the type of joint (corner or T joint)
2. the presence or absence of welding sprue (bead)
3. if more than one welding head is in use, the nominated head;
e. the date of testing;
f. the welding conditions;
g. the test method(tensile bending or compression bending)
h. for compression bending testing the inside length of the leg of the test
piece;
i. the test temperature;
j. the failure load of every test piece;
k. the calculated failure stress for every test piece and the average failure
stress
l. all operating details not specified in this standard, as well as any incidents
likely to have influence the result

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Annexure H
Method for calculation of failure stress

H.1 Tensile Bending test

The failure stress of welded corner or T joint depends on the failure load, he profile geometry and the
test arrangement (see fig.1 or 2).It is calculated by the formula;

t= (L-Ft) / W
Where:
Ft = the failure load determined by tensile bending testing (N)
L = the distance between the corner in the highest flange and the point of application of the Load (mm)
W = the moment of resistance in the loading direction = l/e (mm)
l= the moment of inertia about the neutral axis ZZ (see figure A.1) of the cross section of the profile given
by the manufacturer, for T joints with different profiles, the lower moment of inertia shall be used.
e = the distance between the critical point A and the neutral axis ZZ (see figure A.1 (mm)
t = the failure stress by tensile bending

H.2 Compression bending test

The failure stress of a welded corner or T joint depends on the failure load, the profile geometry and
the test arrangement (see figure 3 or 4).It is calculated by the formula:

c= Fc [(a/2 e / 2) / 2W]
Where:
Fc = the compression bending failure load (N)
W = the moment of resistance in the loading direction = l/e (mm)
l= the moment of inertia about the neutral axis ZZ (see figure A.1) of the cross section of the profile given
by the manufacturer mm4, for T joints with different profiles, the lower moment of inertia shall be used.
e = the distance between the critical point A and the neutral axis ZZ (see figure A.1 (mm)
a = the distance between the axes of rotation of the carriages = (400 2) mm
c = the failure stress by compression bending (N/mm)
Z-Z = neutral axis
A = points of maximum stress

A
A

Z Z'

Direction
of loading

Figure H1: Position of point of maximum bending stress

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Annexure I
Heat Reversion Test

I.1 Scope

This describes the method of conducting heat reversion test on uPVC profile.

I.2 Principle

Lengths of profile are heated in an oven and reduction in length is measured.

I.3 Apparatus

I.3.1 Thermostatically controlled electrically heated air oven, with circulating fan, the
whole interior of which is controlled at a temperature of 100 2 C. The heating
capacity shall be such that after insertion of the test pieces the test temperature is
regained in within 15 minutes.

I.3.2 Talc dusted or non stick coated stainless steel plate ,not exceeding 2 mm
thickness

I.3.3 Fine felt tip pen

I.3.4 Measuring device, capable of reading to an accuracy of at least 0.1 mm

I.4 Test Pieces

Three test pieces, 220 mm approx long, shall be taken for each profile. On each
Visible surface of the profile samples, lines shall be drawn across the face 20 mm
from each ends of the sample.

I.5 Conditioning

The test shall be conditioned at 27 1C for at lest 30 min. prior to testing.

I.6 Procedure

I.6.1 Measure the distance between the mid points of the lines on each face within
0.1 mm

I.6.2 Place the sample horizontally in the oven in apposition that will ensure the
minimum contact with the talc dusted / non stick coated plate.

Note 1: This part of the process is very important to ensure accuracy & consistency. It is
recommended that drawing or the sketches are produced which shows the point contacts so that the
test is carried out in the same way every time.

I.6.3 Heat for 60 +5 / - 0 min. at 100 2 C. The test time shall commence when the
1002 C temperature is regained.

I.6.4 Remove the plate with the sample and allow it to cool at room temp. until the
profile surface temperature has reached 27 1 C, exercising care in handling.

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I.6.5 Measure the distance between the mid points of the lines on each face and
calculate the reversion as follows:

% reversion = measured distance x 100


Original measurement length

I.6.6 Record the individual values of each face of each of the three samples and
calculate the mean reversion for each of the three samples in accordance with the
requirement in 5.4

Note 2: The measurement should be made along the chord of the curved sample and not along the
centerline of the sample.

The main profiles tested shall have a mean reversion up to 2% and there shall not
be more than a 0.4% difference between two faces.

Note: for ancillary profiles there is no requirement for difference of individual surfaces. The use of
dark external glazing bead or ancillary profiles necessitates lower reversion.

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Bibliography

EN 12608 Unplasticized Poly Vinyl Chloride (uPVC) profiles for the fabrication
of windows and doors Classification, requirements and test
methods

BS 7413 Unplasticized Poly Vinyl Chloride (uPVC) profiles for windows and
doors - Specifications

ASTM D Standard specification for Rigid Poly Vinyl Chloride (PVC) exterior 4726
profile extrusions used for assembled windows and doors

ASTM D Standard practice for Xenon Arc exposure of plastics intended for 2565-
99 out door applications

AAMA 303 Voluntary Specification for rigid Poly Vinyl Chloride (PVC) exterior
profiles (American Architectural Manufacturers Association)

EN 477 Determination of the resistance to impact of main profiles by falling


mass

EN 478 Determination of appearance after exposure at 150 C

EN 479 Determination of heat reversion

EN 514 Determination of the strength of welded corners & T joints

EN 513 Determination of the resistance to artificial weathering

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