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ECE 3331b

Introduction to Signal Processing


Lecture 2

Instructor: Dr. Ilia G. Polushin

Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering

Faculty of Engineering

The University of Western Ontario

Winter 2017
Topic 1: Introduction and Background

Signals and their classification

The Concept of Frequency in Continuous-Time and Discrete-


Time Signals

Analog-to-Digital and Digital-to-Analog Conversion


The Concept of Frequency in Continuous-Time
and Discrete-Time Signals

Continuous-time sinusoidal signal: Frequency (rad/s)


Amplitude Phase

xa (t) = A cos (t + ) , 1 < t < +1

= 2F
Frequency (Hz)
1 Hz (hertz) = 1 cycle per second.

xa (t) = A cos (2F t + ) , 1 < t < +1


The Concept of Frequency in Continuous-Time
and Discrete-Time Signals

Continuous-time sinusoidal signal: x(t) = A cos (2F t + ).

Tp := 1/F is the fundamental period of the sinusoidal signal


Continuous-Time Sinusoidal Signals

Properties:

For any fixed frequency F , xa (t) is periodic


with (fundamental) period Tp = 1/F ,

xa (t + Tp ) = xa (t), 1 < t < +1.

Continuous-time sinusoidal signals with distinct (dierent) frequencies


F are distinct.

Increasing the frequency F results in an increase in the rate of oscillations


of xa (t)
Discrete-Time Sinusoidal Signal

Frequency (rad/sample)
Amplitude Phase (rad)

x(n) = A cos (!n + ) , 1 < n < +1

! := 2f
Frequency (cycles/sample)

x(n) = A cos (2f n + ) , 1 < n < +1


Discrete-Time Sinusoidal Signal

Figure 1.3.3 from Proakis & Manolakis, 2007

Discrete-time sinusoidal signal, ! = /6 (f=1/12), = /3.


Discrete-Time Sinusoidal Signals: Properties

A discrete-time signal is periodic with period N > 0 if and only if

x(n + N ) = x(n) for all n. ()

The smallest value of N > 0 such that (*) holds is called the fundamental
period of x(n).

Property 1. A discrete-time sinusoidal signal is periodic if and only if its


frequency f is a rational number.
(f is rational if and only if f = n1 /n2 , where n1 , n2 are integer numbers).
Proof: DT sinusoidal signal is periodic with period N if and only if

cos(2f (n + N ) + ) = cos(2f n + 2k + ) for some integer k,

which implies
k
2f N = 2k , f= .
N
Discrete-Time Sinusoidal Signals: Properties

Property 2. Discrete-time sinusoids whose frequencies are separated


by 2k, where k is an integer, are identical.
Proof: Consider sinusoids

xk (n) = A cos ((!0 + 2k)n + ) , !0 , k = 0, 1, . . . .

Since

cos ((!0 + 2k)n + ) = cos (!0 n + 2kn + ) = cos (!0 n + ) ,

we see that all xk k = 0, 1, . . ., are identical (indistnguishable).

Property 2 implies that for each sinusoid with |!| > (|f | > 1/2) there
exists an identical sinusoid with frequency |!| (|f | 1/2).

A sinusoid with frequency |!| > (|f | > 1/2) is called an alias of the
corresponding identical sinusoid with frequency |!| (|f | 1/2).
Continuous-Time vs. Discrete-Time Sinusoids

Continuous-time sinusoids with frequencies

< F < + (CT )

are all distinct.

Discrete-time sinusoids are distinct only within the following fun-


damental range of frequencies
1 1
< , or <f (DT )
2 2

Any discrete-time sinusoid with frequency outside the fundamental


range is an alias of some sinusoid with frequency from the fundamen-
tal range
Discrete-Time Sinusoidal Signals: Properties

Property 3. The highest rate of oscillations in a discrete-time sinusoidal signal is


attained at = , or equivalently, at f = 12 .
Proof :

The rate of oscillations increases when the frequency increases from 0 to


(frequency f increases from 0 to 1/2):
What happens for [ , 2 ]? Suppose 1 [ , 2 ]. Denote 2 = 2 1 .
Clearly, 2 [0, ]. We have

x(n) = A cos 1 n = A cos (1 2 ) n = A cos (2 1 ) n A cos 2 n.

We see that 1 [ , 2 ] is an alias of 2 = 2 1 [0, ].


Therefore, the rate of oscillations decreases when the frequency increases from
to 2 . In particular, for = 2 ,

A cos n = A cos 2 n A

is a constant signal.
Discrete-Time Sinusoidal Signals: Properties
Property 3. The highest rate of oscillations in a discrete-time sinusoidal signal is
attained at ! = , or equivalently, at f = 12 .
Proof :

The rate of oscillations increases when the frequency ! increases from 0 to


(frequency f increases from 0 to 1/2):
What happens for ! 2 [, 2]?
Suppose !1 2 [, 2]. Denote !2 = 2 !1 . Clearly, !2 2 [0, ]. We have

x(n) = A cos !1 n = A cos (!1 2) n = A cos (2 !1 ) n A cos !2 n.

We see that !1 2 [, 2] is an alias of !2 = 2 !1 2 [0, ].


Therefore, the rate of oscillations decreases when the frequency ! increases from
to 2. In particular, for ! = 2,

A cos !n = A cos 2n A

is a constant signal.