Anda di halaman 1dari 12

# ECE 3331b

Lecture 2

## Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering

Faculty of Engineering

## The University of Western Ontario

Winter 2017
Topic 1: Introduction and Background

Time Signals

## Analog-to-Digital and Digital-to-Analog Conversion

The Concept of Frequency in Continuous-Time
and Discrete-Time Signals

Amplitude Phase

## xa (t) = A cos (t + ) , 1 < t < +1

= 2F
Frequency (Hz)
1 Hz (hertz) = 1 cycle per second.

## xa (t) = A cos (2F t + ) , 1 < t < +1

The Concept of Frequency in Continuous-Time
and Discrete-Time Signals

## Tp := 1/F is the fundamental period of the sinusoidal signal

Continuous-Time Sinusoidal Signals

Properties:

## For any fixed frequency F , xa (t) is periodic

with (fundamental) period Tp = 1/F ,

F are distinct.

## Increasing the frequency F results in an increase in the rate of oscillations

of xa (t)
Discrete-Time Sinusoidal Signal

## x(n) = A cos (!n + ) , 1 < n < +1

! := 2f
Frequency (cycles/sample)

## x(n) = A cos (2f n + ) , 1 < n < +1

Discrete-Time Sinusoidal Signal

## Discrete-time sinusoidal signal, ! = /6 (f=1/12), = /3.

Discrete-Time Sinusoidal Signals: Properties

## x(n + N ) = x(n) for all n. ()

The smallest value of N > 0 such that (*) holds is called the fundamental
period of x(n).

## Property 1. A discrete-time sinusoidal signal is periodic if and only if its

frequency f is a rational number.
(f is rational if and only if f = n1 /n2 , where n1 , n2 are integer numbers).
Proof: DT sinusoidal signal is periodic with period N if and only if

## cos(2f (n + N ) + ) = cos(2f n + 2k + ) for some integer k,

which implies
k
2f N = 2k , f= .
N
Discrete-Time Sinusoidal Signals: Properties

## Property 2. Discrete-time sinusoids whose frequencies are separated

by 2k, where k is an integer, are identical.
Proof: Consider sinusoids

Since

## we see that all xk k = 0, 1, . . ., are identical (indistnguishable).

Property 2 implies that for each sinusoid with |!| > (|f | > 1/2) there
exists an identical sinusoid with frequency |!| (|f | 1/2).

A sinusoid with frequency |!| > (|f | > 1/2) is called an alias of the
corresponding identical sinusoid with frequency |!| (|f | 1/2).
Continuous-Time vs. Discrete-Time Sinusoids

## Discrete-time sinusoids are distinct only within the following fun-

damental range of frequencies
1 1
< , or <f (DT )
2 2

## Any discrete-time sinusoid with frequency outside the fundamental

range is an alias of some sinusoid with frequency from the fundamen-
tal range
Discrete-Time Sinusoidal Signals: Properties

## Property 3. The highest rate of oscillations in a discrete-time sinusoidal signal is

attained at = , or equivalently, at f = 12 .
Proof :

## The rate of oscillations increases when the frequency increases from 0 to

(frequency f increases from 0 to 1/2):
What happens for [ , 2 ]? Suppose 1 [ , 2 ]. Denote 2 = 2 1 .
Clearly, 2 [0, ]. We have

## We see that 1 [ , 2 ] is an alias of 2 = 2 1 [0, ].

Therefore, the rate of oscillations decreases when the frequency increases from
to 2 . In particular, for = 2 ,

A cos n = A cos 2 n A

is a constant signal.
Discrete-Time Sinusoidal Signals: Properties
Property 3. The highest rate of oscillations in a discrete-time sinusoidal signal is
attained at ! = , or equivalently, at f = 12 .
Proof :

## The rate of oscillations increases when the frequency ! increases from 0 to

(frequency f increases from 0 to 1/2):
What happens for ! 2 [, 2]?
Suppose !1 2 [, 2]. Denote !2 = 2 !1 . Clearly, !2 2 [0, ]. We have

## We see that !1 2 [, 2] is an alias of !2 = 2 !1 2 [0, ].

Therefore, the rate of oscillations decreases when the frequency ! increases from
to 2. In particular, for ! = 2,

A cos !n = A cos 2n A

is a constant signal.