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Generally, specifying dry type transformer is same as specifying oil transformer. Yet, as dry
type transformer is usually used in indoor and when apparent risk exist, there are some
specifications we should consider.

According to IEC60076, dry type transformer subject to climatic, environmental, and fire
behaviour class (C/E/F) classes. You also need to specify whether you want to install your
dry type transformer with or without enclosure. If you want to install with enclosure, dont
forget to specify Index of Protection (IP) rating.

Climatic, environmental, and fire behaviour classes

IEC 60076 state the classification of climatic, environmental, and behaviour for transformer
as follow [1]:

Climatic classes
There are two climatic classes:

Class C1: The transformer is able to operate at ambient temperature not below-50 C
but maybe exposed during storage and transport down to -250 C.

Class C2: The transformer is able to operate, storage, and transport at ambient
temperature down to -250 C.

Special test is needed to confirm this specification.

Environmental Classes
This classes define the environmental specification in terms of pollution, humidity,
condensation, and ambient temperature.

Class E0: No condensation and pollution occurs. This condition is usually achieved
when the room is clean and dry.

Class E1: Occasional condensation occurs on the transformer. Restricted pollution is


Class E2: Both repeated condensation and heavy pollution occurs.

Special test is needed to confirm E1 or E2 specification.

Fire Behaviour Classes

Class F0: No apparent fire risk.

Class F1: Apparent fire hazard is subjected.

Both emission of toxic substances and smoke shall be minimised.

Special test is needed to confirm F1 or specification.

You simply specify your dry type transformer based on your C/E/F consideration. Example:

Figure 1. Dry type transformer

Index of Protection (IP) Specification of Dry Type Transformers Enclosure

The enclosure provide prevention from small object and animals to enter the transformer
body. Hence, it is paramount to specify proper IP of the enclosure. The IP specification
depends on your environmental condition.
A standard manufacturer may give you IP 21 enclosure for standard clean and dry room
condition. But if you think water and dust can slip inside your electrical room, IP 42
enclosure may be specified.

Surge Arrester

Several studies have shown the possibility of dry type transformer failure due to vacuum
circuit breaker induced switching transient. Dry type transformer has lower lightning
impulse withstand voltage hence it is more vulnerable to switching voltage than oil

To overcome this situation it is recommended to install surge arrester in high voltage side of
a transformer after rigorous evaluation has been done.

Transformer Installation

As dry type transformer is used in indoor installation, the minimum clearance between the
transformer and surrounding equipment should be considered for safety precaution. The
minimum clearance of transformer equipment is described in IEC 60076-3.

If you install the transformer inside air conditioning electrical room, you have to preserve
the temperature and check the air conditioner regularly. If air conditioner does not work
properly, the moisture can develop inside the enclosure and allow damage caused by short


[1] IEC 60076-11:2004 Power transformers Part 11: Dry-type transformers, in IEC
60076-11:2004 Power transformers, IEC, 2004, p. 75.

Thanks for reading,

Steven Mill.

Whats your impressions on this content?


As an electrical engineer, its important to keep your equipment clean to ensure a good

What to do when there is moisture in the transformers? Thats the question this
article will answer.

The term, moisture in the transformer, which is frequently used in the electrical industry,
either refers to the water absorbed by the paper in the transformer, or the water that gets
dissolved in the oil of the transformer.

Moisture can be found in various parts of a transformers insulation system. It can often get
accumulated in the solid insulation of the transformer; get mixed up with the oil; and
sometimes, it can also be found in the form of water accumulated at the bottom of the
insulation core.

Measuring the levels of moisture in the transformer

Excessive moisture present in the transformer can be measured by using two methods,


Dew-point analysis

If any of these methods indicate that the presence of moisture in one or various parts of the
transformer insulation is relatively high, necessary steps to dry out the transformer should
be immediately undertaken. Any further delay would initiate chemical decomposition of the
transformers core, and invariably decrease the life of the transformer.
Drying out the moisture in the transformer

A transformer can be dried out by removing the core of the transformer along with its coil
assembly, completely, and then heating them in a controlled temperature in an oven.
Though effective, this procedure can be too expensive, inconvenient and tedious to conduct
at regular intervals.

Fortunately, latest developments in the field of transformer technology have led to better
alternatives of drying out a transformer effectively. Most important of them are:

Hot oil flush

Hot oil spray

Hot oil flush

Though this method is sluggish compared to its counterpart, it is easy to perform. The
procedure involves pumping oil through a press filter containing paper made filter
elements. These paper elements are then heated and sprayed on to the transformers
insulating system.

Since the hot oil contained in the paper filter elements has higher moisture absorbing ability
compared to the cold oil, it tends to absorb the water traces present in the core and the coil
of the transformer.

By continuing this procedure for a few times, excessive moisture present in the insulating
system can be dried out to a major extent, if not completely.

Hot oil spray

This method is considered to be superior to hot oil flush method. The procedure involves
spraying jets of hot oil onto the transformers insulating system, while being vacuumed

The temperature of the hot oil when combined with the vacuuming system, vaporize and
suck respectively, all most all of the moisture present in the insulation system, leaving the
transformer completely dry.
When this combination is also set-up with a cold trap, all the moisture that is vaporized and
sucked into the vacuum pump is condensed into the form of ice, which can later be used to
measure the extent of moisture/water that was present in the transformer before it dried out.

Furthermore, ice trap can also enhance the performance of the vacuum pump by
instantaneously freezing the water vapor entering vacuum chambers by turning it into ice,
and providing the vacuum machine with even more space to suck-in more water vapor, as
and when the moisture evaporates.


A recent study conducted by the Monash University revealed that an accurate measurement
of moisture present in the transformer using the aforementioned methods is very much
necessary to increase the lifespan of a transformer.

In addition to this, it is also recommended that the transformer load, oil saturation levels,
temperature raise and water solubility levels in the insulating oil of the transformer, are also
to be regularly checked if the transformer is to exhibit maximum operational efficiency.

Well Now you dont have excuses anymore. You have all the steps to take care of
your equipement. Did you find this article helpful?

Many kinds of transformers can be found in the market which includes two winding power
transformers, three windings power transformers, auto transformers, regulating
transformers, earthing transformers.

Depending on the use of the transformer, winding connections, earthing methods, mode of
operation and other various factors, decision on the kind of protection that should be used
for the transformer is made.

Normal service condition, kind of transformer fault, amount of sustained over load, tap
changing method also influence the kind of protection to be used for a specific transformer.

To transformers of 1.5 MVA and above value, generally the Buchholz relay protection is
provided. For protection of small size distribution transformers, however, High Voltage
fuses are used. Over current protection and earth fault protection are two main protection
strategies utilized for larger rated and important distribution transformers. For transformers
which are rated above 5 MVA, it is suggested that differential protection should be utilized.

Stress Factors and Protection Methods

Supply network

Increased voltage is likely to cause stress on the transformer. Two kinds of voltage flows
which most commonly occur are atmospheric and operating voltage surges. The falling of a
lightning stroke near an overhead line or on it causes the atmospheric voltage surge. When
deviation is experienced in the set operating conditions of an electrical network an
operating voltage surge occurs. The voltage surge of this kind is mostly a high frequency
surge wave.

Both these kinds of over voltages can be controlled by the use of a varistor made of zinc
oxide. The varistor has no deleterious effects on switchgear in any way.


Increase in the number of small loads or when the apparent power demand of a specific
installed device increases, overloading is experienced. These may be encountered when
there is a need to expand by increasing the building area, along with other factors. The
temperature of the wiring and the insulation material rises with the increase in load, which
decreases the life of the equipment by decreasing its efficiency. Both the primary and
secondary sides of the transformers can be used to install the overload protection

The overload protection equipment commonly used nowadays is a digital relay device. This
relay device helps to turn off the circuit breaker which is present on the secondary side of
the transformer. This digital relay device, known as thermal overload relay, by considering
the time constant of the transformer, mimics the temperature artificially. Using this relay
device, prediction can be made of the time when the overload tripping would occur and the
waiting duration after the circuit breaker has tripped. Load shedding operation is easily
controlled with this information.

Oil-immersed transformers have two different thermostats as the protection. One thermostat
rings the alarm while the other trips the circuit breaker. The alarm and tripping is both
controlled by heat sensors in case of dry-type transformers. These heat sensors are located
in the hottest part of the insulation of windings.

Internal faults

Buchholz mechanical relay, a kind of transformer-mounted device, is used to provide

protection to transformers experiencing internal faults.

These transformers are those which are fitted with air-breathing conservator tanks. Arcing
of initial faults in the insulation of the winding may result in the accumulation of gases, as
can the entrance of air because of an oil leak.

The accumulation of gases in both these cases is a very slow process but can still be
detected by the relay. If the situation is minor then the alarm goes off. But if the situation
aggravates further, which happens when the oil enters the connecting pipe between the
main and the conservator tank, the upstream circuit breaker trips.
Transformers have been modernized and equipped with cooling oil radiator elements. The
function of cooling oil radiators is a concerting action and helps prevent the pressure from

Internal faults are of two types:

Internal phase-to-phase short-circuit

This kind of error in the transformer can be corrected by either using three fuses located on
the primary side of the transformer or an over-current relay. The over-current relay will trip
the circuit breaker present upstream of the transformer.

Internal phase-to-earth short-circuit

Most commonly encountered internal fault is the phase-to-earth short-circuit. Earth fault
relays have been found useful in detecting this internal fault. Specific core current
transformer is the first option if sensitive detection is required to be made. A two current
transformer set can serve the purpose well.

RET650- A recent innovation

RET650 is a modern invention which can be used for ready-made, optimal off-the-shell
protection solutions.

Protection of two winding transformers and three winding transformers can be achieved by
RET650. It also helps to control the voltage for a single transformer.

A separate voltage control unit is also available for use and can handle two parallel
operating transformers. It is also useful for the integration of back-up protection
Intelligent electronic devices (IEDs) are the type tested variants of RET650. These IEDs
when delivered are also configured to ensure complete and proper functionality. They are
set on default settings to facilitate handling of products.

Did this article helped you? Do you know other devices for transformer protection?


Hi, its Steven Mill and today I want to tell you about Measuring The Partial
Discharge. Ready?

Transformer routine test is normally conducted to see if there are any partial discharges in
the transformer insulation.

What is a partial discharge?

A partial discharge can be described as electrical arcs produced between any of the
electrodes in the insulating material of the transformer, which can in turn produce surges
between the conductors.

Partial discharges normally occur as a result of little air bubbles left over in the insulating
material of the transformer during the manufacturing stage, or at the surface of the
insulating media.

What harm can it do?

Partial discharges are electrically very weak, but the thermal energy produced as a result of
a partial discharge, is capable of corroding or tearing the insulating medium. Frequent
partial discharges can also force the transformers to age prematurely.

Measuring The Partial Discharge (PD)

Partial discharge can be measured by using a calibration transformer. Using this calibration
technique the following can be discovered:

This technique is used to determine if partial discharges are occurring above a

certain value, when a predefined voltage is applied to the transformer.

It also helps in finding out that at what increased voltage is the occurrence of partial
discharge taking place and at what voltage a particular partial discharge ceases to

This test is also used to determine the strength of a particular partial discharge.

Measuring arrangement of a partial discharge in a transformer and its circuit diagram are
shown in the figure below:
The numbers in the figure above refer to the following components in the measuring system

1. Generator supply

2. Transformer supply

3. Calibrating transformer

4. Measuring circuit coupled with voltage transformer

5. Filter

6. Impedance Measurement

7. Switch

8. Oscilloscope

9. Calibration generator (qo)

In this circuit, calibration generator produces the necessary predefined load, qo. and
measurements at all the terminals of the transformer are taken. This is done by connecting
the calibration generator in parallel to the terminals, and the corresponding readings are
noted from the different measuring instruments.

After The Calibration Test

After the calibration test is conducted, the calibration generator is removed from the circuit
and the transformer is connected to the supply generator. Now the voltage level will be too
low. This is called remanance voltage. Also known as the base noise, this voltage value
should be less than the partial discharge values that are guaranteed by the manufacturer.

Now the voltage levels are slowly increased to the standard level (as per the specifications
given by the manufacturer), and the partial discharge values are noted.


The test is deemed to be successful if the partial discharge values are lower than the pre-
defined values noted at the time of the test, or those given by the manufacturer. It should
also be seen that there is no sudden spike in the partial discharge value at any terminal,
during the testing phase.

In conclusion, a transformer routine test for measuring partial discharge plays an important
role in increasing the life of the transformer, eventually increasing the productive hours and
decreasing the down time. It is advised that this test is conducted frequently in order to
avoid any major blackouts during peak operating periods.

Steven Mill.


Hi this is Steven Mill! Im back with a back to basics article about condition
monitoring of the transformer. Hope it will help yall!

The transformer is the most crucial part in electrical distribution system as it is the most
expensive equipment in an electrical distribution system. If a transformer fail unexpectedly,
not only it will affect the electrical supply but also it will cost you time and money. Hence it
is important to detect early sign of fault to avoid power outage and extra cost.

In this article, we will discuss several techniques used to monitor the condition of the
transformer. Those techniques are:

1. Acoustic Monitoring

2. Infrared Monitoring

3. Dissolved Gas Analysis

4. High Performance Liquid Chromatography

5. Partial Discharge

6. Frequency Response Analysis

7. Power Factor

8. Winding Resistance

9. Core Insulation Resistance

Acoustic Monitoring of the transformer

It is clear that if the load of the transformer increases, the noise will also increase. Hence
several measurement is needed to monitor transformers performance by measuring the
noise such as [1] :

The basic of noise level, ie. When the transformer is new.

Changes in noise level over time, at a given load.

Relative level of noise compared with the background noise.

Figure 1. Acoustic monitoring | image:

Infrared Monitoring
Infrared monitoring is the method to measure the performance of the transformer by detect
the hotspots that occur because, for example, improper cable connection or winding failure.
Figure 2. Infrared test detect the hotspot of the transformer | image:

Dissolve Gas Analysis (DGA)

Whenever oil transformer experience abnormal thermal, electrical stress, and other faults,
several gases are produced due to decomposition of transformer insulation oil. When the
fault is major, the production of the decomposed gas are more and they get collected in
Bucholz relay. However when the faults are not significantly high, the gases will get
enough time to dissolve back in the oil. Hence it is necessary to analyse the quantity of
different gases dissolve in transformer.

By using interpretation technique (Key gases, gases ratio, or data mining) we can deduce
fault indication by interpreting the DGA tests result. The fault that could be detected by
DGA tests are:

Electrical discharge

Partial discharge

Thermal fault in oil

Arcing in Tank tap changer

Overheating of cellulose

Degradation of cellulose by electrical fault

High Performance Liquid Chromatography
This method is developed in order to overcome DGA insensitiveness when lower
temperatures (100 to 1300 C) are concerned. The method correlates well with cellulose
aging determined from Degree of Polymarisation (DP) measurements [2].

DP measurements represents the length of the cellulose chain while HPLC identify the
presence of furanes and furfurans, created as the length of the cellulose chain shortens, as
part of the aging process.
HPLC has been found to be sensitive in detecting aging at relatively low temperature and to
provide strong evidence of aging when transformers have been overloaded [2].

Partial Discharge
Partial discharge is electrical discharge which does not completely bridge the two
electrodes. On a transformer, partial discharge can occur in void of winding material or in
gas bubble in an oil. Partial discharge on the transformer can be detected by DGA test.
However, a specific particular discharge test is performed to obtain specific location of the
fault and more reliable result.

A partial discharge measurement consist of:

Transformer being tested

Coupling capacitor

High voltage supply

Partial discharge detector

Software for analysis

The partial discharge is measured by analysing the voltage drop at the transformer line
terminal. This voltage calculated further to measure q, the apparent charge of the partial
discharge. The detail of the partial discharge measurement will be explain specifically in
other article.

Frequency Response Analysis (FRA)

Frequency response analysis is used to detect fault of the transformer, particularly to
determine the displacement of the winding.
Any electrical equipment always consists of resistance, inductance, and capacitance RLC
that is a function of frequency. The RLC impedance versus frequency characteristic is then
used to assess electrical and mechanical condition of a transformer. Laboratory test have
demonstrated the sensitiveness of this technique.

FRA can be used to detect mechanical damage and winding deformation of the transformer
after fault happen. If short circuit occur in the transformer, it can suffer heavy mechanical
damage from the very large electromagnetic force. Winding deformation also can be caused
by lightning or system switching. After such an event, the engineer need to know whether it
is safe to re-energise the transformer by doing FRA test.

FRA is normally used to analyse [1] :

Change in the response of the winding

Difference between the responses of the three phase of the same


Differences between the responses of the transformer of the same


Option require that FRA has been previously performed on the transformer, whilst option b
and c doesnt.

Figure 3. FRA of a new transformer | image:

Power Factor
Power factor measurement is performed to assess the dielectric condition of the
transformer. Power factor testing is an effective method to detect and help isolate
conditions such as moisture, carbonization, and contamination in bushings, windings and
liquid insulation. In addition to power factor testing, transformer excitation current
measurements will help detect winding and core problems.

However, the fact the measurement is an overall quantity for the winding and therefore it is
practically impossible to determine whether there is a problem of the whole winding, e.g.
contamination by sludge or carbon deposit, or localised fault.

Power factor test is performed by applying voltage and measure the leakage/loss current of
electrical insulation [3]. The leakage comprises of two components:

Resistive current (Ir)

Capacitive current (Ic)

Polarisation Spectrum
This technique is used to measured water content in the paper in an oil-paper insulation
system and is increasingly being seen as a more reliable indication of dryness of the
transformer than moisture in oil measurements.
The test is performed by charging the transformer dielectric by 2000VDC voltage for a
particular charger time, discharged for half time, and then the peak and initial slope and the
recovery voltage are measured. The dielectric is then fully discharged before a new
measurement is made for a different charge time. Measurements can be made for charge
times from 20ms to 5000s. The condition of the dielectric is characterised by the dominant
time constant for the peak recovery voltage and by the characteristic slope of the initial
slope versus peak recovery voltage plot [1].

However there is uncertainty of the results if the test is performed in a few very old
transformer as oil acidity and paper degradation can complicate the result.

Winding Resistance
This test is performed to check the transformer winding, terminal connection and tap
changer, and also to calculate the load loss value. Loose connections and high contact
resistance can initiate increasing levels of ethane and or ethylene.

Winding resistance can be measured using micro-ohmmeter. The results then compare with
factory measurements with a correction factor is needed. The following formula is used to
compare the result:

Rs = Resistance at the factory reference temperature.
Rm = Measured resistance
Ts = Factory reference temperature (usually 750 C)
Tm = Temperature at which measurements were taken
Tk = A constant, 234.50 C for coper, 2250 C for aluminium

Core Insulation Resistance

Additional core ground can be detected by DGA. However, core insulation resistance is
performed when the winding resistance shows that all of tap changer and connection
contacts are in good condition whilst DGA test show significant proportion of ethane,
ethylene, and possibly methane.

The test is done by disconnecting the intentional ground. The resistance is measured in
mega ohms by a DC megger or may be determined from calculation. Make sure to always
earth the core and the tank before measuring the insulation resistance. Next, short circuit
the both winding terminals of the transformer. After that, core insulation resistance is
determined by measure the resistance between each winding and all other earthed windings.

The following table show the condition of the core insulation resistance for different
measured readings [4]:


[1] D. Hoyle and R. MacKinlay, Transformers 3 (Electrical Performance Testing), in

Asset Management, Maintenance & Condition Monitoring, Newcastle Upon Tyne,
Newcatle University, 2015, p. 7.

[2] P. D. J. Allan, Transformer Magnetic Circuit, in Transformers, Newcastle, Newcastle

University, 2015, p. 30.,

[3] Megger, [Online]. Available:

4d4f2cb8b114/Transformers_AG_en_VO1.PDF/. [Accessed 17 April 2016].

[4] IEEE Guide for Diagnostic Field Testing of Electric Power Apparatus Part 1: Oil Filled
Power Transformers, Regulators, and Reactors, IEEE Standard 62-1995, 1995.

Thanks again for reading me!

Steven Mill

Did this article helped? Do you think it lacks information? Tell us in the comments


If youve been following this blog for a long time, you know that we dealt with
transformers a lot. This topic is interesting and much requested so we did our possible
to add more publications about it.

Steven Mill, one of our active members, chose to talk about the role of cooling in the
life of a transformer. You can check his essay below


Copper loss or I2R is the main reason for the heat generated in an electrical power
transformer. Though there are other losses such as hysteresis and eddy current losses which
are also responsible for the heat generation, I2R is considered as the main factor.

If the heat thus generated is not cooled or dissipated properly, the paper or the liquid
insulation present in the transformer may get damaged, forcing the transformer to fail

In order to avoid this, a proper cooling system has to be installed in the transformer.

How Important Is Cooling?

Heated Transformer Thermal Imaging

Cooling system plays a vital role in increasing the life of the transformer. As we all know,
many end users overload the transformers beyond their load tolerance capacities during
peak usage periods.
This in turn generates heat above permissible levels in the windings of the transformer. As a
result, the ageing of transformers insulation gets accelerated, decreasing the life of the
Hence, a proper cooling system, which is capable of dissipating the excess heat produced in
the transformer, is very important. Such cooling system, will keep the heat generated in the
transformer under permissible limits, and plays a major role in increasing the life of a

There are various types of cooling methods employed in an attempt to increase the life of a
transformer. Let us now have a look at them.

Various Methods Of Cooling Transformers

In order to increase the rate of heat dissipation in an electrical transformer, various external
cooling methods are in use. Each of these methods is employed depending on the rating and
the size of the transformer.

ONAN Method:

ONAN, Oil Natural Air Natural, is the easiest method of cooling transformers. In this
method, the oil that gets hot because of absorbing heat from the windings of the transformer
flows into the upper tank of the transformer, naturally, due to convection. And the cold oil
takes its place.

The hot oil that moves into the upper tank of the transformer is again cooled, naturally, by
exchanging heat through conduction, radiation and convection methods into the air.

When the oil in the tank gets cold, it naturally flows back into the radiators of the
transformer. This circulation of hot and cold oil takes place as long as there is load on the
Since the dissipation rate of the heat depends on the surface area of the tank, this kind of
transformers tend to have large circulation tanks.
Also, additional surface area for quick dissipation of heat is added in the form of tubes and
radiators to the tank, so that the transformer gets cooled quickly.

ONAF Method:

ONAF, Oil Natural Air Forced, is a method employed to make the dissipation of the heat
from the surface of the radiators, even faster. In ONAN method, heat from the hot oil is
dissipated through the surface of the tank, naturally, into the air.

In this method, forced air is used to accelerate the cooling process with the help of fans.
Fans blowing air on the cooling surface can dissipate the heat faster when compared to the
air absorbing the heat from the hot surface, naturally.

This method allows you to apply more load on the transformer, without crossing the
permissible heat levels in the transformer, as the fans employed in this type of cooling
system, help cool the transformer windings quicker.

As a result, both the performance and the life of the transformer are enhanced.

OFAF Method:
OFAF, Oil Forced Air Forced, is a method employed to cool transformers much faster
than in ONAF method.
In ONAF method, only air is forced on to the hot surface to cool it, but the circulation of oil
in the radiators, still follows natural convection method, which is very slow. But in OFAF
method, even oil is forced to displace quicker, allowing the transformer to cool much faster.

In this type of cooling system, pumps are employed to pump up the oil, forcing the oil
circulation to be quicker when compared to natural convection. As a result, rate of the
circulation of the oil in the radiators increases, increasing the rate of dissipation of the heat
from the transformers.

OFWF Method:

OFWF, Oil Forced Water Forced, is a much

more sophisticated method compared to the methods discussed above. In this method, water
is used as the medium for heat transfer rather than air. As we all know, under any given
weather conditions, the temperature of water are less than that of air. This is the primary
logic used in this type of cooling system.

Here, the oil circulated through the radiators of the transformer goes through a water
chamber, where jets of cooling water are showered on to the pipes containing the hot oil. In
this process, heat is exchanged much faster and the oil gets cooled much quicker making
the cooling system much more effective.

This type of cooling system makes the design of the transformer more compact and is
capable of increasing the life of the transformer tremendously, if employed and maintained


Whatever might be the method one might use to cool the transformer, one should always
bear in mind that fans, pumps, valves, heat exchangers and other components of the cooling
system are regularly checked and maintained properly to ensure the long life of the

Even if one fan fails, or if the pump has a leak, it will affect the other components of the
cooling system increasing the temperature in the transformer invariably, failing the
insulation and sometimes, the entire transformer itself.

Thanks for reading,


Maybe you have other tips to share? Feel free to give your impressions in the
comments section below!


More than 50% of failures in electrical enclosures are due to the cooling system! The
automatic control of temperature is an essential intervention which guarantees the
reliability and service life of your equipment.

Unfortunately, for lack of means, time or expertise, you dont do calculations which enable
you to know and manage your enclosures temperature automatically. As a result, the
devices in enclosures overheat, they breakdown and make you spend a lot of time and
money in fixing your mistakes. Your clients are dissatisfied and endure operating losses that
can reach several millions of dollars in some sectors.

Faced with this issue, the worst solutions are: to install a cooling system at random, using
the one you use for all your machines from habit, or simply to not install a cooling system
at all.
Few weeks ago, we received a mail from a Swiss OEM (original equipment manufacturer)
who had installed for a client located in Asia the same equipment as he used to install in
Europe, with the same cooling equipment inside. Once he did, he noticed that the
equipment was over-heating, and after analysis it appeared that the air conditioner capacity
wasnt high enough to maintain the proper temperature inside the equipment, because of
high ambient on-site temperatures. And he even faced some power failures in some of these
equipments before the problem was fully identified.

His reaction after that was to order and install a second air conditioner in addition to the
first one, on the same enclosures. This solution did solve the overheating issue, but the
OEM had to support the extra-cost for the second air conditioner, while after a proper
thermal calculation was done it appeared that adding a second air conditioner was a very
over-dimensioned solution.

If he had done the thermal calculations before the assembly, from the beginning, he would
have installed only one air conditioner, with just a slighty higher capacity that the first one
(+10%). Thus, he would have saved most of the additional costs needed by another
installation for the client and the recurring costs needed for maintenance of two air
conditioners. All that cost him an arm and a leg!

As you will have understood, to avoid failures and overheat of the devices in your electrical
enclosures, the key lies in ANTICIPATION. Thats why we propose you to download right
now an easy and rapid software for free, that will help you to find the right cooling system
to block failures caused by thermal issues.

Helpful Hints from the Electrical Engineering Community (ECC):

This software has been conceived by Schneider Electrics engineers in order to

promote their products and their sales. Yet, we discovered that the software can be
used for any types of enclosures if you choose the option Other cases from the
first step (Enclosure tab).

You can use the software 19 times. To get the unlimited version, youll simply have
to register for free.

This software is available in English, French, German and Spanish.

o There must be few other softwares of that kind, dont hesitate and introduce
them to us in the comments.
PS: To thank and encourage us to propose you this type of device in the future, please
leave a message of support, your observations or your review in the comments section