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Modeling and Analysis of Photonic Crystal Waveguides

Mhd. Rachad Albandakji

Dissertation submitted to the Faculty of the


Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
in partial fulllment of the requirements for the degree of

Doctor of Philosophy
in
Electrical Engineering

Advisory Committee:
Ahmad Safaai-Jazi : Chair
Roger Stolen : Member
Sedki Riad : Member
Ioannis Besieris : Member
Ira Jacobs : Member
Randy Hein : Member

April 27, 2006


Blacksburg, Virginia

Keywords: Photonic Crystal Fibers, Tapered Fibers, Fresnel Fibers


c Copyright 2006, M. R. Albandakji
Modeling and Analysis of Photonic Crystal Waveguides

Mhd. Rachad Albandakji

Abstract

In this work, we investigate several aspects of photonic crystal waveguides through


modeling and simulation. We introduce a one-dimensional model for two-dimensional
photonic crystal bers (PCFs), analyze tapered PCFs, analyze planar photonic crystal
waveguides and one-dimensional PCFs with innite periodic cladding, and investigate
transmission properties of a novel type of ber, referred to as Fresnel ber.

A simple, fast, and ecient one-dimensional model is proposed. It is shown that the
model is capable of predicting the normalized propagation constant, group-velocity
dispersion, eective area, and leakage loss for PCFs of hexagonal lattice structure
with a reasonable degree of accuracy when compared to published results that are
based on numerical techniques.

Using the proposed model, we investigate tapered PCFs by approximating the tapered
section as a series of uniform sections along the axial direction. We show that the
total eld inside the tapered section of the PCF can be evaluated as a superposition
of local normal modes that are coupled among each other. Several factors aecting
the adiabaticity of tapered PCFs, such as taper length, taper shape, and number of
air hole rings are investigated. Adiabaticity of tapered PCFs is also examined.
A new type of ber structure, referred to as Fresnel ber, is introduced. This ber can
be designed to have attractive transmission properties. We present carefully designed
Fresnel ber structures that provide shifted or attened dispersion characteristics,
large negative dispersion, or large or small eective area, making them very attractive
for applications in ber-optic communication systems.

To examine the true photonic crystal modes, for which the guidance mechanism is
not based on total internal reection, photonic crystal planar waveguides with innite
periodic cladding are studied. Attention will be focused on analytical solutions to
the ideal one-dimensional planar photonic crystal waveguides that consist of innite
number of cladding layers based on an impedance approach. We show that these
solutions allow one to distinguish clearly between light guidance due to total internal
reection and light guidance due to the photonic crystal eect.

The analysis of one-dimensional PCFs with innite periodic cladding is carried out
in conjunction with an equivalent T-circuits method to model the rings that are close
to the core of the ber. Then, at suciently large distance from the core, the rest of
the cladding rings are approximated by planar layers. This approach can successfully
estimate the propagation constants and elds for true photonic crystal modes in both
solid-core and hollow-core PCFs with a high accuracy.

iii
Dedication

To my mom and dad who are my source of support and inspiration...


To my lovely sisters who are my source of love and passion...
May Allah bless you all...

iv
Acknowledgments

First of all, my praises and thankfulness are for Allah for his guidance and blessing
with a family that has never stopped giving me love and encouragement.

It gives me a great honor to thank my academic advisor Dr. Ahmad Safaai-Jazi for
his endless support and advice during my research years. Also I would like to thank
Dr. Roger Stolen for his contributions and suggestions in my research. I am also
very greatful to my other advisory committee members who gave me guidance and
precious comments on my research.

I would like to especially thank Dr. Ali Nayfeh and Dr. Ziad Masoud from the Engi-
neering Science and Mechanics Department for their support.

Also, I would like to thank my friends for the wonderful time and brotherhood we lived
together during our studies at Virginia Tech. I would like to mention Mohammad
Daqaq, Sameer Arabasi, Saifuddin Rayyan, Qasem Al-Zoubi, Fadi Mantash, and
Basel Al-Sultan, they were really the best company. I am also very greatful to my
american mother Sonja Murrell for her unlimited care, support, and kindness.

v
Table of Contents

Abstract ii

Dedication iv

Acknowledgments v

Table of Contents vi

List of Figures x

List of Tables xiv

1 Introduction 1
1.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.2 Photonic Crystals: An Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.3 Photonic Crystal Fibers: An Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.3.1 Solid-Core Photonic Crystal Fibers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
1.3.2 Hollow-Core Photonic Crystal Fibers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

vi
1.4 Recent Advances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
1.5 Scope of the Proposed Research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

2 Analysis of One-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Fibers 18


2.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
2.2 Field Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
2.3 Solution of the Wave Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
2.4 Boundary Conditions and Dispersion Relation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

3 Analysis of Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Fibers 28


3.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
3.2 The Proposed Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
3.3 Model Testing, Comparison, and Accuracy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
3.3.1 Normalized Propagation Constant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

3.3.2 Group-Velocity Dispersion (GVD) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

3.3.3 Eective Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35


3.3.4 Leakage Loss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

4 Analysis of Tapered Photonic Crystal Fibers 40


4.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
4.2 Analysis of Tapered Photonic Crystal Fibers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
4.3 Adiabaticity of Tapered Photonic Crystal Fibers . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
4.3.1 Taper Shape . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
4.3.2 Taper Length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
4.3.3 Number of Air Hole Rings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53

5 Fresnel Fibers 56

vii
5.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
5.2 Analysis of Fresnel Fibers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
5.3 Special Fresnel Fiber Designs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
5.3.1 Dispersion-Shifted Fibers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
5.3.2 Dispersion-Flattened Fibers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
5.3.3 Dispersion Compensating Fibers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63

6 Analysis of Planar Photonic Crystal Waveguides 65


6.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
6.2 Analysis of PPCW with Finite Number of Cladding Layers . . . . . . 66
6.3 Analysis of PPCW with Innite Number of Periodic Cladding Layers 70
6.4 Comparison between PPCWs with Finite and Innite Number of Cladding
Layers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
6.5 True Photonic Crystal Modes in PPCWs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
6.5.1 High-Index Core PPCWs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
6.5.2 Low-Index Core PPCWs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81

7 Analysis of Ideal One-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Fibers 85


7.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
7.2 Method of Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
7.3 Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
7.3.1 Solid-Core PCF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
7.3.2 Hollow-Core PCF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93

8 Conclusions and Directions for Future Work 102


8.1 Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
8.2 Directions for Future Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105

viii
A Matrix Coecients 107

B Material Constants 109

Bibliography 110

Vita 122

ix
List of Figures

1.1 Examples of 1-D (left), 2-D (center), and 3-D (right) photonic crystals. 4

1.2 Various PCF structures reported in the literature: (a) hexagonal solid-
core PCF, (b) cobweb PCF, (c) hexagonal hollow-core PCF, and (d)
honeycomb PCF. [Used with permission from [14]]. . . . . . . . . . . 6

1.3 Summary of the techniques used for the analysis of PCFs. . . . . . . 13

2.1 Index prole of a 1-D PCF (ring ber). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

2.2 Geometry and coordinates for a 1-D PCF. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

3.1 Transforming 2-D PCF into 1-D PCF. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29


3.2 Hexagonal ring in a 2-D PCF. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
3.3 Index prole of the suggested PCF model. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
3.4 Normalized propagation constant as a function of normalized wave-
length for dierent normalized hole diameter: dots are FEM results
in [33] and solid lines are results from the proposed PCF model. . . . 31

3.5 Contour plots of the percentage error in the normalized propagation


constant using the proposed PCF model when compared to the FEM
in [33]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

x
3.6 GVD comparisons: solid line is measured GVD in [69], dashed line is
numerically calculated GVD in [69], and dotted line is predicted GVD
using the proposed PCF model. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

3.7 GVD comparisons: solid line is measured GVD from [70], dashed line
is predicted GVD using the proposed PCF model, and dotted line is
predicted GVD using multipole method [45]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

3.8 Waveguide dispersion comparison: solid and dashed lines are from [33]
and dotted lines are predicted waveguide dispersion using the proposed
PCF model. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
3.9 Normalized eective area comparison: solid lines are from [72] and
circles are from the proposed PCF model. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
3.10 Leakage loss versus for 4-ring PCFs with dierent air-lling fractions
at = 1.55 m: solid lines are reported in [74] and dashed lines are
predicted by the proposed PCF model. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

3.11 Leakage loss versus for d/ = 0.9 PCFs with dierent number of
rings at = 1.55 m: solid lines are reported in [74] and dashed lines
are predicted by the proposed PCF model. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

4.1 Cross section of a typical ber taper. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41


4.2 Modeling of a ber taper using a series of cascaded uniform sections. 42
4.3 Approximating a nite taper section by a cylindrical structure of uni-
form cross section. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
4.4 Three dierent taper shapes: (a) linear taper, (b) raised cosine taper,
and (c) modied exponential taper. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46

4.5 The power coupled to HE12 mode in dierent PCF taper shapes. . . . 47

4.6 Local taper length-scale (zt ) in a tapered ber. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48

4.7 Linear down-tapered ber showing the taper angle. . . . . . . . . . . 49


4.8 The normalized propagation constants of the rst three modes for a
taper length of 100 m at 1.55 m wavelength. . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
4.9 Variation of coupled power for the rst three modes in the linear taper
with a length larger than adiabatic length. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
4.10 Power density distribution inside the linear taper with a length larger
than adiabatic length. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

xi
4.11 Variation of coupled power for the rst three modes in the linear taper
with a length smaller than adiabatic length. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
4.12 Power density distribution inside the linear taper with a length smaller
than adiabatic length. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
4.13 Variation of power of the rst three modes in a 1-ring PCF taper. 2-
and 3-ring PCF tapers have almost the same power variation. . . . . 54
4.14 Power density distribution inside a 1-ring PCF taper. . . . . . . . . . 54
4.15 Power density distribution inside a 2-ring PCF taper. . . . . . . . . . 55
4.16 Power density distribution inside a 3-ring PCF taper. . . . . . . . . . 55

5.1 Index prole of a Fresnel ber. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57


5.2 Eective area for the bers listed in Table 5.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
5.3 Dispersion-attened Fresnel ber no. 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
5.4 Dispersion-attened Fresnel ber no. 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
5.5 The eect of changing the core radius of Fresnel ber no. 11 on dis-
persion curve. Core radii used are 1.54, 1.57, and 1.6 m (bottom to
top). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62

5.6 The eect of changing the ring area of Fresnel ber no. 11 on dispersion
curve. Ring areas used are 0.8, 1.0, and 1.2 m (bottom to top). . . . 62

5.7 Dispersion compensating Fresnel ber no. 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64


5.8 Dispersion compensating Fresnel ber no. 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64

6.1 A planar photonic crystal waveguide. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66


6.2 Index prole of a planar photonic crystal waveguide. . . . . . . . . . . 66

6.3 Planar semi-innite periodic structure with Zin and Zin shown. . . . . 70
6.4 Dispersion curves for TE0 mode for dierent number of cladding layers.
The PPCW parameters are d0 = 1 m, d1 = 0.5 m, d2 = 0.5 m,
material 1 is M11, and material 2 is M12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
6.5 Normalized propagation constant for several TE and TM modes of an
ideal PPCW with d0 = 2 m, d1 = 1 m, d2 = 1 m, material 1 is M1,
and Material 2 is M5. Gray area is the region of allowed modes when
the PPCW has a nite number of cladding layers. . . . . . . . . . . . 78

xii
6.6 Field distributions for TE2 mode at = 1.3 m: (a) Ey , (b) Hx , and
(c) Hz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79

6.7 Field distributions for TE2 mode at = 1.55 m: (a) Ey , (b) Hx , and
(c) Hz . In this case, the mode is a true photonic crystal mode with
< n2 < n1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
6.8 Normalized propagation constant for several TE and TM modes of an
ideal PPCW with d0 = 2 m, d1 = 1 m, d2 = 1 m, material 1 is
M12, and Material 2 is M11. Gray area is the region of possible modes
in practical PPCW if n1 and n2 were interchanged. . . . . . . . . . . 82

6.9 Field distributions for TM1 mode at = 1.3 m: (a) Hy , (b) Ex , and
(c) Ez . In this case, the mode is a true photonic crystal mode with
< n1 < n2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84

7.1 Equivalent transmission-line circuit of an optical ber. . . . . . . . . 86


7.2 Equivalent circuits for the analysis of 1-D PCF structure with innite
number of rings: (a) actual structure and (b) equivalent circuit model. 88

7.3 Periodic coaxial ber. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90


7.4 Index prole of the discussed periodic coaxial ber. . . . . . . . . . . 91

7.5 Transverse eld distribution for TM01 mode when = 4.9261 m: (a)
H , (b) Er , and (c) Ez . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92

7.6 Power density distribution for TM01 mode when = 4.9261 m. . . . 93


7.7 Hollow-core PCF. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
7.8 Transverse eld distribution for TE01 mode when k0 = 1.2: (a) E , (b)
Hr , and (c) Hz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97

7.9 Power density distribution for TE01 mode when k0 = 1.2. . . . . . . . 97

7.10 Transverse eld distribution for TM01 mode when k0 = 1.2: (a) H ,
(b) Er , and (c) Ez . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99

7.11 Power density distribution for TM01 mode when k0 = 1.2. . . . . . . . 99

7.12 Transverse eld distribution for TM01 mode when = 1.3 m: (a) H ,
(b) Er , and (c) Ez . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101

7.13 Power density distribution for TM01 mode when = 1.3 m. . . . . . 101

xiii
List of Tables

5.1 Several single-mode Fresnel ber designs with nearly zero dispersion
at = 1.55 m. Materials 1 and 2 are included in Appendix B. . . . 58
5.2 Fresnel ber designs with at dispersion around = 1.55 m. . . . . 60
5.3 Fresnel ber designs with large negative dispersion at = 1.55 m. . 63

7.1 Impedance method compared to three dierent techniques studied in [95]. 95

B.1 Sellmeier coecients for several materials. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109

xiv
M. R. Albandakji Chapter 1. Introduction

cation networks where data speed, security, and reliability are essential. As an exam-
ple, long distance landline telephone wire bundles, typically consisting of thousands
of bulky copper wire pairs, were replaced by a single optical ber. That is because
a single strand of optical ber is capable of carrying much more voice conversations
with much better sound quality than a traditional copper wire pair.

There are many nontelecom applications for bers too. In fact, the rst commercial
application of ber optics was in medicine where bundled bers were used to deliver
light to internal, hard-to-reach parts of the body to capture images for diagnostic
analysis. Recently, optical bers have been used as a compact and light weight
instruments to deliver high-power laser beams to patients with virtually no invasive
surgery involved.

Optical bers have also been used as chemical sensors and biosensors. Such optical
sensors are prepared by immobilizing indicators that change their optical properties
(index of refraction) on interacting with analytes. The main advantages of using
optical sensors over their electrochemical counterparts include freedom from EMI,
lack of the need for direct electrical connections to the solution being analyzed or for
a reference sensor, and the potential for transmitting a higher density of information
using multi-wavelength transmission [2].

Because of the growing inuence of the optical ber technology on our lives, there
has been considerable interests from many engineers and scientists all over the globe
to improve optical ber design and performance. In particular, they are devoting a
great deal of eorts to develop novel types of optical bers that possess enhanced
optical properties and cost less when compared to conventional bers. During 1980s,
ber-optics researchers envisioned synthesizing a new type of structured materials
that are periodic on the optical wavelength scale (on the order of a micrometer),

2
M. R. Albandakji Chapter 1. Introduction

known today as photonic crystals. The attractive optical properties of these materials
have led to extensive research activities to study them in two and three dimensional
congurations and to use them later in building new type of optical devices and bers.
Such bers, known as phonic crystal fibers (PCFs), possess the unique electromagnetic
properties of photonic crystals and thus allow performance levels that can not be
achieved using conventional optical ber waveguides [1]. Photonic crystals and PCFs
will be discussed in more details in the following two sections.

1.2 Photonic Crystals: An Overview

A crystal is a homogeneous material composed of repetitive arrangement of atoms


or molecules. A crystal lattice is formed when a small group of atoms or molecules
is repeated in three dimensional space of the matter. The way a crystal lattice is
formed determines many of its electrical and optical properties. In particular, certain
geometries of crystal lattices might prevent electrons of specic energy levels from
moving in specic directions. If the crystal lattice prevents electrons from moving in
all directions, then a complete band gap is formed. Semiconductors are examples of
crystal lattices that have complete band gaps between their valence and conduction
energy bands.

The optical analogy for the physical crystal is the photonic crystal, which can be
dened as a low-loss periodic dielectric medium [3]. In synthetic photonic crystals, the
periodicity of the structure occurs on the macroscopic level instead of the microscopic
level in crystal lattices. This periodic structure might result in photonic band gaps
that prevent light with specic energies (frequencies) from propagating in certain
directions; therefore, photonic crystals can be used in light control and manipulation.

3
M. R. Albandakji Chapter 1. Introduction

For instance, light might be guided to propagate through low-loss photonic crystals
rather than through optical bers, resulting in reduced optical losses. Also, new
optical devices, designed based on photonic crystals, have a great potential to be
key components in building fast communication networks and high speed optical
computers. However, there is a huge challenge in fabricating photonic crystals because
the lattice constant; i.e. periodicity distance, of the photonic crystal must be on the
order of magnitude of the wavelength of the light propagating through the crystal.
As an example, laser light used in many optical communication systems has a typical
wavelength in the micrometer range. Therefore, the photonic crystal lattice constant
must be on the order of a micrometer, which introduces an overwhelming challenge
in fabrication [4].

Photonic crystals can be classied, according to their degree of periodicity, into one-
dimensional (1-D), two-dimensional (2-D), or three-dimensional (3-D), as shown in
Fig. 1.1.

Figure 1.1: Examples of 1-D (left), 2-D (center), and 3-D (right) photonic crystals.

One-dimensional photonic crystals, also known as Bragg mirrors or multi-layer lms,


are the simplest photonic crystal structure, because they are periodic in one direc-
tion only. They are usually manufactured using a stack of two alternating dielectric
materials. When designed with appropriate layer thicknesses and refractive indices,
they can exhibit many important phenomena, such as photonic band gaps and lo-
calized modes around defects. However, because the index contrast is only along

4
M. R. Albandakji Chapter 1. Introduction

one direction, the band gaps and the localized modes are limited to that direction.
Nevertheless, this simple system illustrates most of the physical features and basic
behaviors of the more complicated 2-D and 3-D photonic crystal structures.

Two-dimensional photonic crystals are periodic in two dimensions only. They are
usually made of either parallel dielectric rods in air, or through drilling or etching
holes in a dielectric material. These systems can have photonic band gaps in the
plane of periodicity and localized modes in the plane of the defect.

Three-dimensional photonic crystals are periodic along three axes. It is remarkable


that such a system can have a complete photonic band gap so that no propagat-
ing modes are allowed in any direction in the crystal. They are more dicult to
manufacture, although several techniques for their fabrication have been developed
and applied with varying degrees of success, including silicon micromachining [5],
wafer fusion bonding [6], holographic lithography [7], self-assembly [8], angled-etching
[9], micromanipulation [10], glancing-angle deposition [11], and auto-cloning [12, 13].
These crystals can allow localization of light at point defects (optical resonators) and
propagation along linear defects.

1.3 Photonic Crystals Fibers: An Overview

The most common PCFs reported in the literature have a structure that takes the
form of hexagonal, honeycomb, or cobweb geometry, as shown in Fig. 1.2. PCFs with
hexagonal lattice structures are made with a solid core or a hollow core, whereas
cobweb microstructures usually have a solid core and honeycomb PCFs usually have
a hollow core.

5
M. R. Albandakji Chapter 1. Introduction

(a) (b)

(c) (d)

Figure 1.2: Various PCF structures reported in the literature: (a) hexagonal solid-core PCF, (b)
cobweb PCF, (c) hexagonal hollow-core PCF, and (d) honeycomb PCF. [Used with permission from
[14]].

In solid-core PCFs, light is guided inside the ber based on the average index eect.
The core region of the solid-core PCF is formed by disturbing the periodicity of the
lattice; usually by removing a single air hole from the periodic structure, which itself
forms the cladding region. Therefore, the refractive index of the core region becomes
higher than the average refractive index of the cladding region [15] and light is guided
by the eective index dierence between the high-refractive index core region and the
low-refractive index cladding region. On the other hand, light guidance solely due

6
M. R. Albandakji Chapter 1. Introduction

to the band gap eect can be achieved when the photonic crystal lattice is made
with large air holes. Guidance of light through air has been observed in hollow-core
PCFs. Since the core index is lower than the average cladding index, light guidance
is primarily because of the photonic band gap eect in the transverse direction [16].

Researchers have devoted extensive eorts in recent years to better understand and
further advance the technology of PCFs, being motivated by their unique transmission
properties. The most useful feature of PCFs is that they can be fabricated using one
material only in contrast to conventional single-mode bers which require two or more
materials. This unique feature does not only simplify the manufacturing process
of the ber, but it also reduces ber losses due to material absorption. Another
remarkable feature of PCFs is the wide wavelength range available for single- mode
operation. This feature allows PCFs to be single-mode and have anomalous waveguide
dispersion at the same time, whereas step-index bers (SIFs) are usually multi-mode
when the waveguide dispersion is anomalous. Therefore, one can use PCFs to shift
the wavelength of zero group-velocity dispersion (GVD) to less than 1.27 m, where
material dispersion is normal. This could be signicant for soliton transmission in
the 1.3 m window, dispersionless transmission at shorter wavelengths where ber
ampliers may be more readily available, and phase matching in nonlinear optics [17].
PCFs can also be manufactured with very small core sizes in order to obtain high
nonlinearity, which, if combined with an appropriate GVD, can be used for generating
a supercontinuum that can extend from the infrared to the visible region [18].

1.3.1 Solid-Core Photonic Crystal Fibers

Solid-core PCFs are usually fabricated by surrounding a solid glass rod, which forms
the core, by a group of hollow glass tubes, which form the cladding. The whole

7
M. R. Albandakji Chapter 1. Introduction

structure is then drawn in a conventional optical ber drawing tower. Examples of


solid-core PCFs are shown in Figs. 1.2a and 1.2b.

Light in solid-core PCFs propagates mainly in the core region by the virtue of eective
refractive index dierence between the core and the cladding regions. This unique
light propagation mechanism has opened the door for many new potential applications
for the PCF. As an example, PCFs designed with large eective area can be used in
applications that require delivery of high-power laser light, whereas PCFs designed
with small eective area can be used in novel nonlinear optical devices. Also, cladding
dimensions can be varied to achieve at dispersion, which is useful in wavelength
division multiplexed (WDM) communication systems, or dispersion compensation,
which is useful in upgrading the already installed 1.31 m optical ber links to operate
at 1.55 m.

Usually, light can be guided in the solid-core PCF by the average index eect, which
means periodicity of the air holes is not that critical [15, 19]. This is because the
solid-core region has higher refractive index than the eective refractive index of
the surrounding periodic cladding region, so light can be guided by total internal
reection. The eective refractive index dierence between the core and the cladding
in the PCF shows a high correlation with wavelength. This is because when the light
wavelength is increased, the modal eld starts to spread into the periodic region and,
hence, reduces the eective index of the cladding. PCFs with small air holes have
been predicted to be single-mode over a wide wavelength range [15]. It has also been
shown that the air hole arrangement in a holey ber does not have to be regular in
order to guide light. Besides that, many of the unique characteristics, such as the
endless single-mode, that are present in periodic holey bers have also been found in
holey bers with randomly arranged holes [20, 21].

8
M. R. Albandakji Chapter 1. Introduction

1.3.2 Hollow-Core Photonic Crystal Fibers

Guidance of light due to the photonic band gap eect can be achieved if the air holes
size in the photonic crystal lattice is made large enough [22]. A full 2-D photonic band
gap has been predicted by numerical simulations when the air holes are arranged in
hexagonal distribution, as shown in Fig. 1.2c. Based on the simulation results, it was
found that it is only possible for a band gap to form when the size of the air holes is
larger than the hole separation by at least 43% [23]. The large air hole made inside
the crystal lattice, shown in the center of the photonic crystal in Fig. 1.2c, causes a
localized mode to be trapped in the photonic band gap region and, therefore, light
can be guided inside an air-core ber. This new mechanism of light guidance inside
hollow-core PCFs can lead to a large variety of applications. For instance, these bers
can be used to carry large amounts of power or they can be used as sensing elements
in gas sensors with an increased eective length of interaction between the light and
the gas [24].

1.4 Recent Advances

In 1995, the rst PCF with solid-core was proposed as a thin silica glass ber made
with a periodic arrangement of circular air holes running along the entire length of
the ber [25]. Knight et al. [15] reported the fabrication of the rst solid-core PCF
made with a regular hexagonal arrangement of air holes. They also photographed the
near and far eld patterns at dierent wavelengths, discovering that the PCF has the
ability to support only one mode over a large wavelength range. Later, they used an
eective index model to conrm that the PCF can be single-mode at all wavelengths
although this is practically limited by bending loss at small and large wavelengths

9
M. R. Albandakji Chapter 1. Introduction

[26].

Ferrarini et al. [16] reported that lossless propagation in PCFs is only possible if the
air holes arrangement is of an innite extent and, of course, if a lossless material is
used. In practice, only a nite number of holes can be made; therefore, the modes of
such bers are, strictly speaking, leaky. Furthermore, the material introduces losses
due to absorption and Rayleigh scattering. Thus a PCF can be seen practically as
connement lossless if the leakage loss is negligible compared with material losses.

Tajima et al. [27] were successful in fabricating a 10-km long PCF with 0.37 dB/km
loss at 1.55 m. They used highly pure silica glass made with the vapor-phase axial
deposition (VAD) technique and tried to enhance the polishing and etching process
to reduce the loss caused by the irregularities in the interior surfaces of the holes.

PCFs can be properly designed to obtain unusual optical properties, such as large or
small chromatic dispersion and/or large or small eective areas needed in linear and
nonlinear applications. Several dispersion-tailored PCF designs have been reported
[28-33]. Ferrando et al. [28, 29] proposed using PCFs to obtain attened dispersion
characteristics near the wavelength of 0.8 m and a nearly zero at dispersion around
1.13 m. They also reported a procedure for designing PCFs with nearly zero and
ultra-attened dispersion around the wavelength of 1.55 m. Their idea was based
on starting from an arbitrary PCF conguration, then using scale transformation
to shift the waveguide dispersion until it overlaps with the negative of the material
dispersion [30]. A similar procedure was reported in [31]. The idea of using PCFs
for dispersion compensation was suggested by Birks et al. [32]. They used a simple
silica rod in air to model a PCF with large air holes, claiming that silica core of the
PCF is well isolated as it is only connected to the rest of the ber by the small silica
sections between the holes. They reported a total dispersion of -2000 ps/nm.km at

10
M. R. Albandakji Chapter 1. Introduction

m. Recently, empirical relations based on numerical analyses have been developed


for evaluating the chromatic dispersion of PCFs [33].

Photonic crystal bers with high birefringence have also been thoroughly investigated
in recent years [34-39]. Highly birefringent PCFs are used to eliminate polarization-
mode coupling and polarization-mode dispersion. This is usually achieved by reducing
the axial symmetry of the ber by varying the size of air holes near the core area [34,
35], deforming the air hole shape from circular into elliptical [36], or deforming the
core shape [37]. Several PCF designs that combined large mode area and maintained
polarization of light have also been reported [38, 39].

In order to assess the transmission properties of PCFs and optimize their design,
accurate modeling tools are necessary. Birks et al. [26] applied an average index
model to evaluate PCFs with hexagonal hole structures. They replaced the entire
microstructure cladding with an averaged-index cladding and used a circular unit cell
approximation which allowed them to obtain rough approximations to some of the
propagation properties of such PCFs. After realizing, through experimental observa-
tion, that the guided modes are localized inside the core region, they expressed each
modal eld as a sum of Hermite-Gaussian orthogonal basis functions [17]. However,
this method required some prior knowledge of the solution, which might not be always
available.

Ferrando et al. [40] used a full-vector method to study PCFs. Their main goal
was to reduce the complexity of solving a system of dierential equations into a
simpler problem of solving a system of algebraic equations by using a set of complex
exponential functions to represent the modal elds.

Monro et al. [19] described a hybrid approach that combined the best features of

11
M. R. Albandakji Chapter 1. Introduction

[17], which is high eciency, and [40], which is high accuracy. In their approach,
the electric eld and the defect in the core region were decomposed into localized
Hermite-Gaussian functions, while the air holes lattice was represented by periodic
functions.

Another technique based on plane-wave expansion, in which the solution is expressed


as a plane-wave modulated by a periodic function that has the same periodicity as
that of the photonic crystal structure , was suggested in [41]. However, this technique
models the nite PCF structure as an innite structure and, therefore, it is not capable
of predicting the connement loss. Also, it does not take into account the geometry
of inclusions, thus not an ecient method.

Several investigators have employed an imaginary-distance beam-propagation tech-


nique that accounts for polarization eect in calculating the eld proles and propa-
gation constants of the modal elds in the transverse directions of the ber [42, 43].
Guan et al. [44] used the vector form of the boundary element method (BEM) to ex-
amine the guided modal elds of PCFs. In this method, the curved edges between the
silica structure and the air holes are modeled as tiny linear segments, then Greens
theorem is used to solve the eigenvalue equation of the unknowns assigned to the
segments. Spurious solutions of the BEM were avoided by formulating the eigenvalue
problem using the transverse magnetic eld components instead of the longitudinal
components of the electric and magnetic elds. Resonances were also suppressed by
introducing two observation points for each boundary segment instead of one point.

White et al. [45] extended the multipole formulations for multi-core conventional
bers to treat PCFs. In their method, they divide the cross-section of the ber into
homogeneous regions where the wave equation decomposes into two scalar Helmholtz
equations that, in turn, lead to a matrix equation which is solved by an iterative

12
M. R. Albandakji Chapter 1. Introduction

technique. This method takes into account the rotational symmetry of PCFs to
increase computational eciency.

Finally, Saitoh and Koshiba [46] developed a full-vector imaginary-distance beam


propagation method based on a nite element scheme to analyze the bound and
leaky modes of PCFs. Like the multipole method, the cross-section of the ber is
divided into homogeneous regions where the wave equation, formulated as a matrix
eigenvalue system, is solved numerically.

A summary of all these techniques is shown in Fig. 1.3.

PCF Analysis Techniques

Analytical/Numerical Experimental Modeling

Field Expansion Numerical Effective index

- Plane-Wave - Finite Element


- Hermite-Gaussian - Finite Difference
- Biorthogonal Modal - Boundary Element
- Multipole

Figure 1.3: Summary of the techniques used for the analysis of PCFs.

Optical ber tapers have also been extensively investigated theoretically [47-50] and
experimentally [51-53]. Marcuse [47] used the scalar-wave approximation to investi-
gate the conversion of a single-mode to multi modes in optical bers with step-index
and parabolic-index proles whose radii increased monotonically along their length.
His calculations showed that if the change in the ber radius is gradual, the dominant
mode can adapt itself to that change.

13
M. R. Albandakji Chapter 1. Introduction

Hermansson et al. [48] used the beam propagation method to analyze slowly and
rapidly varying tapers. Li et al. [49] studied the transmission properties of multi-mode
tapered bers by deriving a formula that governs the propagation of rays inside the
tapered ber. Burns et al. [50] studied the loss mechanisms in tapered bers. Safaai-
Jazi and Suppanitchakij [54] studied a parabolic-index taper and used it for enhancing
the coupling eciency of light sources to optical bers. On the experimental side,
several researchers have suggested using optical ber tapers as ber-to-ber [51, 52]
and laser-to-ber [53] couplers.

More recently, research work has been reported on the analysis and manufacturing of
microstructure optical ber and PCF tapers. Chandalia et al. [55] used beam prop-
agation method to study the propagation of modal elds in a tapered microstructure
optical ber. e. They demonstrated an adiabatic down-taper from 132 m to 10
m over 6 mm length. Huntington et al. [56] used atomic force microscopy (AFM)
to demon- strate a tapered PCF with several hundred nanometers in diameter with
maintained hole array structures. Magi et al. [57] demonstrated a tapered PCF with
a pitch of less than 300 nm, allowing them to observe a Bragg reection in the visible
spectrum. Nguyen et al. [58] reported a loss of signal at long wavelengths as the ta-
pered PCF diameter is decreased, relating it cladding modes as the ber dimensions
contract.

Some research has also been performed to analyze theoretically PCF structures with
innite periodic cladding since they are capable of allowing propagation of true guided
modes and providing zero leakage loss. Mirlohi [59] has carried out an exact analysis
of such a structure with planar geometry; that is, a slab waveguide with innite
number of cladding layers of periodically varying index. Xu et al. [60] used an
asymptotic matrix approach to analyze both Bragg bers [60-62] and dielectric coaxial

14
M. R. Albandakji Chapter 1. Introduction

waveguides [63-65] by treating an arbitrary number of inner rings exactly using a


matrix formulation, whereas the outside cladding structure was approximated in the
asymptotic limit.

1.5 Scope of the Proposed Research

As discussed in the previous section, several theoretical and experimental techniques


have been proposed and utilized to study the transmission properties of PCFs. How-
ever, most of these techniques are very time consuming and require extensive com-
putational resources. Researchers are still trying to develop fast and low cost tools
for the analysis and design of PCFs. It would be very benecial if one can utilize a
simplied model that can predict the transmission properties of PCFs without the
need for complicated computer simulations or physical experiments, both of which
are time consuming and costly.

One of the objectives of this research is to develop a simple model for the analysis
of PCFs based on a periodic dielectric ring structure for which an exact analytical
solution exists. Such a model allows for ecient calculation of transmission proper-
ties, including axial propagation constant, dispersion, eective area, and leakage loss.
Konorov et al. [66] have mentioned a similar model for studying the spectrum of
guided modes and the spatial distribution of radiation intensity in hollow-core PCFs.

The proposed model reduces a 2-D PCF, in which every ring of air holes is a hexag-
onal inhomogeneous ring consisting of silica and air, into a 1-D periodic ring ber
structure. We model the hexagonal ring as a circular homogeneous ring with an ef-
fective refractive index that is related to the ratio of air holes area to the total ring

15
M. R. Albandakji Chapter 1. Introduction

area. In order to solve the 1-D circular ring structure, we use a rigorous full-vector
eld analysis in which the solutions for the axial components of the electric and mag-
netic elds are rst found, then the transverse components of the elds are evaluated
by expressing them in terms of the axial components, and nally boundary condi-
tions are applied to determine the modal dispersion equation. Then, the dispersion
equation is solved numerically for the axial propagation constant and the results are
used to calculate the group-velocity dispersion, eld distributions, and eective area.
The model predictions for the transmission properties of hexagonal lattice PCFs are
found in a good agreement with the corresponding results reported in the literature
by dierent authors.

The proposed model can also aide in analyzing tapered photonic crystal bers. The
analysis is based on approximating the tapered PCF by a series of small cylindrical
PCF sections where the modal elds are essentially independent of the axial coordi-
nate. Every section is then analyzed by the proposed model so that adiabaticity of
the taper can be investigated.

One useful aspect of the analysis of the 1-D circular ring ber structure is that it can
also be utilized to investigate dierent types of bers that do not necessarily have
rings of equal thickness; i.e., non-periodic ber structures; therefore, we used the
same analysis to investigate a special type of bers referred to as Fresnel ber. These
bers are ring bers with rings of equal area instead of equal thickness, and they
are found to possess unique optical properties, such as at dispersion, large negative
dispersion, and/or large or small eective area. The formulation developed here is
general enough so that the analysis of Fresnel bers can be carried out conveniently.

Another aim of this research is to analyze the 1-D photonic crystal ring ber with
innite number of rings; a problem that, to our knowledge, has not yet been solved

16
M. R. Albandakji Chapter 1. Introduction

satisfactorily. The ring ber with an innite number of cladding rings is an ideal
1-D PCF which can allow propagation of truly guided modes with zero leakage loss.
The main objective in studying this ideal PCF structure is to gain better insight and
understanding of true photonic crystal modes. This ideal structure may also serve as
a more accurate model of PCFs with large number of rings. An exact analysis of 1-D
planar photonic crystal structure with innite number of cladding layers has been
obtained using an impedance approach [59]. We attempt to extend this analysis to a
1-D photonic crystal structure of cylindrical geometry. In doing so, we found out that
representing the optical ber as a transmission line circuit, proposed in [67], can be
useful in solving this problem. Accordingly, we use the transmission line equivalent
circuit to represent the cladding rings that are close to the core region, then, at a
suciently large radius, the rest of the cylindrical rings are approximated as planar
layers and are analyzed using the impedance approach.

17
Chapter

2 Analysis of One-Dimensional
Photonic Crystal Fibers

2.1 Overview

One-dimensional (1-D) cylindrical photonic crystal bers (PCFs), also known as ring
bers, have periodic index variations in the radial direction only. These bers con-
sist of a central core surrounded by a multi-layer cladding composed of alternating
refractive indices and alternating equal-thickness rings. The refractive index prole
for this geometry is shown in Fig. 2.1. An advantage of such 1-D PCFs is that exact
analytical solutions exist for them. This allows more accurate simulations of transmis-
sion properties of such bers. Furthermore, these bers can serve as an approximate
model for the more complicated two-dimensional (2-D) PCFs. The cladding of the
model is formed by an eective refractive index as we will discuss in Chapter 3.

18
M. R. Albandakji Chapter 2. Analysis of One-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Fibers

n(r)

n1

n2
r
r1 r2 r3 rN-1

Figure 2.1: Index prole of a 1-D PCF (ring ber).

2.2 Field Analysis

In this section, we will determine the electromagnetic elds in a 1-D PCF that has
a geometry similar to the one shown in Fig. 2.2. In our preliminary formulation
of the problem, we will assume that the ber is straight and the core and cladding
materials are linear, isotropic, homogeneous, and lossless. Since the index prole is
periodic, the refractive index ni can assume one of two values only: n1 or n2 < n1 .
Because of the circularly cylindrical shape of the 1-D PCF, we choose a cylindrical
coordinate system (r, , z) in which the z-axis coincides with the PCF axis, as shown
in Fig. 2.2. It is emphasized that the core and claddings are dielectric materials with
a permeability equal to 0 . Furthermore, we consider time harmonic elds that vary
with time as ejt ; being the angular frequency. Our interest is in the guided modes
traveling along the z-axis; therefore, the z dependence of the elds is assumed to take
the form of ejz ; being the propagation constant. Accordingly, a mode in the ber
 H)
can be described by a set of elds (E,  that satisfy Maxwells equations and take

the following form

 (r, , z) = e (r, ) ejz


E (2.1a)
 (r, , z) = h (r, ) ejz
H (2.1b)

19
M. R. Albandakji Chapter 2. Analysis of One-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Fibers

r
z

rN-1 ri r2
r1

n1
n2
ni
nN-1

Figure 2.2: Geometry and coordinates for a 1-D PCF.

In the ith region with i = 0 n2i , Maxwells equations can be expressed in complex
phasor forms as

 E

 = j0 H (2.2a)


 H
 = ji E
 (2.2b)

By substituting Eqs. (2.1a) and (2.1b) into Maxwells equations (2.2a) and (2.2b), we
obtain the following equations
 
 e (r, ) ejz = j0h (r, ) ejz
(2.3a)
 
jz

h (r, ) e
 = jie (r, ) ejz (2.3b)

It is convenient to express the transverse components of the elds in terms of their


axial components. This approach reduces the mathematical derivation because we
just need to solve the wave equation for the axial eld components. In doing so, we

20
M. R. Albandakji Chapter 2. Analysis of One-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Fibers

 
 and the modal elds e and h into transverse and
decompose the del-operator
axial components as follows 


 =
t+ a
z (2.4)
z

e = et + ez a
z (2.5a)
h = ht + hz a
z (2.5b)

where the subscripts t and z stand for transverse and axial components, respectively.
The transverse components in cylindrical coordinates are expressed as follows
 
1
t =
 ar + a
(2.6)
r r

et = er a
r + e a
(2.7a)
ht = hr a
r + h a
(2.7b)

Hence, Eqs. (2.3a) and (2.3b) can be rewritten as


     
z ) ejz = j0 ht + hz a
 t jaz (et + ez a
z ejz (2.8a)
    
jz
 
t jaz ht + hz a z e z ] ejz
= ji [et + ez a (2.8b)

It is obvious that the exponential term ejz cancels out from both sides of Eqs. (2.8a)
and (2.8b). These two equations can be then expanded and written as

 t (ez az ) jaz et = j0ht j0hz a


 t et + z (2.9a)
 t ht +
 t (hz az ) jaz ht = jiet + ji ez a
z (2.9b)

By equating the transverse and axial components of both sides we obtain

j  
ez = a  
z t ht (2.10a)
i

21
M. R. Albandakji Chapter 2. Analysis of One-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Fibers

j  
et = t (hz a z ) jaz ht (2.10b)
i
j  
hz = z t et
a  (2.10c)
0
 
ht = j  t (ez a
z ) jaz et (2.10d)
0
From these equations, the transverse components can be obtained in terms of the
axial components, leading to the following results
j  
et = 2 0a z  t hz  t ez (2.11a)
ki
 
ht = j 0 n2 a z
 t ez +  t hz (2.11b)
ki2 i


where ki2 = k02 n2i 2 ; k0 = 0 0 . In the cylindrical coordinate system, more
explicit relations are obtained as follows


j ez 0 hz
er = 2 + (2.12a)
ki r r


j ez hz
e = 2 0 (2.12b)
ki r r

2

j 0 ni ez hz
hr = 2 + (2.12c)
ki r r


j 2 ez hz
h = 2 0 ni + (2.12d)
ki r r

2.3 Solution of the Wave Equation

Now we try to nd the solutions for the axial components of the elds. We start by
 or H
decoupling Maxwells equations in order to obtain an equation in terms of E 

only. This leads to what is known as the vector wave equation

2 E
 + 2 0 i E
 =0 (2.13a)

2 H
 + 20 i H
 =0 (2.13b)

22
M. R. Albandakji Chapter 2. Analysis of One-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Fibers

Now by substituting Eqs. (2.1a) and (2.1b) into the wave equations (2.13a) and (2.13b),
respectively, we obtain

 
2 + k02 n2i e (r, ) ejz = 0 (2.14a)
2  
+ k02 n2i h (r, ) ejz = 0 (2.14b)

where 2 0 i = k02 n2i is used. These two equations can be simplied further by
rewriting the Laplacian operator as 2 = 2t + (j)2 . Doing so, Eqs. (2.14a)
and (2.14b) can now be expressed as

2t e (r, ) + ki2e (r, ) = 0 (2.15a)

2t h (r, ) + ki2h (r, ) = 0 (2.15b)

Each of these equations can be split into three scalar wave equations in terms of
the Cartesian components of the elds. As was mentioned earlier, it suces to solve
for the axial components of the elds ez and hz , both of which satisfy the following
general scalar wave equation
2t + ki2 = 0 (2.16)

where represents ez or hz . The transverse Laplacian operator in the cylindrical


coordinate system can be expressed as

2 1 1 2
2t = + + (2.17)
r 2 r r r 2 2

Therefore, Eq. (2.16) assumes the following second order partial dierential equation
form
2 1 1 2
+ + + ki2 = 0 (2.18)
r 2 r r r 2 2
This equation can be solved using the separation of variables method leading to the
following general solutions

23
M. R. Albandakji Chapter 2. Analysis of One-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Fibers



 


sin ()

Ai J (ki r) + Ai Y (ki r) ; ki2 > 0
cos ()
(r, ) = (2.19)

  sin ()



Ai I (|ki | r) + Ai K (|ki | r) ; ki2 < 0
cos ()
In these solutions, Ai and Ai are constant coecients, J and Y are Bessel functions
of the rst and second kind, respectively, whereas I and K are modied Bessel
functions of the rst and second kind, respectively. The parameter is an integer
constant that represents the order of the Bessel or modied Bessel function. In the
core region (r < r1 ), Y and K must be excluded from the solution because they are
undened at the ber axis (r = 0). Also, in the outermost cladding layer (r > rN 1 ),
the eld solution must just include K function in order to ensure that the elds
remain nite as r approaches innity. Using this approach, the six components of the
electric and magnetic elds in the i th layer are expressed as
 
jk0
k A F

(k r) + B F 
(k r) + cos ()
Eri (r, ) = 2
i i ,i i i ,i i


qi Z0 Ci F,i (ki r) + Di F,i (ki r) sin ()
(2.20a)
r
 
jk0

A F (k r) + B
F (k r) + sin ()
Ei (r, ) = 2 r i ,i i i ,i i

qi kiZ0 Ci F (ki r) + Di F (ki r) cos ()
  
(2.20b)
,i ,i

  cos ()
Ezi (r, ) = Ai F,i (ki r) + Bi F,i (ki r) (2.20c)
sin ()

and
2  
jk0 ni
A F (k r) + B F (k r) + sin ()
Hri (r, ) = 2 Z0 r

i ,i i i ,i i
 (2.21a)
qi k
i Ci F (ki r) + Di F (ki r) cos ()
 
,i ,i
 
jk0 2
ni k i
A F

(k r) + B
F

(k r) + cos ()

i ,i i i ,i i
Hi (r, ) = 2 Z0
 (2.21b)
qi

Ci F,i (kir) + Di F,i (ki r) sin ()
r

24
M. R. Albandakji Chapter 2. Analysis of One-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Fibers


  sin ()
Hzi (r, ) = Ci F,i (ki r) + Di F,i (ki r) (2.21c)
cos ()

where
qi2 = i ki2 (2.22a)

+1 ; n >
i
i = (2.22b)
1 ; n <
i

J (k r) ; n = n
i i 1
F,i (ki, r) = (2.22c)
I (k r) ; n = n
i i 2

Y (k r) ; n = n
i i 1
F,i (ki , r) = (2.22d)
K (k r) ; n = n
i i 2

where = /k0 is the normalized propagation constant, Z0 is the free-space charac-


 
teristic impedance, ki = k0 n2i 2 , and Ai , Bi , Ci , and Di are constant amplitude
coecients that can be evaluated by imposing the boundary conditions for the elds
and knowing the source power.

2.4 Boundary Conditions and Dispersion Relation

In general, boundary conditions demand the continuity of the tangential eld com-
ponents at the interface between two dierent layers. Hence, for an N-layer ring
ber, we have N 1 interfaces, and at every interface we have 4 boundary conditions
(continuity of E , Ez , H , and Hz ). Therefore, we obtain 4N 4 equations with
which is
4N 4 unknown coecients plus the normalized propagation constant ,
also unknown. Applying the boundary condition on Ez at r = ri , yields

Ai F,i (Ui ) + Bi F,i (Ui ) = Ai+1 F,i+1 (Wi ) + Bi+1 F,i+1 (Wi ) (2.23)

25
M. R. Albandakji Chapter 2. Analysis of One-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Fibers

where Ui = ki ri and Wi = ki+1 ri . Similarly, applying the boundary condition on Hz


at r = ri , results in

Ci F,i (Ui ) + Di F,i (Ui ) = Ci+1 F,i+1 (Wi ) + Di+1 F,i+1 (Wi ) (2.24)

The continuity of E at r = ri leads to


    
1
A i F,i (Ui ) + B i
,i (Ui ) + Z0 Ci F  (Ui ) + Di F  (Ui ) =
F ,i ,i
ki i Ui
  
1
ki+1 i+1

Wi
Ai+1 F,i+1 (Wi ) + Bi+1 F,i+1 (Wi ) + (2.25)
   
Z0 Ci+1 F,i+1 (Wi ) + Di+1 F,i+1 (Wi )
Finally, the continuity of H at r = ri leads to
 2 
 
1 ni  
A F
i ,i (Ui ) + B
F
i ,i (U i ) + C F
i ,i (U i ) + D
F
i ,i (Ui ) =
ki i Z0
 2  Ui

1 ni+1  
Ai+1 F,i+1 (Wi ) + Bi+1 F,i+1 (Wi ) + (2.26)

ki+1 i+1 Z0


C i+1 F,i+1 (W i ) + D i+1 F,i+1 (Wi )
Wi

Equations. (2.23) to (2.26) can be rewritten into matrix form as



Ai+1 i i i
13 i
14 A
11 12 i
i i
Bi+1 21 i
22 i
23 24 Bi
= (2.27)
i i
Ci+1 31 i
32 i
33 34 Ci

i i i i
Di+1 41 42 43 44 Di
where the expressions for i are included in Appendix A.

Applying the boundary conditions at all the interfaces r = ri ; i = 1, 2, ..., N 1,


leads to the following expression which relates the amplitude coecients of the outer
cladding region to those of the central core

i i i i
A A 12 13 14 A
N 11 12 13 14 1 11 1
N 1 i
BN 21 22i i
23 i
24 B 21 22 23 24 B1
= 1 =
i i
CN i=1 31 32 33 34 C1
i i 31 32 33 34 C1

i i i i
DN 41 42 43 44 D1 41 42 43 44 D1
(2.28)

26
M. R. Albandakji Chapter 2. Analysis of One-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Fibers

In order to insure that the elds are nite at r = 0, B1 and D1 must be set to zero.
Also, the elds must decay exponentially in the outer cladding region; therefore, AN
and CN must be set to zero too. These requirements result in the following set of
equations
11 A1 + 13 C1 = 0 (2.29a)

31 A1 + 33 C1 = 0 (2.29b)

In order to avoid a trivial solution for the above system of equations, the determinant
of the coecients of this system must be zero, that is

11 33 13 31 = 0 (2.30)

Equation (2.30) is what is referred to as the characteristic equation, the dispersion


equation, or the eigenvalue equation. It can be solved for the normalized propagation

constant . Thus, all amplitude coecients can be expressed in terms of one am-
plitude coecient chosen as the independent coecient, which is eventually obtained
from the source condition. This equation may also be written as

, ni , ri ; i = 1, 2, ..., N 1 = 0
f , , (2.31)

Equation (2.31) is solved numerically to obtain the normalized propagation constant



which can then be used to evaluate other transmission properties of the ber,
such as phase and group velocities, dispersion, and eective area. It is worth men-
tioning that the suggested model is able to directly account for the dependency of
the refractive index of silica on wavelength using Sellmeiers equation [68]
!
"
" $ 3
Aj 2
n1 () = #1 + (2.32)
j=1
2 2j

where Aj and j are material constants listed in Appendix B. In the next chapter,
the formulation presented here will be used to model the 2-D PCFs and calculate
their transmission properties.

27
Chapter

3 Analysis of Two-Dimensional
Photonic Crystal Fibers

3.1 Overview

As mentioned in Chapter 1, many techniques have been proposed for simulating the
relatively complicated structure of the two-dimensional (2-D) photonic crystal bers
(PCFs). All these techniques require very long processing time and large amounts
of computer memory. Here, we introduce an analysis technique that is based on
modeling the complicated 2-D PCF structure with a simpler one-dimensional (1-D)
structure in order to predict the basic transmission properties. In Chapter 2, analyt-
ical solutions for the 1-D PCFs were obtained. These solutions, in conjunction with
the model presented here, allow for approximate, yet reasonably accurate evaluation
of transmission properties of 2-D PCFs, including propagation constant, chromatic
dispersion, eective area, and an estimation of leakage loss.

28
M. R. Albandakji Chapter 3. Analysis of Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Fibers

3.2 The Proposed Model

The modeling of a 2-D PCF is illustrated in Fig. 3.1. Each hexagonal inhomogeneous
ring of air holes in the 2-D PCF is replaced by a circular homogeneous ring with
certain eective refractive index and specic radius. Assuming that the PCF is made

Figure 3.1: Transforming 2-D PCF into 1-D PCF.

entirely of silica glass, this transformation suggests that the core of the model is
made of silica with an equivalent radius equals to d/2; where is the hole-to-hole
spacing and d is the hole diameter in the 2-D PCF. Also, this model suggests two
types of rings: a silica ring and an eective index ring. The silica ring has a thickness
of d, whereas the eective index ring has a thickness of d and an eective index
calculated by evaluating the air-lling fraction (f ), which is dened as the ratio of
the air holes area to the overall area of one ring. Referring to Fig. 3.2, the eective

29
M. R. Albandakji Chapter 3. Analysis of Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Fibers

Figure 3.2: Hexagonal ring in a 2-D PCF.

index is calculated as
nef f = nsilica (1 f ) + f (3.1)

where
d
f= (3.2)
2 3

In general, the eld decays to very small values at the outermost cladding, so the
index of the outermost cladding has no signicant impact on the analysis of the PCF.
Therefore, we chose the index of the outermost cladding to be navg , given by

navg = 0.5 [nsilica + nef f ] (3.3)

Fig. 3.3 shows the index prole of the suggested 1-D model of the 2-D PCF.

n(r)

-d/2 d -d
nsilica

navg
neff
r
r1 r2 r3 rN-1

Figure 3.3: Index prole of the suggested PCF model.

30
M. R. Albandakji Chapter 3. Analysis of Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Fibers

3.3 Model Testing, Comparison, and Accuracy

3.3.1 Normalized Propagation Constant

In order to be able to test the proposed model, some comparisons with published
results are made. First, we examine the accuracy of the model in predicting the
In doing so, we need to compare the results
normalized propagation constant ().
of the model with highly accurate ones that have been calculated using one of the
numerical techniques. Saitoh and Koshiba [33] have investigated what they refer to
using the nite element method (FEM), which is considered
as the eective index ()
to be a powerful tool capable of handling any kind of geometry. Fig. 3.4 compares
the normalized propagation constant obtained from this model with those calculated
using the FEM.

Figure 3.4: Normalized propagation constant as a function of normalized wavelength for dierent
normalized hole diameter: dots are FEM results in [33] and solid lines are results from the proposed
PCF model.

31
M. R. Albandakji Chapter 3. Analysis of Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Fibers

1 0.8

0.9 0.7

0.8 0.6

0.7 0.5
Error
/

0.4 (%)
0.6
0.3
0.5
0.2
0.4
0.1
0.3

0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8


d/

Figure 3.5: Contour plots of the percentage error in the normalized propagation constant using
the proposed PCF model when compared to the FEM in [33].

It is noted that the results based on the proposed model agree very well for small
/. An error analysis shows that for / 0.5, the model agrees within 0.2 %
when compared to the FEM, whereas for / 1.0, the model agrees within 0.7 %.
Fig. 3.5 shows contour plots of the percentage error.

3.3.2 Group-Velocity Dispersion (GVD)

GVD is another parameter that can be used to check the accuracy of the proposed
model. It can be calculated using the following relation

d2 ()
GVD = (3.4)
c d2

where c is the speed of light in free space.

32
M. R. Albandakji Chapter 3. Analysis of Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Fibers

Researchers have investigated GVD both numerically and experimentally. Wadsworth


et al. [69] fabricated a two-ring PCF with = 1.8 m and d/ = 0.8. They measured
the GVD by low-coherence interferometry using a white light source. They also mod-
eled the PCF numerically by using the plane-wave expansion method and considering
the structure as an innite periodic array of round holes with a single hole removed.
Fig. 3.6 shows the good agreement between the GVD obtained from this model and
that reported in Wadsworths paper both numerically and experimentally.

Figure 3.6: GVD comparisons: solid line is measured GVD in [69], dashed line is numerically
calculated GVD in [69], and dotted line is predicted GVD using the proposed PCF model.

Recently, Nakajima et al. [70] reported the fabrication of a low-loss PCF with =
5.6 m, d/ = 0.5, and 60 air holes. They measured the GVD using pulse delay mea-
surements with supercontinuum light. We simulated the same structure twice; once
using our proposed model, and another time using the multipole method [45]. Using

33
M. R. Albandakji Chapter 3. Analysis of Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Fibers

this method, the ber cross-section is devided into homogeneous subspaces where
the wave equation is solved iteratively. We noticed that the model showed better
agreement with the multipole method because no measurement error was involved.
Results are shown in Fig. 3.7.

Figure 3.7: GVD comparisons: solid line is measured GVD from [70], dashed line is predicted GVD
using the proposed PCF model, and dotted line is predicted GVD using multipole method [45].

Saitoh and Kashiba [33] provided empirical relations to calculate the normalized
propagation constant, which were used to predict waveguide dispersion only. They
reported results for pitch values of 2, 2.5, and 3 m with dierent values of d/
over a wide wavelength range. They used the FEM to test the accuracy of their
empirical relations. We simulated the same cases using our model which showed
good agreements especially at small wavelengths. This is because the accuracy of the
model decreases as the ratio / increases. The results for = 3 m are shown in
Fig. 3.8.

34
M. R. Albandakji Chapter 3. Analysis of Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Fibers

Empirical relation
FEM
Proposed PCF model

Figure 3.8: Waveguide dispersion comparison: solid and dashed lines are from [33] and dotted lines
are predicted waveguide dispersion using the proposed PCF model.

3.3.3 Eective Area

Eective area is an important parameter used as a measure of nonlinearities in optical


bers. Small eective areas are indicative of signicant nonlinear eects inside the
core of the ber. Eective area is also related to connement loss, micro-bending loss,
macro-bending loss, and splicing loss of the ber [71]. Generally speaking, the larger
the eective area the higher the above mentioned losses.

The eective area (Aef f ) can be calculated using the following formula

2
% 2 %  2

E t (r, ) rdrd
0 0
Aef f = % 2 %  4

(3.5)

0  t
0
E (r, ) rdrd

35
M. R. Albandakji Chapter 3. Analysis of Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Fibers

 t is the transverse electric eld.


where E

We used our model to predict the eective area for dierent values of d/ and /.
The results, shown as circles in Fig. 3.9, show good agreement with those published
in [72]. In particular, we notice that the agreement between both sets increases as /
decreases. This is because the accuracy of the model in calculating the normalized
propagation constant increases as discussed earlier in Section 3.3.1.

FEM data
PCF model

Figure 3.9: Normalized eective area comparison: solid lines are from [72] and circles are from the
proposed PCF model.

36
M. R. Albandakji Chapter 3. Analysis of Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Fibers

3.3.4 Leakage Loss

In practice, PCFs have a nite number of air hole rings and the outermost layer
is a relatively thick layer of glass. In this case, the guided modes of the PCF are
leaky and the connement of power is not perfect so it leaks out of the guiding
structure. Leakage loss is an important parameter and needs to be estimated for
practical applications.

We used the model proposed here to estimate the leakage loss of the PCF based on
the method described in [73]. Provided that the real part of the jacket refractive
index is not too dierent from the cladding index, then the ratio between the radial
and the axial power ow densities at the outermost cladding interface becomes [73]
 2
= ncladding / 1 (3.6)

Also, the axial power ow density is given by


1  } az ez
paxial = e{E  H (3.7)
2
= p0 sin2 ez (3.8)

where p0 is the average axial power ow density and is the leakage loss coecient.
The lost power due to leakage can be expressed as
& 2 & L
Ploss = pradial Rddz (3.9)
0 0

= p0 R 1 eL / (3.10)

where R is the interface radius and L is the length of the ber segment. On the other
hand, the lost power Ploss can be associated with an attenuation constant and the
power launched into the ber P0 through the following equation

Ploss = P0 1 eL (3.11)

37
M. R. Albandakji Chapter 3. Analysis of Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Fibers

By equating Eqs. (3.10) and (3.11), in dB/m is calculated as

p0
= 4.34R (3.12)
P0

Fig. 3.10 shows the leakage loss as a function of pitch () for a range of dierent
4-ring PCF structures estimated using the model (dashed lines) compared to the
results reported in [74] (solid lines). Each curve represents results for a given ber
prole scaled to a range of dierent dimensions. We notice that the leakage loss
always decreases when larger air holes are used because the mode is always more
tightly conned to the core region for larger air-lling fractions, which is similar to
the behavior of step-index bers. Next, we estimated the leakage loss versus for

Figure 3.10: Leakage loss versus for 4-ring PCFs with dierent air-lling fractions at = 1.55 m:
solid lines are reported in [74] and dashed lines are predicted by the proposed PCF model.

a xed air-lling fraction and dierent number of rings. The results (dashed lines)

38
M. R. Albandakji Chapter 3. Analysis of Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Fibers

were also compared to those reported in [74] (solid lines), as shown in Fig. 3.11. As
expected, for all the values of , increasing the number of rings decreases the leakage
loss because the holey cladding extends over a larger region. It is noted that the

Figure 3.11: Leakage loss versus for d/ = 0.9 PCFs with dierent number of rings at =
1.55 m: solid lines are reported in [74] and dashed lines are predicted by the proposed PCF model.

model generally underestimates the leakage loss. This is believed to be due to the
fact that the openings between the holes, which are the main cause for the leakage
of power, are replaced with closed rings. This behavior has also been observed by
others who used another ring model to analyze microstructure bers with circularly
arranged holes [75].

39
M. R. Albandakji Chapter 4. Analysis of Tapered Photonic Crystal Fibers

In addition, tapered PCF can be used to generate a high-intensity optical energy,


which can signicantly enhance the eciency of nonlinear optical devices used in
supercontinuum generation [83]. They can also help in fabricating small size band
gap photonic crystal structures inside relatively small bers [56].

An OFT is fabricated by heating the ber then gently stretching it to form a structure
consisting of two regions; the taper waist, which is the narrow stretched section in the
middle of the taper, and the taper transition, which comprises of two conical tapered
sections attached to the waist, as shown in Fig. 4.1. The taper transitions transform
the local fundamental mode from a core mode in the untapered ber to a cladding
mode in the taper waist, and this is the basis of many of its applications. However, if
this transformation is to be accompanied by small loss of light from the fundamental
mode, the shape of the taper transitions must be suciently gradual. On the other
hand, it is desirable for the transition to be as short as possible, allowing the resulting
component to be compact and insensitive to environmental degradations [84].

Unstretched Unstretched
Fiber Fiber

Taper Taper Taper


Transition Waist Transition

Figure 4.1: Cross section of a typical fiber taper.

4.2 Analysis of Tapered Photonic Crystal Fibers

One way to analyze tapered PCFs is by approximating the tapered section as a series
of uniform sections along the axial direction, as shown in Fig. 4.2.

41
M. R. Albandakji Chapter 4. Analysis of Tapered Photonic Crystal Fibers

z z

Figure 4.2: Modeling of a ber taper using a series of cascaded uniform sections.

Each PCF section can be modeled using the 1-D ring structure discussed in Chapter 2.
Using this approach, the index prole becomes independent of z within each section;
therefore, the modes within the nite section can be approximated by the modes of
an innitely long ber, as shown in Fig. 4.3. These modes are referred to as local
modes, which are considered to be an excellent approximation for slowly varying
tapers although, in fact, they are not exact solutions. Following this approach, it
becomes feasible to express the actual eld inside the tapered ber as a superposition
of the local normal modes, which are coupled among each other [47]. Therefore, the
total electric eld inside the taper can be expressed as [85]

$

 
 =
E ' ej
c (z) E
z
0
(z )dz
(4.1)
=0

' is the local mode, and (z) is the z-


where c is the expansion coecient, E
dependent propagation constant, all evaluated at the th section. Inside a ber taper,
the local modes are not independent from each other; therefore, the expansion coe-
cients are also coupled to each other and they satisfy the coupled wave equations [85]

dc $ z 
( )dz
= R c ej 0 (4.2)
dz , =

42
M. R. Albandakji Chapter 4. Analysis of Tapered Photonic Crystal Fibers

Figure 4.3: Approximating a nite taper section by a cylindrical structure of uniform cross section.

where the coupling coecients are given as


& 2 & 2
0 n (r, z) ' ' (r, )rdrd
R = E (r, ) E (4.3)
4P0 [ ] 0 0 z

In Eq. 4.3, is the angular frequency, 0 is the free-space permittivity, Z0 is the


free-space characteristic impedance, and P0 is the mode power normalized to unity
and is given by (& &  )
2
1 ' '
P0 = e E H z rdrd (4.4)
2 0 0

Using the chain rule, the z derivative of n2 (r, z) can be written as

n2 (r, z) n2 (r, z) r
= (4.5)
z r z

Since the refractive index n(r, z) is either n1 or n2 , then its radial derivative is zero
everywhere except at the ring boundaries, so it can be expressed as

n2 (r, z) $
N 1
 
= (1)i n21 n22 (r ri ) (4.6)
r i=1

43
M. R. Albandakji Chapter 4. Analysis of Tapered Photonic Crystal Fibers

where (r ri ) is the dirac-delta function. It is noted that the local modes couple
only to those local modes that share the same azimuthal symmetry with them. Using
0 = k0 /Z0 and the fact that all the modes are orthonormal modes, Eq. (4.3) becomes
& 2 & $
N 1
k0 [n21 n22 ] r ' ' (r, )rdrd
R = (1)i (r ri ) E (r, ) E (4.7)
4Z0 [ ] 0 0 i=1
z

By evaluating the integral in Eq. (4.7) and after some algebraic manipulation, the
coupling coecients can be expressed in a simpler form as


[n21 n22 ] $
N 1
ri (z) ' '
R =   i
(1) ri (z) E E (4.8)
4Z0 i=1 z r=ri (z)

The summation term in Eq. (4.8) represents the contribution of all the layers of the
tapered PCF in the coupling among dierent local modes. We notice that the main
contribution comes from the taper shape, taper slope, and the eld values at the ring
boundaries.

4.3 Adiabaticity of Tapered Photonic Crystal Fibers

Tapered PCFs, similar to tapered conventional bers, can be either adiabatic or


nonadiabatic. Several factors may aect adiabaticity of tapered PCFs, such as taper
shape, taper length, and number of air hole rings. The following sections discuss
these factors in more details.

4.3.1 Taper Shape

Taper shape has a direct eect on the coupling among local modes inside the taper,
as suggested by Eq. (4.8) through ri (z) and its radial derivative. Many mathematical

44
M. R. Albandakji Chapter 4. Analysis of Tapered Photonic Crystal Fibers

models have been used to represent the actual taper shape, such as the linear, raised
cosine, and modied exponential taper [47]. Assuming the length of the taper is
represented by L, initial core radius ri , and nal core radius rf , one can dene the
linear taper shape as
z
r(z) = ri + (rf ri ) , (4.9)
L
the raised cosine taper shape as

1  z 
r(z) = (rf + ri ) (rf ri ) cos , (4.10)
2 L

and the modied exponential taper shape as



r + a cos 3 z 1 ; 0 z 0.8L
i L
r(z) = (4.11)
r e(zL)b ; 0.8L z L
f

 
0.2rf 1 rf
where a = 1cos(0.6)
and b = 0.8L
ln 0.8ri
. These taper shapes are shown in
Figs. 4.4(a)-(c).

In order to analyze the eect of the taper shape on the coupling among modes,
we simulated three dierent taper shapes for a down-tapered single-ring PCF at
= 1.55 m with initial pitch and holes diameter of 15 and 6 m, respectively,
taper ratio of 6:1, and a length of 100 m. Figure 4.5 shows how the power of
the second mode HE12 changes along the taper. It is noted that, in general, the
modied exponential taper has the largest coupled power, while the linear taper has
the smallest one. This is because the linear taper has smoother transition over the
entire taper length than the other two tapers. These results are also similar to those
studied in [47] for the step-index ber taper.

45
M. R. Albandakji Chapter 4. Analysis of Tapered Photonic Crystal Fibers

20

15

r [m]
10

0
0 50 100
z [m]

(a)

20

15
r [m]

10

0
0 50 100
z [m]

(b)

20

15
r [m]

10

0
0 50 100
z [m]

(c)

Figure 4.4: Three dierent taper shapes: (a) linear taper, (b) raised cosine taper, and (c) modied
exponential taper.

46
M. R. Albandakji Chapter 4. Analysis of Tapered Photonic Crystal Fibers

0.4
linear
raised cosine
0.35
modified exponential

0.3
Normalized Power

0.25

0.2

0.15

0.1

0.05

0
0 20 40 60 80 100
z [m]

Figure 4.5: The power coupled to HE12 mode in dierent PCF taper shapes.

4.3.2 Taper Length

Taper length has a direct eect on the adiabaticity of the taper. When the taper
length is suciently long, the taper angle becomes small enough to ensure that the
power lost from the fundamental mode to the other modes is negligible. However,
for practical taper devices, there is a limit on the smallest taper angle that can be
achieved over a signicant taper length. Furthermore, long taper devices are dicult
to package and are more susceptible to environmental eects [86]. Therefore, it is
necessary for the taper length to exceed the minimum taper length that guarantees
the fundamental mode is adiabatic along the entire length of the taper.

One method has been suggested in [86] to estimate the minimum adiabatic taper
length for a conventional ber taper. Basically, this method compares the taper
length-scale to the coupling length-scale, imposing a bound on the fraction of power

47
M. R. Albandakji Chapter 4. Analysis of Tapered Photonic Crystal Fibers

coupled from the fundamental mode to the next higher order mode that has the same
azimuthal symmetry. Since this method is not inherently specic to a certain ber
structure, it can be applied to analyze tapered PCFs.

When the taper length-scale is much larger than the coupling length-scale between the
fundamental mode and the next higher order mode, the lost power due to coupling is
suciently small [87]. The taper length-scale is dened as the height of a right circular
cone with base coincident with the local core cross-section and apex angle equal to
the local taper angle ( = tan1 |dr/dz|) [86], as shown in Fig. 4.6. In practice, the

r(z) (z)
z

y
zt

Figure 4.6: Local taper length-scale (zt ) in a tapered ber.

taper angle is very small; therefore, the taper length-scale can be approximated by
r
zt = (4.12)

Also, the local coupling length-scale is dened as
2
zc = (4.13)
1 2
When zt >> zc everywhere along the taper, the fundamental mode propagates almost
adiabatically along the taper. On the other hand, when zt << zc , there will be
signicant coupling between the fundamental mode and the next higher order mode.

48
M. R. Albandakji Chapter 4. Analysis of Tapered Photonic Crystal Fibers

Therefore, the condition zt = zc provides an approximate margin for adiabaticity, so


the taper angle can be written as

r [1 2 ]
= (4.14)
2

For the linear down-tapered ber shown in Fig. 4.7, it can be easily shown that its
taper angle is given by ( << 1)

ri rf
= (4.15)
L

ri
rf
z

Figure 4.7: Linear down-tapered ber showing the taper angle.

As shown in Fig. 4.8, the maximum local coupling length-scale occurs at z = 0 since
1 (0) 2 (0) is minimum. By equating Eq. (4.14) and Eq. (4.15), we obtain the
minimum taper length requirement for adiabatic linear taper, given by

r rf
Lmin =  i  (4.16)
ri 1 (0) 2 (0)

Now, we discuss some of the properties observed by inspecting the numerical solutions
for a linear 1-ring PCF taper that has an initial pitch of 5.6 m, initial hole diameter
of 2.8 m, and a taper ratio of 3:1. Figure 4.8 shows the normalized propagation

49
M. R. Albandakji Chapter 4. Analysis of Tapered Photonic Crystal Fibers

1.45

1.4

1.35

1.3

1.25 HE
11
EH11
HE12

0 20 40 60 80 100
z [m]

Figure 4.8: The normalized propagation constants of the rst three modes for a taper length of
100 m at 1.55 m wavelength.

constants variation along the axial dimension of the fundamental mode HE11 and the
next two modes EH11 and HE12 for a taper length of 100 m at 1.55 m wavelength.
Using Eq. (4.16), the minimum length requirement for an adiabatic eld propagation
is 40 m. Figure 4.9 shows the normalized power coupled between the fundamental
mode HE11 and the next two modes EH11 and HE12 for a taper length of 100 m.
We see that the power coupled to these two mode is almost negligible since the taper
length of this taper is much larger than the minimum length of 40 m. Figure 4.10
shows the 3-D plot of the power density inside the taper. We notice that the eld
propagates almost adiabatically as predicted. Figure 4.11 shows the normalized power
of the three modes for a taper length of 20 m. We observe that there is signicant
amount of power coupled to EH11 and HE12 modes since the taper length is less than
the minimum length predicted by Eq. (4.16). Figure 4.12 shows the 3-D plot of the
power density inside the nonadiabatic taper.

50
M. R. Albandakji Chapter 4. Analysis of Tapered Photonic Crystal Fibers

1.4
HE11
EH
1.2 11
HE
12

Normalized Power 1

0.8
0.1

0.6
0.05
0.4

0
0.2 0 20 40 60 80 100

0
0 20 40 60 80 100
z [m]

Figure 4.9: Variation of coupled power for the rst three modes in the linear taper with a length
larger than adiabatic length.

Figure 4.10: Power density distribution inside the linear taper with a length larger than adiabatic
length.

51
M. R. Albandakji Chapter 4. Analysis of Tapered Photonic Crystal Fibers

0.9

0.8

Normalized Power 0.7

0.6
HE
11
0.5 EH
11
HE
12
0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0
0 5 10 15 20
z [m]

Figure 4.11: Variation of coupled power for the rst three modes in the linear taper with a length
smaller than adiabatic length.

Figure 4.12: Power density distribution inside the linear taper with a length smaller than adiabatic
length.

52
M. R. Albandakji Chapter 4. Analysis of Tapered Photonic Crystal Fibers

4.3.3 Number of Air Hole Rings

The eect of the number of air hole rings on the degree of adiabaticity of tapered
PCFs comes from the contribution of air hole rings in evaluating the power coupling
coecients of the local elds in the summation term in Eq. (4.8). In order to illustrate
this eect, we assume that only one mode, which is the fundamental mode HE11 , is
launched inside a raised cosine PCF taper, then we compare the coupled power to the
higher order modes for 1-ring, 2-ring, and 3-ring PCFs. The tapers are simulated at
= 1.55 m and are assumed to have initial = 5 m, initial d = 2 m, L = 50 m,
and a taper ratio of 5:2. As expected, the eect of increasing the air hole rings
on the coupled power to higher order modes is almost negligible. In other words,
the variation of coupled power to higher order modes for the three dierent tapers is
almost the same, as shown in Fig. 4.13. To illustrate this behavior further, we plot the
power density distribution inside the three tapers in Figs. 4.14, 4.15, and 4.16. From
these plots we notice that the three tapers are nonadiabatic and they also behave
similarly since there is almost no dierence in the power density distribution among
them. Therefore, the number of air hole rings has, in general, no signicant impact
on tapered PCF adiabaticity since the modal elds decay to very insignicant values
at rings located away from the core region.

53
M. R. Albandakji Chapter 4. Analysis of Tapered Photonic Crystal Fibers

0.9

0.8

0.7
Normalized Power

0.6
HE11
0.5 EH
11
HE
12
0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0
0 10 20 30 40 50
z [m]

Figure 4.13: Variation of power of the rst three modes in a 1-ring PCF taper. 2- and 3-ring PCF
tapers have almost the same power variation.

Figure 4.14: Power density distribution inside a 1-ring PCF taper.

54
M. R. Albandakji Chapter 4. Analysis of Tapered Photonic Crystal Fibers

Figure 4.15: Power density distribution inside a 2-ring PCF taper.

Figure 4.16: Power density distribution inside a 3-ring PCF taper.

55
Chapter

5
Fresnel Fibers

5.1 Overview

Fresnel bers are a special type of ring bers whose rings have a constant area instead
of a constant thickness. This structure makes the thickness of rings shrink along the
bers radial direction, as shown in Fig. 5.1. To our knowledge, this ber has not
been analyzed before and it is likely for this unique ber to possess special transmis-
sion properties [88]. The formulation developed in Chapter 2 is, in fact, applicable to
any circularly cylindrical dielectric waveguide with arbitrary refractive index prole;
therefore, it can be used to analyze Fresnel bers. In this chapter, we will show that
Fresnel bers can be properly designed to achieve shifted, attened, or large negative
chromatic dispersion, making them very attractive in broadband ber-optic commu-
nication systems. Fresnel bers can also be designed to possess either large eective
area that makes them suitable for use in very long distance ber-optic communica-
tion links, or small eective area that makes them suitable for use in many ber-optic
applications, such as solitons and nonlinear ber devices.

56
M. R. Albandakji Chapter 5. Fresnel Fibers

n(r)

n1()

n2 ()

r
rcore r1 r2 r3 r4 r5 r6 rN

Figure 5.1: Index prole of a Fresnel ber.

5.2 Analysis of Fresnel Fibers

Assuming that Fresnel bers are made of two materials only, there will be ve para-
meters that can be changed during the design process of Fresnel bers: the refractive
index of the rst material n1 , the refractive index of the second material n2 , the core
radius rcore , the ring area Ar , and the number of rings N. By enforcing the equal
area condition on the rst two rings we obtain,
 
r12 rcore
2
= Ar (5.1)
 
r22 r12 = Ar (5.2)

Therefore,
 
r22 rcore
2
= 2Ar (5.3)

In general,
 
ri2 rcore
2
= iAr (5.4)

Therefore, *
Ar 2
ri =+ rcore i (5.5)

Equation(5.5) can be used in conjunction with the formulation developed in Chapter 2
to analyze the Fresnel ber and obtain the axial propagation constant, chromatic
dispersion, and eective area.

57
M. R. Albandakji Chapter 5. Fresnel Fibers

5.3 Special Fresnel Fiber Designs

Here we introduce special Fresnel ber designs that include the design of dispersion-
shifted, dispersion-attened, and dispersion compensating bers. The design ap-
proach is based on that described in [89].

5.3.1 Dispersion-Shifted Fibers

Dispersion-shifted bers provide nearly zero chromatic dispersion at 1.55 m, which


is the wavelength of minimum attenuation in silica-based bers. These bers are
mainly used in ber-optic communication systems because they provide minimum
attenuation and dispersion. Table 1 lists several single-mode Fresnel ber designs
that are capable of providing nearly zero dispersion at 1.55 m with eective areas
ranging from 15.6 m2 to 152.7 m2 . Figure 5.2 shows the variations of the eective
area versus wavelength for these bers.

Table 5.1: Several single-mode Fresnel ber designs with nearly zero dispersion at = 1.55 m.
Materials 1 and 2 are included in Appendix B.
Fresnel Material Material Core Radius Ring Area Number of Eective Area at Dispersion at = 1.55 m
2 2
Fiber 1 2 [ m] [ m ] Rings = 1.55 m [ m ] [ps/nm.km]
1 M11 M2 1.7 1 8 15.6 -0.2
2 M4 M6 1.6 3 4 22.1 -0.05
3 M3 M2 1.5 4 4 24 0.3
4 M3 M5 1.7 3 4 28.85 -0.08
5 M3 M6 1.7 3 4 33.35 0.1
6 M11 M10 2.0 6 6 45.5 0.34
7 M5 M1 1.75 1 3 73.5 0.15
8 M5 M3 0.8 2 5 92.5 0.3
9 M7 M8 1.45 2 4 101.15 0.09
10 M9 M12 2.75 1 2 152.7 2

58
M. R. Albandakji Chapter 5. Fresnel Fibers

180

160

140
Fiber 1
120 Fiber 2
Fiber 3
Fiber 4
[m2]

100
Fiber 5
Fiber 6
eff

80
A

Fiber 7
Fiber 8
60 Fiber 9
Fiber 10
40

20

0
1.5 1.55 1.6
[m]

Figure 5.2: Eective area for the bers listed in Table 5.1.

During the design process of dispersion-shifted bers, it was observed that increasing
the number of rings increases the eective area of the ber, and, therefore, reduces
the nonlinearities of the ber but, at the same time, it increases the cuto wavelength
of the second mode, which may cause the ber to become multi-mode. Therefore,
careful selection of the number of rings is necessary in the design of small nonlinearity
dispersion-shifted bers in order to minimize nonlinearity while keeping the ber
single-mode.

5.3.2 Dispersion-Flattened Fibers

Dispersion-attened bers have small and at (nearly constant) chromatic dispersion


over an extended range of wavelengths. These bers are suitable for use in wave-
division-multiplexed (WDM) optical ber systems in which several, or even more,

59
M. R. Albandakji Chapter 5. Fresnel Fibers

optical channels are transmitted in the same ber.

Two interesting dispersion-attened single-mode ber designs were obtained. The


rst ber has a chromatic dispersion of 0.26 ps/nm.km and a dispersion slope of
0.004 ps/nm2 .km both at 1.55 m wavelength. In addition, the dispersion is within
5 ps/nm.km over a wide wavelength range (1.32 to 1.97 m), as shown in Fig. 5.3.
The second ber has a chromatic dispersion of 0.025 ps/nm.km and a dispersion slope
of 0.002 ps/nm2 .km both at 1.55 m wavelength. Moreover, the dispersion is within
3 ps/nm.km over even a wider wavelength range (1.34 to 2.05 m), as shown in
Fig. 5.4.

Table 5.2: Fresnel ber designs with at dispersion around = 1.55 m.


Fresnel Material Material Core Radius Ring Area Number of Eective Area at
Fiber 1 2 [ m] [ m2 ] Rings = 1.55 m [ m2 ]
11 M1 M4 1.57 1 2 10.25
12 M1 M9 1.25 0.25 10 6.5

During the design process of dispersion-attened ber, it was observed that increasing
the core radius has the eect of shifting the dispersion curve up, as shown in Fig. 5.5,
while increasing the ring area shifts the dispersion curve up and to the right, as shown
in Fig. 5.6. Therefore, the design of dispersion-attened ber requires searching for
the optimal values of the core radius and ring area for the specic materials and
number of rings used.

60
M. R. Albandakji Chapter 5. Fresnel Fibers

D [ps/(nm.km)] 10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45
1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2
[m]

Figure 5.3: Dispersion-attened Fresnel ber no. 11.

10
D [ps/(nm.km)]

15

20

25

30

35

40
1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2
[m]

Figure 5.4: Dispersion-attened Fresnel ber no. 12.

61
M. R. Albandakji Chapter 5. Fresnel Fibers

10
D [ps/(nm.km)]
15
optimum core radius
20 small core radius
large core radius
25

30

35

40

45
1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2
[m]

Figure 5.5: The eect of changing the core radius of Fresnel ber no. 11 on dispersion curve. Core
radii used are 1.54, 1.57, and 1.6 m (bottom to top).

10
D [ps/(nm.km)]

15
optimum ring area
20 small ring area
large ring area
25

30

35

40

45
1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2
[m]

Figure 5.6: The eect of changing the ring area of Fresnel ber no. 11 on dispersion curve. Ring
areas used are 0.8, 1.0, and 1.2 m (bottom to top).

62
M. R. Albandakji Chapter 5. Fresnel Fibers

5.3.3 Dispersion Compensating Fibers

Dispersion compensating bers have very large negative chromatic dispersion at


1.55 m. These bers are used in upgrading the older 1.3 m ber-optic systems,
which have a fairly large positive dispersion at 1.55 m. Therefore, dispersion com-
pensating bers can compensate for the accumulated positive dispersion over the
bers link and, at the same time, obtain the benet of the small attenuation at
1.55 m.

Table 5.3 shows two dispersion compensating single-mode ber designs. One design
provides a total dispersion of -134 ps/nm.km and dispersion slope of 0.003 ps/nm2 .km
between 1.5 and 1.6 m, as shown in Fig. 5.7. The second ber design provides a
total dispersion of -170 ps/nm.km, as shown in Fig. 5.8.

Table 5.3: Fresnel ber designs with large negative dispersion at = 1.55 m.
Fresnel Material Material Core Radius Ring Area Number of Eective Area at
Fiber 1 2 [ m] [ m2 ] Rings = 1.55 m [ m2 ]
13 M1 M9 0.8 0.2 2 7.2
14 M1 M2 0.5 0.5 2 11.6

63
M. R. Albandakji Chapter 5. Fresnel Fibers

95

100

105

110
D [ps/(nm.km)]

115

120

125

130

135
1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2
[m]

Figure 5.7: Dispersion compensating Fresnel ber no. 13.

40

60

80

100
D [ps/(nm.km)]

120

140

160

180

200

220

240
1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2
[m]

Figure 5.8: Dispersion compensating Fresnel ber no. 14.

64
Chapter

6 Analysis of Planar Photonic


Crystal Waveguides

6.1 Overview

Planar photonic crystal waveguides (PPCW) are periodic one-dimensional (1-D) struc-
tures consisting of a core layer bound between two semi-innite alternating layers of
materials with two dierent refractive indices. Figure 6.1 illustrates the geometry of
a 1-D planar photonic crystal waveguide. The analysis of this structure is straightfor-
ward when it has a nite number of cladding layers, but is by no means obvious when
the number of cladding layers approaches innity. In this chapter, we will rst present
a systematic procedure to solve for the elds in a planar waveguide with an arbitrary,
but nite, number of cladding layers. Then, we will review the analysis of the ideal
structure with innite number of periodic cladding layers based on a novel impedance
approach [59, 90]. We will focus attention on true photonic crystal modes and show
that these modes can be supported in both high- and low-index core regions.

65
M. R. Albandakji Chapter 6. Analysis of Planar Photonic Crystal Waveguides


.
.
.

.
.
.
-

Figure 6.1: A planar photonic crystal waveguide.

6.2 Analysis of PPCW with Finite Number of


Cladding Layers

Let us consider a 1-D PPCW consisting of 2N 2 cladding layers stacked along the
x-axis with alternating refractive indices n1 and n2 , and thicknesses d1 and d2 . We
also assume that the waveguide is symmetric about the x = 0 plane, and has a core
layer with thickness 2d0 and a refractive index n1 . Figure 6.2 shows the index prole
of the structure.
n(x)

1
N
 1
N

n1

n2

d2 d1 d1 d2
x
d0 +d0

Figure 6.2: Index prole of a planar photonic crystal waveguide.

Similar to the analysis of the 1-D photonic crystal ber presented in Chapter 2, we
can solve the wave equation for axial eld components and then obtain the transverse

66
M. R. Albandakji Chapter 6. Analysis of Planar Photonic Crystal Waveguides

components from the axial components at the ith layer using the following relations

jZ0 dhiz
eiy = (6.1a)
k0 n2i 2 dx
j dhi
hix = 2 2 z (6.1b)
k0 n dx
i
j dei
eix = 2 z (6.1c)
k0 ni 2 dx
jn2i dei
hiy = 2 z (6.1d)
Z0 k0 ni 2 dx

In the above equations, Z0 is the free space characteristic impedance = 120 , k0 is


the free space wave number = 2/, is the normalized propagation constant, and
ni is the refractive index of the ith layer. It is noted that the eld components in
the above equations can be easily separated into TE and TM modes. The TE modes
include hx , hz , and ey , while the TM modes include ex , ez , and hy eld components.
In general, the solutions of the wave equation for the TE mode in the ith layer can
be expressed as

hiz = Ai Fi (ui x) + Bi Fi (ui x) (6.2a)


j(1)i+1 k0   

hix = Ai Fi (uix) + Bi Fi (ui x) (6.2b)
ui
j(1) k0 Z0 
i+1
 

eiy = Ai Fi (uix) + Bi Fi (ui x) (6.2c)
ui

and the solutions for the TM mode in the ith layer can be expressed as

eiz = Ai Fi (uix) + Bi Fi (ui x) (6.3a)


j(1)i+1 k0   

eix = Ai Fi (ui x) + Bi Fi (uix) (6.3b)
ui
j(1)i+1 k0 n2i   

hiy = Ai Fi (ui x) + Bi Fi (ui x) (6.3c)
Z0 u i

67
M. R. Albandakji Chapter 6. Analysis of Planar Photonic Crystal Waveguides

where

sin (u x) ; < ni
i
Fi (ui, x) = (6.4a)
eui x ; > ni

cos (u x) ; < ni
i
Fi (ui, x) = (6.4b)
eui x ; > ni

cos (u x) ; < ni
 i
Fi (ui, x) = (6.4c)
eui x ; > ni

sin (u x) ; < ni
 i
Fi (ui, x) = (6.4d)
eui x ; > ni

with
 
ui = k0 n2i 2  (6.5)

and Ai and Bi are constant amplitude coecients obtained by applying the boundary
conditions. The boundary conditions at the interface of two dielectric regions require
the continuity of tangential components of the electric and magnetic elds. Accord-
ingly, the eld components ey , ez , hy , and hz must be continuous at x = d0 , d0 + d1 ,
d0 + d1 + d2 , etc. Doing so, we obtain two equations at every interface, leading us to
a matrix expression that relates the coecients of the N th layer to those of the rst
layer, which is given by

N 1 i i
A A A
N = 11 12 1 = 11 12 1 (6.6)
i i
BN i=1 21 22 B1 21 22 B1

where
  2 m 
1
sin (Ui ) + n2 i
n Wi
cos (Ui ) eWi ; < ni
2
i
11 =   
i+1
m
Ui
 (6.7a)
sin (W ) + n2i Wi
cos (Wi ) eUi ; > ni
i n 2 Ui
i+1

68
M. R. Albandakji Chapter 6. Analysis of Planar Photonic Crystal Waveguides

  2 m 
1
cos (Ui ) n2 i
n Wi
sin (U i ) eWi ; < ni
2
i
12 =   2i+1m Ui  (6.7b)
sin (Wi ) n2 i
n Wi
cos (Wi ) eUi ; > ni
i+1 Ui
  2 m 
1
sin (Ui ) n2
ni Wi
cos (Ui ) eWi ; < ni
2
i
21 =   2 m
i+1 Ui
 (6.7c)
cos (Wi ) n2 i
n Wi
sin (W ) eUi ; > ni
Ui i
i+1
  2 m 
1
cos (U i ) +
ni
2
Wi
sin (U i ) eWi ; < ni
i
22 = 2  n2i+1m Ui  (6.7d)
cos (Wi ) + n2 i
n Wi
sin (Wi ) eUi ; > ni
i+1 Ui

with

Ui = uixi (6.8a)

W = ui+1 xi (6.8b)

For TE modes m = 0, whereas for TM modes m = 1. Now to solve for the even
modes, B1 is set to zero in order to eliminate the cosine term in the axial components
of the elds and A1 , chosen as the independent eld coecient, can be set to 1. On
the other hand, the odd modes are obtained by setting A1 to zero in order to eliminate
the sine term in the axial components of the elds and B1 , chosen as the independent
eld coecient, can be set to 1. Also, in order to have guided (non-radiating) elds,
they have to be exponentially decaying in the outermost cladding layer, so BN in
Eq. (6.6) must be set to zero leading to the following results

21 = 0 ; for even TE or TM modes (6.9a)

22 = 0 ; for odd TE or TM modes (6.9b)

Equations (6.9a) and (6.9b) are the characteristic or eigenvalue equations from which
of the nite PPCW structure can be obtained.

69
M. R. Albandakji Chapter 6. Analysis of Planar Photonic Crystal Waveguides

6.3 Analysis of PPCW with Innite Number of


Periodic Cladding Layers

In the analysis of 1-D planar photonic crystal waveguide, we assume that the structure
has an index prole similar to the one shown in Fig. 6.2, where each cladding is a
semi-innite periodic structure. The thicknesses of the core and cladding layers and
their indices remain the same.

For the semi-innite periodic structure shown in Fig. 6.3, we can notice that the input
impedance seen at x = 0 is equivalent to the input impedance seen at x = d1 + d2 ,
where d1 and d2 are the thicknesses of the alternating layers of the cladding. This
means that the impedance of the structure beyond x = d1 + d2 can be replaced by
the input impedance seen at x = 0, which is expressed as

Zin + jZ2 tan (2 d2 )


Zin = Z2 (6.10)
Z2 + j Zin tan (2 d2 )

Zin is the impedance of the structure beyond x = d1 and it is expressed as

Zin + jZ1 tan (1 d1 )


Zin = Z1 (6.11)
Z1 + jZin tan (1 d1 )

Z in Z in Z in
x

d1 d2

Figure 6.3: Planar semi-innite periodic structure with Zin and Zin shown.

70
M. R. Albandakji Chapter 6. Analysis of Planar Photonic Crystal Waveguides

where

Z u/n2 ; for TM modes
0 1
Z1 = (6.12a)
Z /u ; for TE modes
0

u = n21 2 (6.12b)

1 = k0 u (6.12c)

with = /k0 . Now, if n2 < < n1 , we obtain



jZ w/n2 ; for TM modes
0 2
Z2 = (6.13a)
jZ /w ; for TE modes
0

w = 2 n22 (6.13b)

2 = jk0 w (6.13c)

otherwise, if < n1 < n2 or < n2 < n1 , we obtain



Z w/n 2
0 2 ; for TM modes
Z2 = (6.14a)
Z /w ; for TE modes
0

w = n22 2 (6.14b)

2 = k0 w (6.14c)

Substituting Eq. (6.11) into (6.10) and after some algebraic simplication, we obtain
the following solution for Zin

b b2 4ac
Zin = (6.15)
2a
where

a = Z1 tan (2 d2 ) + Z2 tan (1 d1 ) (6.16a)


 
b = j Z12 Z22 tan (1 d1 ) tan (2 d2 ) (6.16b)

c = Z1 Z2 [Z1 tan (1 d1 ) + Z2 tan (2 d2 )] (6.16c)

71
M. R. Albandakji Chapter 6. Analysis of Planar Photonic Crystal Waveguides

For the case when n2 < < n1 , we combine Eqs. (6.12b) and (6.13b) with Eqs. (6.16a),
(6.16b), and (6.16c) to obtain

u2 tanh (W ) + w2 tan (U) ; for TM modes
n1 n2
a = jZ0 a
= jZ0 (6.17a)
1 tanh (W ) 1 tan (U) ; for TE modes
u w

   2
2

u
+ nw2 tan (U) tanh (W ) ; for TM modes
2 2 n21
b = Z0 b = Z0 
2


1 2 + 1 2 tan (U) tanh (W )
u w
; for TE modes

(6.17b)
 
uw u
tan (U)
tanh (W ) w
; for TM modes
n21 n22 n21 n22
c = jZ03 c = jZ03   (6.17c)
1 1 tan (U) + 1 tanh (W ) ; for TE modes
uw u w

where

U = k0 d1 u (6.18a)

W = k0 d2 w (6.18b)

For the case when < n1 < n2 or < n2 < n1 , we combine Eqs. (6.12b) and (6.14b)
with Eqs. (6.16a), (6.16b), and (6.16c) to obtain

u2 tan W
+ w2 tan (U) ; for TM modes
n1 n2
1 tan W
a = Z0 a
= Z0 (6.19a)
+ 1 tan (U) ; for TE modes
u w

   2
2
u
2 n2 w
tan (U) tan W ; for TM modes
2 2 n 1 2
b = jZ0 b = jZ0   (6.19b)

1 2 1 2 tan (U) tan W
u
w
; for TE modes
 
u2w2 u2 tan (U) + w2 tan W ; for TM modes
c = Z03 c = Z03 n1 n2 n1

n2
 (6.19c)
1 1 tan (U) + 1 tan W ; for TE modes

uw u
w

where
= k0 d2 w
W (6.20)

72
M. R. Albandakji Chapter 6. Analysis of Planar Photonic Crystal Waveguides

, b, and c or a
We can simplify Zin further by using the normalized coecients a , b,
and c dened in the above equations to obtain the following relations

jZ b b2 4ac ; n < < n
0 2 1
Zin = 2a (6.21)
jZ b b 4ac ; < n < n or < n < n
2
0 2
a 2 1 1 2

The characteristic equation for the guided modes can be obtained by using the trans-
verse resonance condition. According to this condition, the total phase change in the
transverse direction in the core region for one complete cycle of a ray representing
a guided mode must be an integer multiple of 2. This condition is, in fact, the
requirement for the constructive interference of the ray with itself after reection.
Mathematically, this condition is expressed as [91]
& d0 
2k0 n2 (x) 2 dx + 2 = 2 (6.22)
d0

where is the phase angle of the reection coecient () at x = d0 and x = d0


and is an integer. The integral term in the transverse resonance equation (6.22)
can be easily evaluated leading to the following expression

= + 2U0 (6.23)

where U0 = k0 d0 u.

We can use the theory of transmission lines and wave impedance to obtain . It
can be easily shown that the reection coecient () for an incident wave on the
core-cladding interface is given by

Zin Z1
= (6.24)
Zin + Z1

Now can be evaluated from Eq. (6.24) with Zin substituted from Eq. (6.21). Doing

73
M. R. Albandakji Chapter 6. Analysis of Planar Photonic Crystal Waveguides

so, we nd

b2 4


j b ac
Z1


2a ; n2 < < n1

j

b b2 4

2a
ac
+Z1

= (6.25)



j b
b2 4
ac
Z1

2a ; < n2 < n1 or < n1 < n2

b b2 4
ac
j 2a
+Z1

where Z1 = Z1 /Z0 . The phase of the reection coecient ( ) can be expressed as





b2 4
2 tan1
b a c

1 ; n2 < < n1


2
aZ

= (6.26)





b b2 4

2 tan1 1
ac
; < n2 < n1 or < n1 < n2
2
aZ

Substituting from Eq. (6.26) into Eq. (6.23) and after some algebraic simplica-
tions, yields
2
Z12 c cos (2U0 + ) + bZ1 sin (2U0 + ) + a
a Z1 + c = 0 ; n2 < < n1

(6.27a)

2 < n2 < n1
Z12 c cos (2U0 + ) + bZ1 sin (2U0 + ) + a
a Z1 + c = 0 ;
< n1 < n2
(6.27b)

Equations (6.27a) and (6.27a) are the characteristic equations that can be solved
numerically to nd the unknown normalized propagation constant for a given
wavelength . These equations may result in dierent solutions for a specic wave-
length representing dierent modes. To solve for the TE (or TM) modes, these
equations are used with coecient values that correspond to the TE (or TM) modes
in Eqs. (6.17a)(6.17c) or Eqs. (6.19a)(6.19c). Furthermore, solving Eq. (6.27a)
or (6.27b) with even integer values for results in the solutions for even modes, while
solving it with odd values results in the solutions for odd modes.

74
M. R. Albandakji Chapter 6. Analysis of Planar Photonic Crystal Waveguides

6.4 Comparison between PPCWs with Finite and


Innite Number of Cladding Layers

In this section, we will compare the PPCW that has a nite number of cladding layers
with a similar PPCW that has an innite number of cladding layers. In particular,
we want to show that the technique presented in Section 6.3 leads to the same results
obtained using the traditional matrix approach presented in Section 6.2, provided that
the number of cladding layers is suciently large. It is noted that the characteristic
equations (6.27a) and (6.27b) can be used to solve for all possible modes in the innite
structure, whereas the characteristic equations (6.9a) and (6.9b) can only be used to
solve for modes that have n2 < < n1 in the nite structure.

As an example, let us consider a high-index core PPCW with d0 = 1 m, d1 = 0.5 m,


m m
d2 = 0.5 m, material 1 is M11 (13.5 /0 GeO2 , 86.5 /0 SiO2 ) with index n1 (),
and material 2 is M12 (SiO2 ) with index n2 (). The values are calculated for a
range of wavelengths varying between 1.0 to 2.0 m, in increments of 0.01 m. For
the innite-layer cladding case (N = ), is calculated from Eq. (6.27a), whereas
for the nite number of layers cases, is calculated from Eq. (6.9a). In both cases,
we used the interval-halving technique with roots of accuracy in the order of 1014
to calculate the rst even TE and TM modes (TE0 and TM0 ). Figure 6.4 shows
the dispersion curves for TE0 mode for dierent number of cladding layers. The
results for TM0 are very similar to TE0 so they are not shown here in order to avoid
repetition. As expected, the dispersion curves converge to the innite case as the
total number of layers (N) increases. We can notice that the dierence is small
for small wavelengths, but it becomes larger as increases because the accuracy of
approximating the innite structure by the nite structure with large N decreases as

75
M. R. Albandakji Chapter 6. Analysis of Planar Photonic Crystal Waveguides

increases. Similar behavior is also observed when the structural parameters d0 , d1 ,


and d2 are decreased and when the index dierence of the materials used is increased.

1.47

N=
N=2
1.465
N=4
N=6
N=8
N = 10
1.46

1.455

1.45

1.445
1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2
[m]

Figure 6.4: Dispersion curves for TE0 mode for dierent number of cladding layers. The PPCW
parameters are d0 = 1 m, d1 = 0.5 m, d2 = 0.5 m, material 1 is M11, and material 2 is M12.

6.5 True Photonic Crystal Modes in PPCWs

In this section we will investigate the modes of ideal PPCWs with innite number of
cladding layers. We will show that these ideal structures can support true photonic
crystal modes in both high-index and low-index cores. In the high-index core case,
the supported modes are guided inside the core region due to total internal reection
and possibly the photonic band gap eect when n2 < < n1 . We will show that
true photonic crystal modes for which < n2 < n1 can exist due to the perfect

76
M. R. Albandakji Chapter 6. Analysis of Planar Photonic Crystal Waveguides

photonic band gap that is formed in the ideal structure. Such modes do not exist in
conventional planar waveguides. Also, for the low-index core case where < n1 < n2 ,
we will show that guidance is only allowed for the true photonic crystal modes inside
the photonic band gap of the structure.

6.5.1 High-Index Core PPCWs

As an example, let us consider a high-index core ideal PPCW with d0 = 2 m,


m m
d1 = 1 m, d2 = 1 m, material 1 is M1 (16.9 /0 Na2 O, 50.6 /0 SiO2 , 32.5
m
/0 B2 O3 ) with index n1 (), and material 2 is M5 (Quenched SiO2 ) with index
n2 (). The values are calculated for a range of wavelengths varying between 1.0
to 2.0 m, in increments of 0.01 m. For the innite-layer cladding, the solutions
for are calculated from Eq. (6.27a) when n2 < < n1 and from Eq. (6.27b) when
< n2 using the interval-halving root search technique with accuracies in the order
of 1014 for both TE and TM modes. Figure 6.5 shows several modes supported
by the waveguide. In this gure, we also show the region of the allowed modes when
the number of cladding layers is nite and the index of the outermost cladding layer
is n2 . It is noted that there are modes with < n2 (), which means that this ideal
structure is able to support modes that can not be supported in structures with nite
number of cladding layers since a perfect photonic band gap can be formed in the
innite structure. At = 1.3 m, a guided TE2 mode is allowed to propagate due to
both total internal reection and the photonic band gap eect, while at = 1.55 m
the same mode is supported due to the photonic band gap eect only. The elds
corresponding to the rst case are shown in Figs. 6.6(a), 6.6(b), and 6.6(c), while the
elds of the second case are shown in Figs. 6.7(a), 6.7(b), and 6.7(c).

77
M. R. Albandakji Chapter 6. Analysis of Planar Photonic Crystal Waveguides

1.52

1.5 TE0
TM0
TE
1.48 1
TM
1
1.46

1.44

TE2
1.42
TM
2

1.4
TE mode TM
3
1.38 TM mode
TE3

1.36
1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2
[m]

Figure 6.5: Normalized propagation constant for several TE and TM modes of an ideal PPCW
with d0 = 2 m, d1 = 1 m, d2 = 1 m, material 1 is M1, and Material 2 is M5. Gray area is the
region of allowed modes when the PPCW has a nite number of cladding layers.

1000

800

600

400

200
Ey

200

400

600

800

1000
0 5 10 15 20
x [m]

(a)

78
M. R. Albandakji Chapter 6. Analysis of Planar Photonic Crystal Waveguides

1
x

0
H

4
0 5 10 15 20
x [m]

(b)

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2
z
H

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8
0 5 10 15 20
x [m]

(c)

Figure 6.6: Field distributions for TE2 mode at = 1.3 m: (a) Ey , (b) Hx , and (c) Hz .

79
M. R. Albandakji Chapter 6. Analysis of Planar Photonic Crystal Waveguides

1000

800

600

400

200
Ey

200

400

600

800

1000
0 5 10 15 20
x [m]

(a)

1
x

0
H

4
0 5 10 15 20
x [m]

(b)

80
M. R. Albandakji Chapter 6. Analysis of Planar Photonic Crystal Waveguides

0.8

0.6

0.4
z

0.2
H

0.2

0.4

0.6
0 5 10 15 20
x [m]

(c)

Figure 6.7: Field distributions for TE2 mode at = 1.55 m: (a) Ey , (b) Hx , and (c) Hz . In this
case, the mode is a true photonic crystal mode with < n2 < n1 .

6.5.2 Low-Index Core PPCWs

Here we will consider a low-index core ideal PPCW with d0 = 2 m, d1 = 1 m,


d2 = 1 m, material 1 is M12 (pure SiO2 ) with index n1 (), and material 2 is M11
(13.5 m
/0 GeO2 , 86.5 m
/0 SiO2 ) with index n2 (). Again, values are calculated
for a range of wavelengths varying between 1.0 to 2.0 m, in increments of 0.01 m,
and the solutions for are calculated from Eq. (6.27b) since < n1 < n2 for this
structure. We used the interval-halving root search technique with accuracies in the
order of 1014 to search for both TE and TM modes. Figure 6.8 shows several modes
supported by the waveguide. It is noted that all these modes have their < n1 < n2 ,
which means that this ideal structure is able to guide modes in a low-index core

81
M. R. Albandakji Chapter 6. Analysis of Planar Photonic Crystal Waveguides

1.5

1.45
TE0 TM
0
1.4
TE TM
1
1
1.35

1.3
TE3
TM3
1.25 TE
4
TM
4
1.2
TE
1.15 5
TE6 TM5
1.1 TM6

1.05

1
1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2
[m]

Figure 6.8: Normalized propagation constant for several TE and TM modes of an ideal PPCW
with d0 = 2 m, d1 = 1 m, d2 = 1 m, material 1 is M12, and Material 2 is M11. Gray area is the
region of possible modes in practical PPCW if n1 and n2 were interchanged.

because of the perfect photonic band gap that can be formed in the innite structure.
Also, we notice that TE and TM modes become degenerate to each other in this type
of structure. On the same Figure, we show the region of possible modes in practical
PPCW if n1 and n2 were interchanged. As an example, we plot the elds of the TM1
mode at = 1.3 m in Figs. 6.9(a), 6.9(b), and 6.9(c). It is noted that the elds in
the low-index core need more layers to decay to insignicant values when compared
to the modes with < n2 in the high-index core case.

82
M. R. Albandakji Chapter 6. Analysis of Planar Photonic Crystal Waveguides

0.02

0.015

0.01

0.005
Hy

0.005

0.01

0.015

0.02
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
x [m]

(a)

0
x
E

5
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
x [m]

(b)

83
M. R. Albandakji Chapter 6. Analysis of Planar Photonic Crystal Waveguides

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2
z

0
E

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
x [m]

(c)

Figure 6.9: Field distributions for TM1 mode at = 1.3 m: (a) Hy , (b) Ex , and (c) Ez . In this
case, the mode is a true photonic crystal mode with < n1 < n2 .

84
Chapter

7 Analysis of Ideal One-Dimensional


Photonic Crystal Fibers

7.1 Overview

Practical one-dimensional (1-D) photonic crystal bers (PCFs) are manufactured with
a nite number of rings; therefore, the modes inside these structures are inherently
leaky modes since the outermost cladding layer is usually made from silica. It is very
attractive to study theoretically the ideal 1-D PCF structure which has an innite
number of cladding rings. This is because this structure can allow for the propagation
of truly guided modes; i.e., guided modes that have no leakage loss. Also, this ideal
structure may serve as a more accurate model for two-dimensional (2-D) PCFs with
large number of air hole rings.

85
M. R. Albandakji Chapter 7. Analysis of Ideal One-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Fibers

7.2 Method of Analysis

Here, we use a new idea to analyze the innite cladding 1-D PCF problem based on an
impedance approach and a recent publication that suggests modeling the optical ber
as a transmission-line with a series of cascaded T-circuits connected in tandem [67],
as shown in Fig. 7.1.

ZB (r) ZB (r)

ZP (r)

r
r r+r

Figure 7.1: Equivalent transmission-line circuit of an optical ber.

The equivalent T-circuit has two impedances given by [67]



r
ZB = sinh (r) tanh Zp (7.1a)
2


 
Z0 
2 ; HE/EH modes


jnrk0 2 + k0 r sinh(r)
3

Zp = Z0 (7.1b)

jrk03 2 sinh(r)
; TE modes


Z0
jn2 rk 3 2 sinh(r)
; TM modes
0

where
+  2 ,1/2
2n for HE modes
= k0 2 n2 + ; (7.2)
k0 r 2
2 + k0 r + for EH modes
In the above equations, stands for the normalized propagation constant to be cal-
culated, is the azimuthal mode number, n is the refractive index of the layer at

86
M. R. Albandakji Chapter 7. Analysis of Ideal One-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Fibers

distance r from the axis of the ber, r is the radial distance in the ber cross-section
(the length of the transmission line), k0 is the free space wave number, and Z0 is the
free space characteristic impedance. The cascaded circuits are terminated with the
characteristic impedance of the medium of the core at r = 0, and the characteristic
impedance of the outer cladding at r = .

When a guided mode propagates inside the ber, the optical energy becomes trapped
inside the core and the cascaded equivalent T-circuits resonate [92]. This resonance
condition occurs when the sum of the input impedance from r = 0 up to the core-
cladding boundary, Zin , and the output impedance from r = up to the core-
cladding boundary, Zout , equals to zero. This means that at resonance Ztotal =
Zin + Zout = 0, which occurs only at value of a guided mode. So we can use a root
searching technique to locate the roots of Ztotal of the equivalent T-circuits to obtain

Theoretically, a conned mode is obtained if the alternating index cladding is innite


in thickness. However, it is found that the eld decay is nearly complete in several
pairs of cladding layers so that practical structures with, say ten pairs of cladding
layers, are good approximation to the innite alternating index cladding [61]. There-
fore, we can use the equivalent T-circuits to model the ber rings that are close to the
core, then at a suciently large distance from the core, say R, the rest of the cylin-
drical cladding rings can be well approximated by planar layers. The main advantage
of this approach is that it allows us to model the remaining cladding structure by a
single equivalent impedance since the impedance seen at R becomes equivalent to the
impedance seen at R + d1 + d2 , where d1 + d2 is the period of the alternating layers,
as shown in Fig. 7.2(a).

In Fig. 7.2(b), ZA , ZB , and ZC are the impedances of the equivalent T-circuit for

87
M. R. Albandakji Chapter 7. Analysis of Ideal One-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Fibers

Zeq
Zeq

r
R

n1 n2 n1 n2

d1 d2 d1 d2

(a)

ZA ZB ZD ZE

Zeq ZC ZF Zeq

r
R

(b)

Figure 7.2: Equivalent circuits for the analysis of 1-D PCF structure with innite number of rings:
(a) actual structure and (b) equivalent circuit model.

88
M. R. Albandakji Chapter 7. Analysis of Ideal One-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Fibers

one layer, whereas ZD , ZE , and ZF are the impedances of the equivalent T-circuit for
the other layer. Each impedance represents the equivalent impedance for one layer
and it is calculated by combining the innitesimal impedances using circuit theory
techniques including a series of Y- and -Y impedance transformations. From basic
circuits theory, Zeq is given by
 
(Zeq +ZE )ZF
Zeq +ZE +ZF
+ ZB + ZD ZC
Zeq = (Zeq +ZE )ZF
+ ZA (7.3)
Zeq +ZE +ZF
+ ZB + ZC + ZD

Solving for Zeq , we obtain the following quadratic equation

2
AZeq + BZeq + C = 0 (7.4)

where

A = ZB + ZC + ZD + ZF (7.5a)

ZE ZF + (ZE + ZF ) (ZB + ZC + ZD )
B= (7.5b)
ZA (ZB + ZC + ZD + ZF ) ZC (ZB + ZD + ZF )

{ZA [ZE ZF + (ZE + ZF ) (ZB + ZC + ZD )] +


C= (7.5c)
ZC ZE ZF + ZC (ZB + ZD ) (ZE + ZF )}

We used Zeq to represent the semi-innite structure beyond radius R to calculate


Zout , then we used the interval halving technique as a root searching method to
Once
determine the roots of Ztotal of the equivalent T-circuits and then obtain .
is calculated, the eld and power distributions can be easily found using the matrix
approach discussed in Chapter 2. The results of this technique are presented in the
following section.

89
M. R. Albandakji Chapter 7. Analysis of Ideal One-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Fibers

7.3 Results

7.3.1 Solid-Core PCF

The solid-core PCF, also known as periodic coaxial fiber, can be viewed as a step-
index fiber that is surrounded by a cylindrical 1-D photonic crystal structure, as
shown is Fig. 7.3. The photonic crystal structure is designed so that light of certain
frequency incident from the low-index medium is totally reflected back, no matter
what the incident angle and polarization are [93]. In other words, the light frequency
should be within the photonic band gap of the photonic crystal structure in order to
achieve guidance inside the coaxial region. This makes the structure very similar to
the metallic coaxial cables, although there is a substantial amount of power penetrated
through the high-index core and the photonic crystal cladding [64].

Figure 7.3: Periodic coaxial fiber.

In order to illustrate the accuracy of the impedance approach, we used the periodic
coaxial fiber discussed in [63] which has an index profile similar to the one shown in
Fig. 7.4. The fiber was found to be capable of supporting photonic crystal modes
inside the photonic band gap of the photonic crystal structure surrounding the coaxial
region. When = 4.9261 m, the fiber can support a fundamental TM photonic

90
M. R. Albandakji Chapter 7. Analysis of Ideal One-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Fibers

n(r)

0.4 1.0 1/3 2/3


m m m m
4.6

1.6
1.0

Figure 7.4: Index prole of the discussed periodic coaxial ber.

crystal mode with = 0.9852 (less than unity). Using the impedance approach with
r = 0.005 m and 15 periodic layers, was found to be equal to 0.99, which is
0.48 % dierent from the reported value. The elds and power of the fundamental
TM mode are shown in Figs. 7.5 and 7.6, respectively. It is noted that the main
power is conned inside the coaxial region between r = 0.4 m and r = 1.4 m.

0.8

0.6
Normalized H

0.4

0.2

0.2
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5
r [m]

(a)

91
M. R. Albandakji Chapter 7. Analysis of Ideal One-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Fibers

0.8
r
Normalized E

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.2
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5
r [m]

(b)

0.8
z

0.6
Normalized E

0.4

0.2

0.2
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5
r [m]

(c)

Figure 7.5: Transverse eld distribution for TM01 mode when = 4.9261 m: (a) H , (b) Er ,
and (c) Ez .

92
M. R. Albandakji Chapter 7. Analysis of Ideal One-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Fibers

Figure 7.6: Power density distribution for TM01 mode when = 4.9261 m.

7.3.2 Hollow-Core PCF

The hollow-core PCF consists of a low-index core surrounded by a cylindrical 1-D


photonic crystal structure, as shown in Fig. 7.7. The special feature of this ber is
that it is capable of guiding light inside its core even if the core index is smaller than
the average cladding index. This happens when the frequency of the propagating
wave is within the photonic band gap of the photonic crystal structure surrounding
the core, so the wave will be totally reected back due to Bragg reection [94]. This
guiding mechanism has attracted the attention of many researchers recently because it
oers lower material absorption and higher power threshold for nonlinear eects [61].
We used the impedance approach discussed in the previous section to study the
photonic crystal modes that can be guided inside the hollow-core PCF structure. As

93
M. R. Albandakji Chapter 7. Analysis of Ideal One-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Fibers

Figure 7.7: Hollow-core PCF.

an example, we simulated the PCF reported in [95], which has an air core radius
of 5 m, refractive indices of the alternating layers n1 = 1.0 and n2 = 2.0, along
with widths d1 = 1.0 m and d2 = 1.0 m, respectively. The number of layers was
chosen to be 30 and the innitesimal radial distance r = 0.01 and 0.005 m. When
r = 0.01 m and the wave number k0 = 1.2; i.e., = 5.236 m, was found to be
0.7863 for the rst TE mode and 0.5282 for the rst TM mode but when we increased
r to 0.005 m, was found to be 0.7861 for the rst TE mode and 0.5276 for the
rst TM mode, which means that larger r provides higher accuracy as expected. We
notice that values for both modes are less than unity, which is a unique feature of
guided modes in hollow-core PCFs.

Figures. 7.8(a), 7.8(b), and 7.8(c) show the calculated elds for the rst TE mode,
whereas Figs. 7.10(a), 7.10(b), and 7.10(c) show the calculated elds for the rst
TM mode when k0 = 1.2 and r = 0.005 m. We notice that azimuthal and axial
elds components are continuous, whereas the radial components have discontinuities
at the boundaries because of the boundary conditions. Also, we notice that all the
elds decay to almost zero within a few pairs of the cladding layers, which ensures
that these modes are truly guided modes inside the hollow-core PCF. Figures. 7.9
and 7.11 show the power of the rst TE and TM modes, respectively. We notice that

94
M. R. Albandakji Chapter 7. Analysis of Ideal One-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Fibers

the power is almost totally conned inside the core region for both modes. Table 7.1
compares these results with three dierent techniques studied in [95]. We can see
that the impedance method provides a very small percentage error when compared
to the transfer matrix method.

Table 7.1: Impedance method compared to three dierent techniques studied in [95].
TE01 % Error TM01 % Error
Transfer matrix method 0.7859080 - 0.5270 -
Asymptotic method 0.79935 1.7 0.5785 9.8
Galerkin method 0.7858 0.014 0.5335 1.2
Impedance method (r = 0.01 m) 0.7863 0.05 0.5282 0.23
Impedance method (r = 0.005 m) 0.7861 0.02 0.5276 0.11

Also, we simulated a more practical case at = 1.3 m for a hollow-core PCF


structure with a core radius of 2 m, refractive indices of the alternating layers n1 =
1.4504 (Material 12) and n2 = 1.4716 (Material 11), along with widths d1 = 1.0 m
and d2 = 1.0 m, respectively. The number of layers was chosen to be 30 and the
innitesimal radial distance r = 0.005. was found to be 1.44536 for the rst TE
mode and 1.44335 for the rst TM mode. We notice that values for both modes
are less than n1 . The elds and power distribution for both modes are very similar
so, in order to avoid repetition, we show those corresponding to the TM mode only
in Figs. 7.12(a), 7.12(b), 7.12(c), and 7.13.

95
M. R. Albandakji Chapter 7. Analysis of Ideal One-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Fibers

0.5

0
Normalized E

0.5

1
0 5 10 15 20 25
r [m]

(a)

0.5
r
Normalized H

0.5
0 5 10 15 20 25
r [m]

(b)

96
M. R. Albandakji Chapter 7. Analysis of Ideal One-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Fibers

0.5
z
Normalized H

0.5
0 5 10 15 20 25
r [m]

(c)

Figure 7.8: Transverse eld distribution for TE01 mode when k0 = 1.2: (a) E , (b) Hr , and (c)
Hz .

Figure 7.9: Power density distribution for TE01 mode when k0 = 1.2.

97
M. R. Albandakji Chapter 7. Analysis of Ideal One-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Fibers

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2
Normalized H

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1
0 5 10 15 20 25
r [m]

(a)

0.6

0.4

0.2

0
r
Normalized E

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1
0 5 10 15 20 25
r [m]

(b)

98
M. R. Albandakji Chapter 7. Analysis of Ideal One-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Fibers

0.5
z
Normalized E

0.5
0 5 10 15 20 25
r [m]

(c)

Figure 7.10: Transverse eld distribution for TM01 mode when k0 = 1.2: (a) H , (b) Er , and (c)
Ez .

Figure 7.11: Power density distribution for TM01 mode when k0 = 1.2.

99
M. R. Albandakji Chapter 7. Analysis of Ideal One-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Fibers

0.8

0.6

0.4

Normalized H

0.2

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
r [m]

(a)

0.8

0.6

0.4
r
Normalized E

0.2

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
r [m]

(b)

100
M. R. Albandakji Chapter 7. Analysis of Ideal One-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Fibers

0.8

0.6

0.4
z
Normalized E

0.2

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
r [m]

(c)

Figure 7.12: Transverse eld distribution for TM01 mode when = 1.3 m: (a) H , (b) Er , and
(c) Ez .

Figure 7.13: Power density distribution for TM01 mode when = 1.3 m.

101
Chapter

8 Conclusions and Directions for


Future Work

8.1 Conclusions

In this work, several aspects of photonic crystal waveguides have been investigated,
including one-dimensional (1-D) modeling of two-dimensional (2-D) photonic crystal
bers (PCFs), analysis of tapered PCFs, analysis of 1-D PCFs and planar photonic
crystal waveguides with innite periodic cladding, and investigation of transmission
properties of a novel type of bers referred to as Fresnel ber.

We presented an exact vector-wave solution for the 1-D PCFs, which was used to
model 2-D PCFs. We showed that this model can predict transmission properties
of 2-D PCFs with a relatively high degree of accuracy and much less processing
time and computer storage when compared to conventional numerical techniques,
such as the nite element method and the multipole method. In particular, the
normalized propagation constant agreed within 0.2 % for / 0.5 and within
0.7 % for / 1.0. For PCFs with small values of normalized wavelengths; i.e.,

102
M. R. Albandakji Chapter 8. Conclusions and Directions for Future Work

/ 0.5, the model yielded dispersion results that agreed very well with published
results. Also, for large values of normalized holes sizes; i.e., d/ 0.5, the results
for eective area showed good agreement with those obtained using the nite element
method. However, the leakage loss was generally underestimated by the model. This
is believed to be due to the fact that the openings between the holes, which are the
main cause for the leakage of power, are replaced with closed rings.

Tapered PCFs were then investigated using the same model and by approximating
the tapered section as a series of uniform sections along the axial direction. We
showed that the total eld inside the tapered section of the PCF can be evaluated as
a superposition of local normal modes that are coupled among each other. We also
studied the evolution of power density inside the taper and concluded that adiabaticity
depends mainly on two factors: the taper length and the taper shape. We showed
that when the tapered PCF is smooth and long enough, the propagating mode will
be capable of modifying itself to evolve adiabatically inside the taper. Otherwise, the
mode will start to couple to other modes and the propagation becomes nonadiabatic.
We also showed that the number of air hole rings has a minimum eect on taper
adiabaticity.

Also, a novel type of bers, called Fresnel ber, was analyzed. We showed that Fresnel
bers can be properly designed to achieve bers with shifted, attened, or large
negative chromatic dispersion. In particular, we obtained two dispersion-attened
single-mode ber designs. The rst design has a at dispersion characteristic within
5 ps/nm.km over a wide wavelength range from 1.32 m to 1.97 m. The second
ber design has almost the same at dispersion within 5 ps/nm.km over even a wider
wavelength range from 1.28 m to more than 2 m. Two large negative dispersion
designs were also presented. One design provides a total dispersion of 134 ps/nm.km

103
M. R. Albandakji Chapter 8. Conclusions and Directions for Future Work

with almost at dispersion between 1.5 m and 1.6 m wavelengths. The second ber
design provides a total dispersion of 170 ps/nm.km at 1.55 m wavelength. Also,
we showed that a wide range of eective areas can be achieved, making Fresnel bers
very attractive in long distance ber-optic communication links where large eective
area is desirable, or in soliton systems where small eective area is desirable. In
particular, we obtained a large eective area design with an eective area as high as
152.7 m2 and nearly zero dispersion at 1.55 m wavelength. Also, a small eective
area design with an eective area as small as 15.6 m2 and nearly zero dispersion at
1.55 m wavelength was achieved.

Also, we examined the ideal 1-D planar photonic crystal waveguides that consist of
innite number of cladding layers based on an impedance approach. We presented
results which allow one to distinguish clearly between light guidance due to total
internal reection and light guidance due to the photonic crystal eect.

Finally, we introduced a new approach for analyzing 1-D PCFs with innite periodic
cladding. We used an equivalent T-circuits method to model the rings that are close to
the core of the ber. Then, at suciently large distance from the core, the rest of the
cladding rings were approximated by planar layers. We showed that this approach can
successfully estimate the propagation constants and elds for true photonic crystal
modes in both solid-core and hollow-core PCFs with a very high accuracy.

In summary, the main contributions of this research are:

A simple model for predicting transmission properties of PCFs was proposed [96
98]. The model provides reasonably accurate estimate of propagation constant,
dispersion, and eective area.

Adiabaticity of tapered PCFs was analyzed by modeling the PCF using the

104
M. R. Albandakji Chapter 8. Conclusions and Directions for Future Work

proposed model [99]. An estimate for the minimum taper length for a linear
PCF taper was presented. The eect of taper shape, taper length, and the
number of rings was investigated.

A new type of optical ber, referred to as Fresnel ber, was proposed [100,101].
We showed that this type of bers can be carefully designed to obtain desirable
dispersion and/or eective area properties, making them very suitable for use
in communications and sensing applications.

Extended the analytical solutions of the ideal 1-D planar photonic crystal wave-
guides with innite cladding to hollow-core structures [102]. By comparing the
results obtained from the presented approach with those obtained from the
conventional matrix approach, we showed that both results converge provided
that there are sucient number of cladding layers in the nite structure. Results
for propagation characteristics and modal eld distributions in both solid-core
and hollow-core ideal planar photonic crystal structures were presented.

A new approach for solving for the true photonic crystal modes in PCFs with in-
nite periodic cladding was proposed. We showed that these modes can appear
in both solid-core and hollow-core ideal PCF structures.

8.2 Directions for Future Work

There are a number of issues that require further investigations. These include:

The ring model discussed in this work has been developed for PCFs with hexag-
onal hole arrangement. Extending the modeling eort to other hole arrange-
ments, such as rectangular and triangular, would be useful.

105
M. R. Albandakji Chapter 8. Conclusions and Directions for Future Work

The present model provides a crude estimate of leakage loss. Appropriate mod-
ications in the outer cladding layer of the ring model is expected to improve
the estimation of leakage loss.

Several dispersion-shifted, dispersion-attened, dispersion compensating and


large/small eective area Fresnel ber designs made from silica-based mate-
rials have been analyzed. Investigating other Fresnel ber designs made from
polymers or nonsilica-based materials might reveal Fresnel ber designs with
attractive transmission properties as well.

A closed form solution for the 1-D PCF with innite periodic cladding, similar
to that presented for the 1-D planar waveguide, is desirable.

106
Appendix

A
Matrix Coecients

The matrix coecients in Eq. (2.27) are given by




2 i+1 n2i 1  1 
i
11 = q0,i+1 Wi F (Ui ) F,i+1 (Wi ) F,i (Ui ) F,i+1 (Wi ) (A.1a)
i n2i+1 Ui ,i Wi


2 i+1 n2i 1  1 
i
12 = q0,i+1 Wi F (Ui ) F,i+1 (Wi )

F,i (Ui ) F,i+1 (Wi ) (A.1b)
i n2i+1 Ui ,i Wi
i
Z0
i
13 = 2
q0,i+1 Wi2 F,i (Ui ) F,i+1 (Wi ) (A.1c)
ni+1
i
Z0
i
14 = q0,i+1 Wi2 F,i (Ui ) F,i+1 (Wi ) (A.1d)
n2i+1


2 1  i+1 n2i 1 
i
21 = q0,i+1 Wi F,i (Ui ) F,i+1 (Wi ) ( F (Ui ) F,i+1 (Wi ) (A.1e)
Wi i n2i+1 Ui ,i


2 1  i+1 n2i 1 
i
22 = q0,i+1 Wi F,i (Ui ) F,i+1 (Wi ) F (Ui ) F,i+1 (Wi ) (A.1f)
Wi i n2i+1 Ui ,i
i
Z0
i
23 = 2 q0,i+1 Wi2 F,i (Ui ) F,i+1 (Wi ) (A.1g)
ni+1
i
Z0
i
24 = 2 q0,i+1 Wi2 F,i (Ui ) F,i+1 (Wi ) (A.1h)
ni+1

107
M. R. Albandakji Appendix A. Matrix Coecients

 2
i ni+1 i
31 = 13 (A.1i)
Z0
 2
i ni+1 i
32 = 14 (A.1j)
Z0


2 i+1 1  1 
i
33 = q0,i+1 Wi F (Ui ) F,i+1 (Wi ) F,i (Ui ) F,i+1 (Wi ) (A.1k)
i Ui ,i Wi


2 i+1 1  1 
i
34 = q0,i+1 Wi F (Ui ) F,i+1 (Wi ) F,i (Ui ) F,i+1 (Wi ) (A.1l)
i Ui ,i Wi
 2
i ni+1 i
41 = 23 (A.1m)
Z0
 2
i ni+1 i
42 = 24 (A.1n)
Z0


2 1  i+1 1 
i
43 = q0,i+1 Wi F,i (Ui ) F,i+1 (Wi ) F (Ui ) F,i+1 (Wi ) (A.1o)
Wi i Ui ,i


2 1  i+1 1 
i
44 = q0,i+1 Wi F,i (Ui ) F,i+1 (Wi ) F (Ui ) F,i+1 (Wi ) (A.1p)
Wi i Ui ,i

where
/2 ; = 1
i+1
q0,i+1 = (A.2)
1 ; i+1 = 1
and

1 1
i = 2
+ 2 (A.3)
Ui Wi

108
Appendix

B
Material Constants

Material dispersion is accounted for using Sellmeiers equation [68]


!
"
" $3
Aj 2
#
n () = 1 + (B.1)
j=1
2 2j

with the following coecients:

Table B.1: Sellmeier coecients for several materials.


Material Material A1 A2 A3 1 2 3
Symbol Name
M1 16.9 m /0 Na2 O, 50.6 m /0 SiO2 , 32.5 m /0 B2 O3 0.796468 0.497614 0.358924 0.094359 0.0933865 5.999652
M2 1.0 m /0 F, 99.0 m /0 SiO2 0.691116 0.399166 0.890423 0.068227 0.11646 9.993707
m m
M3 9.1 /0 P2 O5 , 90.9 /0 SiO2 0.69579 0.452497 0.712513 0.061568 0.119921 8.656641
M4 13.5 m /0 GeO2 , 86.5 m /0 SiO2 0.71104 0.451885 0.704048 0.06427 0.129408 9.425478
M5 Quenched SiO2 0.69675 0.408218 0.890815 0.069066 0.115662 9.900559
m m m
M6 2.2 /0 GeO2 , 94.5 /0 SiO2 , 3.3 /0 B2 O3 0.699339 0.4111269 0.9035275 0.0617482 0.1242404 9.896158
M7 7.9 m /0 GeO2 , 92.1 m /0 SiO2 0.7136824 0.4254807 0.8964226 0.0617167 0.1270814 9.896161
M8 3.1 m /0 GeO2 , 96.9 m /0 SiO2 0.7028554 0.4146307 0.897454 0.0727723 0.1143085 9.896161
m m m
M9 4.03 /0 GeO2 , 86.27 /0 SiO2 , 9.7 /0 B2 O3 0.7042042 0.41289413 0.95238253 0.067974973 0.12147738 9.6436219
M10 7.0 m /0 GeO2 , 93.0 m /0 SiO2 0.6869829 0.44479505 0.79073512 0.078087582 0.1155184 10.436628
M11 13.5 m /0 GeO2 , 86.5 m /0 SiO2 0.73454395 0.42710828 0.82103399 0.08697693 0.11195191 10.84654
M12 SiO2 0.6961663 0.4079426 0.8974794 0.068043 0.1162414 9.896161

109
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121
Vita

Mhd Rachad Albandakji was born on April 4, 1979 in Damascus, Syria. He received
his Bachelors degree in Electrical Engineering from the University of Jordan, Amman,
Jordan in 2001. In 2003, he received his Masters degree in Electrical Engineering
from Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia and continued to pursue his Ph.D. degree
in Electrical Engineering from Virginia Tech. His main research interests are in
communication systems and optical waveguides.

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