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Full wave
Name- Harshdeep
Singh Sidhu
Roll no. 2724735
Class - XII B (Non-
S. NO. Particulars Page no.
1. Acknowledgement 1
2 Certificate 2
3 Introduction 3
4 Materials used 3,4,5
5 Circuit diagram 6
6 Working 6,7
7 Uses of rectifier 8
8 Systematic error 8
9 Bibliography 9

Teacher in charge -
Miss Bhawandeep

I Harshdeep Singh, is highly indebted
to my physics teacher Miss
Bhawandeep Kaur for her guidance
and admirers to complete my project
successfully. I would like to extend my
gratitude to Mr. Ravikant, Principal of
Guru Nanak public school, Mullanpur for
providing a very nice platform to learn.

I also take this opportunity to express

my deep sense of gratitude to GOD for
countless blessing showered that
makes me able to complete my project
Then I would like to place my special
thanks to my Parents for their
encouragement and support which
helped me in the completion of my

This is to certify that this project is
bonafide work of Harshdeep Singh
Sidhu of class 12th B and has been
successfully completed and is taken to
be an issue conducted by the C.B.S.E in
the session 2016-2017.

Teachers signature-
Externals signature

Principles signature
A rectifier which rectifies both halves of
each A.C. input cycle is called full wave
Principle It is based on the principle
that a diode conducts when it is forward
biased but it does not conduct in reverse
biased. An A.C. supply is fed across the
primary coil of the transformer (step
down). Two ends of the primary coil is
connected to p-sec. of two diodes D 1 and
D2 and a load resistance RL is connected
across n section of these diodes and
central taping of the secondary coil.
Materials used -:
1. Connecting wires
2. Wooden board
3. Chart
4. Two diodes
5. Transformer
6. Capacitor (470)uF
7. Led bulb
8. Soldier
9. Manganin wire

Diodes-: A semiconductor having p-

type impurity at one end and n-type
impurity at the other end is known as a
p-n junction diode.

Transformer-: It is a device used for

converting high alternating voltage at
high current into low voltage at high
current or vice versa. There are two
types transformers : 1. Step up
transformer Transformer which
converts low voltage at high current
into a high voltage at low current.
2. Step down transformer Transformer
which converts high voltage at low current
into low voltage at high current.

In this model step-down

transformer is used.

Capacitor -: It is an arrangement of
two metallic conductors, so when one
metal is earthed other conductor has
the ability to store a large amount of
LED (Light emitting diode)-:
When p-n junction diode is forward
biased , e- and holes recombines with
each other energy difference is emitted
outside in form of light of diff.
wavelengths or colors.

Circuit diagram-

Working- Let the 1 half of A.C.


supply is +ve then diode D1 will get

forward biased D2 will get reverse
biased , It means diode D1 will conduct
and diode D2 will not conduct. Now
output will be obtained across load
resistance RL through diode D1 which
will be proportion to input supply.
Now let the 2nd half is ve, now the
diode D1 will not conduct because it is
reverse biased but diode D2 will
conduct as it is forward biased, now
output will be obtained across load
resistance RL through diode D2, which
will be proportion to input supply.
The input and output waveforms can
be drawn as -:

Uses of rectifier -
A rectifier changes alternating currents
to direct current. Direct current is
necessary for to power
1. Radios
2. TV
3. Mobile chargers

Systematic errors
1. Led will not glow if it is not
connected as forward biased.
2. Diodes will not work when
connected as reverse biased.
3. Connecting wires are not joined

Physics Textbooks for 12 ;
Modern abc of physics
Websites -: