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DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

QUESTION BANK
ME6403 ENGINEERING MATERIALS AND METALLURGY

UNIT 1.ALLOYS AND PHASE DIAGRAM

PART A
1. Classify Peritectic and Peritectoid reactions.
2. Compare steel and cast iron. Also classify the steel with respect to carbon percentage.

3. Define the following terms Solid Solution and Polymorphism.


4. Discuss about interstitial solid solutions and interstitial compounds.
5. Differentiate between eutectic and eutectoid phase reactions.
6. Illustrate carbon solubility is more in austenite.
7. List the advantages of alloy steel as compared to plain carbon steels.
8. Name and explain any one type of binary solid to solid state transformation reaction with
ideal phase diagram.
9. Discuss the rules governing the formation of solid solution.
10. Write the equation for Gibbs Rule.
11. Define hypo eutectoid, hyper eutectoid steels.
12. Illustrate the cooling curve for pure metal, binary solid solution and binary eutectic system.

13. Infer notes on 1.Cementite. 2. Pearlite 3. Bainite.


14. Define allotropy of iron.
15. Define phase diagram? and its importance.
16. Show nodular cast iron is called ductile cast iron?
17. Describe the effect of additions of chromium on the characteristics of steel?
18. Explain the effects of crystal structure and atomic radii on formation of solid solution
between two metallic elements?
19. Explain with an example of eutectoid reaction
20. Mention few applications of the (a) Low carbon steel (b) Medium carbon steel (c) High
carbon steel. )

PART B

1. (i) How are solid solutions classified? Give example for each.
(ii).Draw the phase diagram between A and B, if the two metals completely soluble in solid
and liquid state.
2. (i)Draw the Iron - iron carbide equilibrium diagram and label all the phases. Also enumerate
the following phases A. Ferrite. B. Austenite.C.Cementite.
(ii)Discuss the similarities and differences between substitutional and interstitial solid
solution?
3. Explain 1. Eutectic reaction 2. Eutectoid reaction 3. Peritectic reaction 4. Peritectoidreaction
4. Summaries the microstructure properties and application of various types of cast iron

5.(i)What is an alloy steel? How are alloy steel classified? Explain them.
(ii) Explain the classification of steel.
6.(i) Elements A and B melt at 700 C and 1000C respectively. Draw a typical isomorphous
phase diagram between the elements A and B.
(ii).Elements A and B melt at 700 C and 1000C respectively. They form an eutectic at 35% A
at temperature 500C. Draw a typical phase diagram between A and B. (BT-4)

7. Metal A has melting point at 1000C . Metal B has melting point of 500C. Draw one phase
diagram (between the elements A & B) for each of the following conditions. (i)The two
elements exhibit unlimited solid solubility. (ii)The alloy systems show formation of two
terminal solid solution and a eutectic point at 50%Aand at700C (BT-5)

8. Draw equilibrium diagram of two component system Pb-Sn when these components are
completely soluble in liquid state and partly soluble in solid state. Label all areas, points and
lines and explain the 85-15 composition alloy with the help of microstructures.

9. With the help of the Fe-C equilibrium diagram describe completely the changes that take
place during the slow cooling of a 0.5% carbon steel from liquid state.

10. What is interstitial and explain in detail about eutectic reaction?

11.What are the different type of C.I .Draw the micro structural of any four type of C.I .Give the
application for each structure. (BT-3)

12. (i) Draw the typical microstructure of 1.2%c steel at 920 c 780 c and 200 c
(ii) Draw Fe-C diagram and mark all the phases. (BT-4) 13.Metals A and B having melting
points respectively 270C and 320C are assumed to be completely soluble in the liquid state
and completely insoluble in solid state. They form eutectic at 140 C containing 40% B.

(i) Draw the equilibrium diagram and label all lines and areas and
(ii) For an alloy containing 30% A give the temperature of initial and final solidification
and relative amounts of phases present at 180C.

14.Draw a hypothetical phase diagram A-B with the help of following data:
(a) Melting point of A = 1100C (b) Melting point of B = 1300C (c) Eutectic reaction occurs at
1000C at 40% B composition. (d) maximum solubility of B in A and A in B at eutectic
temperature in 10% and 5% respectively which drops down to zero at 0C. Mark each line and
area. How the structure of alloy will change if alloy containing 10% B composition is cooled
from liquid state?
PART-C

1.Draw Iron -Carbide equilibrium diagram and mark on it all salient temperature and
composition fields. (BT-3)

2.Desirable properties and application of GrayC.I, NodularC.I, WhiteC.I, Malleable C.I

3.Two elements A and B have melting points 800C and 600C respectively (i) Draw a phase
diagram between A and B if they exhibit unlimited solid solubility. Draw a phase diagram
between A and B if they exhibit unlimited (6) (ii) Draw a phase diagram between A and B if a
eutectic reaction occurs at composition 40%B and at temperature 400C. Assume that the
maximum solid solubility in either case is 5% and the room temperature solubility in either case
is 1% (BT-5) 4. Draw a typical isomorphs phase diagram and explain the structural changes of
alloys ( say 50% A and 50% B). Apply the liver rule at some temperature in alpha + liquid
portion for this alloy (BT-4)

UNIT 2. HEAT TREATMENT


PART A

1. List any two difference between annealing and normalising


2. Quote the term induction hardening
3. Define critical cooling rate
4. List the various stages of a heat treatment process
5. Define Recrystallisation
6. Write the microstructure of an austempered of steel? What is the advantage of austempering
heat treatment?
7. Define quenching? List some of the quenching medium
8. In what way cyaniding differs from carburizing?
9. Discuss the factors should be considered while selecting a quenching medium?
10. Interpret flame hardening differs induction hardening?
11. Associate the important parameters which affect the heat treatment process?
12. Discuss eutectoid steel, what is the temperature range of pearlite transformation from
austenite?
13. Demonstrate MS and MT temperatures in TTT diagram?
14. Relate hardening of steel is always followed by tempering?
15. Explain hardenability.
16. Analyze the low carbon steel in the normalized condition stronger than the same steel in the
annealed condition?
17. Assess three methods of carburizing commonly employed?
18. Discriminate the purpose of flame hardening process and what are the parameters to be
controlled to obtain a particular depth of hardening?
20. State the applications of stress relief annealing.
PART B

19. Explain Bainite and for eutectoid steel what temperature range it is generally formed?

1. Draw Time Temperature Transformation diagram and label all the phases. Also enumerate
the four objectives of heat treatment.
2. Draw the schematic isothermal transformation diagram corresponding to 0.8% of carbon
steel.
3. (i)Explain hardening and tempering process and its type.
(ii) What do you understand by heat treatment? Mention the various stages of heat
treatment procedure.
4. Describe a schematic CCT diagram for a carbon steel containing 0.8% C .Using this
diagram explain how different cooling curves lead to the (a)Annealing heat treatment (b)
Normalizing heat treatment (c) Hardening heat treatment
5. Write short notes on: 1.Annealing 2.spheroid sing 3.Normalising 4. Hardening
6. Explain in brief cooling curves in TTT diagram. Why this diagram is called as an
isothermal temperature diagram and what products do we get?
7. Give a detailed account on (a) Martempering (b) Normalizing (c) Austempering
8. Write short notes on :1. Carburizing 2.Cyaniding 2. Nitriding 3.Carbonitriding.
9. Explain how Jominy end quench test is used for determining the hardenability of steels.

10. (i) What is meant by hardenability? Describe a method of measuring hardenability of alloy
steel.
(ii) Distinguish between diffusion and thermal surface hardening treatments
11. With a schematic layout explain the following : Vacuum and Plasma hardening
12. What is CCR ? Write Difference Between Normalizing and Tempering.
13. Explain (i) Age hardening
(ii) Flame hardening
(iii)Induction hardening.
14. (i)Briefly on types of carburing and need for the post carburizing heat treatment.
(ii)Explain in detail spheridizing .What is tempering of steel? Explain

PART-C
1. (i)Distinguish between annealing and normalising
(ii)Explain different types of tempering process.
2. Outline the principle of high frequency induction hardening. How induction hardening is
carried out. Mention its advantages, disadvantages and applications.
3. Define isothermal cooling. Draw and explain TTT diagram for steel.
4. Distinguish between hardness and hardenability with suitable sketches, explain the
jominy quench test for hardenability.
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
UNIT 3 FERROUS AND NON-FERROUS METALS
PART- A
1.Compare the martensite that is formed in maraging steels with the martensite that is formed
in carbon steels
2.What is the main strengthen mechanism in high strength aluminiumalloys ?
3. Explain the effect of Chromium And molybdenum in low alloy steels
4. What is the purpose of magnesium treatment in producing S.G iron ?
5. Distinguish between Grey cast irons and spheroidal cast iron in terms of microstructure and
mechanical properties ?
6. What is the composition of 18/4/1 type high speed steel?
7. List the different types of tool steels ?
8. Enumerate any two aluminium base alloys and their applications ?
9. What is HSLA?
10. Specify the effect of nickel on the properties of steel?
11. Write short notes on the types of stainless steels ?
12. With the composition, properties and application of a) Tin bonze b) Naval brass ?

13. Name the alloying elements in high speed steel ?


14. Explain the application of tool steel?
15. Explain the effects of adding Si in steels ?
16. Differentiate Brass from Bronze ?
17. What is duralumin? Summarize the composition and applications of duralumin?
18. List the bearing materials that are commonly used?
19. What is meant by precipitation hardening?
20. What is cartridge brass and what are its application ?

PART B

1. Classify the ferrous material with respect to alloying elements, microstructure and
properties and write the effect of alloying addition in steels
2. Discuss the composition, properties, application- Maraging steels, Tool steel
3. Discuss the composition, properties, application of different types of cast irons
4. What are the stainless steels ?what are the main characteristics of stainless steels ? Name
different types of stainless steels and their main application ?
5. What are the HSLA steels? How can high strength and toughness be obtained in them?

6. Name different alloys of copper. Give its composition, properties and uses.
7. Discuss the composition, properties, application of aluminum base alloys.
8. Explain the steps involved in precipitation hardening?
9. Explain Bearing alloys and Mg alloys.
10. Explain Ni based super alloys and Ti alloys
11. What are the properties of Aluminum? And What are the different types of alloying element
such as copper, iron manganese, magnesium used with aluminum and its application ?
12. Write short notes about the following materials in terms of composition properties and
application
(1) Marraging Steel
(2) Austenitic Stainless Steel
(3)Alpha Beta Brass
13.(i) What is cupronickel explain its application
(ii) Effect of SI on steel ? Discuss
14. Write short notes on:
1.Tool Steel
2.White Malleable Iron
3. Bearing Alloy
PARTC

1. (i)Name non ferrous material for the following articles


1. bush
2.furnace heating element
3. type writer parts
4.big end bearing
5. filament of electric lamp
6. turbine blade
(ii) Write short notes on:
(i) Bearing metals
(ii) Brasses (BT-6) 2. What are the influence of alloying Al, Cr, Ni, Mo, Si, Mn, V
& Cu in steel explain in brief.
3.Write short notes on:
a. Gray C.I
b. White C.I
c. Malleable C.I
d. Spheroidal Graphite C.I
4.Write short notes on:
i.HSLA
ii.Copper Alloy
iii.Bearing Alloy
iv. Titatium Alloy
UNIT-4 NON METALLIC MATERIALS
PART-A

1.What do you mean by co polymers?


2. Summarise the naturally occurring polymers?
3. What are the synthetic polymers?
4. What is polymerization?
5. What is the difference between Addition and condensation polymerization?
6. Define degree of polymerization ?
7. Differentiate Thermoplasts and Thermosets polymer?
8. Define ceramics?(BT-1).
9. Discover any properties of ceramics?
10. What is composite material?
11. Write an example for composite material? What are the different types of composites?

12. What is matrix and reinforcement?


13. Draw the molecular structure of polyethylene and polyprophelene ?
14. Write the molecular structure of phenol- formaldehyde (PF) polymer & Urea
formalehyde( UF) polymer ?
15. Give the example for metal- matrix composites and ceramic-matrix composites ?
16. With property and application, explain the following polymers a) PVC b) PMMA ?
17. What are the PEEK and PET polymers? What are their uses ?
18. What are the uses of alumina ?
19. Summarise any four common engineering polymers ?
20. How are refractories classified?

PART B

1. What is polymerization? Describe addition polymerization and condensation


polymerization.
2. Describe the molecular structure, properties and applications of the following polymers PP,
PS, PVC .
3. Explain in the following : PET,PC, PA, ABS
4. Discuss the Structure, properties and application of the following polymeric materials PI,
PAI, PPO, PPS.
5. Discuss the Structure, properties and application of the following polymeric materials
PEEK, PTFE, Urea and Phenol formaldehydes
6. Write short notes on particle reinforced composites and fibre reinforced composites

7. With the schematic diagram illustrate the processing of reinforced composites


8. Describe the properties and applications of following structural ceramics
a. Alumina and Partially stabilized zirconia
b. Silicon carbide and Silicon nitride
c. Sialon (BT-5) 9. What are different types of plastics? What are the special properties of
plastics that make
them useful engineering material.
10. (i) Write short notes about the different types of matrix materials and reinforcement
material used to make polymer matrix composites
(ii). Discuss the properties of application of Al2 03 & SiC
11. (i) Difference between thermoplastics and thermosetting polymers
(ii) What are the FRP and its application
12. (i) Classify the composite materials and list two properties and application of them .
(ii) State the properties and application PSZ and sailons
13. Name explain the properties and application of any six varieties of polymers used as
engineering materials
14. Write short notes on :
(i) PVC (ii)PE (iii)GLASS (iv)PMMA

PART-C
1. What are the engineering ceramics and describe the characteristic and classification of
engineering ceramics
2. Write short notes
(i) PTEE
(ii) Phenol formaldehyde
(iii) Engineering ceramics
(iv) FRFP
3. (a) Enumerate the properties of the following.
(i) Thermoplastics (ii) Thermosetting Plastics (iii) Elastomers
(b) Describe the concept of Co-polymerization

4.(i)How the plastics materials are classified? Explain each classification?


(ii)Describe the major properties of thermosetting plastics. What are the application of
phenolic and melamine ? (BT-4)
UNIT 5 MECHANICAL PROPERTIES AND DEFORMATION
MECHANISMS
PART-A
1. Name the slip plane and slip direction for FCC crystal.
2. Define Creep.
3. Define slip
4. Name the different types of fracture
5. What properties are analyze from tensile testing of metallic products?
6. Distinguish between resilience and toughness.
7. Illustrate typical engineering stress strain curves for the following materials
(a) Aluminum (b) Mild steel (c) Cast iron (d) Polymer
8. What do you understand double shear test?
9. Define the hardness of material
10. Point out the advantage and limitation of Rockwell hardness test over the Brinell and
Vickers hardness test.
11. Differentiate between Charpy and Izod test. Judge, why test results not useful in design?

12. Explain fatigue test S-N curve.


13. Define endurance limit in fatigue test.
14. Describe fatigue strength in fatigue test.
15. Differentiate between elasticity and plasticity
16. Explain the following terms brittleness and hardness
17. Differentiate between ductility and malleability
18. How can you prevent the brittle fracture
19. Illustrate a creep curve explaining different stages of it.
20. What is meant by creep fracture?

PART-B
1. Describe with neat sketch fatigue test.
2. Describe with neat sketch creep test.
3. Explain the mechanism of plastic deformation by slip and twinning with neat sketch.
4. Describe how the torsion test is conducted and what are the properties deter from this test?
5. Explain the testing procedure for Vickers hardness test and mention the advantages and
limitations.
6. Describe the procedure of Charpy impact testing and the properties obtained from it.
7. Explain the method of testing the materials for fatigue and how is the fatigue data
presented.
8. Draw a typical creep curve and explain the various stages of creep.
9. What is meant by ductile fracture? Explain the mechanism of it.
10. Compare and contrast the Brinell, Vickers and Rockwell hardness tests.
11. Draw the typical S.N curve and brief on th influence of any two design parameter and
metallurgical properties
12.(i) Compare charpy and izod impact test
(ii) List application of impact test
(ii) Draw a typical creep curve and brief on the mechanism
13. Write the help of neat sketches explain the difference between brittle and ductile fracture ?
With the help of neat sketches explain the difference between slip and twining ? (BT3)
14. A steel specimen is tested to evaluate several mechanical properties . the dimension of the
specimen and observation during the test are given below:
Diameter of the specimen =15mm
Gauge length = 65mm
load at yield point =44KN
Maximum Load =78KN
Facture load =53KN
Gauge length at fracture =83mm
Diameter of fracture section =10mm
4
Strain at a load 20KN =8.764X10- mm/mm
Determine : 1.The yield strength
2. Ultimate Strength
3. % of Elongation
4. Modulus of Elasticity
5.% Reduction in Area
6.Fracture Stress
7.Modulus of Toughness

PART C
1 (i).Draw the S.N curve for mild steel and aluminum and explain in feature. Explain the
procedure used to obtain S.N diagram ?
(ii) Explain briefly about charpy impact test?
2. (i) State the difference between properties like hardness, yield strength, ultimate strength,
fracture strength, creep strength ,fatigue strength, impact toughness
(ii) Discuss the role of slip and twinning in plastic deformation of materials
3. The following data were obtained in a tensile test on a specimen of 16mm diameter with a
55mm gauge length :

Load (kN) 80 130 160 170 180 210 230 235 240 230
Elongation(mm) 0.25 .40 .50 .60 .75 1.75 3.00 5.00 6.50 8.00
Dept. Of Mechanical Engineering _VEC_4128
The specimen diameter after fracture was 12.75mm
Determine :
1.Tensile strength
2.Young's modulus
3.0.2% Proof stress
4.%Elongation
5.% Reduction in area
4. A steel specimen is tested to evaluate several mechanical properties .The dimension of the
specimen and observation during the test are given below:
Diameter of the specimen =20mm
Gauge length = 75mm
Load at yield point = 44KN
Maximum Load =80KN
Facture load =56KN
Gauge length at fracture =82mm
Diameter of fracture section =09mm
4
Strain at a load 20KN =7.764X10- mm/mm
Determine : 1.The yield strength
2. Ultimate Strength
3. % of Elongation
4. Modulus of Elasticity
5.% Reduction in Area