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Chapter 7

Exergy Analysis of Heat Pump Systems

Chapter Outline
7.1 Introduction 101 7.2 System Description 103
7.1.1 Coefficient of Performance 102 7.3 General Analysis 103
7.1.2 Primary Energy Ratio 102 7.4 System Exergy Analysis 105
7.1.3 Energy Efficiency Ratio 102 7.5 Results and Discussion 106
7.1.4 Heating Season Performance Factor 102 7.6 Concluding Remarks 112
7.1.5 Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio 103 Problems 113

Today, heat pumps are widely used not only for air
In this chapter, the application of energy and exergy analyses to
conditioning and heating, but also for cooling, producing
heat pumps is described. A heat pump moves heat from a region of hot water, and preheating feed water in various types of
low temperature to a region of higher temperature. A heat pump facilities including office buildings, computer centers,
system can help increase efficiency and mitigate carbon dioxide public buildings, restaurants, hotels, district heating and
and other emissions. Common types of heat pumps include air- cooling systems, and industrial plants.
source, water-source, and ground-source (or geothermal) heat Efficient energy use, including waste heat recovery, and
pumps. Heat pumps can provide air conditioning, as well as the application of renewable energy can mitigate carbon
heating, in facilities such as residences, office buildings, computer dioxide emissions and global warming. A heat pump
centers, public buildings, restaurants, hotels, district heating and system can contribute to this objective, normally delivering
cooling systems, and industrial plants. Various criteria are more thermal energy than the electrical energy required to
commonly used to describe the efficiency of a heat pump,
operate it.
including coefficient of performance.
A significant portion of global energy consumption is
KEYWORDS attributable to domestic heating and cooling. Heat pumps
Exergy; Heat pump; Heating; Cooling; Air-source heat pump; are advantageous and widely used in many applications due
Water-source heat pump; Ground-source heat pump; Geothermal to their high utilization efficiencies compared to conven-
heat pump; Coefficient of performance. tional heating and cooling systems. There are two common
types of heat pumps: (1) air-source heat pumps and (2)
ground-source (or geothermal) heat pumps. Water-source
7.1 INTRODUCTION heat pumps also exist.
The principle governing the operation of the heat pump was A heat pump is essentially a heat engine operating in
recognized before the start of the 1900s and is the basis of reverse and can be defined as a device that moves heat from
all refrigeration. The idea of using a heat engine in a reverse a region of low temperature to a region of higher temper-
mode, as a heat pump, was proposed by Lord Kelvin in the ature. The residential air-to-air heat pump, the most
nineteenth century, but it was only in the twentieth century common type, extracts heat from low-temperature outside
that practical machines began to be used, mainly for air and delivers this heat indoors. To accomplish this and
refrigeration. Beginning in the 1970s, air-source heat avoid violating the Second Law of Thermodynamics, work
pumps came into common use. They have the advantage of is done on the heat-pump working fluid (e.g., a refrigerant).
being combustion-free, and thus do not generate indoor Four different energy-based criteria are commonly used
pollutants like carbon monoxide. Heat pumps are also to describe the efficiency of a heat pump (Dincer, 2003).
installation-cost competitive with central combustion For each of these criteria, the higher the value is, the higher
furnace/central air conditioner combinations. Hence, heat the efficiency of the system. Heat-pump efficiency is
pumps now routinely provide central air conditioning as determined by comparing the amount of energy delivered
well as heating. by the heat pump to the amount of energy it consumes.

2013 Ibrahim Dincer and Marc A. Rosen. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved 101
102 Exergy

Note that efficiency measures are usually based on labo- electricity is derived from an alternative source (e.g., hydro,
ratory tests and do not necessarily measure how a heat wind, solar), heat pumps also utilize primary energy sour-
pump performs in actual use. ces upstream or on-site, as in the case of a natural gas
motor. When comparing heat pump systems driven by
7.1.1 Coefficient of Performance different energy sources it is appropriate to use the primary
energy ratio (PER), as defined by Holland et al. (1982), as
The coefficient of performance (COP) is the most common
the ratio of useful heat delivered to primary energy input.
measure of heat pump efficiency. The COP is the ratio of
The PER is related to the COP as follows:
the heat output of a heat pump to its electrical energy input,
expressible as follows: PER h COP
COP Heat output=Electrical energy input where h is the efficiency with which the primary energy
input is converted to work in the shaft of the compressor.
Air-source heat pumps generally have COPs ranging from 2
Due to the high COP of heat pumps, their PER values can
to 4, implying that they deliver two to four times more
be high relative to those for conventional fossil fuel-fired
energy than they consume. Water-source and ground-source
systems. In the case of an electrically driven compressor
heat pumps normally have COPs of 3e5. The COP of an air-
where the electricity is generated in a coal power plant, the
source heat pump decreases as the outside temperature
efficiency h may be as low as 25%. The PER expression
drops. Therefore, two COP ratings are usually given for
indicates that gas engine-driven heat pumps are very
a system: one at 8.3 C (47 F) and one at 9.4 C (17 F).
attractive from a primary energy ratio point of view since
When comparing COPs, one must be sure the ratings are
values for h (up to 75%) can be obtained. However, heat-
based on the same outside air temperature to avoid incon-
recovery systems tend to be judged on their potential
sistencies. COPs for ground-source and water-source heat
financial savings rather than their potential energy savings.
pumps do not vary as widely because ground and water
temperatures are more constant than air temperatures.
While comparing COPs can be informative, it does not 7.1.3 Energy Efficiency Ratio
provide a complete picture. When the outside temperature
drops below 4.4 C (40 F), the outdoor coils of a heat pump The energy efficiency ratio (EER) is used for evaluating the
must be defrosted periodically. The outdoor coil temperature efficiency of a heat pump in the cooling cycle. EER is
can be below freezing when a heat pump is in the heating defined the ratio of cooling capacity provided to electricity
cycle. Under these conditions, moisture in the air freezes on consumed as follows:
the surface of the cold coil. Eventually, frost can build up EER Cooling capacity=Electrical energy input
sufficiently to keep air from passing over the coil, causing it to
lose efficiency. When the coil efficiency is reduced enough to The same rating system is used for air conditioners,
appreciably affect system capacity, the frost must be elimi- allowing for straightforward comparisons of different units.
nated. To defrost the coils, the heat pump reverses its cycle In practice, EER ratings higher than 10, expressed in units
and moves heat from the house to the outdoor coil to melt the of BTU/h/W of total electrical input rate, are desirable.
ice. This process reduces the average COP significantly.
Some heat pump units have an energy-saving feature 7.1.4 Heating Season Performance Factor
that allows the unit to defrost only when necessary. Other
units enter a defrost cycle at set intervals whenever the unit A heat pumps performance varies depending on the
is in the heating mode. weather and how much supplemental heat is required.
Another factor that lowers the overall efficiency of air- Therefore, a more realistic performance measure, espe-
to-air heat pumps is their inability to provide sufficient heat cially for air-to-air heat pumps, is evaluated on a seasonal
during the coldest days of winter. This weakness causes basis. One such measure is referred to as the heating season
a back-up heating system to be required. The back-up performance factor (HSPF) for the heating cycle. An
system is often provided by electric resistance heating, industry standard test for overall heating efficiency
which has a COP of only 1. When the temperature drops to provides an HSPF rating. Such laboratory testing attempts
the 3.8 C to 1.1 C range, or a different system-specific to take into account the reductions in efficiency caused by
balance point, this electric resistance heating engages and defrosting, temperature fluctuations, supplemental heat,
overall system efficiency decreases. fans, and on/off cycling. The HSPF is estimated as the
seasonal heating output divided by the seasonal power
7.1.2 Primary Energy Ratio consumption, as follows:
Heat pumps may be driven electrically or by engines (e.g., HSPF Total seasonal heating output=Total electricity
internal combustion engines or gas motors). Unless energy input
Chapter | 7 Exergy Analysis of Heat Pump Systems 103

The HSPF can be thought of as the average COP for the heat distribution circuit consists of a storage tank and
entire heating system. To estimate the average COP, one a circulating pump.
divides the HSPF by 3.4. Hence, an HSPF of 6.8 corre- Device I in Figure 7.1 is a fully hermetically sealed
sponds roughly with an average COP of 2. HSPFs of 5e7 reciprocating piston compressor. The condenser (II) is of
are considered good. The higher the HSPF, the more effi- a coaxial pipe cluster heat exchanger construction that
cient the heat pump is on a seasonal basis. works on the counter-flow principle. The refrigerant
Most utility-sponsored heat pump incentive programs expands in an expansion valve (III). The evaporator (IV) is
require that heat pumps have an HSPF of at least 6.8. of a finned tube construction and has a large surface area.
Many heat pumps meet this requirement, and some have The refrigerant flows through the evaporator and draws heat
HSPF ratings above 9. More efficient heat pumps are from the ambient air over the large surface area. Heat
generally more expensive, so financial assessments must transfer is enhanced by two fans that draw air through
also account for the annual energy savings, along with the the fins.
added cost. During the operation period assessed, the control valve
is adjusted so that the flow rate in the hot water circuit is
approximately 0.020 m3/h. After the pressures on the
7.1.5 Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio suction and delivery sides of the working medium circuit
As noted above, a heat pumps performance varies have stabilized, data are recorded, including compressor
depending on the weather and the amount of supplemental power, hot water flow rate, and pressures and temperatures
heat required, so a more realistic efficiency measure can be at various points of the unit.
obtained on a seasonal basis. The seasonal energy effi-
ciency ratio (SEER) for the cooling cycle is such a measure.
The SEER is the ratio of the total cooling of the heat pump 7.3 GENERAL ANALYSIS
to the total electrical energy input during the same period, Mass, energy, and exergy balances are employed to deter-
for example: mine the heat input, the rate of exergy destruction, and
SEER Total seasonal cooling output=Total electrical energy and exergy efficiencies. Steady-state, steady-flow
processes are assumed. A general mass balance can be
energy input
expressed in rate form as follows:
The SEER rates the seasonal cooling performance of the X X
heat pump. The SEER for a unit varies depending on where m_ in m_ out (7.1)
it is located. SEER values of 8e10 are considered good.
The higher the SEER the more efficiently the heat pump where m_ is the mass flow rate, and the subscript in stands
cools. The SEER compares the heat removed from a house for inlet and out for outlet. Energy and exergy balances can
or structure being cooled and the energy used by the heat be written as follows:
pump, including fans. The SEER is usually noticeably
higher than the HSPF since defrosting is not needed and E_ in E_ out (7.2)
there usually is no need for expensive supplemental heat _ in  Ex
Ex _ out Ex
_ dest (7.3)
during conditions when air conditioning is used.
Exergy-based measures of efficiency exist based on the The specific flow exergy of the refrigerant or water is
above measures or on other definitions. As with other evaluated as follows:
technologies, these exergy-based measures offer advan-
tages over energy-based measures. exr;w h  h0  T0 s  s0 (7.4)
In this chapter, energy and exergy analyses of an air- where h is enthalpy, s is entropy, and the subscript zero
source heat pump system are presented. Exergy losses for indicates properties at the reference (dead) state (i.e., at P0
each component of the system are identified, while the and T0). The overall specific flow exergy of air is deter-
potential for efficiency improvements is described. mined as follows (Wepfer et al., 1979):
exair Cp;a uCp;v T0 T=T0  1  lnT=T0
A schematic of the air/water heat pump system considered 1 1:6078uRa T0 lnP=P0
is shown in Figure 7.1. The system consists of two separate
Ra T0 f1 1:6078u
circuits: (1) a heat pump circuit (refrigerant circuit) and (2)
a heat distribution circuit (water circuit). The refrigerant ln1 1:6078u0 =1 1:6078u
circuit consists of a compressor, a condenser, an expansion
valve, and an evaporator. The refrigerant is R-134a. The 1:6078ulnu=u0 g (7.5)
104 Exergy

FIGURE 7.1 Schematic of an air/water heat pump system.

where the specific humidity ratio is: The exergy efficiency is generally expressed as the ratio of
total exergy output to total exergy input and is written by
u m_ v =m_ a (7.6)
the following:
The exergy rate is determined as follows:
  _ output
_ m_ ex
Ex (7.7) j (7.12)
_ input
The exergy destructions in the heat exchanger (condenser
or evaporator) and circulating pump, respectively, are where output refers to net output or product or
evaluated as follows: desired value, and input refers to driving input or
_ dest; HE Ex
_ in  Ex_ out fuel.
Ex (7.8)
Here, the exergy efficiencies for the heat pump only and
_ dest;pump W_ pump  Ex
Ex _ out  Ex
_ in (7.9) for the overall system can then be written as follows:
where W_ pump is the work rate of the pump. _ Qc
jHP (7.13a)
The energy-based efficiency measure of the heat pump W_ comp
unit (COPHP) and the overall heat pump system (COPsys)
can be defined as follows: and
Q_ cond _ Qc
COPHP (7.10) jsys (7.13b)
W_ comp W_ comp W_ pump W_ fans
In addition, the exergy efficiency of the heat exchanger
Q_ cond (condenser or evaporator) is determined as the increase in
COPsys (7.11)
W_ comp W_ pump W_ fans the exergy of the cold stream divided by the decrease
Chapter | 7 Exergy Analysis of Heat Pump Systems 105

in the exergy of the hot stream, on a rate basis, as  

W_ comp m_ r h2;act  h1 (7.17b)
_ cold;out  Ex
Ex _ cold;in  
jHE _ dest;comp m_ r ex1  ex2;act W_ comp
Ex (7.17c)
Ex_ hot;in  Ex_ hot;out
  where heat interactions with the environment are neglected.
m_ cold jcold;out  jcold;in
  (7.14) Condenser (II):
m_ hot jhot;in  jhot;out
m_ 2 m_ 3 m_ r ; m_ 7 m_ 8 m_ w (7.18a)
Van Gools (1997) improvement potential on a rate basis,
_ is expressible as follows:
denoted IP,
IP 1  j Ex _ in Ex
_ out (7.15) Q_ cond m_ r h2;act  h3 ; Q_ cond m_ w Cp;w T8  T7
The relative irreversibility, RI, is evaluated as follows
(Szargut et al., 2005a):    
_ dest;cond m_ r ex2;act  ex3 m_ w ex7  ex8
_ dest;i
Ex I_i
RI (7.16) (7.18c)
_ dest;tot
Ex I_Tot
Expansion (throttling) valve (III):
where the subscript i denotes the ith device.
m_ 3 m_ 4 m_ r (7.19a)
7.4 SYSTEM EXERGY ANALYSIS h3 h4 (7.19b)
The following assumptions are made during the energy and  
_ dest;exp m_ r ex3  ex4
Ex (7.19c)
exergy analyses:
Evaporator (IV):
1. All processes are steady state and steady flow with
negligible potential and kinetic energy effects and no m_ 4 m_ 1 m_ r (7.20a)
chemical or nuclear reactions. Q_ evap m_ r h1  h4 ;
2. Heat transfer to the system and work transfer from the  
system are positive. Q_ evap m_ air Cp;air T5  T6 (7.20b)
3. Air behaves as an ideal gas with a constant specific heat.    
4. Heat transfer and refrigerant pressure drops in the _ dest;evap
Ex W_ fan m_ r ex4  ex1 m_ air ex5  ex6
tubing connecting the components are negligible since (7.20c)
their lengths are short. Fan (V):
5. The compressor mechanical (hcomp,mech) and the
compressor motor electrical (hcomp,elec) efficiencies are m_ 5 m_ 50 m_ air (7.21a)
68% and 69%, respectively. These values are based on  V2
actual data in which the power input to the compressor W_ fan m_ air h5  h50 exit (7.21b)
is 0.149 kW.  
6. The circulating pump mechanical (hpump,mech) and the _ dest;fan
Ex W_ fan;elec m_ air ex50  ex5 (7.21c)
circulating pump motor electrical (hpump,elec) efficien-
Storage tank (VI):
cies are 82% and 88%, respectively. These values are
based on an electric power of 0.050 kW obtained from m_ 8 m_ 9 m_ w ; m_ 11 m_ 12 m_ tw (7.22a)
the pump characteristic curve (Grundfos, 2006).
7. The fan mechanical (hfan,mech) and the fan motor elec- Q_ st m_ w Cp;w T8  T9 ; Q_ tan k m_ tw Cp;tw T12 T11
trical (hfan,elec) efficiencies are 40% and 80%, respec- (7.22b)
tively. These values are based on fan characteristic data
(Ebmpapst, 2006) and the proposed efficiency values    
_ dest;st m_ w ex8  ex9 m_ tw ex11  ex12 (7.22c)
for a small propeller fan (Nagano et al., 2003).
Circulating pump (VII):
Mass and energy balances as well as exergy destructions
obtained from exergy balances for each of the heat pump m_ 9 m_ 10s m_ 10;act m_ w (7.23a)
components illustrated in Figure 7.1 can be expressed as W_ pump m_ w h10;act  h9 (7.23b)
Compressor (I): _ dest;pump m_ r ex9  ex10;act W_ pump
Ex (7.23c)
m_ 1 m_ 2;s m_ act;s m_ r (7.17a) where interactions with the environment are neglected.
106 Exergy

Since the volume flow rate on the refrigerant side is not help visualize actual system performance with variations in
measured, COPact is evaluated using Equations 7.18b as operating parameters. Energetic and exergetic COPs of the
follows: heat pump are defined as follows:
m_ w Cp;w T8  T7 V_ w rw Cp;w T8  T7 Q_ con
COPact COPHP;en (7.34)
W_ comp;act W_ comp;act W_ comp
(7.24) _ 2  Ex
Ex _ 3
COPHP;ex (7.35)
W comp
The exergy efficiencies of the heat pump system and its
components are evaluated, based on Equations 7.12 and where COPHP;en denotes the energetic COP of the heat
7.13, as follows: pump, Q_ con , the condenser load, W_ comp , the work input rate
Heat pump unit (IeIV): to the compressor, and COPHP;ex , the exergetic COP of the
heat pump, while Ex _ 3 denote the exergy rates at
_ 2 and Ex
_ heat
Ex _ in;cond  Ex
Ex _ out;cond
jHP (7.25) states 2 and 3, respectively.
W comp;elec _
W comp;elec Energetic and exergetic COPs of the overall system,
which includes utilization of the evaporator load, are
Overall heat pump system (IeVII):
defined as follows:
_ in;cond  Ex
_ out;cond
(7.26) Q_ con
W_ comp;elec W_ pump;elec W_ fans;elec COPsys;en (7.36)
W_ comp W_ pump W_ fan
Compressor (I): _ 2  Ex
Ex _ 3
COPsys;ex (7.37)
_ 2;act  Ex
Ex _ 1 W_ comp W_ pump W_ fan
jcomp (7.27)
W_ comp where COPsys;ex denotes the energetic COP of the overall
Condenser (II): system, W_ pump the power requirement of the pump, W_ fan
the power requirement of the fan, and COPsys;ex the exer-
_ 8  Ex
Ex _ 7 m_ w ex8  ex7 getic COP of the overall system.
jcond   (7.28)
_ 2;act  Ex
Ex _ 3 m_ r ex2;act  ex3
Expansion (throttling) valve (III):
Temperature, pressure, and mass flow rate data for the
_ 4
Ex ex4 working fluid (R-134a), water, and air are given in Table 7.1
jexp (7.29)
Ex3 ex3 following the state numbers specified in Figure 7.1. Exergy
Evaporator (IV): rates evaluated for each state are presented in Table 7.1.
The reference state is taken to be the state of environment
_ 4  Ex
Ex _ 1 m_ r ex4  ex1 on February 4, 2006, when the temperature and the atmo-
jevap (7.30)
_ 5  Ex
Ex _ 6 m_ air ex5  ex6 spheric pressure were 2.2 C and 98.80 kPa, respectively
(The Weather Network, 2006). The thermodynamic prop-
Fan (V):
erties of water, air, and R-134a are found using the Engi-
_ 5  Ex
Ex _ 50 m_ air ex5  ex50 neering Equation Solver software package.
jfan (7.31) Table 7.2 presents exergy, energy, and RI values for
W fan W_ fan
a representative unit of the heat pump system. The
Storage tank (VI): exergy efficiencies on a product/fuel basis for the heat
_ 12  Ex
_ 11 pump unit and the overall system, respectively, are 72.1%
Ex m_ tw ex12  ex11
jst (7.32) and 59.8%, while the corresponding COP values are 3.4
_ _
Ex8  Ex9 m_ w ex8  ex9 and 1.68.
Circulating pump (VII): It is clear from Table 7.2 that the greatest irreversibility
  occurs in devices I (condenser) and VII (circulating pump)
Ex _ 9
_ 10;act  Ex m_ w ex10;act  ex9 for the heat pump unit and the overall system, respectively.
jpump (7.33)
W_ pump W_ pump The first irreversibility is partly due to the large degree of
superheat achieved at the end of the compression process,
In addition to the energy and exergy efficiencies, energetic leading to large temperature differences associated with the
and exergetic COPs can be developed for the heat pump initial phase of heat transfer. For the heat pump unit,
and the overall system. These energetic and exergetic COPs the compressor has the second highest irreversibility. The
Chapter | 7
TABLE 7.1 Process Data for Flows in the Heat Pump System

Specific Specific Specific Mass flow Specific Exergy rate,

Temperature, Pressure, humidity ratio, enthalpy, entropy, rate, m_ exergy, _ mex
Ex _
State No. Description Fluid Phase T ( C) P (kPa) u (kgwater/kgair) h (kJ/kg) s (kJ/kg K) (kg/s) ex (kJ/kg) (kW)

Exergy Analysis of Heat Pump Systems

0 d Refrigerant Dead state 2.2 98.80 d 257.4 1.041 d 0 0
0 d Water Dead state 2.2 98.80 d 9.3 0.034 d 0 0
0 d Moist air Dead state 2.2 98.80 0.002 d d d 0 0
1 Evaporator Refrigerant Superheated 2.5 307 d 252.3 0.935 0.002 24.09 0.048
outlet/ vapor

2,s Condenser Refrigerant Superheated 45.3 1011 d 256.2 0.935 0.002 27.98 0.056
inlet/ vapor
2,act Condenser Refrigerant Superheated 54.6 1011 d 287.4 0.966 0.002 50.65 0.101
inlet/ vapor
3 Condenser Refrigerant Compressed 22.8 1011 d 83.4 0.313 0.002 26.45 0.053
outlet/ liquid
valve inlet
4 Evaporator Refrigerant Mixture 1.3 307 d 83.4 0.319 0.002 24.80 0.050

5 Fan air inlet to Air Gas 16 d 0.004 26.20 0.136 0.33 0.045
50 Air inlet to fan Air Gas 15.9 d 0.004 26.09 0.136 0.23 0.032

6 Fan air outlet Air Gas 14 d 0.004 24.17 0.136 0.27 0.037
7 Water inlet to Water Compressed 16.9 230 d 71.1 0.252 0.011 1.77 0.020
condenser liquid
8 Water outlet Water Compressed 24.6 220 d 103.3 0.361 0.011 3.96 0.044
from liquid

(Continued )
TABLE 7.1 Process Data for Flows in the Heat Pump Systemdcontd
Specific Specific Specific Mass flow Specific Exergy rate,
Temperature, Pressure, humidity ratio, enthalpy, entropy, rate, m_ exergy, _ mex
Ex _
State No. Description Fluid Phase T ( C) P (kPa) u (kgwater/kgair) h (kJ/kg) s (kJ/kg K) (kg/s) ex (kJ/kg) (kW)
9 Water outlet Water Compressed 16.0 200 d 67.3 0.239 0.011 1.55 0.017
from storage liquid
pump inlet
10,s Water outlet Water Compressed 16.05 240 d 69.9 0.239 0.011 4.15 0.046
from tank/ liquid
pump outlet
10,act Water outlet Water Compressed 16.9 240 d 71.0 0.251 0.011 1.96 0.022
from tank/ liquid
pump outlet
11 Tap water Water Compressed 9.1 500 d 38.7 0.138 0.024 0.76 0.018
inlet to tank liquid
12 Tap water Water Compressed 13.1 500 d 54.9 0.196 0.024 1.00 0.024
outlet from liquid

Chapter | 7
Exergy Analysis of Heat Pump Systems
TABLE 7.2 Data for Devices of a Representative Unit in the Heat Pump System

Exergy efficiency, j
RI (%) (%) COP
destruction Using COPHP, using
_ dest
rate, Ex Utilized On HP On overall Equations 7.25 Equations 7.10
Device (kW) power (kW) P_ (kW) F_ (kW) IP_ (kW) unit basis system basis _ F_
P= and 7.26 and 7.11
I Compressor 0.017 0.070 0.053 0.070 0.0041 31.48 15.89 75.71
II Condenser 0.024 0.408 0.024 0.048 0.0120 44.44 22.43 50.00
III Expansion valve 0.003 d 0.050 0.053 0.0002 5.55 2.80 94.34
IV Evaporator 0.010 0.338 0.002 0.008 0.0075 18.53 9.35 25.00
V Fan 0.001 0.014 0.013 0.014 0.00007 d 0.93 92.85

VI Storage tank 0.021 0.389 0.006 0.027 0.0163 d 19.63 22.22

VII Circulating pump 0.031 0.036 0.005 0.036 0.0267 d 28.97 13.89
IeIV HP unit 0.054 d 0.129 0.179 0.0151 100.00 72.07 16.11 5.83
IeVII Overall system 0.107 d 0.153 0.256 0.0430 100.00 59.77 9.89 2.74

* I P_ denotes improvement potential rate and RI denotes relative irreversibility.

110 Exergy

mechanicaleelectrical losses are due to imperfect elec- heat pump system presented in this chapter identifies
trical, mechanical, and isentropic efficiencies and empha- improvement potential.
size the need for careful selection of this equipment, since Parametric studies are conducted to assess the effect of
inferior components can considerably reduce overall variations in ambient temperature, refrigerant mass flow
system performance. The third largest irreversibility is rate, and T1 and T2 on the performance of the system. For
associated with the evaporator, and the fourth largest with the parametric studies, the original system is scaled up by
the capillary tube due to the pressure drop of the refrigerant a factor of 10 in order to differentiate the system perfor-
passing through it. mance with more ease. The main benefit of such parametric
The component irreversibility results of the heat pump analyses is that they help designers visualize how a system
unit indicate that the greatest potential for improvement is will perform under different operating conditions.
probably in the condenser, followed by the compressor, the Figure 7.2 illustrates the variation in compressor work,
evaporator, and the expansion device. Irreversibilities in the cooling load, and condenser load with increasing refrig-
evaporator and the condenser occur due to the temperature erant mass flow rate. It is observed that an increase in m_ r
differences between the two heat exchanger fluids, pressure results in higher compressor work, condenser load, and
losses, flow imbalances, and heat transfer with the envi- cooling load. Compressor work input, condenser load, and
ronment. Since compressor power depends strongly on the cooling load vary from 0.36 to 14.67 kW, 2.1 to 82.3 kW,
inlet and outlet pressures, any heat exchanger improve- and 1.7 to 67.6 kW, respectively, when m_ r increases from
ments that reduce the temperature difference will reduce 0.01 to 0.4 kg/s. An increase in m_ r through the compressor
compressor power by bringing the condensing and implies that additional refrigerant needs to be compressed,
evaporating temperatures closer together. From a design resulting in a higher energy requirement to drive the
standpoint, compressor irreversibility can be reduced compressor. However, as the quantity of compressed
independently. Recent developments in the heat pump refrigerant entering the condenser and evaporator increases,
market have led to the use of scroll compressors. Replacing the ability of the condenser and the evaporator to reject heat
the reciprocating compressor by a scroll unit can increase and to absorb heat, respectively, increases.
cooling effectiveness. To eliminate the throttling loss, it is The variations in the exergetic COP of the heat pump
necessary to replace the capillary tube (the expansion and the overall system as ambient temperature rises are also
device) with a turbine (expander), which ideally is isen- investigated. Figure 7.3 illustrates that both exergetic COPs
tropic, and to recover some shaft work from the pressure decrease with increasing ambient temperature. The exer-
drop process. getic COPs of the heat pump and overall system decrease
Generally, when evaluating the efficiency of heat pump from 0.71 to 0.17, and from 0.25 to 0.06, respectively, as
systems, the most commonly used measure is the energy (or ambient temperature increases from 273 to 303 K. This rise
first law) efficiency, which is modified to a COP. However, in ambient temperature results in higher exergetic losses for
for indicating the possibilities for thermodynamic both the heat pump and the overall system. These higher
improvement, energy analysis is inadequate and exergy exergetic losses are driven by greater temperature differ-
analysis is needed. The exergy analysis of the air-source ences between the systems and the surroundings. As

FIGURE 7.2 Effect of varying refrigerant mass flow 18 90

rate on compressor work, condenser load, and cooling
load. 16 80

14 70
12 Qeva 60
Wcomp (kW)

10 50
Q (kW)

8 40

6 30

4 20

2 10

0 0
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4
mr (kg/s)
Chapter | 7 Exergy Analysis of Heat Pump Systems 111

0.8 0.32 FIGURE 7.3 Effect of varying ambient temperature

on exergetic COPs of heat pump and overall system.
0.7 0.28

0.6 0.24



0.4 0.16

0.3 0.12

0.2 0.08

0.1 0.04
270 275 280 285 290 295 300 305
T0 (K)

exergetic losses increase, the exergetic COP of the heat The effect of increasing T2 on the condenser and
pump and the overall system decreases, reflecting a degra- evaporator loads can be seen in Figure 7.5. The
dation in system performance. condenser and evaporator load are observed to decrease
Increasing the value of T1 raises the compressor work, from 4.3 to 3.7 kW and 3.5 to 2.9 kW, respectively, as T2
the condenser load, and the cooling load, as seen in increases from 290 to 310 K. This behavior is observed
Figure 7.4. As T1 increases from 276 to 320 K, the because an increase in T2 results in a higher energy
compressor work increases from 0.73 to 0.89 kW, content of the stream exiting the condenser and entering
the condenser load increases from 4.1 to 5.1 kW, and the the evaporator. As the temperature of the stream leaving
cooling load increases from 3.4 to 4.2 kW. The increase in the condenser increases for a fixed input temperature to
compressor work is attributable to an increase in T1, which the condenser, the heat rejection capacity of the
results in a higher energy stream entering the compressor. condenser decreases. This increase in the temperature of
As the energy of the inlet stream increases, the work the stream leaving the condenser results in a higher
required to compress this stream also increases. In addition, temperature of stream entering the evaporator. As the
an increase in T1 raises the amount of energy that is rejected temperature of the stream entering the evaporator
through the condenser, leading to a higher condenser load. increases, the heat absorption capacity of the evaporator
A rise in the heat rejection by the condenser results in decreases for a fixed exit temperature of the evaporator.
greater heat absorption by the evaporator and, therefore, This behavior is observed because, with a rise in
a greater evaporator load. temperature of the stream entering the evaporator, the

0.92 5.5 FIGURE 7.4 Effect of varying temperature at state 1

on compressor work, condenser load, and cooling
0.88 Qeva 5

Wcomp (kW)

Q (kW)

0.8 4

0.76 3.5

0.72 3
275 280 285 290 295 300 305 310 315 320
T1 (K)
112 Exergy

FIGURE 7.5 Effect of varying temperature at state 3 3.6 4.4

on evaporator load and condenser load.
3.5 4.3

3.4 4.2

Qeva (kW)

Qcon (kW)
3.3 4.1

3.2 4

3.1 3.9

3 3.8

2.9 3.7
290 294 298 302 306 310
T3 (K)

FIGURE 7.6 Effect of varying temperature at state 3 5.9 2.01

on exergetic COPs of heat pump and overall system.
5.8 2

5.7 1.99

5.6 1.98


5.5 1.97

5.4 1.96

5.3 1.95

5.2 1.94

5.1 1.93

5 1.92
290 294 298 302 306 310
T3 (K)

temperature difference between the inlet and exit of the in the overall heat pump system and its components are
evaporator decreases. quantified.
Figure 7.6 illustrates the variation with T2 of the ener- Several concluding remarks can be drawn from the
getic COP of the heat pump and the overall system. As T2 results:
increases from 290 to 310 K, the energetic COP decreases
l The values for COPHP and COPsys are found to be 3.40
for the heat pump from 5.8 to 5.0, and for the overall system
and 1.68, respectively, at a dead state temperature of
from 1.98 to 1.92. This trend occurs because an increase T2
results in lower condenser and evaporator loads. As these
l The exergy efficiency values for the heat pump unit and
loads decrease for a given input, the COP values also
the overall heat pump system on a product/fuel basis are
72.1% and 59.8%, respectively. The exergy efficiencies
elucidate potentials for improvement.
l The largest irreversibility in the heat pump unit is
associated with the condenser, followed by the
Comprehensive energy and exergy analyses are used for compressor, the evaporator, and the expansion valve.
evaluating heat pump systems and their components. l The results focus attention on components where
Actual data are utilized in the analysis. Exergy destructions the greatest potential is destroyed and quantify the
Chapter | 7 Exergy Analysis of Heat Pump Systems 113

extent to which modifications affect, favorably or 7.5 Rework the illustrative example provided in this
unfavorably, the performance of the system and its chapter using the given input data and try to duplicate
components. the results. If your results differ from those given in the
l The power required by the compressor, the condenser example, discuss why. Propose methods for improving
load, and the evaporator load all increase as the mass the performance of the system based on reducing or
flow rate of refrigerant increases, and as the temperature minimizing exergy destruction.
T1 increases. 7.6 Conduct a detailed exergy analysis of a real air-
l The exergetic COPs decrease as the ambient tempera- conditioning system using actual operating data.
ture increases. Present the results using tables and figures and discuss
l An increase in the temperature T3 results in a reduction them. The system can be (a) an air-conditioning or
in the energetic COPs, and the condenser and evaporator heat pump unit, (b) a chiller unit that produces cool
loads. water in summer and warm water in winter, (c) an
absorption refrigeration system, or (d) a ground-source
heat pump system.
PROBLEMS 7.7 Obtain a published article on exergy analysis of heat
7.1 Compare air-source, water-source, and ground-source pump systems. Using the operating data provided in the
heat pump systems from an exergetic point of view. article, perform a detailed exergy analysis of the system
7.2 Describe the difference between a ground-source heat and compare your results to those in the original article.
pump and a geothermal heat pump. 7.8 Consider the system shown in Figure 7.1. Conduct
7.3 Determine the exergy efficiency of the following heat detailed exergy analysis and create a bar chart showing
pump systems used to keep a house at 22 C and exergy destruction rate in each component of the
discuss the results: (a) an air-source heat pump with system. Consider ambient conditions to be at 300 K
a COP of 1.8 that absorbs heat from outdoor air at 2 C, and 101 kPa. Vary ambient temperature from 290 to
(b) a ground-source heat pump with a COP of 2.6 that 320 K and see its effect on the exergy destruction rate
absorbs heat from the ground at 12 C, and (c) of the overall system.
a geothermal heat pump with a COP of 3.8 that absorbs 7.9 Perform parametric study of the air/water heat pump
heat from underground geothermal water at 60 C. system shown in Figure 7.1. Define energetic and
7.4 In a heat pump system, exergy destructions occur in exergetic COPs of the system. Study the variation in
various components such as the compressor, the energetic and exergetic COPs by varying following
condenser, the evaporator, and the expansion valve. operating conditions: (1) T3 from 300 to 310 K and (2)
What are the causes of exergy destructions in each of ambient temperature from 290 to 310 K. Consider the
these components? ambient pressure to be 101 kPa.