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thermo

- hw 1
- Mollier Chart Water
- Thermal Physics
- Egineering Constants
- HRSGs for Combined Cycle Power Plants
- Calculation Sheet 3( Heat Exchanger Duties)
- Specific Heat Capacity
- Origin of All the Problems of Humanity
- A2 Ideal Gases Questions
- Measurement of Spesific Heat
- Problemas.. termo actividad 3 (1)
- EPE-2008
- Me Thermal Part Time
- me2005-06
- tutorial4(2)
- Unit Test 1(Et 1)
- Improvement of Thermal Efficiency by Recovery of Heat From Ic Engine Exhaust
- C09-M-305042015
- Application of MBE to Geothermal
- Practice_Problems_Thermodynamics.docx

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Various Processes

(1) Constant Pressure ( isobaric / isopiestic Process)

process)

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PV = constant

OR

11

or P = c V-n)

2 2 2

n V2 n 1 V1 n 1

1W2 W PdV cV dV c

1 1 1

n 1

P2V2 P1V1

2

PdV

1

1 n

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n = (constant V)

n=0 (constant P)

n=1 ( constant T)

n= 2,3,... ( polytrophic

Process)

n = ( Adiabatic

Process)

13

Ideal-gas Equation

Of State

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and Specific volume of a substance is called an

equation of state.

of a substance at equilibrium states are also

referred to as equations of state.

for substances in the gas phase is the ideal-gas

equation of state.

15

determined that at low pressures the volume of

the gas is proportional to its temperature.

That is

Or

ideal-gas

equation of state.

the gas constant.

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ideal gas.

P = absolute pressure.

T = absolute Temperature.

v = specific volume.

The gas constant R is different for each gas and is

determined from:

of a gas. 17

values is :

Value units

8.31447 kJ/kmol .K

8.31447 kPa.m3/ kmol .K

Ru

0.0831447 bar. m3/ kmol .K

1.98588 Btu / lbmol. R

10.7316 psia.ft3 / lbmol. R

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molar mass & mole number N.

m = M x N ( in kg)

different forms.

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Heat and mechanical Work are simply two

different forms of energy; & all the energy

that goes into a system comes out in some

other form; and energy does not vanish

and has the ability to be converted into any

of its other form.

This statement is an expression of what is

known as the First Law of

Thermodynamics.

21

Using this apparatus, Joule confirmed the

equivalence between heat and mechanical work.

Consider a closed system with insulation on the

walls.

Water is filled with temp T1 as that of the

surroundings, which is measured with

thermometer.

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Pulley

impellers weights

Water at

Temperature T1.

23

wheel. This work can be measured by falling a

known quantity of weights from height z1 to

z2.

When the weights go down, the impellers in a

water tank rotate to stir the water. The

potential energy of the weights is converted

into the kinetic energy of the rotation of the

impeller, and the temperature of the water

rises to T2.

Therefore, work done on the system is

calculated as W12.

24

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System & surroundings will interact by heat

transfer till the system returns to the original

temperature T1.

Amount of heat transfer from the system is Q21.

Hence system executes a cycle, which consist of,

definite amount of work input (W12) to the

system followed by heat transfer from the system

(Q21). W 12

2

Q21

1

25

Heat was measured in thermal units.

For a wide variety of systems, and for

various amounts of work and heat,

measurements of heat and work were

done experimentally.

When the amounts of heat and work were

compared, it was found that they were

always proportional.

J as,

These results can be put Q W

26

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is the symbol for cyclic integral of heat

Q

transfer.

W transfer.

J as a proportionality factor.

In S.I units, both heat and work are measured

in Joules and hence J = 1.

Q W

27

Algebraic sum of work transfer is = Algebraic

sum of heat transfer.

Q W

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for a Change in State of a Closed

System.

Consider a system that undergoes a cycle in

which it changes from state 1 to state 2 by

process a and returns from state 2 to state

1 by process b.

Q W 29

have,

2 1 2 1

Q

1

a Qb Wa Wb

2 1 2

Now, consider another

cycle in which the closed

system changes from

state 1 to state 2 by

process c and then

returns to state 1 by

process b.

30

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8/4/2013

2 1 2 1

Q

1

c Qb Wc Wb

2 1 2

get 2 1 2 1

Q1

a Q

2

c W

1

a W

2

c

2 2

(Q W ) (Q W )

1

a

1

c

31

The quantity (Q W ) is constant for all

processes between state 1 and state 2.

initial and final states and NOT on the path followed

between the two states.

This property was termed as energy of closed

system, E.

32

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dE (Q W )

Integrating the above equation from state 1 to

state 2,

E2 E1 1Q2 1W2

Here, E1 and E2 are the initial and final values of

the energy of the closed system,

is the heat transferred to the closed system

Q

1 2 during the process, and

during the process.

33

system in the given state.

In the study of thermodynamics, we consider

energy of a system as consisting of three

distinct components:

E = Internal energy + kinetic energy + potential

energy

E = U + KE + PE

The internal energy U includes all other forms

of energy of the closed system. It is

associated with the thermodynamic state of

the system.

34

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8/4/2013

E = U + KE + PE

All the terms in above equation are point

functions, so

dE = dU + d(KE) + d(PE)

Now, we can write the first law of

thermodynamics for a change of state as,

dE = dU + d(KE) + d(PE) = Q W.

In the absence of motion & elevation

dE = dU = Q W

35

change of state, energy may cross

the boundary as either heat or

work. The net change in the energy

of the system will be exactly equal

to the net energy that crosses the

system boundary.

36

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8/4/2013

Enthalpy

Consider a closed system undergoing a

quasi-equilibrium, constant-pressure

process. Assume that theres no

changes in kinetic & in potential

energy, and that the only work done

during the process is associated with

the boundary movement.

37

1 Q2 U 2 U1 1W2

The work done can be given as 2

W2 PdV

1

1

Since the pressure is constant

2

1W2 P dV P(V2 V1 )

1

1 Q2 U 2 U1 P2V2 P1V1

1 Q2 (U 2 P2V2 ) (U1 P1V1 )

38

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The heat transfer during the process is given

in terms of the change in the quantity (U + PV)

between the initial and final states. So, this

group (U + PV) represents some property of

the substance. We call this property as

Enthalpy, H.

H=U+PV

And h=u+Pv

39

pressure, quasi-equilibrium process is

equal to the change in enthalpy.

40

16

8/4/2013

Specific Heat

Specific heat for any substance is

defined as the amount of heat required

per unit mass to raise the temperature

by one degree.

(1)Specific heat at constant volume.

(2) Specific heat at constant pressure.

41

Cv =

By 1st law

dU = Q W

state from 1 to 2.

Then W = 0 and we have Q = dU.

Therefore (Q)v =

42

17

8/4/2013

Now dH = dU + d(PV) ; dH = dU +PdV +VdP

At constant Pressure , undergoing a change in

state from 1 to 2.

dH = dU +PdV . Comparing with dU = Q W

dH = Q.

On further integration

43

So remember

Heat transfer in isochoric process is

(Q)v =

44

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gas constant.

For ideal gas

Also

45

exponent.

and

46

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Free Expansion

Consider a thermally insulated rigid tank, which is

initially divided into two compartments by a

membrane.

One part contains an ideal gas and the other is

completely evacuated.

47

And after when the membrane is removed, gas will

completely fill the entire compartment and

hence ( we say ) let the Pressure P2 and volume

V2 .

So on PV diagram we have:-

P1,V1

P2,V2

48

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8/4/2013

Then we slowly shift the membrane positions.

P1,V1

P1,V1

PA,VA

P

PB,VB

P

P2,V2 PCVC PD,VD

P2,V2

PE,VE

V

V

49

the system ?

Since there is no interaction between the system

and the surroundings or there is no boundary

movement b/w system and surroundings

when gas was expanding so there is NO

WORK.

And such kind of process is known as free

expansion.

Expansion of gas against vacuum is called as free

expansion.

So, in free expansion, No work is done on or by

the system.

50

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8/4/2013

No work is done on or by the system, as there is

no resistance to overcome.

Since system is insulated, therefore Q is also

zero.

From 1st law, Q = W + dU . Since both work &

heat interactions are zero, dU is also zero, i.e.

there is no change in internal energy of the gas.

for ideal gas, U =f(T)only and

Obviously there is no change in temperature of

the system, i.e. initial temperature is = final

temperature. 51

no change in temperature, the enthalpy of the

system would also remain same.

Enthalpy is . Since U and H are constant

therefore the product must also remain

constant . As such the values of pressure and

volume change in such a manner that their

product remains constant.

52

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adiabatic process,

Calculate the amount of

work done by the system.

53

By 1st law

On differentiating

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55

Initially the gas is at 200 KPa & occupies a vol of 0.1

m3. Spring exerts a force which is directly

proportional to the displacement from its

equilibrium position. Patm of 100 KPa acts on the

other side of the piston. Gas is heated until the

volume gets doubled and final pressure of 500

Kpa. Calculate the work done by the gas.

56

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8/4/2013

Given is force is directly proportional to

displacement from its equilibrium position.

A is the cross sectional area of the piston.

Apply force balance.

length.

57

Or

&

Adding equation (2+3) & divide by 2, we have

hence ans is 35KJ.

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8/4/2013

Numerical

Problems

59

Ques 1

It is desired to compress isothermally 1Kmol of NH3

from initial state of 30 m3/Kmol and 300K to the

final state of 5m3/Kmol and 300K. It is known

that NH3 obeys:

and

Where a = 422.55 Pa(m3/Kmol)2;

b = 0.037 m3/Kmol

Cv = 27.24 KJ/Kmol K and R = 8.314 KJ/Kmol K.

Calculate the heat and work interactions.

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8/4/2013

1

W = -4414.03 KJ/Kmol.

Now Heat interaction

Isothermally and integrate to U.

U = -70.425 KJ/Kmol.

By 1st law Q W = U ; Q = -4484.485 KJ/Kmol.

61

Ques 2

Consider a gas enclosed in a piston cylinder

arrangement. Gas is initially at P = 500 KPa

and occupies V = 0.2 m3.Gas is taken to final

state of P = 100 KPa. Calculate the work done

by the gas by each case:-

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W = 160.94 KJ.

P2V2 P1V1

2

PdV

1

1 n W = 92.15 KJ.

63

Ques 3

A non-flow reversible process occurs for which

P and Volume are correlated as

What is the amount of work done , where

volume changes from 4 m3 to 8 m3.

64

28

8/4/2013

Now

2

And W = PdV

1

and integrate

65

Ques 4

1 mol of ideal gas at 0.5 MPa and T = 310 K is

heated at constant P till the volume is doubled

and then allowed to expand at constant

temperature till volume is doubled again.

Make calculations for total work done.

(Take R = 8.314 J/mol K)

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1

P

3

V

Process 1-2 ( constant Pressure)

W1-2 = P( V2-V1) and V2= 2V1 . So W1-2 = RT1.

Process 2-3 ( constant Temperature)

W2-3 =

W2-3 = 2RT1ln2.

Therefore total work = W1-2 + W2-3 = 6150.3 Joule.

67

Ques 5

A piston cylinder m/c contains fluid , which passes

thru a complete cycle of 4 different processes.

During the cycle, sum of all heat transfer is -

200KJ. System completes 150 cycles/min.

complete the following table and compute net

rate of work output in KW.

Process Q ( KJ/min) W (KJ/min) E ( KJ/min)

68

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Process 2-3: Q = E + W ; E = 22000 KJ/min.

Process 3-4: Q = E + W ; W = 33900 KJ/min.

Q W

Process 4-1: Q=?; W =?

System completes 150 cycles/m.

Total heat transfer = -200KJ/cycle x 150 cycles/min

= -30,000 KJ/min. ( = total work Transfer)

Q12+Q23+Q34+Q41 = -30,000 KJ/min.

Q41= -49900 KJ/min.

Also in a cycle E = 0, Hence E12+ E23+ E34+ E41=0

E41 = 16000KJ/min. And W41 = -65900KJ/min.

Rate of work output is = -500KW.

69

Ques 6

A gas undergoes a thermodynamic cycle consisting of

following processes:-

Process 1-2 :- Constt. P = 1.4 bar, V1= 0.028m3,

W12=10.5KJ.

Process2-3:- Compression with PV = Constt. , U3 = U2.

Process3-1:- Constt. V and U1-U3 = -26.4 KJ.

No significant change in KE and PE.

Sketch Cycle on PV diagram.

Calculate net work for the cycle (in KJ).

Calculate Q12.

Show Q W

70

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8/4/2013

W12 = 10.5 KJ.( = P1(V2-V1))

State 2: U = 0

State 3: U = -26.4 KJ, constant V

W31 =0 & Q31 = -26.4 KJ.

Also dE 0 (U)12+(U)23+(U)31 =0

(U)12 =26.4 KJ. Also Q12 =W12+ (U)12

Q12 = 36.9 KJ.

And finally W23 = -18.7KJ and Q23 = -18.7 KJ.

Hence Q12+Q23+Q31 = W12+W23+W31 . (=-8.2 KJ)

71

32

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