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# SUPPORT STUDY

MATERIAL

XII Physics

Support Material,
Study Notes and VBQ
UNIT-1
ELECTROSTATICS
1. Where the energy of capacitor does resides?
2. Do electrons tend to go to region of low or high potential?
3. What is the net charge on the charged capacitor?
4. A Gaussian surface encloses an electric dipole within it. What is the total flux across
sphere?
5. Find the dimension of 1/2oE2.
6. In a certain l m3 of space, electric potential is found to be V Volt throughout. What is
the electric field in this Region?
7. If Coulomb law involves 1/r3 instead of 1/r2 dependence, would Gauss law be still
true?
8. An electrostatic field line cant be discontinuous, why?
9. The given graph shows that the variation of charge versus potential difference V for
the two capacitors
C1 & C2. The two capacitors have same plate separation but the plate area of C2 is
doubled than that of
C1.Which of the line in the graph corresponds to C1 &C2 and why?

C1

V C2

Q
10. Three charges, each equal to +2C are placed at the corners of an equilateral triangle. If
the force
between any two charges be F, then what will be the net force on either Charge?
11. A point charge q is placed at O as shown in the figure.
Is VP-VQ +ve or ve when (i) q>0, (ii) q<0?
12. An electric dipole of dipole moment 20 X 10-6 C.m is enclosed by a closed surface.
What is the net flux
coming out of the surface?
13. Why does the electric field inside a dielectric decrease when it is placed in an external
electric field?
14. Write the magnitude and direction of electric field intensity due to an electric dipole of
length 2a at the
mid point of the line joining the two charges.
15. A spherical portion has been removed from a solid sphere having a charge distributed
uniformly in its
volume as shown in fig. What is the electric field inside the emptied sphere?
16. A charged particle is free to move in an electric field. Will it always move along an
electric line of
force?
17. If V (=q/4or) is the potential at a distance r due to a point charge q, then determine the
electric field
due to a point charge q, at a distance r.
18. Can electric potential at any point in space be zero while intensity of electric field at
that point is not
zero?
19. Devise an arrangement of three point charges separated by finite distances that has
zero electric
potential energy.
20. Each of the uncharged capacitor in the fig. Has a capacitance of 25F. What charge
shall flow through
the meter M when the switch S is Closed?
21. Charge of 2C is placed at the centre of a cube of volume 8 cm3. What is the electric
flux passing
through one face?
22. A charged particle q is shot towards another charged particle Q which is fixed, with a
speed v. It
approaches Q up to a closest distance r and then returns. If q were given a speed 2v,
then find the
closest distance of approach.
23. Two capacitors of capacitance 6F and 12F are connected in series with the battery.
The voltage
across the 6F capacitor is 2 volt .Compute the total battery voltage.
24. A parallel plate capacitor with air between the plates has a capacitance of 8 pF . The
separation
between the plates is now reduced by half and the space between them is filled with a
medium of
dielectric constant 5. Calculate the value of capacitance of parallel plate capacitor in
second case.
25. Five identical capacitors, each of capacitance C are connected between points X and
Y as shown in the
figure. If the equivalent capacitance of the combination between X and Y is 5F.
Calculate the
capacitance of each capacitor.
26. An uncharged capacitor is connected to a battery. Show that half of the energy
supplied by the battery
is lost as heat while charging the capacitor.
27. What is the angle between the electric dipole moment and electric field strength due
to it on the
equilateral line?
28. Find the equivalent capacitance between A & B, if capacitance of each capacitor is C.
29. Eight identically charged drops are joined to form bigger drop. By what factor the
charge and
potential change?
30. A uniform electric field of 2 kNC-1 is in the x-direction. A point charge of 3 C
initially at rest at the
origin is released. What is the kinetic energy of this charge at x = 4m?
31. Two identical metal plates are given the charges Q1 and Q2 (Q2 < Q1) respectively. If
they are now
brought close together to form a parallel plate capacitor with capacitance C then
what is the potential
difference between them?
32. Three charges Q, +q and +q are placed at the vertices of a right angle isosceles
triangle as shown.
Find the magnitude of Q for which net electrostatic energy of the configuration is
zero.
33. An infinite number of charges each having charge q along x-axis at x=1 ,x=2, x=4
,x=8 an so on.
Find the electric field at x=0 due to these charges.
34. A charge Q is distributed over the two concentric hollow spheres of radii r and R
(R>r) such that
the surface densities are equal. Find the potential at the common centre.
35. An electric dipole is held in an uniform electric field. Using suitable diagram, show
that it doesnt
undergo any translatory motion, and (ii)Derive an expression for torque acting on it and
specify its
direction.
36. The field potential inside a charged ball depends only on the distance from its centre
as
V=ar2+b,where a and b are constants. Find the space charge distribution (r) inside
the ball.

CHAPTER-2
CURRENT ELECTRICITY

## 1. Magnesium is used for making standard resistors, why?

2. The sequence of bands marked on a carbon resistor are: Red, Red, Red, Silver. Write
the value of resistance with tolerance.
3. A wire of resistively is stretched to three its initial length, what will be its new
resistively.
4. If p.d.v applied across a conductor is increased to 2v, how will the draft velocity of
the electrons change?
5. A 10 thick wire is stretched so that its length becomes three times. Assuming that
there is no
change in its density on stretching. Calculate the resistance of new wire.
6. You are given 8 resistor. What length of wire of resistance 120 m-1 should be
joined in parallel with it to get a value of 6 ?
7. Three resistance 3,6 and 9 are connected to a battery. In which of them will
the power
dissipation be maximum if
a) They are all connected in parallel
b) They are all connected in series
Give reason.
8. A silver wire has a resistance of 2.1 at 27.5c and a resistance of 2.7 at 100c.
determine the
temperature coeff. of resistivity of silver.
9. Give any two applications super conductors.
10. Two wire of equal length one copper and manganin have same resistance , which
wire is
thicker?.
11. Why manganin is used for making standard resistor?
12. A copper wire of resistivity is stretched to reduce its diameter to half of its previous
value .What
will be the new resistances?
13. The variation of potential difference with length incase of two potentiometres A and
B is given
below.Which of the two is more sensitive.

A B
Potential difference

Length

14. If the length of the wire conductor is doubled by stretching it , keeping potential
difference
constant by what factor the drift speed of the electron changed.
15. If the temperature of the conductor increases, how does the relaxation time of
electron changes.
16. A heater joined in series with the 60W bulb .With change of bulb with 100 W in the
circuit, the
rate heat produce by the heater will more or less or remain same.
17. What will be the change in the resistance of the circular wire , when its radius is
halved and length
is reduced by th of original length.
18. Two 120V light bulbs , one of 25W and another of 200W are connected in series .
One bulb burnt
out almost instantaneously ?.Which one was burnt and why?.
19. A given copper wire is stretched to reduce its diameter is half of its original
value.What will the
new resistance?.
20. A student has two wire of iron and copper of equal length and diameter.He first joins
two wires in
series and pass electric current through the combination which increases
gradually.After that he joins two wires in parallel and repeats the process of passing
current.Which wire will glow first in
each case?
21. A cylindrical metallic wire is stretched to increase its length by 5% . Calculate the
percentage
change in resistances.
22. A wire of resistance 4R is bend in the form of circle .What is the effective resistance
between the
ends of diameter?.
23. Two wires A and B have same lengths and material , have their cross sectional areas
1:4 , what
would be the ratio of heat produced in these wires when the voltage across each is
constant.
24. Two bulbs whose resistance are in the ratio of 1:2 are connected in parallel to a source
of constant
voltage. What will be the ratio of power dissipation in these?
25. Total resistance of the circuit is R/3 in which three identical resistors are connected in
parallel.
Find the value of each resistance?.
UNIT -3
MAGNETIC EFFECTS OF CURRENT & MAGNETISM

1. Suppose a helical spring is suspended from the roof of a room and very small weight is
attached to its lower end what will happen to the spring when a current is passed through
Ans Spring will contract due to the magnetic field produced by the turns of the coil and
the weights will be lifted up.

2. One alpha particle and a deuteron entered perpendicularly in a uniform magnetic field with
same velocity. Which one follow the greater circle?
Ans: As we know for a charge particle moving in a magnetic field, the radius of circular
i path: r = mv/qB
As both the particles have same velocity therefore
iiiiiiIIT
UYTHT

r/rd = m qd/md q

## 3. Out of Voltmeter and Millivoltmeter, which has the higher resistance?

Ans: We know the resistance connected to galvanometer to convert it into voltmeter is
R = (V / Ig) - G
So if R is higher, range of V will also be higher, so a Voltmeter has the higher resistance.

4. Proton is moving along the axis of a solenoid carrying current of 2 A and 50 number of
turns per unit length. What will be the force acting on the particle.
Ans: As the magnetic field produced by solenoid is always along its axis, so direction of
velocity of proton is along the direction of field, therefore
F = qvB Sin 0 = 0

## 5. Out of Ammeter and Milliammeter, which has the higher resistance?

Ans: We know the resistance connected to galvanometer to convert it into ammeter is
S =(Ig/( I Ig))xG
So for higher resistance, the range of I should be small, therefore milliammeter has the
higher resistance.

## 6. What will be the direction of magnetic field at point O

C
i i
O
A B E F

I/2 D

Ans: The magnetic field due to AB and EF is as the direction of length vector is along the

Also the magnetic field due to BCE and BDE are equal opposite and equal so they cancel
the effect of each other. So the net magnetic field at O is 0.
7. Can a Moving Coil Galvanometer can be used to detect an A.C. in a circuit .Give reason.
Ans: As MCG detect only the average value of current and the average value of AC for a
complete cycle is zero. Therefore MCG can not detect AC in a circuit.

8. Two wires of equal length are bent in the form of two loops. One loop is square whereas
the other is circular. These are suspended in same magnetic field and same current is
passed through them. Explain with reason which will experience greater torque?
Ans: For a given length, the circle has the greatest area, as
= NIAB
i.e. torque is proportional to area, so circular current loop experiences the greater torque.

9. The pole of a magnet is brought near to a stationary charge. What will be the force
experienced by pole?
Ans: The force will be zero as the stationary charge particle does not produce any force.

10. A charge particle moving in a magnetic field penetrates a layer of lead and thereby losses
half of its kinetic energy. How does the radius of curvature of its path change?
Ans: r = mv/qB ----------- (i)
Also ------------ (ii)
By equ (i) and equ (ii)

## As the radius is proportional to square root of kinetic

energy, so if the kinetic energy is halved the radius become 1/2 times of its
initial value.

11. A Voltmeter, an ammeter and a resistance are connected in series with a battery. There is
some deflection in voltmeter but the deflection of ammeter is zero. Explain why?
Ans: As the resistance of V is very high so the effective resistance of circuit become very
high, so the current flows in circuit is extremely low therefore the deflection is almost
zero, while the V measures the potential difference between the points so it shows the
12. A Current I flows along the length of an infinitely long straight thin walled pipe. What
is the magnetic field at any point on the axis of pipe?
Ans: Zero.

13. The Earths core contains iron but geologists do not regard this as a source of Magnetic
Field, Why?
Ans: Temperature in the core of earth is higher than Curie temperature of Iron.

14. Is the Resistance of Voltmeter larger than or smaller than the resistance of Galvanometer
from which it is converted.
Ans: Larger

15. A Magnetic Field dipole placed in a Magnetic Field experiences a net force. What can you
say about the Nature of Magnetic Field?
Ans: Non-uniform.

16. Earths Magnetic Field does not affect working of moving Coil Galvanometer. Why?
Ans: Magnitude of Earths magnetic field is much smaller than magnitude of the field
produced by poles of galvanometer.

## 17. Which type of Magnetism exists in all substances?

Ans: Diamagnetism.

18. For what orientation P.E. of a Magnetic dipole placed in uniform Magnetic Field
minimum?
Ans: = 0 (Dipole is parallel to field.)

19. How does a ferromagnetic material change its Magnetic properties if it is heated beyond
its curie temperature?
Ans: Becomes Paramagnetic.

20. A bar magnet is cut into two pieces, along its length. How will its pole strength be
affected?
Ans: M1 = M/2, M=M/2

21. What is the work done by a magnetic force, in displacing a charged particle?
Ans: Zero.

22. What is the net magnetic flux from a north (or south) pole of a magnet (dipole) ?
Ans: Nil, because the number of magnetic lines entering the surface is equal to the number
of lines going out of it.

## 23 An unmagnetised ferromagnetic substance is magnetized. Given figure shows the B-H

curve. Identify the stage of saturation ,reverse region and irreversible region
stage of saturation is B to C . Reversible region O to A and A to B is irreversible region.

24. What is the magneticfield at the centre of the following circular coils carrying current I?

## oI+ oI_ oI _ oI_

2R 2 R 2R 2 R

25. Two long straight wires are set parallel to each other. Each carries a current I in the same
direction and the separation between them is 2r. What is the intensity of the magnetic field
midway between them?
Ans: The fields of the two wires will be in the opposite directions at the midway point.
B =B1 B2 =0I/2r -0I/2 r =0

26. A proton is about 1840 times heavier than an electron. What will be its kinetic energy
when it is accelerated by a potential difference of 1KV?
Ans: Kinetic Energy gained=qv=ex1Kv=1keV

27. A circular loop of radius R carrying current I ,lies in X-Y plane with its centre at
origin.What is the total magnetic flux through X-Y plane?
Ans: =B.A = o I r2
2r
= OIR
2
ie R

28. A hypothetical bar magnet is cut into two equal pieces and placed as shown in the figure.
What is the magnetic moment of this arrangement?

## magnetic moment of the arrangement= M12+M22 +2M1M2COS

= M2/4+M2/4+2M/2xM/2 cos90
= 2M2/4 =M/2
29. A circular current carrying coil has a radius R. What is the distance from the centre of the
coil on its axis where the magnetic field is 1/8 th of its value at the centre?
Ans: Baxial =1/8 Bcentre
0 IR2 = 1x 0 I
2 2 3/2
2(R +r ) 8x2R
(R2+r2)3/2 =8R2
R2+r2 = 4R2
Hence , r = R

30. A magnetic needle suspended freely in a uniform magnetic field experiences torque but no
net force. A nail made up of iron kept near a bar magnet experience a force of attraction
and torque .Give reason.
Ans- Due to the non uniform magnetic field of bar magnet nail experience torque and
translatory force.

31. What is the work done by a magnetic field on moving a charge? Give reason.
Ans- W= FScos = FScos 90=0

32. A particle with charge q moving with velocity v in the plane of the paper enters a uniform
magnetic field B acting perpendicular to the plane of the paper. Deduce an expression for
the time period of the charge as it moves in a circular path in the field .
Why does the kinetic energy of the charge not change while moving in the magnetic field.
Ans- particle moves in circular path
Bqv = mv2/r
r = mv/Bq
Time period T = 2 r/v =2 m/Bq

A solenoid of length 0.6m has a radius of 1cm and is made up of 600 turns.It carries a
33. current of 5A.What is the magnetic field inside and at ends of solenoid.?
Ans- (i)At the centre
N=1000, B = 0 ni = 4 x 10-7 x 1000 x 5 = 6.2 x 10-3 T
(ii) At the ends
B = 0 ni = 3.1 x 10 -3 T

## An element dl = dx i is placed at the origin and carries a large current I = 10A.What is

34. the magnetic field on the y axis at a distance of 0.5m,

## =10-7 x 10 x 10-2 /25 x 10-2

=4 x 10 -8 T

Direction of dB is in +Z direction

You are given a copper wire carrying current I of length L. Now the wire is turned into
35. circular coil. Find the number of turns in the coil so that the torque at the centre of the coil
is to maximum.
Ans: Let the number of turns be = n
Length=l
Length of the wire = circumference of n turns of coil
L = n x 2 r

r = L/2 r
Maximum torque = nIBA = nIB r2

= nIB (L/2 n) 2

1/n
For maximum torque n should be minimum
i.e. n = 1.

What is the magnetic field produced at the centre of curvature of an arc of wire of radius r
36. carrying current I subtends an angle /2radians at its centre.
Ans: B1 = B x /2 = (0 I /2r) x (2 x2)

B1= 0 I/8r

37. If B is the magnetic field produced at the centre of a circular coil of one turn of length L
carrying current I then what is the magnetic field at the centre of the same coil which is
Ans : B1 = n2 B = 102 B = 100 B.

38. A copper wire is bent into a square of each side 6cm.If a current of 2A is passed through a
wire what is the magnetic field at the centre of the square?
Ans: B1 = 4 x 0 I/4 a/2 ( sin 45 + sin 45 )
= 4 x 0 2/4 x3 ( 1/ 1.414 + 1/ 1.414 )
= 2 0 /3 ( 1/ 1.414 + 1/ 1.414 ) T

39. Find the magnetic moment of a wire of length l carrying current I bent in the form of a
circle.
Ans: M = IA = I x r2
But l = 2 r , i.e r = l/2
M= Il2/4

40. When current is flowing through two parallel conductors in the same direction they attract
while two beams of electrons moving in the same direction repel each other. Why?
Ans- Two conductors carrying current in same direction produce magnetic field and
hence they attract.
While two electron beams moving in the same directions repel due to its electric field
(electrostatic force)

41. Draw diagrams to show behavior of magnetic field lines near a bar of (i) Alluminium (ii)
copper and (iii) mercury cooled to a very low temperature 4.2 K
Ans- (i)Alluminium --- Paramagnetic
(ii) Copper and mercury = diamagnetic

42. The hysteresis loss for a sample of 6 kg is 150 J/M2/cycle. If the density of iron is 7500
kg/m3, calculate the energy loss per hour at 40cycle.
Ans: Volume of sample = mass/density = 6/7500 m3
Energy loss/cycle = energy loss per volume/cycle x( volume)=150x6/7500
Energy loss/sec = 150x6x40/7500
Energy loss /hour = 150x6x40x60x60/7500 J

=1.728 x 104 J

43. A current carrying solenoid of 100 turns has an area of cross section 10-4 m2 .When
suspended freely through its centre, it can turn in a horizontal plane .what is the magnetic
moment of the solenoid for a current of 5A.Also calculate the net force and torque on
solenoid if a uniform horizontal field of 10x10-2 T is set up at an angle of 30 degree with
axis of solenoid when it is carrying the same current.
Ans: M = nIA = 100 x 5 x 10-4 =500 x 10-4 J/T
Net force = 0
Torque = MB sin = 5x10-2 x 0.1x sin30 = 25 x 10-4 Nm
H = R cos = .4x = 0.2 G

44. Two concentric circular coils A and B of radii 10 cm and 6 cm respectively, lie in the
same vertical plane containing the north to south direction. coil A has 30 turns and carries
a current of 10 A . Coil B has 40 turns and carries a current of 15 A .the sense of the
current in A is anticlockwise and clockwise in B for an observer looking at the coils
facing west. Give the magnitude and direction of net magnetic field
Ans: B due to the coils at the centre.
Coil A
R1 = 0.1m , n1=30,I1=10A

## B1 = 0 n1I1/2r1 = 6 x 10-4 T directed towards east

Coil B-
R2 = 0.6 m , n2=40, I2= 15 A
B2 = 0 n2I2/2r2 =2 x 10 T directed towards west
Net field B = B2 - B1 = (20 - 6 ) 10-4 T towards west

45. The vertical component of earths magnetic field at a given place is 3 times its
horizontal component. If the total intensity of earths magnetic field at a place is 0.4 G ,
find the value of horizontal component of earths field and angle of dip.
Ans: Tan = V/H = 3
= 60
As V = 3H and
B2 = V2 + H2 = 3H2 + H2 = 4H2
(0.4)2 = 4H2 therefore
H = 0.2 G
An electron traveling west to east enters a chamber having a uniform electrostatic field in
46. north to south direction.Specify the direction in which the uniform magnetic field should
be set up to prevent the electron from deflecting from its straight line path.
Ans- Due to the electrostatic field electron will be deflected towards north. To
keep it neutralized the magnetic force should deflect it towards south .For this purpose the
magnetic field is to be applied perpendicular to the plane of the paper inward i.e vertically
downward.

A straight horizontal conducting rod of length 0.5 m and mass 50 g is suspended by two
47. vertical wires at its ends.A current of 5A is set up in the rod sdthrough the wires.(i) What
magbnetric field should be set up normal to the conductor in order that the tension in the
wires is zero?(ii)What will be the tension in the wire if the direction of current is reversed
keeping the magbetic field same as before?(neglect the mass if wure abd taje g=10m/s2 )
Ans: (i) Magnetic force = weight
IlB sin = mg
IlB = mg ( =90)
B = mg/Il = 500x10-3/2.5 = 200 x 10-3 T
(ii)When the direction of fidl is reversed an additional force which was equal to weight
of rod will be acting on the wires.
Net tension in wires = mg + mg = 2 mg =2 x 50 x 10-3 x 10 = 1 N

A circular coil of 20 turns and radius 10cm is placed in a uniform magnetic field of
48. 0.d10T normal to the plane of the coil.If the current in the coil is 5a,What is the (i)Total
torque on the coil (ii) total force on the coil (iii) average dsforce on each electron in the
coil due to the magnetic field.(coil is made of copper, A= 10 -5 m2 ,free electron density in
copper is 1029 /m3)
Ans: N= 20, r= .1 m, B = .1T, I = 5A
(i)Total torque = nIBAsin ( =0)

=0
(ii)Total force on the coil is = 0, because force being equal and opposite and cancel
eachother
(iii) Average force on electron = f = evB

V = I/neA
F = IB/nA = 5x 0.1/1029 x 10-5
=5 x 10 -25 N

A Rowland ring of mean radius 15 cm has 3500 turns of wore wound on a ferromagnetic
49. core of relative permeability 800.What is the magnetic field B in the core for a
magnetizing current of 1.2 A?
Ans: N=3500, r= 15 x 10-2m
n = N/2 r = 3500/2x3.14 x .15 = 3715.5 per m

## 0 = 4 x 10-7 x TmA-1, r = 800 , I = 1.2

B = 0 r nI = 4.48 T
50 A straight wire of mass 200g and the length 1.5m carries a current of 2A. It is suspended
in mid air by a uniform horizontal magnetic field B. What is the magnitude of B in tesla?
Ans: For equilibrium of the wire in mid air, weight of the wire = force exerted by
magnetic field
Mg =IlB sin900
B = mg/Il = 200x 10-3 x9.8 = 0.65T
2x1.5

51. A rigid circular loop of radius r and mass m lies in the x-y plane of a flat table and has a
current I flowing in it. At this particular place the earths magnetic field is B = Bxi +Bzk.
What is the value of I, so that loop starts tilting?
Ans: M = IA =I r2k
B = Bxi +Bzk
= M x B = ( I r2k) x(Bxi + Bzk)
= I R2BXkxi = I r2BXj
Torque due to the weight of the loop = mgr
I r2BX = mgr Hence I = mg/rBX

52. In an ammeter, 10% of main current is passing through the galvanometer. If the resistance
of the galvanometer is G, then what is the shunt resistance in ohms?

## Ans: Ig=10% of I=0.1I

S=IgxG/I-Ig=0.1IG/I-0.1I=G/9

53. The two rails of arailway track insulated from each other and the ground is connected to a
milli voltmeter. What is the reading g of the millivolmeter when the train passes at aspeed
180km/hr along the track, given that the vertical component of earths magnetic field is
0.2x10-4T and rails are separated by 1m
e = Blv = 0.2x10-4x1x180x5/18
= 10-3V = 1Mv

54 A charged particle moving in a magnetic field penetrates a layer of lead and there by
looses half of its kinetic energy.How does the radius of curvature of its path changes?
Ans: If is the kinetic energy of the particle,then its momentum, p = mv2mEk
rEk
This shows that K.E is halved, the radius is reduced to 1/2 times its initial value.

55 The velocities of two particles X and Y entering in an uniform magnetic field are in the
ratio 2:1.On entering the field ,they move in different circular paths .Give the ratio of the
Ans: qvB = mv2/r, r = mv/qB, r v
rx/ry = vx/vy = 2/1 = 2
56 In an exercise to increase current sensitivity of a galvanometer by 25 % , its resisitance is
increased by 1.5 times . How does the voltage sensititvity of the galvanometer be affected.
Ans: I s = I s + 25/100= 125/100 = 5/4 I s --------- 1
R = 1.5 R ----------- 2
V s + I s / R & Vs = Is/R =5/4 I s/1.5 R
+ 5/6 V s
% decrease in voltage sensitivity
= (1-Vs/V s) X 100
(1-5/6) X 100 = 16.7%

UNIT IV
ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION & ALTERNATING CURRNT

## 1. Three identical coils A, B and C are placed with

their planes parallel to one another. Coils A and C
carry current as shown. Coil B and C are fixed. The
coil A is moved towards B with uniform motion. Is
there any induced current in B?
ANS: - YES

2. Two coils are being moved out of magnetic field- one coil is moved rapidly and the other
slowly. In which case is more work done and why?
ANS: - THE ONE WHICH IS MOVED RAPIDLY

3. The figure shows two identical rectangular loops (1) and (2), placed on a table along with a
straight line current carrying conductor between
them.
(i) What will be the directions of the induced
currents in the loops when they are pulled away
from the conductor with same velocity?
(ii) Will the e.m.f. induced in the two loops be
ANS: - (i) CLOCKWISE IN LOOP 1 AND ANTICLOCKWISE IN LOOP 2
(ii) EMF INDUCED IS MORE IN LOOP 2 THAN IN LOOP 1

## 4. Give the direction in which the induced

current flows in the coil mounted on an
insulating stand when a bar magnet is
quickly moved along the axis of the coil
from one side to the other as shown.
Ans: - ANTICLOCKWISE

## 5. A bar magnet M is dropped so that it falls

vertically through the coil C. The graph
obtained for voltage produced across the coil
vs time is shown in figure (b). (i) Explain the
shape of the graph. (ii) Why is the negative
peak longer than the positive peak?
ANS: - (i) As magnet approaches the coil the rate of change of magnetic flux increases and
the induced emf also increases. As soon as one pole of magnet enters into the coil the emf
decreases due to the other pole effect and also the induced emf polarity reverses due to the
same reason.
(ii) The longer peak is due to increase in the rate of change of magnetic flux as the
magnet comes out of the coil.

## 6. A coil A is connected to a voltmeter V and the other coil

B to an alternating current source D. If a large copper sheet
C is placed between the two coils, how does the induced
e.m.f. in the coil A change due to current in coil B?
ANS: - DECREASES

## 7. A cylindrical bar magnet is kept along the

axis of a circular coil, when the magnet is
an axis perpendicular to the length of the
magnet, in which case the induced emf will
be more?
ANS: - IN CASE OF (b) IT IS MORE

8. How does the self inductance of an air core coil change, when (i) the number of turns in
the coil is decreased, (ii) an iron rod is
introduced in the coil? A copper coil L wound
on a soft iron core and a lamp B are connected
to a battery E through a tapping key K. When
the key is suddenly opened, the lamp flashes for
an instant to much greater brightness. Explain.
ANS: - (i) DECREASES (ii) INCREASES.
THERE IS AN OPPOSITION FOR THE CURRENT IN COIL DUE TO SELF
INDUCTION SO THE BULB GETS MORE ELECTRIC CURRENT INITIALLY.

9. How is the mutual inductance of a pair of coils affected when separation between the coils
is increased? The number of turns of each coil is increased? A thin iron sheet is placed
between the two coils, other factors remaining the same? Explain your answer in each case.
ANS: - DECREASES, INCREASES, INCREASES.

## 10. A rectangular wire frame, shown

below, is placed in a uniform magnetic
field directed upward and normal to the
plane of the paper. The part AB is
connected to a spring. The spring is
stretched and released when the wire AB
has come to the position AB (t = 0). How
would the induced emf vary with time? Neglect damping.
ANS: - THE RATE OF CHANGE OF AREA IS MORE INITIALLY AND DECREASES
WITH TIME AND SO THE INDUCED EMF.
11. Why does metallic piece become very hot when it is surrounded by coil carrying high
frequency alternating current?
ANS: - HIGH FREQUENCY AC PRODUCES CHANGING MAGNETIC FLUX AND
THE LARGE EDDY CURRENTS PRODUCE HEAT.

## 12. Three students X, Y, and Z performed

an experiment for studying the variation of
alternating current with angular frequency
in a series LCR circuit and obtained the
graphs as shown. They all used a.c sources
of the same r.m.s. value and inductances of
the same value. What can we (qualitatively)
conclude about the (i) capacitance value (ii)
resistance values Used by them? In which
case will the quality factor be maximum? What can we conclude about nature of the
impedance of the set up at frequency wo?
ANS: - (i) DECREASES FROM X TO Z (ii) DECREASES FROM X TO Z
IN CASE OF X QUALITY FACTOR IS MORE, IMPEDANCE DECREASES
FROM X TO Z

## 13. In the circuit shown below, R

represents an electric bulb. If the
frequency of the supply is doubled, how
should the values of C and L be changed
so that glow in the bulb remains
unchanged?
ANS: - L SHOULD DECREASE AND C SHOULD INCREASE

## 14. An air cored coil L and a bulb B are

connected in series to the mains as shows in
the given figure: The bulb glows with some
brightness. How would the glow of the bulb
change if an iron rod is inserted in the coil?
ANS: - DECREASES

15. When a circuit element X is connected across an a.c. source, a current of 2A flows
through it and this current is in phase with the applied voltage. When another element Y is
connected across the same a.c. source, the same current flows in the circuit but it leads the
voltage by /2 radians.(i) Name the circuit elements X and Y. (ii) Find the current that flows
in the circuit when the series combination of X and Y is connected across the same a.c.
voltage.
ANS: - (i) X IS RESISTOR (ii) Y IS CAPACITOR
16. Fig shows a light bulb (B) and iron
cored inductor connected to a DC battery
through a switch (S). (i) What will one
observe when switch (S) is closed? (ii)
How will the glow of the bulb change
when the battery is replaced by an ac
source of rms voltage equal to the voltage
ANS: - (i) BRIGHTNESS OF THE BULB INCREASES SLOWLY (ii) BRIGHTNESS
REMAINS SAME

## 17. A circuit containing a 80 mH inductor and a 60 F capacitor in series is connected to a

230 V, 50 Hz supply. The resistance of the circuit is negligible. (a) Obtain the current
amplitude and rms values. (b) Obtain the rms values of potential drops across each element.
(c) What is the average power transferred to the inductor? (d) What is the average power
transferred to the capacitor? (e) What is the total average power absorbed by the circuit?
ANS: - (a) 8.24A, 11.7A (b) VL=207V, VC=437V (c) zero (d) zero (e) zero.

## 18. A series LCR-circuit with L = 0.12 H, C = 480 nF, R = 23 is connected to a 230 V

variable frequency supply. (a) What is the source frequency for which current amplitude is
maximum? Obtain this maximum value. (b) What is the source frequency for which average
power absorbed by the circuit is maximum? Obtain the value of this maximum power. (c) For
which frequencies of the source is the power transferred to the circuit half the power at
resonant frequency? What is the current amplitude at these frequencies? (d) What is the Q-
factor of the given circuit?
ANS: - (a) 4167 rad s-1 , 1.41A (b) 2300 W (c) 648Hz, 678Hz, I0=10A(d)21.7

## 19. An LC-circuit contains a 20 mH inductor and a 50 F capacitor with an initial charge of

10 mC. The resistance of the circuit is negligible. Let the instant the circuit is closed be t =
0(a) what is the total energy stored initially. Is it conserved during the LC-oscillations? (b)
What is the natural frequency of the circuit? (c) At what times is the energy stored (i)
Completely electrical (i.e., stored in the capacitor)? (d) At what times is the total energy
shared equally between the inductor and the capacitor? (e) If a resistor is inserted in the
circuit, how much energy is eventually dissipated as heat?
ANS: - (a)1 J,(b)159Hz (c)electrical at t =

## 20. Define self-inductance in terms of work

done against the induced emf.

ANS: - L = ; Self-inductance is defined as double the work done against the induced emf
in producing unit current in the coil itself

21. A circuit with a vertical copper wire bends as shown supports a small wooden piece W
which floats in mercury. What do you expect when key is closed and current flows through
the circuit?
ANS: - The woodden block sinks when current flows through the
circuit, as parallel wires carrying currents in the opposite directions
repel. The given wave form shows the input current of a

transformer.

22. Draw the wave form of out put current. Substantiate your answer
ANS: - 1800 phase difference due to Lenzs law

## 23. An electron beam is deflected in a given field. Identify whether it is

an electric field or a magnetic field in the following cases?
(i) The trajectory of the beam is a parabola and its K.E changes.
(ii) The trajectory of the beam is circular and its K.E. remains the same. Justify your answer.

24. A resting electron near a stationery bar magnet does not set into motion. But a moving
magnet near an electron set it into motion. Why?

25. An irregularly shaped flexible current carrying loop when placed in an external magnetic
field will assume a circular shape. Give reason

26. Alpha particles (m = 6.68 X 10-27 Kg., q = +2e) accelerated through a potential difference
V to 2 kV, enter a magnetic field B = 0.2 T perpendicular to their direction of motion.
Calculate the radius of their path.

ANS: -

## 27. The above figure shows a

horizontal solenoid connected to a
battery and a switch. A copper ring is
placed on a frictionless track near the
solenoid, the axis of the ring being
along the axis of the solenoid. What will happen to the ring as the switch is closed? Justify
ANS: - THE RING MOVESAWAY FROM THE SOLENOID

## 28. A particle with charge q and mass m is shot

with kinetic energy K into the region between two
plates as shown in the figure. If the magnetic field
between the plates is B and as shown, how large must
B be if the particle is to miss collision with the
opposite plate?
ANS: - Just to miss the opposite plate, the particle must move in a circular path with radius d
so that Bqv = mv2/d, B = (2mK)1/2/(qd)

29. For the circuit shown below, find the magnitude and direction the force on wire AC, wire
BC and wire AB. Also show that net force is zero.

30. A bar PQ of mass M is suspended by two wires as shown below. Assume that a uniform
magnetic field B is directed into the page. Find the tension in each supporting wire when the
current through the bar is I.
ANS: -According to the Flemings Right hand Rule, the magnetic force ILB is directed
upward. Equilibrium in the vertical direction yields 2T + ILB = Mg, so that T = (Mg ILB)/2

31. A bar of mass M is suspended by two springs as shown below. Assume that a magnetic
field B is directed out of the page. Each spring has a spring constant K. Describe the bars
displacement when a current I is sent through it in the direction shown.

ANS: -Due to Flemings Right hand Rule the magnetic force ILB is directed downward. This
constant force shifts the equilibrium position downward by a displacement = (ILB)/2K
32. An equilateral triangle is formed from a piece of uniform resistance wire. Current is fed
into one corner and led out of the other as detailed in the figure below. Show that the current
flowing through the sides of the triangle produces no magnetic field at its centre O (the
intersection of the medians).

ANS: - Wires A and B are in series. IA = IB = I/3, IC = 2I/3.Wire C makes a contribution to the
field at O whose magnitude is twice that of A or B. By Flemings Right hand Rule, directions
of field due to Wire A and B are directed down into the page. That due to wire C is upward.
Net field at O is zero

33. In the following figure, the rectangular loop of wire is being pulled to the right, away
from the long straight wire through which a steady current i flows upward as shown. Does the
current induced in the loop flow in the clockwise sense or in the counter clockwise sense ?
Justify

ANS: -Due to Lenzs law, the magnetic field produced by the induced current must
counteract the decrease in flux and hence it must be directed into the plane of the figure
(within the loop).So the induced current must be clock wise.

34. Determine the separate effects on the induced emf of a generator if (a) the flux per pole is
doubled, and (b) the speed of the armature is doubled.
ANS: - In both the cases the induced emf doubles

35. An electromagnet has stored 648 J of magnetic energy when a current of 9A exists in its
coils. What average emf is induced if the current is reduced to zero in 0.45 s?

## 36. A 40 Ohm resistor is connected across a 15 V variable frequency electronic oscillator.

Find the current through the resistor when the frequency is (a) 100 Hz and (b) 100 kHz. What
is the current if the 40 Ohm resistor is replaced by a 2 mH inductor?
ANS: -With resistor, current is same both for 100 Hz and 100 kHz. With inductor, the current
is 11.9 A and 11.9 mA respectively

37. The axes of two magnets are collinear. One has poles of strength 80 Am separated by 125
mm, and the second has a magnetic moment of 12 A-m2 with poles of strength 160 Am.
Find the attractive force between the magnets if the north pole of one is 45 mm from the
south pole of the second.

## ANS: - Resultant force F = 2 attractive forces + 2 repulsive forces = 520 mN (attractive)

38. A coil A is connected to voltmeter V and the other coil B to an alternating current source
D. If a large copper sheet CC is placed between the two coils, how does the induced e.m.f in
the coil A change due to current in coil B?
ANS: - The induced e.m.f in coil A decreases due to large copper plate introduced between
the two coils as Cu is diamagnetic material

39. A magnet is moved in the direction indicated by an arrow between two coils A and B as
shown below. Suggest the direction of induced current in each coil L.

ANS: - Due to Lenzs law, end A will behave as South Pole and end B will behave as North
Pole. The end face A will have clock wise direction of current and end face B will have anti
clock wise direction of current when seen from the magnet side.

40. An electromagnet has stored 648 J of magnetic energy when a current of 9 A exists in its
coils. What average emf is induced if the current is reduced to zero in 0.45 sec.
ANS: - Calculate L = 16 H. e = L di/dt = 320 V

## 41. What is the magnitude of the induced current in

the circular loop-A B C D of radius r, if the straight
wire PQ carries a steady current of magnitude I
ampere?
ANS: - Zero Induced emf.

42. Two identical loops, one of copper and another of aluminum are rotated with the same
speed in the same M.F.In which case, the induced (a) e.m.f (b) current will be more and why?
ANS: - Induced emf will be same in the both but Induced Current will be more in Copper
loop.

43. Why is spark produced in the switch of a fan, when it is switched off?
ANS: - A large Induced emf is setup across the gap in the switch.

44. Coils in the resistance boxes are made from doubled up-insulated wire. Why?
ANS: - To cancel the effect of self Induced emf in the coil.

45. A galvanometer connected in an A.C. circuit does not show any deflection. Why?
ANS: - A galvanometer measures mean value of a.c., which is zero over a cycle.

46. A capacitor blocks D.C. but allows A.C to pass through it. Explain. Why?
1
ANS: - Xc = =
2 c

## ANS: - Magnetic flux linked with Primary

coil does not vary with time so no
Induced emf in secondary.

## 48. Calculate the r.m.s value of alternating

current shown in the figure.
ANS: - 2A.

49. The algebraic sum of potential drop across the various elements in LCR circuit is not
equal to the applied voltage. Why?
ANS: - Voltages across different elements of the LCR circuit are not
in same phase.

## 50. A copper ring is held horizontally and bar magnet is dropped

through the ring with its length along the axis of the ring. Will the
acceleration of the falling magnet be equal to, greater than or less than
that due to gravity?
ANS: - Less than that due to gravity.

## 51. A magnet is moved in the direction indicated by an arrow

between two coil A B and C D as shown in the figure. Suggest the direction of current in each
coil.
ANS: -For Coil AB: Anticlockwise.
For Coil CD: Anticlockwise.
52. Figure shows an inductor L and a
resistance R connected in parallel to a
battery through a switch. The resistance R
Which of the bulbs lights up earlier, when
K is closed?
Will the bulbs be equally bright after same
time?
ANS: -(i) The bulb B2 will light up
earlier. (ii) The bulb B1 will grow more
brightly.

53. How does the self inductance of a coil change, when Number of turns in the coil is
decreased? An iron rod is introduced into it. Justify your answer in each case.
ANS: -i. L n2 => L is decreased.
ii. L will Increase.

54. Figure shows two electric circuits A and B. Calculate the ratio of power factor of the
circuit B to the Power factor of the circuit A.

ANS: - 2 .

## 55. An inductor L of reactance XL is connected in

series with a bulb B to an A.C. source as shown in
the figure. Briefly explain, how does the brightness
of the bulb change when
(a) Number of turns of the inductor is reduced and
(b) A capacitor of reactance XC =XL is included in
series in the same circuit.
ANS: -(a) Bulb will grow more brightly.
(b) Brightness of the bulb will become maximum.

## 56. When a series combination of a coil of inductance L and a resistor of resistance R is

connected across a 12 V-50 Hz supply, a current of 0.5.A flows through the circuit. The

current differs in phase from applied voltage by radian. Calculate the value of L and R.
3
ANS: -L=0.066 H, R=12
57. An A.C. generator is connected to a sealed box through a pair of terminals. The box
may contain R L C or the series combination of any two of the three elements. Measurements
made outside the box reveal that:
E=75 Sin t (in volt) and

I= 1.2 Sin (t+ )( in ampere)
5
Name the circuit elements
What is the Power factor of the circuit?
What is the rate, at which energy is delivered by the generator to the circuit?
ANS: -(a). Series combination of a register and a capacitor.
(b). Power factor = cos = 0.81
(c). Pav = EvIvCos = 72.9W
58. Figure (a), (b) and (c) Show three alternating circuits with equal currents. If frequency
of alternating emf be increased, what will be the effect on currents In the three cases. Explain.

ANS: -(i) No effect (ii) current will decrease (iii)Current will Increase.
59. Does the current in an A.C. circuit lag, lead or remain in phase with the voltage of
frequency applied to the circuit when
(i) = r (ii) < r (iii) > r
where r is the resonance frequency.
ANS: -(i) Current and Voltage are in the same phase.
(ii) Current leads voltage by Phase angle .
(iii) Current lags behind voltage by Phase angle .

60. Two different coils have self inductance L1=8 mH and L2 = 2 mH. At a certain instant,
the current in the two coils is increasing at the same constant rate and the power supplied to
the two coils is same. Find the ratio of (a) induced voltage (b) current and (c) energy stored in
the two coils at that instant?
LdI e1 I1 1 U 1
ANS: - e = = 4 As P= eI = const = = 1 =
dt e2 I2 4 U2 4

UNIT-5
ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES

## 1.Why is the quantity 0 dE/dt called the displacement current?

2. Using a d.c. source, a capacitor has been fully charged. What are the magnitudes of
conduction and displacement currents?
3. What is the ratio of speed of infrared and ultraviolet rays in vacuum?
4. An electromagnetic wave consists of oscillating electric and magnetic fields. What is the
phase relationship between these oscillations?
5. Radio waves diffract predominately around building while light waves, which are also
electromagnetic waves, do not. Why?
6. Electromagnetic waves with wavelength
(i) 1 are used to treat muscular strain.
(iii) 3 are used to detect fracture in bones
(iv) 4 are absorbed by the ozone layer of the atmosphere.
Identify and name the part of electromagnetic spectrum to which these radiations belong.
.Arrange these wavelengths in decreasing order of magnitude.
7. (a) Which of the following, if any, can act as a source of electromagnetic waves?
(i) A charge moving with a constant velocity.
(ii) A charge moving in a circular orbit.
(iii) A charge at rest.
Give reason. (b) Identify the part of the electromagnetic spectrum to which waves of
frequency (i) 1020 Hz (ii)109 Hz belong to microwaves.
8)If the area of the TV telecast is to be doubled then what will be the height of the
transmitting antenna ?.
9.Which of the physical quantity is NOT transported by the em waves?
10.What happens to the average temperature on the surface of the earth if there is no
atmosphere?.
11. Mention the law, that which asserts that the electric field lines cannot form close loops?
12.What are the characteristics properties of electromagnetic waves?
13.The energy of the electromagnetic wave is in the order of 15KV . To which part of the
spectrum does it belong?
14. Name em waves are used in telecommunication.
15.what is condition for obtaining displacement current between the plate of the capacitor?
16.Mention the pair of space and time varying E and B fields which would generate a plane
em wave travelling in the z-direction?
Ex and By
17. A plane electromagnetic wave travels, in vacuum, along the y-direction. Write (i) the ratio
of the magnitude, and (ii) the directions of its electric and magnetic field vectors.
(ii) For an electromagnetic wave traveling along y-diretion, its electric and magnetic field

vectors are along z-axis and x-axis respectively. The direction of E B is same as that of

## direction of wave propagation and k i = j .

18. Suppose that the electric field amplitude of an electromagnetic wave is E0=120 NC-1 and
that its frequency is v=50.0 MHz.
(a) Determine, B0, w,k and . (b) Find expressions for E and B.
(b) It is necessary to use satellite for long distance TV transmission. Why?
(c) Optical and radio telescopes are built on the ground but X-ray astronomy is possible only
from satellites orbiting the earth. Why?
(d) If the earth did not have an atmosphere, would its average surface temperature be higher
or lower than what it is now?

OPTICS
1.When a photon collides with an electron, which of the following characteristics of the
photon increases?
2.Which of the following does not support the wave nature of light?
3.The distance travelled by the ray of light during the time octagonal mirror rotates through
90 isL if the mirror rotates at N revolution per second, what is the speed of light.
4. A star appear yellow . If it starts accelerating towards earth, how will its colour appears to
change.
5.Two points A and B are situated at the same distance from the source of light, but in
opposite direction from it.What is the phase difference between the light waves passing
through A and B?
6.When the light is polarized by reflection , what is the angle between reflected and refracted
rays.
7. For double refracting crystal the refractive indices , for the ordinary and extraordinary
denoted by o and e. What is the relation valid along the optical axis of the crystal.
8.What is the angle between planes of electric and magnetic field oscillation in case of light
waves?
9.What is the colour of the interference fringe nearest to the white central maximum incase of
white light?
10. What happens to the fringe pattern when YDS experiment is performed in water instead
of air?
11. A man stands in front of a mirror of special shape. He finds that his image has a very
small head, a fat body and legs of normal size. What can we say about the shapes of the three
arts of the mirror?
12. In which direction relative to the normal, does a ray of light bend, when it enters
obliquely a medium in which its speed is increased?
13. For the same angle of incidence, the angles of refraction in three different media A,B and
C are 15 ,25 and 35,respectively. In which medium will the velocity of light be minimum?
14. For what angle of incidence, the lateral shift produced by a parallel sided galss slab is
maximum?

15. If a plane glass slab is placed on letters of different colours, the red coloured letters
appear more raised up. Why?
16. Does refraction in a water tank make apparent depth same throughout?
17. The critical angle for glass-air interface is ic. Will the critical angle for glass-water
interface be greater than or less than ic?
18. An air bubble in a jar of water shines brightly. Why?
19.What happens to the shining of diamond if it is dipped in a transparent oil?
20.What type of a lens is a tumbler filled with water?
21.What type of a lens is an air bubble inside water? Give reason also.
22.A lens immersed in a transparent liquid is not visible. Under what condition can this
happen?
23. A lens whose radii of curvature are different is forming the image of an object placed on
its axis. If the lens is placed with its faces reversed, will the position of the image change?
24.What happens to focal length of a convex lens, when it is immersed in water ?
25.How does the focal length of a convex lens change if monochromatic red light is used
26.The radii of curvature of both the surfaces of a lens are equal. If one of the surfaces is
made plane by grounding, how will the focal length and power change?
27.A glass prism is held in water. How is the angle of minimum deviation affected?
28.A ray of light is normally incident on one face of an equilateral prism.Trace the course of
the ray through the prism and emerging from it.
29. What will be the colour of the sky in the absence of atmosphere?
30. Why do clouds appear white?
31. Why do sometimes we observe haloes (rings) round the sun or the moon?
32. Bees can see objects in the ultraviolet light while human beings cannot do so. Why?
33. A chicken wakes up early in the morning and goes to sleep by sunset. Why?
OR
Why is a chicken not able to see in the dim light?
35. Why is the focal length of an objective in compound microscope little shorter than the
focal length of the eyepiece?
36. You are provided with four lenses of focal length 1 cm, 3cm, 10cm and 100cm. Which
two would you prefer for a microscope and which two for a telescope?
37. Can we increase the range of a telescope by increasing the diameter of its objective?
38. A telescope has been adjusted for the relaxed eye. You are asked to adjust it for the least
distance of distinct vision, then how will you change the distance between the two lenses?
39. The distances of an object and its real image, measured from the focus of a concave
mirror, are a and b respectively. Show that f2 = ab.
40.A ray of light goes from medium 1 to medium 2. velocities of light in the two media are c1
and c2 respectively. For an angle of incidence in medium 1, the corresponding angle of
refraction in medium 2 is /2.
(i) Which of the two media is optically denser and why?
(ii) Establish the relationship between , c1 and c2.
41.A beam of light converges at a point on the screen. A plane parallel glass plate is
introduced in the path of this converging beam. How will the point of convergence be
affected? Draw the relevant ray diagram.
42. A microscope is focused on a dot at the bottom of a beaker. Some oil is poured into the
beaker to a height of y cm and it is found necessary to raise the microscope through a vertical
distance of x cm to bring the dot again into focus. Express refractive index of oil in terms of x
and y.
43. A ray of light while traveling from a denser to a rarer medium undergoes total reflection.
Derive the expression for the critical angle in terms of the speed of light in the respective
media.

44.Explain the twinkling of stars. Why do the planets not show twinkling effect?
.

45. Only the stars near the horizon twinkle while those overhead do not twinkle. Why?
46.Show that a convex lens produces an N times magnified image when the objet distances,
from the lens, have magnitudes (f f / N). Here f is the magnitude of the focal length of the
lens. Hence find the two values of object distance, for which a convex lens, of power 2.5D,
will produce am image that is four times as large as the object?

47.Use the lens equation to deduce algebraically what you know otherwise from explicit ray
diagrams. (a) An object placed within the focus of a convex lens produce a virtual and
enlarged image. (b) A concave lens produces a virtual and diminished image independent of
the location of the object.
48. A beam of white light on passing through a hollow prism gives no spectrum. Why?

49. Give reasons for the following observations on the surface of the moon: (i) Sunrise and
sunset are abrupt. (ii) Sky appear dark. (iii) A rainbow is never formed.
.
NUMERICAL PROBLEMS
50. The bottom of a container is a 4.0 cm thick glass. (=1.5) slab. The container contains
two immiscible liquids And B of depths 6.0 cm and 8.0 cm respectively. What is the apparent
position of a scratch on the outer surface of the bottom of the glass slab when viewed through
the container? Refractive indices of A and B are 1.4 and 1.3 respectively.
51. The refractive index of water is 4/3. Obtain the value of the semivertical angle of the cone
within which the entire outside view would be confined for a fish under water. Draw an
appropriate ray diagram.

52. A lens forms a real image of an object. The distance of the object to the lens is 4 cm and
the distance of the image from the lens is v cm. The given graph shows the variation of v with
u. (i) What is the nature of the lens? (ii) Using this graph, find the focal length of this lens.
53. A ray of light passes through an equilateral glass prism, such that the angle of incidence is
equal to the angle of emergence. If the angle of emergence is times the angle of the prism,
Calculate the refractive index of the glass prism.

OPTICS
54. State the conditions which must be satisfied for two light sources to be coherent.

55. Two independent light sources cannot act as coherent sources. Why?
56. No interference pattern is detected when two coherent sources are infinitely close to one
another. Why?
57. If the path difference produced due to interference of light coming out of two slits for
yellow colour of light at a point on the screen be 3/2, what will be the colour of the fringe at
the point. Give reason also.
58. What happens to the interference pattern if the phase difference between the two sources
varies continuously?
59. Radiowaves diffract pronouncedly around the buildings, while light waves, which are
e.m. waves do not why?
60. Coloured spectrum is seen, when we look through a muslin cloth. Why.
61. How is a wavefront different from a ray? Draw the geometrical shape of the wavefronts
when (i) light diverges from a point source, and (ii) light emerges out of convex lens when a
point source is placed at its focus.
62. In a youngs double slit experiment, the position of the first fringe coincides with S1 and
S2 respectively. What is the wavelength of light?
63. Draw the diagram showing intensity distribution of light on the screen for diffraction of
light at a single slit. How is the width of central maxima affected on increasing the
(i) Wavelength of light used (ii) width of the slit/
What happens to the width of the central maxima if the whole apparatus is immersed in water
and why?
64. What two main changes in diffraction pattern of single slit will you observe when the
monochromatic source of light is replaced by a source of white light?
65. Explain with reason, how the resolving power of a compound microscope will change
when (i) frequency of the incident light on the objective lens is increased. (ii) focal length of
the objective lens is increased, and (iii) aperture of the objective lens is increased.
66. The critical angle between a given transparent medium and air is denoted by ic, A ray of
light in air medium enters this transparent medium at an agle of incidence equal to the
polarizing angle(ip). Deduce a relation for the angle of refraction (rp) in terms of ic.
NUMERICAL QUESTIONS

67. Two Sources of Intensity I and 4I are used in an interference experiment. Find the
intensity at points where the waves from two sources superimpose with a phase difference (i)
zero (ii) /2 (iii) .
68. In a two slit experiment with monochromatic light, fringes are obtained on a screen
placed at some distance D from the slits. If the screen is moved 5 x 10-2 m towards the slits,
the charge in fringe width is 3 x 10 -5 m. If the distance between the slit is 10-3 m . calculate
the wavelength of the light used.
69. A narrow monochromatic beam of light of intensity I is incident a glass plate. Another
identical glass plate is kept close to the first one and parallel to it. Each plate reflects 25% of
the incident light and transmits the reaming. Calculate the ratio of minimum and maximum
intensity in the interference pattern formed by the two beams obtained after reflection from
each plate.

UNIT-VII
DUAL NATURE OF MATTER AND RADIATIONS

## 1. If wavelength of electromagnetic waves are doubled what will happen to energy of

photon?
2. Alkali metals are most suitable for photoelectric emission. Why?
3. Out of microwaves, UV, IR which radiation will be most effecting for emission of
electrons from a metallic surface?
4. Can X-rays cause photoelectric effect?
5. If the intensity of incident radiation on a metal is doubled what happens to the K.E of
electrons emitted?
6. What is the value of stopping potential between the cathode and anode of photocell? If the
max K.E of electrons emitted is 5eV?
7. It is easier to remove an electron from sodium than from copper, which has a higher value
of threshold wavelength?
8. What is the role of photocell in cinematography?
9. An electron and photon possessing same K.E. Which one will have greater wavelength?
10. In Davisson Germer experiment if the angle of diffraction is 520 find Glancing angle?
11. What is the energy associated with a photon of wavelength 6000 A0 ?
12. What is the effect on the velocity photo electrons, if the wavelength of incident light
is decreased?
13. Show graphically how the stopping potential for a given metal varies with a frequency of
14. To work functions 2ev and 5ev for two metals x and y respectively. Which metal will emit electrons,
when it is irradiated with light and wave length 400nm and why?
15. A photon and an electron have same de-broglie wavelength. Which has greater total energy.Explain?
16. The de-broglie wave length of a photon is same as the wave length of electron. Show that K.E. of a
photon is 2mc /h times K.E. of electron. Where m is mass of electron,c is velocity of light.
17. Derive the expression of de-broglie wave length in terms of energy of energy and temperature?
18. Light from bulb falls on a wodden table but no photon electrons are emitted why ?
19.Following table gives values of work function for a few photosensitive metal.
S.NO Metal Work function(ev)
1 Na 1.92
2 K 2.15
3 Mo 4.17
If each metal is exposed to radiation of wavelength 300nm which of them will not emit photo
electron.
20.An electron and alpha particle and proton have same kinetic energy , which have shortest
De-broglie wavelength?
21. The De-broglie wave length associated with proton and neutron are equal.Which has
greater kinetic energy?.
22.A stream of electron travelling with a speed at right angle to a uniform electric field E, is
deflected in a circular path of radius r . Prove that e/m = v2/rE.
23.If the potential difference used to accelerate electron is doubled , by what factor the De-
broglie wave length of the electron beam changed.
24. The De-broglie wave length associated with an electron accelerated through the potential
difference V is . What will be its wave length , when accelerating potential is increased to
4v?
25.Visible light can not eject photo electrons from copper surface, whose work function is
4.4 ev , why? Prove mathematically.

EXTRA QUESTIONS
1. Neutrons, in thermal equilibrium with matter have an average KE = 3/2 kT .
Compute de-Broglies wavelength associated
2. A nucleus of mass M initially at rest splits in two fragments of masses M/3
& 2M/3. Find the ratio of de-Broglies wavelength of two fragments.
3. X-rays of wavelength 0.82 A0 fall on metallic surface. Calculate de-Broglies
wavelength of emitted photoelectrons. Ignore of the metal.
4. Wavelength of photon and de-Broglies wavelength of electron has same
value. Show that energy of photon is 2mc/h times the KE of electron.
5. Compare energy of electron of de-Broglies wavelength 1 A0 with that of an
X-ray photon of the same wavelength.
6. Calculate the ratio of de-Broglie wavelength associated with deutron moving
with velocity 2v and a -particle moving with velocity v.
7. An -particle and proton are accelerated from rest through same PD V.
Find the ratio of de-Broglie wavelength associated with them.
8. Calculate de-Broglies wavelength associated with an electron of energy
200eV. What will be the change in if accelerating potential is increased to
4 times.
9. What is the (i) momentum (ii) speed and (iii) de-Broglie wavelength of
electron of kinetic energy 120 eV.
10.Show that the wavelength of electromagnetic radiation is equal to the de-
Broglie wavelength of its photon.
11. An electron, -particle and a proton have same KE. Which of these particles
have shortest wavelength?
12. The threshold frequency for a certain metal is 3.3*1014 Hz. If light of
frequency 8.2*1014 Hz is incident on the metal. Predict the velocity of
ejected electrons and cut-off voltage.
13.The work function of two metals A and B are respectively 1.2 eV and 2.4
eV. Light of wavelength 600nm falls on these metals.
(i) Which metal / metals will give photoelectric emission?
(ii) What is the maximum velocity and cut-off potential?
(iii) If the source is moved away, how does it affect the stopping
potential?
14. The energy flux of sun reaching the earth is 1.3888*103 Wm-2. How many
photons per square m is incident on the earth per sec. Assume average
wavelength of sunlight = 550nm.
15. In an experiment on photoelectric effect, the slope of cut-off voltage versus
frequency of light is found to be 4.12*10-15 Vs. Calculate the value of
Planks constant.
16.The Photoelectric cut-off voltage for certain metal is 1.5V. What is the
maximum KE of photoelectrons?
17. The threshold frequency of metal is f. When the light of frequency 2f is
incident on it the maximum velocity of photoelectrons is v1. When the
frequency is increased to 5f, the maximum velocity of photoelectrons is v2
Find v1 /v2.
18.The work function of cesium is 2.14 eV. Find (i) threshold frequency (ii)
wavelength of light if the photoelectrons are stopped with stopping potential
0.6V.
19.In a plot of photoelectric current versus anode potential, how does
a. the saturation current vary with anode potential for incident
radiations of different frequencies but same intensity.
b. The stopping potential varies for incident radiations of different
intensities but same frequency?
c. Photoelectric current vary for different intensities but same frequency
20. The radiations of frequency 1015 Hz are incident on two photosensitive
surfaces A and B. Following observations are recorded:
Surface A: no photo electric emission takes place.
Surface B: Photoemission takes place photo electrons have zero energy.
Explain the above observations on the basis of Einsteins photoelectric
equations. How will the observations with surface B change when the
wavelength of incident radiations is decreased?
21. An electron, -particle and a proton have same de-Broglie wavelength.
Which of these particles has (i) minimum KE and (ii) maximum KE and
why? In what way has the wave nature of electron beam exploited in
electron microscope?
22.Calculate the (i) momentum and (ii) de- Broglie wavelength of electron
accelerated through a potential difference of 56 V. On increasing the
potential how this can improve the resolving power of a microscope.

## 23. Light of frequency 2.5 0 is incident on surface of threshold frequency 0 and

the photoelectric current is 1 mA. If frequency of light is halved and
intensity is doubled, find new photoelectric current.
24. For what KE of neutron, will the associated de Broglie wavelength be
1.32*10-10 m?
25.The work function of three metals Na, K and Mo are respectively 1.92, 2.15
and 4.17 eV. If each of the metal is exposed to light of wavelength 300 nm,
which of them will not emit photoelectrons and why?
26.By how much would the Stopping Potential a for given surface goes up
if the frequency of the Incident radiation were to be increased from 4
1015Hz to 8 1015Hz?

## 27. Calculate de-Broglie wave length of

(i) an electron (mass 3 10 2 kg moving with speed 100 m/s. Hence
show that wave nature in hydrogen atom) moving with speed 1/100
of speed of light in vacuum and (ii) a ball of radius 5 mm and of
matter is important at atomic level
but is not really relevant at the macroscopic level.

## 28.The de-Brouglie wavelength associated with proton and a neutron is found to

be equal. Which of the two has higher value of kinetic energy?

## 29. Graph showing variation of VS with frequency for two

M1 M2 material is given.
(i) What are the values of work
function for M1 and M2 VS
(ii)The values of VS for these for frequency 3 (3 > 02)
are V1 and V2. Show that slope of lines equals
V1 - V2) / (02 - 01) 01 02

## 30.Through what potential difference should an electron be accelerated so that

its de-broglie wavelength becomes 0.4 Ao.
31.Monochromatic light of frequency 6x1014 Hz is produced by a LASER. The
power emitted is 2x10-3 W. a) What is the energy of photon in the light beam. b)
How many photons per sec on the average are emitted by the source. [Ans. (a)
2.49 eV, (b) 5x1015 sec-1]
32.If 5 % of the energy supplied to an incandescent light bulb is radiated as
visible light, how many visible quantas are emitted by a 100W bulb? Assuming
the wavelength of all the visible light to be 5000 Ao.
[Ans. 1.41x1019 J]
33.If the wavelength of incident light changes from 4400 Ao to 4000 Ao, then
find the change in stopping potential. [Ans. -0.26 eV]
UNIT-VIII
ATOMIC NUCLEUS

1) what conclusions were drawn from the observation in which few alpha-particle
were seen rebounding from gold foil?
2) which observation led to the conclusion in the -particle scattering exp. That atom
has vast empty space?
3) Compare the radii of two nuclei with mass number 1 and 27 respectively.
4) Two nuclei have mass numbers in the ratio 1:8.What is the ratio of their nuclear
5) which have greater ionizing power:-particles or -particles?
6) The half life of a radioactive substance in 30 days. What is the time taken for
of its original mass to disintegrate?
7) Why neutrons are considered as ideal particle for nuclear reactions?
8) Does the ratio of neutrons and protons in the nucleus increase, decreases or
remain the same after the emission of particles?
9) Why is the ionization power of particle of greater than rays?
10) A radio isotope of silver has a half life of 20 minutes. What fraction of the
original mass would remain after one hour?
11) What changes takes place in the nucleus when a rays is emitted?
12) Can a single nucleus emit particle, particle and a rays together?
13) Two nuclei have mass no. in the ratio 1:2. What is the ratio their nuclear
densities?
14) Establish the relationship between half life of a radio- active substance and
decay
constant.
15) Explain how particle scattering experiment led to Rutherford to estimate the
size of the
nucleus.
16) The activity of a radio active material drops to 1-16th of its initial value in 30
days. Find its
half life.
17) In a particular fission reaction, a U235 nucleus captures a slow neutron. The
fission products are 3 neutrons, a La 142 and fission products X y z .What is
the value of Y and Z.
18) You are given two nuclides X
b) Which one of the two is likely to be more stable? Give reason.
19) A certain radio active substance has a half life of 30 days. What is the
disintegration
constant? Find its average life.
20) Find the time required to decay 3/4th of a radioactive sample whose half life is
60 days.
21) Neon -23 decays in the following way
23
Ne10 ---------------23Na11 + 0e-1 +
Find the minimum and maximum kinetic energy that the -particle can have.
The atomic masses of 23Ne10 and 23Na11 are 22.99454 and 22.98984
respectively.
22) The disintegration rate of a certain radioactive sample at any instant is 4750
disintegrations per minute. Five minutes later the rate becomes 2700 per
minute. Calculate
a) Decay constant
b) Half-life of the sample
23) Explain with an example, whether neutron-proton ratio increases or
decreases during beta decay.
24) The half life period of radioactive element A is the same as the mean half time
of another radioactive element B.Initially both of them have the same number of
atoms. The radioactive element B decays faster than A. Explain why?
25) Obtain the binding energy of a nitrogen nucleus from the following data
mh=1.007834; mn=1.00867; mN=14.03074
26) Write nuclear equations for
a) The -decay of 226Ra88
b) The - -decay of 32P15
c) The + decay of32P15
27) A neutron is absorbed by a 6Li3 nucleus with the subsequent emission of an
alpha particle.
i) Write the corresponding nuclear reactions.
ii) Calculate the energy released in MeV, in this reaction.
Given mass 6Li3=6.0151264; mass (neutron) =1.00966544
Mass (alpha particle)=4.00260444 and mass(triton)=3.01000004
Extra Questions
1. Calculate the energy released in the following nuclear reaction.
3 Li 7 + 0 n 1 2 He 4 + 1 H 3

## 2. When a deutron of mass 2.0141amu is absorbed by a Li 6 nucleus of

3
mass 6.015amu, the nucleus splits into two -particles each of mass
4.0026amu. Calculate energy carried by each -particles.

## 3. A nucleus Na 23 undergoes -decay to give 11 Na 23. Write down the

10
nuclear reaction. Calculate KE of electron. Given mass of 10 Na 23 =
22.994466amu, mass of 11 Na 23 = 22.989770amu.

## 4. A neutron is absorbed by 3 Li 6 nucleus with the subsequent emission of a

-particle. (i) Write the corresponding nuclear reaction.
(ii) Calculate the energy released. M 3Li6 = 6.015126amu, m(n) =
1.0086654amu, mass of triton = 3.0100000amu.

5. The mass of the star is 5 * 1032 kg. It generates energy at the rate of 5 *
1030 W. How long does it take to convert all Helium to carbon at this rate.
3 2 He 4 6 C
12
+ 7.27 MeV
6. Prove mathematically that the fraction N / N0 of a radioactive element left
over after a time t equals 1 / x where x = 2 t/T. T is half-life period.

## 7. The radioactive nuclei X and Y contain equal number of atoms. Their

half-life periods are 1 H and 2 H respectively. Calculate the ratio of their
activity after 2 Hrs.

8. How many disintegrations per sec will occur in one gm of 92 U 238, if its
half-life period is 1.42 * 10 17 sec.

## 9. A radioactive sample contains 2.2mg of pure C 11, having half-life

6
period 1224seconds. Calculate (i) Number of active atoms
(ii) Activity when 5 gm of sample is left.

10. The half-life period of U 238 against -decay is 4.5 * 109 years. What is
92
the activity of 1g sample?

## 11. Obtain the amount of Co 60 necessary to provide a radioactive source of

27
8 mC. The half-life period of Co60 is 5.3 years.

## 12. A 12.5 MeV -particle approaching a gold nucleus is deflected back by

1800.
How close does it approach the nucleus

.75

0.5
0.25

## 70 140 210 280 time (days)

16. The half-life period of radioactive sample is 5500 years. Its initial
activity is
found to be 15 decays per min per gram. In how much time would its
activity reduces to 10 decays per min per gm? (Given log e3 = 1.0986 and
loge2 0.693)

17. The decay constant for a given radioactive sample is 0.3465 days-1. What
% of this sample gets decayed in a period of 4 days?

18. The nucleus U238is unstable against -decay with a half-life of about
92
4.5x 109 years. Write down the equation of this decay and estimate the
KE of emitted -particle from the following data {m (92U238 = 238.05081
amu, m (2 He4 = 4.00260 amu, m (90Th234 = 234.04363 amu}
(4.19 MeV)

19. How many and particles are emitted when 92U238 changes into 82Pb206.

## 20. The energy level of an atom of element X is given below.

Which one of the level transitions results in the emission of photon of
0
-1 eV
A B C

-3 eV
D E
-10 eV
20. Calculate the longest and shortest wavelength of Lyman series. Given R =
10967700 m-1. (911.6 A0, 1215 A0)

21. The wavelength of second line of the Balmer series in hydrogen spectrum
is 4861 A0. Calculate the wavelength of first line. (6562 A0)
+3
22. Which state of the triply ionized beryllium atom (Be ) has the same
orbital radius as that of the ground state of hydrogen atom? {rn n2 /Z}
Ans n = 2.
+2
23. Which level of double ionized lithium (Li ) has same energy as the
ground state energy of hydrogen atom? Compare the orbital radius of two
levels. {En Z2 / n2)

24. Calculate the frequency of photon, which can excite the electron to 3.4
eV from 13.6 eV. (2.47 1015 Hz)

25.Show that the shortest wavelength lines in Lyman, Balmer and Paschen
series have their wavelength ratio 1: 4: 9.

26.The potential energy of the electron in ground state is 27 eV, what is its
potential and kinetic energies?

## 27.Show that the wavelength of electromagnetic radiation is equal to the de

Broglie wavelength of its photon.
28. A radioactive sample has N0 nuclei at t = 0. Its no. of undecayed nuclei
get reduced to N0 /e at t = . What does the term stand for? Write in
term of the time interval T in which half of original number of nuclei,
of this radionucleide would have got decayed?

29. If the nucleus Fe56 splits into two nuclei of 13Al28. Would the energy be
26
released or needed for this process to occur? Also calculate this energy.
Given m (26Fe56) = 55.93494 amu, m(13Al28 ) = 27.98191 amu.

## 30.Calculate the ratio of energies of photon due to transition of electron of

hydrogen atom from (i) second permitted energy level to first level (ii)
highest permitted energy level to second permitted level.

## 31. Prove that the instantaneous rate of change of activity of a radioactive

substance is inversely proportional to the square of its half-life period.

## 32. The nucleus of an atom Y235 initially at rest decays by emitting an -

92
235 231
particle as per equation 92Y 90X + 2He4 + energy. It is
given that BE per nucleon of parent and the daughter nuclei are 7.8 MeV
and 7.835 MeV and that of -particle is 7.07 MeV / nucleon. Assuming
the daughter nucleus to be formed in unexcited state and neglecting its
share of in energy of the reaction, calculate the speed of emitted -
particle. Take mass of -particle = 6.68 10-27 kg.

33. Four nuclei of an atom fuse together to form a heavier nucleus. If the
process is accompanied by release of energy, which of the two parent or
daughter nucleus have higher BE/nucleon?

34.The spectrum of a star in the visible and the ultraviolet region was
observed and wave-length of some of the lines were identified were
found to be
824 A0, 970 A0, 1120 A0, 2504 A0, 5173 A0, 6100 A0
Which of these lines cannot belong to hydrogen atom spectrum.
(Given R = 1.03 107 m-1) and 1 / R = 970 A0. Support your answer
with proper calculation.

## 35. Why a nucleus can eject electron (B particle) though it contain no

electron?

36.Why nucleuses have mass less than the sum of masses of individual
nucleons in them?
37.How wills the distance of closest approach changes: a) when the kinetic
energy is of the projectile is doubled? B) when the velocity of projectile
is halved.

## 38. The second member of Lyman series in hydrogen spectrum has

wavelength 5400 Ao. Find the wavelength of first number.

## 39.What is the effect of temperature and pressure on the radioactivity?

40. What is the value of impact parameter of alpha particle scattered through
an angle of 180o.
41.Draw the graph showing the distribution of electrons emitted during beta
decay.
UNIT-9
ELECTRONIC DEVICES

1.What is the order of energy gap in a conductor, semi conductor, and insulator?.
2.Why does the conductivity of a semi conductor change with the rise in temperature ?
3. Is the number of electrons greater than, less than (or) equal to the number of holes in an
intrinsic semi conductor?
4.Show in a energy band diagram the donor level for an N-type semi conductor.
5.. Draw in a energy band the acceptor level for a P-type semi conductor .
6.what is knee voltage in a junction Diode?
7. In transistor a current controlled (or)temperature controlled device?.
8. In a given diagram ,is the diode reverse (or) forward biased?.

## 9.which gate is represented by the following diagram?.

10.The ratio of number of free electrons to holes ne/nh for two different materials A and B are
1 and <1 respectively. Name the type of semi conductor to which A and B belongs.
11.In half wave rectification , what is the output frequency if the input frequency is 50 hz.
What is the output frequency of a full wave rectification for the same input frequency.
12. How can you relate drift velocity and mobility of an electron?
13. Show by the graph how does the current vary with the voltage change for a junction
diode.
14. Why do semiconductors obey OHMS law for only low fields?
15. Mention the factors upon which Tranconductance of a transistor depend.
16. For faster action which transistor is used and why?
17. What are input and output characteristics of a transistor? Draw the graphs.
Ans:
18. A germanium diode is preferred to a silicon one for rectifying small voltages. Explain
why?
Ans: Because the energy gap for Ge ( Eg = 0.7 ev) is smaller than the energy gap for Si
(Eg = 1.1ev ) . Moreover, the germanium diode is much more open to the danger of
high temperature affect than silicon at high voltage.
19.Express by a truth table the output Y for all possible inputs A and B in the
A
Y

B
circuit shown below.
20. Write the Boolean equation and truth table for the circuit shown below.What is the output
when all the inputs are high?
C
Y

B
A

21) Construct AND gate using NAND GATE and give its truth table.
23. For a common emitter amplifier, current gain = 50. If the
emitter current is 6.6mA, calculate collector and base
current. Also calculate current gain, when emitter is working
as common base amplifier.
24.The base current is 100A and collector current is 3mA.
a) Calculate the values of , Ie, and
b) A change of 20A in the base current produces a change of 0.5mAin the collector
current. Calculate a.c.

## 25. In NPN transistor circuit, the collector current is 5mA. If

95% of the electrons emitted reach the collector region,
what is the base current?

Ans: Here
Ic=95% of Ie = (95 / 100 ) Ie
Ie = (100 / 95) 5 mA = 5.26mA
Ie= Ic+ Ib
Ib = 0.25 mA
26. In a transistor circuit shown the figure, the emitter current is
5mA and collector current 4.75 mA. Calculate the base
current and the value of Rb.

27.A circuit symbol of a logic gate and two input wave forms A
and B are shown.

A
Y
B
A

## a) Name the logic gate

b) Give the output wave form

28. The diode shown in the figure has a constant voltage drop of
0.5V at all currents and a maximum power rating of 100mW.
What should be the value of resistance R connected in series,
for maximum current.?

## 29.For a transistor working as a common base amplifier,

current gain is 0.96. If the emitter current is 7.2mA, then
calculate the base current.

30. For a common emitter amplifier, the current gain is 70. If the
emitter current is 8.8mA, calculate the collector and base
current.

## 31.The base current of a transistor is 105 A and collector

current is 2.05 mA.
a) Deterine the value of , Ie , and
b) A change of 27 A in the base current produces a change of 0.65 mA in the collector
current . Find a.c.

## 32. In a silicon transistor, a change of 7.89mA in the emitter

current produces a change of 7.8 mA in the collector cur-
rent. What change in the base current is necessary to
produce an equivalent change in the collector current?

(1) Out of electrons and holes, which has higher mobility?
(2) Which special type of diode can act as a voltage regulator? Give the symbol of this diode
and draw the general shape of its V-I characteristics.
(3) What do you mean by rectification?
(4) If a semiconductor has an intrinsic carrier concentration of when doped
with phosphorous atoms, calculate the concentration of at room
temperature .
(5) In a common emitter circuit, if VCE is changed by 0.5 V, collector current Changes by
0.002 mA. What is the output resistance?
(6) Name the electrical circuits used to get smooth D.C. output from a rectified circuit.
(7) How does the energy gap of an intrinsic semiconductor vary when doped with a
trivalent impurity?
(8) Draw energy band diagram of n-type semiconductor.
(9) A semiconductor has equal electron and hole concentration 6108 /m3 .On doping with a
certain impurity, electron concentration increases to 81012 /m3 .Identify the type of
semiconductor after doping.
(10) How does the dc current gain of a transistor change, if the width of the base region is
increased?
(11) Why are photodiodes used preferably in reverse bias condition?

2 marks questions
(1) In the working of a transistor, emitter base junction is forward biased, while the collector
base junction is reverse biased, why:
To make transistor to act as an amplifier.
(2) In a transistor base is lightly doped and is a thin layer, why?
To reduce the neutralization in the base emitter junction.
(3)What is the condition for the state of saturation of a transistor?

(4)Write the truth table for the following logic circuit shown in the figure below.

3 marks questions

(1) Discuss how the OR gate is realized from the NOR gate.
(2) Why is the base region of a transistor usually made thin?In a common emitter mode of
transisitor, d.c. current gain is 20, the emitter current is 7 mA. Calculate (i) base current,
and (ii) collector current.

(3) The input resistance of a silicon transistor is 665 . Its base current is changed by 15
A, which results in change of collector current by 2mA. This transistor is used as a
common emitter amplifier with a load resistance of 5 k . Calculate (i) current gain ,
(ii) transconductance gm, and (iii) voltage gain Av of the amplifier.
(4) Draw the energy band diagram of a p-type semiconductor. Distinguish between p-type
and n-type semiconductor.
(5)Explain briefly with the help of a circuit, how V-I characteristics of a p-n junction diode
are obtained in (a) Forward bias (b) Reverse bias. Draw the shape of curves obtained.
(6)In a common emitter transistor amplifier, the input resistance of a transistor is 100 ohm.
On changing its base current by 10A, the collector current increases by 2mA.If a load
resistance of 5kilo ohm is used in the circuit, calculate (a) current gain (b) voltage gain of
the amplifier
(7) Two signals A, B as given below, are applied as input to (i) AND (ii) NOR and
(iii) NANDgates. Draw the output wave-form in each case.

Input A

0 t
t1 t2 t3 t4 t5 t6 t7 t8

Input B
0 t
t1 t2 t3 t4 t5 t6 t7 t8

5 marks questions

(1) Draw a circuit diagram to obtain the characteristics of a n-p-n transistor in common
emitter configuration. Describe how you will obtain input and output characteristics.
Give shape of the curves.
(2) Explain the function of base region of a transistor. Draw a circuit diagram to study the
input and output characteristics of NPN transistor in a common emitter (CE)
configuration. Show these characteristics graphically. Explain how the current
amplification factor is calculated from these characteristics.
(3) Explain the working of transistor as an oscillator with the help of a neat diagram.
(4) A student has to study the input and output characteristics of a n-p-n silicon
transistor in the Common Emitter configuration. What kind of a circuit
arrangement should she use for this purpose? Draw the typical shape of input
characteristics likely to be obtained by her. What do we understand by the cut off,
active and saturation states of the transistor? In which of these states does the
transistor not remain when being used as a switch?
(5) Input signals A and B are applied to the input terminals of the dotted box set-up
shown here. Let Y be the final output signal from the box. Draw the wave forms
of the signals labeled as C1 and C2 within the box, giving (in brief) the reasons
for getting these wave forms. Hence draw the wave form of the final output signal
Y. Give reasons for your choice. What can we state (in words) as the relation
between the final output signal Y and the input signals A and B?
UNIT-10
COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS.

## 1) Why are micro wave used in radars?

2) Why sky waves are not used in the transmission of television signals?
3) What should be the desirable characteristic of a diode detector?

## 4) Give a velocity factor of a line.

5) Why is delta modulation a convenient method of digital modulation.
6) Where the two wire transmission line, Coaxial cable, Optical fiber are employed.
7).what is heterodyning?.
8).What is population inversion? How is it achieved?.
9).Enumerate the various types of Lasers?.
10)Lists some of the applications of Lasers?.
11)Name the prime elements of a telecommunications network.
12) Audio signal cannot be transmitted directly in to the space why?
13) What is pulse modulation?
14) What is precisely meant by the term channel in a communication system ?
15) Why does the electrical conductivity of earths atmosphere increase with altitude ?
16) Explain numerical aperture in fibre optical
17) Differentiate between (i) PAM and (II) PPM .
18)Why the transmission of signal is not possible for frequency greater than 20Mhz .
19)How does the effective power radiated by the antenna vary with wavelength?
20)what should be the length of the dipole antenna for a carrier wave of 5 X 10 8hz ?
21)By how much should the height of the antenna be increased to double the coverage range
R= 6400 Km.
22) A TV. tower has a height of lOOm . How much population is covered by the TV.
broadcaste if the average population density around the tower is 1000/km2
23)Ground receiver station is receiving a signal at (i) 5MH and (ii 100MHz transmitted from
a round transmitter at a height of 300 m, located at a distance of 100 km from the receiver
station. Identify whether the signal is coming via space wave or sky wave propagation or
satellite transponder. Radius of earth = 6.4 x 106 m. Nmax of the Isosphere = 1012 m3
24)A schematic arrangement for transmitting a message signal (20 Hz to 20kHz) is given
below:

Give two drawbacks from which this arrangement suffers. Describe briefly with the help of a
block diagram the alternative arrangement for the transmission and reception of the message
signal.
25) The maximum peak-to-peak voltage of an AM wave is 16mV
and the minimum peak-to peak voltage is 4mV.Calculate the modulation factor.
26) An AM wave is represented by the expression:
v = 5(1+0.6cos6280t) sin 221 X 104t volts
(i) What are the maximum and minimum amplitudes of the
AM wave.
(ii) What frequency components are contained in the modulated
wave.
27) An audio signal of 1 kHz is used to modulate a carrier of
500 kHz. Determine
(i) Sideband frequency.
(ii) Bandwidth required.
28) The antenna current of an AM transmitter is 8A when only
carrier is sent but it increases to 8.93A when the carrier is
sinusoid ally modulated. Find the percent-age modulation
index.
29) A 100 MHz carrier is modulated by a 12 kHz sine wave
so as to cause a frequency swing of +50kHz. Find the
modulation index.
30) The TV transmission tower at a particular place has a height
of 160m. What is its coverage range? By how much should
the height be increased to double its coverage range? Given
that radius of earth = 6400 km.
31) A TV tower has a height of 110m. How much population is
covered by the TV broadcast if the average population
density around the tower is 1000 km-2? Given that radius of
Earth = 6.4 X 106m.
32)A microwave telephone link operating at the cenral frequency
of 10 GHz has been established .If 2 % of this is available for
microwave communication channel, then how many
telephones channels can be simultaneously granted if each
telephone is allotted a band width of 8 KHz .
33) You are given three semiconductors A,B,C with respective
band gaps of 3eV, 2eV and 1eV for use in a photodetector to
detect = 1400nm . Select the suitable semiconductor. Give
reasons.
34) Frequencies higher than 10MHz are found not to be
reflected by the ionospere on a particular day at a
place. Calculate th maximum electron density of the
ionosphere.

35) Draw a block diagram of data transmission and a data receiver. Explain them briefly.
36). Explain how the optical communication system offers the possibility of millions of
channels with increased band width. Give an additional advantage of optical communication
system over a system employing a co axial cable.
37) Give the names of the Indian satellites launched from the erstwhile USSR for remote
sensing.
38) Expand the following abbreviations:
APPLE, INSAT, IRS, ISRO, ASLV.
39) . What is the role played by launch vehicles in space exploration ? How is it different
from a space shuttle ? Merition any two facilities a country needs to develop to achieve self-
sufficiency in space programmes.
40) Explain how TV programmes are transmitted to remote areas through communication
satellites.
41) Explain (a) Modem Transmission (b) Modem Reception.
42) How does Heterodyning distinguish from CW signals?.
43) In a diode AM detector the output circuit consists of R =108 and C = 10 pF. A carrier
signal of frequency 105hz is to be detected .Is it good?.
44) On a particular day maximum frequency reflected from the ionosphere is 9Mhz.On
another day it was found to increase by one Mhz.What is the ratio of the maximum electron
density of the ionosphere on the two days.Hints: Nmax / nmax = (c/c)2= 1.23

## HINTS FOR HOTS-CLASS-XII(PHYSICS)

UNIT-1
HINTS FOR ELECTROSTAICS
1. In the dielectric medium between the plates.
2. High potential, as electrons are negatively charged.
3. Zero
4. Zero
5. ML-1T-2
6. Zero
7. No.
8. Because they are indicators of electric field, extending to infinite distance.
9. C is proportional to A (area) Therefore C2 = 2C1
Since C = Q/V ,So the slope represents more capacitance. Hence P represents C2,Q
represents C1
10. Each charge experiences two forces each of magnitude F inclined at an angle of 600.Their
resultant is given by [F2 + F2 +2F2cos 60]1/2 = 3.F
11. (i)According to defn of P.D.,
VP>VQ .So VP-VQ is +ve for q>0.
(ii)For q<0, VQ >VP .So VP-VQ is -ve
12. Flux = 0, since Qen = 0
13. Due to polaraisation,opposing electric field is created.
14. Electric field at the midpoint of a dipole of length 2a is 2kq/a pointing towards the ve
charge or in the
direction opposite to the dipole moment.
15. Inside the cavity field at any point is uniform and non zero.
16. No. If the initial velocity of the charged particle makes a certain angle with a line of
force, then the
charged particle shall not move along the line of force.
17. E= -dv/dr= -d(q/4or)/dr = q/4or2
18. Yes, at the mid point of electric dipole.
19. U = kq2/a- kq2/2a- kq2/2a = 0.
20. C = C+C+C = 3C = 75F
Therefore, charge = 75F x 4200 V = 315 mC*
21. Total = q0/o = 2/o , flux through one face = /6 = 1/3 o.
22. q ------------ Q
1/2mv2 = kQq/r
Or, v2 1/r
Or, r 1/v2
Or, r = r/4
23. V = V1+V2
Q =C1V = 6 X 10-6 X 2 = 12C
As C2 is in series same amount of charge will also flow through it.
Now V2= Q/ C2 = (12 X 10-6)/ (12 X 10-6) = 1 Volt
Total battery Voltage,V = 2 + 1 = 3 Volt
24.Capacitance of parallel plate capacitor with air between the plates is C0 = 0A/d
When the separation between the plates reduced to half,
C1=0A/(d/2) = 20A/d
Thus final capacitance is C2=10 X 8 pF=80 pF
25.The arrangement is of 5 capacitors in series.Therefore
1/C= (1/C) +(1/C) +(1/C) +(1/C) +(1/C) =(5/C)
Therefore C=C/5 Or 5=C/5 or C=25F.
26. The charge given to a capacitor is given by q=CV
So the remaining energy,qV- 1/2 qV =1/2 qV is lost as heat
27. On equatorial line ,the direction of electric field is reversed to that of axial line. Hence the
angle between
electric dipole moment& electric field strength is 1800
28. Eq. network is the Eq.capacitance
= (2C series C) (2C series C)
=4C/3
29. 4/3 R = 8 x 4/3 r3
3

## 30. dV = -E . dx = -2 x 103 x 4 V = -8 x 103 V

E = E1 E2 = Q1 - Q2/2A o
Now, V1 V2 = E . d = Q1 - Q2/2C
32. U = k (q2/a + qQ/a + qQ/2a)
But, U = 0
Therefore, Q = -2q/(2 + 2)
33. = q/40[1+1/4+1/16+1/64] = q/30.
34. Let q & q be the charges on inner and outer sphere.
Hence q/4r2= q/4R2
q=Qr2/(R2+r2) & q=Q-q=Q- (Qr2/R2+r2)
Now potential at O is given by
35 (i) Dipole has two equal and opposite charges. In the uniform electric field they will
experience equal and
opposite force. Net force is zero. So there cant be any translatory motion.
(ii) Torque, = rF=2l sin qE = p X E
Torque experienced by the dipole will rotate it.So the direction of the torque will be
outward from the
surface.
36. We have V=ar2+b
The electric field,Er = - dV/dr=-2ar-------(1)
From Gauss theorem, E.dS=q/0, where S is the spherical surface containing
the charge q
Or E.4r2=(1/0 )(4/3) r3-------(2)
From 1 and 2 =-60
UNIT-2
HINTS FOR CURRENT ELECTRICITY.
1. They have high resistively and low temperature coefficient of resistance.
2. 22*102 10%
3. Resistively remains the same.
4. As Vd V.
The different velocity will be doubled.
5. R=(l/A)
= (l2/Al)
= l2/V)
since, and V are constants
therefore, R l2
(R2/R1) = (l2/l1)2=9
because R2=9R1
=9*10=90
6. Now, 1/R=1/R1+1/R2
because l = 48/240 = 0.2 m
7. a) in parallel, power dissipation 1/R
Therefore 3 wire will dissipate more power
b) In series , power dissipation R
Therefore 9 wire will dissipate more power

8. R100/R27.5 = (1+100)/(1+27.5)
On solving, we get
= 0.0039/c
9. Superconductors are the materials that lose all its resistance at very low temperature
=0 K
Application:
Super conductor are used
a) In making very strong electromagnets
b) In producing very high speed computers .
10. Resistivity of copper is less , hence manganin wire is thicker.
11. High value of resistivity and low value of temperature coefficient.
12. Resistivity will be unchanged because it depends upon nature of the materials.
13. B is more sensitive.
14. Reduced by half.
15. Relaxation time decreases with increase of temperature.
16. Increase in heat.
17. Reistance remains same.
18. P 1/R. (i.e) 25Watts
19. 16 times of the original reisitance.
20. (i)Series - Iron
(ii)Parallel - Copper.
21. R = L/A.
(i.e) 10.25%
22. Parallel(i.e) R.
23. 1:4.
24. 2:1
25. R.

Unit-5
HINTS FOR EM WAVE.
1. Due to change in electric field.
3. Same as velocity of light.
4. 90 degree
6. rays, radio waves, X-rays, UV rays
7. i)X-rays
ii)microwave.
8. doubled
9. Charge.
10..Increases.
11. Gausss law
13. X-rays because = 0.825A
14. Micro waves
15.By varying potential difference.
16. Ex and By.
UNIT-6
1.Ans:Wavelength
2. Ans:Photo electric effect.
3. Ans:4NL.
4. Ans: It will turn gradually blue.
5. Ans:Zero.
6. Ans:90 .
7. Ans:o= e
8. Ans:90
9. Ans:Violet.
10. Ans: Shrinks.
11. Ans.(i) The upper part of the mirror is convex.
(ii) The middle part of the mirror is concave.
(iii) The lower part of the mirror is plane.

12. Ans. The ray of light bends away from the normal.

13. Ans.
As = sini/sinr = c/v or v = sinr/sini *c
For a given angle of incidence, v sinr, vA sin15 , vB sin25 , vC sin35
But sin15 < sin25< sin35.
vA < vB < vC .
i.e. the velocity of light is minimum in medium A.

14 Ans.For i = 90, lateral shift is maximum and is equal to the thickness of the slab.
d = t sin( i r )/ cos r
dmax = t sin(90- r)/cos r = t cos r/cos r = t.

## 15. Ans.The apparent shift caused by a slab of thickness t is given by

d = t( 1 -1/ )
As the refractive index of the galass is maximum for red light, so red coloured letters are
more raised up.

16. Ans. No Apparent depth is maximum for that part of the bottom of the tank which is
observed normally. Apparent depth decreases with increasing obliquity. Due to this unequal
refraction, the flat bottom of the tank appears concave.

## 17. Ans. For glass-air interface, sin ic = 1/ag

The critical angle ic for glass water interface is given by
Sin ic = 1/ wg
Now wg < ag,
Sin ic > Sin ic or ic > ic

18. Ans. Light entering water is totally reflected from the air bubble. For the observer, this
light appears to come from the buble. So it shines.

19. Ans. As the critical angle for diamond-oil interface is greater than that for the diamond
air interface, so the shining of diamond reduces when it is dipped in a transparent oil.

## 20. Ans. It behaves like a biconvex lens.

21. Ans. Air bubble has spherical surface and is surrounded by medium ( water) of higher
refractive index. When light passes from water to air it gets diverged. So air bubble behaves
as a concave lens.

22. Ans.When the refractive index of the liquid is same as the lens material, no light will be
reflected by the lens and hence it will not be visible.

23. Ans. No, the image will be formed at the same position.From lens makers formula,
1/f = ( -1) [ 1/R1 1/R2 ] , it is clear that when we interchangeR1 and R2, the magnitude of
f remains the same.

24. Ans. focal lengthf of a convex lens is related to its refractive index as
f 1/( -1)
As wg < ag , so focal length of a convex lens will increase when it is immersed in water.

## 25. Ans.Focal length, f 1/( -1)

As R < V , so the focal length of a convex lens will increase when red light is used.

## 26. Ans:For the original lens: R1 = +R and R2 = -R, so we can write

1/f = ( -1) [ 1/R +1/R ] = 2( -1)/R.
When one surface is made plane by grounding, we have R1 = +R and R2 = - .
Therefore, 1/f = ( -1) [ 1/R +1/ ] =( -1)/R
f / f = 2 or f = 2f
Thus the focal length becomes double and power becomes one half.

## 27. Ans. When the prism is held in water,

w
g = Sin (A + m/2) /SinA/2
As wg < ag , so the angle of minimum deviation decreases in water.

## 28. Ans. Total internal reflection.

29. Ans. The sunlight will not be scattered in the absence of atmosphere. So the sky will
appear dark.

30. Ans. Clouds have large particles like dust and water droplets which scatter light of all
colours almost equally, hence clouds generally appear white.

31Ans. When the sun or the moon is seen through a thin veil of high clouds, holes are seen.
These are formed due to reflection of light by the icy crystals present in the atmosphere.

32. Ans. Ultra-violet light has wavelength shorter than that of violet light. Bees have some
retinal cones that are sensitive to ultra violet light, so they can see objects in ultra-violet light.
Human eyes do not posses retinal cones sensitive to ultra-violet light, so human beings
cannot see objects in ultra-violet light. In other words, human beings are ultra-violet blind.
33. Ans. In a chickens eye, the retina has a large number of cones but only few rods. The
rods are sensitive to bright light only. That is why a chicken is not able to see in dim light. As
it needs bright light to see, so it wakes up early in the morning with the sunrise and goes to
sleep by sunset.

## 34. Ans. Magnifying power of a simple microscope ,

m = 1 + D/f
as fV < fR so the magnifying power is greater when the object is seen in violet light.

35. Ans. This is done so that the objective lens forms image within the focal length of the
eyepiece.

## 36. Ans. (i) We should take f0 =1 cm and fe = 3cm for a microscope.

(ii) We should take f0 = 100 cm and fe = 1 cm for a telescope.

37. Ans. Yes, because the light gathering power of objective will increase and even faint
objects will become visible.

## 38. Ans. For relaxed eye,

L = f0 + fe (normal adjustment)
For least distance of distinct vision,
L = f0 + ue , ue < fe
Therefore, L < L. so that distance between the two lenses should be decreased.
39. Ans. Here u = - (f+a), v = -(f+b), f = -f
As 1/f = 1/u +1/v
F = uv/ u + v
Or -f = [-(f+a)] x [-(f+b)] / -(f+a) f(a+b)
= f2 + af +bf +ab / -(2f+a+b)
or 2 f2 + af +bf = f2 + af +bf +ab
or f2 = ab
40.Ans. (i) Angle of refraction (/2) in medium 2 is less than the angle of incidence () in
medoum 1 i.e. the ray bends towards the normal in medium 2. so medium 2 is optically
denser than medium 1.
(ii) From Snells law,
= sin i/sin r = sin / sin /2 = 2sin /2 cos /2 /sin /2 = 2 cos /2

Also = c1 / c2

## hence 2 cos /2 = c1 / c2 or = 2cos-1(c1 / 2c2) .

41. Ans. The point of convergence shifts away from the glass, as shown in the ray diagram
given below. The screen has to be moved towards right to receive the point of convergence
again.

## 42. Ans. Real depth = y cm

Apparent depth = y- x cm
Refractive index of oil,
= real depth/ apparent depth = y / y-x

43. Ans. Using Snells Law for refraction from glass to air,
Sin i/sin r = ga = v / c

Where c is the speed of light in air and v is the speed of light in glass, In the consition of
critical incidence, we have i = ic and r = 900

## Sin ic/ sin 900 = v / c or Sin ic = v / c

Or ic = sin -1 ( v / c)

44. Ans. Twinkling of stars. The light from stars undergoes refraction continuously before it
reaches earth. So the apparent position of the stars is slightly different than its actual position.
Due to variation in atmosphere conditions, like change in temperature, density etc., and this
apparent position keeps on changing. The amount of light entering our eyes from a particular
star increases and decreases randomly with time. Sometimes, the star appears brighter and
other times, it appears fainter. This gives rise to the twinkling effect of stars.
The planets do not show twinkling effect. As the planets are much closer to the earth, the
greater and the fluctuations caused in the amount of light due to atmospheric refraction are
negligible as compared to the amount of light received from them.

45. Ans. Light from the stars near the horizon reaches the earth obliquely through the
atmosphere. Its path changes due to refraction. Frequent atmospheric disturbances change the
path of light and cause twinkling of stars. Light from the stars overhead reaches the earth
normally. It does not suffer refraction. There is no change in its path. Hence there is no
Twinkling effect.
46. Ans. Magnification produced by any lens,

m = v/u = f / f + u

given m = N N = f / f + u

or f + u = f / N or u = - f f / N

|u| = f f / N

## given P = 1/f = + 2.5 D

f = 1/ 2.5 = 0.4 m = 40 cm
Also N = 4
|u| = 40 40/4 = 40 10 = 50 cm or 30 cm.

47. Ans.
(a) for a convex lens, f>>0 and for an object on left, u<0. when the object is placed within the
focus of a convex lens,
0 < |u| < f or 0< 1 / |u| > 1/f
1/v = 1/f+1/u=1/f-1/|u|<0

## i.e. v < 0 so a virtual image is formed on left.

Now as u<0 and v<0, so 1/v = 1/f + 1/u

## = - 1/ |v| = 1/f 1/|u| or 1/|u| - 1/|v| = 1/f

As f>0
1/|u| - 1/|v| > 0 or 1/|u| > 1/|v| or |u|<|v|
i.e. |v|>|u| |m| = |v/u| > 1

## Hence image is enlarged.

(b) For a concave lens f<0 and for an object on left, u<0
1/v = 1/f +1/u = 1/|f| - 1/|u|
= - [1/|f|+1/|u|] < 0 for all u.
i.e. v<0 for all values of u. hence a virtual image is formed on the left.
Also 1/|v| = 1/|f| + 1/|u| 1/|v| > 1/|u|
Or |v|<|u| |m| = |v/u| < 1
i.e. the image is diminished in size.
48. Ans. A hollow prism contains air which does not cause dispersion. The faes AB and AC
of the hollow prism behave like parallel sides of glass plates. The beam is laterally deviated
at each of the two refracting faces. However, the rays of different colours emerge parallel to
each other. So there is no dispersion.
49. Ans. (i) Moon has no atmosphere. There is no scattering of light. Sunlight reaches moon
straight covering shortest distance. Hence sunrise and sunset are abrupt.
(ii) Moon has no atmosphere. So there is nothing to scatter sunlight towards the moon. No
skylight reaches moon surface. Sky appears black in the day time as it does at night.
(iii) No water vapours are present at moon surface. No clouds are formed. There are no rains
on the moon. So rainbow is never observed.
NUMERICAL PROBLEMS
50. Ans. The total apparent shift in the position of the image due to all the three media is
given by
d = t1[1-1/(1)+ t2[1-1/(2)+ t3[1-1/(3)
Given t1 = 4.0 cm, t2=6.0 cm , t3 =8.0 cm
1 = 1.5 , 2=1.4 , 3 =1.3 cm
d= 4.0(1-1/1.5)+6.0(1-1/1.4)+8.0(1-1/1.3)
= 1.33 + 1.71 + 1.85 = 4.89 cm

51. Ans. Clearly , the fish can see the outside view of the cone with semi vertical angle,

But = 1 / sin ic
Or 1/3 = 1 / sin ic
Or sin ic = = 0.75
/2 = ic = sin-1 (0.75) = 48.60

52. Ans. (i) As the lens forms a real iamge, it must be a convex lens.
(ii) From the graph, when u=20 cm , we have v = 20 cm.
For the convex lens forming a real iamge, u is negative and v and f are positive.
U = -20 cm v = +20cm
Using this lens formula,
1/f = 1/v 1/u = 1/20 1/-20 = 1/10 or f = + 10 cm
53. Ans. A=600 , m=300
i = e = A = 450 ,
as A + = i + e
60 + = 45 + 45
or = 300
Refractive index,
= sin a+m /2 /sin A/2 = sin 600+300/2 / sin 600/2
= sin 450/sin300 = 1/2 / = 2 = 1.414
WAVE OPTICS
54. Ans. Two light sources will be coherent if
(i) The frequency of the two light sources is same and,
(ii) The phase difference between them remains constant.
55. Two independent light sources cannot act as coherent sources. Why?
Ans. Two independent sources of light cannot be coherent. This is because light is emitted by
individual atoms, when they return to ground state. Even the smallest source of light contains
billions of atoms which obviously cannot emit light waves in the same phase.
56. Ans. Fringe width , = D/d
i.e. 1/d , when d 0,
fringe width is very large. Even a single fringe may occupy the entire screen. The
interference pattern cannot be observed.
57. Ans. The given path difference satisfies the condition for the minimum of intensity for
yellow light, Hence if yellow light is used, a dark fringe will be formed at the given point. If
white light is used, all components of white light except the yellow one would be present at
this point.
58. Ans. The positions of bright and dark fringes will change rapidly. Such rapid changes
cannot be detected by our eyes. A uniform illumination is seen on the screen i.e. interference
pattern disappears.
59. Ans. For diffraction to take place the wave length should be of the order of the size of the
obstacle. The radio waves (particularly short radio waves) have wave length of the order of
the size of the building and other obstacles coming in their way and hence they easily get
diffracted. Since wavelength of the light waves is very small. They are not diffracted by the
buildings.
60. Ans. Muslin cloth is mde of very fine threads and as such fine slits are formed. White
light passing through these silts gets diffracted giving rise to colored spectrum. The central
maximum is white while the secondary maxima are coloured. This is because the positions of
secondary maxima (except central maximum) depend on the wavelength of light.
In a coarse cloth, the slits formed between the threads are wider and the diffraction is not so
pronounced. Hence no such spectrum is seen.
61. Ans. A wavefront is a surface obtained by joining all points vibrating in the same phase.
A ray is a line drawn perpendicular to the wavefront in the direction of propagation of light
wave.
The wavefronts of light emerging from a point source are spherical, as shown in figure. When
a point source is placed at the focus of a convex lens, the emerging light has the plane
wavefronts, as shown in figure.
62. Ans. As shown in figure the bright fringes B1 and b2 on either side of O coincide with S1
and S2 respectively.
Clearly ,
= d/2
As = D/d d/2 = D/d or = d2/2D
63Ans. For intensity distribution of light in diffraction at a signal slit, see figure
Width of central maximum is given by
0 = 2D/d
(i) When wavelength of light used is increased, the width of central maximum increases.
(ii) When width of the slit is increased, the width of central maximum decreases.
Wavelength of light in water decreases, so width of central maximum also decreases.
64. Ans. When the monochromatic source is replaced by a source of white light, the
diffraction pattern shows following changes:
(i) In each diffraction order, the diffracted image of the slit gets dispersed into component
colours of white light. As fringe width wavelength, so the red fringe with higher
wavelength is wider than violet fringe with smaller wavelength,
(ii) In higher order spectra, the dispersion is more and it causes overlapping of different
colours.
65. Ans. R.P.of a compound microscope
= 2 sin/ = 2 sin x v /c
(i)When the frequency v of the incident light increases, the resolving power increases (R.P.
v).
(ii) Resolving power does not change with change in focal length of objective lens.
(iii) When the aperture of the objective lens increases, the semi-vertical angle increases and
hence the resolving power of the microscope increases.
66. Ans. According to the Brewster law, when a ray of light is incident on a transparent
refracting medium at olarising angle,
= tan ip
but ip + rp = 900 or ip = 900 - rp
= tan(900 - rp ) = Cot rp = 1/ tan rp

## As ic is the critical angle for the transparent medium, so

= 1/sin ic
on comparing (i) and (ii) we get
tan rp = sin ic or rp =tan-1(sin ic)

NUMERICAL QUESTIONS

## 67. Ans. The resultant intensity at a point where phase difference is is

I R = I1 +I2+2I1I2 Cos
As I1 =I and I2 = 4I therefore
I R = I +4I+21.4I Cos = 5I +4I cos
(i) when =0 , I R = 5I +4I cos 0 = 9 I
(ii) when =/2 , I R = 5I +4I cos /2 = 5 I
(iii) when = , I R = 5I +4I cos = I

68. Ans. The fringe width in the two cases will be = D/d
And = D/d
- = (D-D)/d
or wavelength = ( - )d / (D-D)
But D-D = 5 x 10-2 m
And - = 3 x 10-5 m , d= 10-3m

## = 3 x 10-5 x 10-3 / 5 x 10-2 = 6 x 10-7 m = 6000A

69. Ans. Let I be the intensity of beam I incident on first glass plate. Each plate reflects 25%
of light incident on it and transmits 75%.
Therefore,
I1 =I and I2 = 25/100I = I/4
I3 =75/100 I = 3/4I
I4 = 25/100 I3 = x I = 3/16 I
I5= 7/100 I4= x 3/16 I = 9/64 I
Amplitude ratio of beams 2 and 5 is
R = I2/I5 = I/4 x 64/91 = 4/3
Imin/ Imax = [r-1/r+1]2 = [4/3-1 / 4/3+1]2 = 1/49 = 1:49
UNIT-7
HINTS FOR DUAL NATURE OF MATTER
1. E = h
=hc/
E 1/ energy of proton reduces to half.
2. Alkali metals have too low work functions. Even visible light can eject electrons from
them.
3. UV are most effective since they have highest frequency hence more energetic.
4. Yes. X-rays cause photoelectric effect in sodium, zinc & copper.
5. K.E of photons remains unaffected since they do not depend
6. stopping potential V0 = Kmax/e = 5ev/e =5 V
7. w0 = h0 = hc/0
0 1/ w0
Since sodium has lower work functions than copper it is easier for electron ejection.
As it is lower work function, higher wavelength.
8. Photocells are used for reproduction of sound.
9. 1/2 mv2 = (m2 v2)/2m = p2/2m
According to De Broglie wave length = h/p
e/ p = pp/pe = (mp /me )
me < mp
e > p
electrons have greater De broglie wavelength than proton .
10. = 90 - /2
= 90 52/2 =64
11. = hc /
= 3.310-19 J
12. KE of photoelectrons is given by Einsteins photoelectric equation.
Ek =1/2 mv2
= h - w0
V 1/
As wavelength decreases velocity increases.

13.
stopping
potential
frequency

## 14. E= h c/6.6) = x 10-34 x 3 x 108)/ (4 x 10-7) = 4.98 x 10-19 j

E= (4.98 x 10-19)/ (1.6 x 10-19) =3ev
Hence, metal x will emit electrons.

## 15. For a photon E1=hc/

For an electron =h/mv or m=h/v
E2/E1=c/v>1
Therefore,E2>E1.thus, electron has total energy greater than that of photon.
16. ph=e==h/mv
K.E. of electrons E=1/2mv2=1/2 m [h/m 2[
=h2/2m 2
Eph=Ee(2mc /h)
17 . E=1/2 mv2=m2v2/2m=p2/2m p=2Em
=h/p=h/2Em
From Kinetic theory of gases average K.E.=3/2 KT
=h/(2m(3/2 KT)=h/(3m KT)
18. The energy of light obtained from the bulb is much less than work function of the
wodden block.Hence no photon electrons are emitted.

19. Mo will not emit photo electron , because its work function is more than 4 ev.

## 20. Alpha particles due to its largest mass.

21. R 1/q

22. Ee = Mv2/r

23. = /2.
24. /2.
25. = hc/ = 2823 A.
UNIT-8
HINTS FOR ATOMS AND NUCLEI.
1) The entire positive charge and the mass were concentrated at one place inside the atom,
called the nucleus.
2) A larger number of alpha particle went through undeflected.
3) R=R0A1/3 R1/R2=A11/3/A21/3=1 1/3/27 1/3=1/3

## 4) R= R0A1/3 R1/R2=A11/3/A21/3=(1/8)1/3 =1/2

R1: R2=1:2
5) -particles have more ionizing power than -particles.
6) N/N0=(1/2)n
t=2T =2*30 =60 days
7) They are neutral in nature and get absorbed by nucleus, thus distributing the neutron
proton ratio.
8) The ratio of neutrons to proton ratio increases, after the emission of a particle.
9) Owing to greater mass and charge, it is able to knock out/pull out electrons which
colliding with atoms and molecules in its path.
10) T = 20 minutes t = 60 minutes
N/No = (1/2)n = (1/2)60/20 = (1/2) 3 =1/8
After one hour, 1/8th of the original mass would remain.
11) The nucleus looses energy, but remains same isotope it was.
12) No a nucleus either emits a particle or a particle and if left in the exited state,
it
may emit ray also.
13) 1:1 (independent of A).
14) At t = T N = No / 2 Using N = No e- t
No / 2 = No e- t
Solving we get, T1/2 = ln2/ = 0.693/
15) Size of nucleus can approximately be estimated using the concept of distance of
closest
approach. The rebounding particle is selected and its information is substituted in the
expression Ro = 1/4Eo x 2Ze2 / E for particle where E is its energy.
A. Using N =No (1/2)t//2 N =1/16No
1/16 = (1/2)t//2
T1/2 = 30/4 = 7.5 days.
17) 235 = 142+Y+3
Y = 90
And 92 = 57+Z+0
Z = 35
18) a) Yes. Since X & Y are having same atomic number.
b) Y4 3 is likely to be more stable because for its neutron to proton ratio is smaller.
19) Disintegration constant =0.693/T1/2
=0.693/30x24x60x60
Therefore T avg =1.44xT1/2 = 1.44x30 = 43.2 days.
20) Remaining amount (undecayed) =1/4N0
Using N= N0 (1/2)t/T1/2
1/4= (1/2)t/60
Solving t=2x60=120days
21) Mass defect m= (22.9945-22.9898) =0.00474
Energy Q= (0.00474) (931.5)
=4.4MeV
Hence the energy of beta particle can range from 0 to 4.4MeV.

2700=4750 e-5t
=0.113min-1

## b) Using T1/2=0.693/ =0.693/0.113 =6.132min

23) In the process of beta decay, a neutron gets converted to proton inside the nucleus .
Hence number of neutrons decreases by one whereas number of proton increases by
one. Hence n/p ratio decreases.
210
Bi83-------------------- 210Po84 + 0-1 +
Before decay =127/83
After decay=126/84
24) Let and be the decay constant of element A and B respectively. Given is
T1/2(A) = T1/2(B)
0.693/=1/ or / =0.693
Let N be the number of atoms of each of the two samples and R and R their
disintegration rate, then
R/R= N/ N= / =0.693
R > R
25) Find m using
m= (7x1.00783+7x1.00867-14.003074) U
Calculate Eb=mx931.5 MeV
26) a) 226Ra88--------------222Rn86 +4He2
b) 32P15------------------32S16 +0e-1 +
c) 32P15------------------11B5 +0e+1 +
27) i) 6Li3 +1n0 ----------3H1 + 4He2 +Q (energy)
ii) Q=mx931 MeV
Where m=6.01512+1.0086654-4.0026044-3.0100000
UNIT-9
HINTS FOR ELECTRONIC DEVICES
1. Conductor - no energy gap
Semi Conductor - It is of the order of 1 ev.
Insulator - 6 ev (or) more than 6 ev.
2. When a semi conductor is heated more & more electrons get enough energy to jump
across the forbidden energy gap from valence band to the conduction band, where they are
free to conduct electricity. Thereby increasing the conductivity of a semi conductor.
3. In an intrinsic semi conductor the number of free electrons and holes is same.
4. C.B
___________ Donor energy level

V.B
5.
C.B

## ____________ Acceptor energy level

V.B

7. Transistor is a current controlled devices.
8. Reverse biased.
9.NAND GATE.
10.If ne/nh =1 . Hence A is intrinsic semi conductor.
If ne/nh <1 , ne<nh hence B is P-type.
11. For half wave rectification 50 Hz.
For Full wave rectification 100Hz.
12. Mobility of an electron is defined as the drift velocity of electron per unit electric field,
i.e. e= Ve /E
Mobility of a hole is defined as the drift velocity of hole per unit electric field,
i.e. h= Vh /E
The electrical conductivity() is the reciprocal of resistivity (p), therefore
Conductivity, =1/ = e(ne e + nh h ) Where ne & nh are free electron density & hole
density respectively.
13. Diagram
14. The drift velocity of a charge carrier is proportional to electric E.
Therefore V = eET/m ie. V E
But V cannot be increased indefinitely by increasing E . At high speed relaxation time (T)
begins to decrease due to increase in collision frequency. S: so drift velocity saturates at
thermal velocity (lOms-1). An electric field of 106 V/m causes saturation of drift velocity.
Hence semi- conduction obey ohms law for low electrical field and above this field ( E < 106
V/m ) current becomes independent of potential.

15. The factors upon which transconductance of a transistor depend are as follows--
i) Geometry of the transistor
ii) Doping levels.
iii) Biasing of the transistors.
16. For faster action NPN Transistor is used .In an NPN transistor, current conduction is
mainly by free electron ,whereas in PNP type transistor .it is mainly holes Since electron are
more mobile than holes we prefer NPN for faster action as well as high conduction current.
17. graphs:

18. Because the energy gap for Ge ( Eg = 0.7 ev) is smaller than the energy gap for Si
(Eg = 1.1ev ) . Moreover, the germanium diode is much more open to the danger of
high temperature affect than silicon at high voltage.
19. The output of the AND gate is Y = A.B consequently the input of the OR gate are A and
A.B . Then the final Y = A + A.B

## Input for AND gate Output of Input of output of

AND gate OR gate OR gate
A B Y= A.B A Y Y=A+Y
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 1 0 0 0 0
1 0 0 1 0 1
1 1 1 1 1

20. The output of OR gate is A+B. Consequently, the inputs of AND gate are A+B & C
Hence the Boolean equation for the given circuit is
Y=(A+B).C

## 21) AND Gate using NAND GATE:-

A B Y= A.B
0 0 0
0 1 0
1 0 0
1 1 1
22. NOT gate using NAND gate:-
Truth Table:-
A Y=A
0 1
1 0

## 23. Here =50

Ie =6.6mA
=Ic /Ib
Ic=Ib =50Ib
Ie=Ic + Ib
Ib=0.129mA
Hence,
Ic =50 6.6/51 = 6.47mA
= / (1 - )
= / (1 + )
= 0.98

24. Here
Ib = 100A = 0.1mA
Ic = 3mA
a) =Ic / Ib = 30
= / (1- )
= 0.97
= Ic / Ie
Ie = 3.1 mA
b) Ib = 20A 0.02 mA
a.c. = Ic / Ib
a.c. = 25

25. Here
Ic=95% of Ie = (95 / 100 ) Ie
Ie = (100 / 95) 5 mA = 5.26mA
Ie= Ic+ Ib
Ib = 0.25 mA
26. Here
Ie = 5mA
Ic = 4.75 mA
Ie = Ic + Ib
Ib = 75 10-5 A
V = Ib Rb
V = 5V
Rb = V / Ib
Rb = 6.67 k

## 27. This is AND logic gate

Output wave form

B
Y

28. R

1.5V
Here
e.m.f of the source, E = 1.5V
Voltage drop across the diode , Vd = 0.5V
Maximum power rating of the diode
I = (P / Vd)
I= 0.2A
Potential drop across resistance R
V= E Vd
= 1V
R = V / I = 1 / 0.2 = 5
29. = 0.96 , Ie = 7.2mA
= Ic / Ie
Ic = Ie = 6.91 mA
Ib = Ie Ic
Ib = 0.29 mA.

30. = 70
Ie = 8.8mA
Ie= Ic + Ib
Ib = 8.8 / 71
Ib = 0.124 mA
31. Ib = 105 10 A Ic = 2.05 10-3A
-6

= Ic / Ib = 19.5
Also,
Ie = Ib + Ic = 2.155 10-3 A
= Ic / Ie = 0.95
Ib = 27A = 27 10-6 A
= Ic / Ib = 24.1
32. Ie = 7.89 10-3 A
Ic = 7.8 10 3 A
Now a.c. = Ic / Ie = 0.9886

## We have, ac = ac / (1-ac) = 86.72

Also,
ac = Ic / Ib
Ib = Ic / ac
Ib = (7.8 10-3 ) / (86.72)
Ib = 89.94 10-6A
UNIT-10
HINTS FOR COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS
1) In a radar, a beam signal is needed in particular direction which is possible if wavelength
of signal waves is very small. Since the wavelength of microwave is a few millimeter, hence
2 The television signals have frequencies in 100-200 MHz range. As ionosphere cannot
reflect radio waves of frequency greater than 40 M back to earth, the sky waves cannot be
used in the transmission of TV signals.
3) A diode detector should have the following characteristic for proper detection a) high
rectification efficiency.
c) low distortion.
4) Velocity factor (VF) of a cable is the ratio of reduction speed of light in the dielectric of
the cable.
Velocity of light in vacuum is 3 x108 m/sec. It reduces when light passes through a medium.
Velocity of light in a medium is given by
v=c / k & where, c-velocity of light in vacuum and
k- is the dielectric constant of the medium
Vf. =v/c=l/k
For a line velocity factor is generally of the order of 0.6 to 0.9.
5) Delta modulation involves simple pulse coding and decoding methods. A simple delta
modulation uses just one bit per sample i.e. a non-zero sample or one per sample. Thus, this
method is convenient to use.

6) Two wire transmission line and coaxial cable are employed for AF and UHF region.
For optical fiber is employed for optical frequency.
7). Mixing two frequencies across nonlinear impedance.
8). When light strikeds the atoms of the Laser medium, it must stimulate emission rather than
be absorbed. This means that more atoms must be in an excited state than in the ground state.
This is an unnatural condition and is known as population inversion.
9). Solid Lasers, Semi conductor Laser, Liquid laser, Gas Laser.
10) Laser surgery ,Laser printing, Optical communication .
11) 1)Transmission System, 2) Switching Systems and 3) Signaling Systems.
12) 1 .The length of the antenna required is so large (L = 5000m ) that is practically
impossible
to set up it.
2 The energy radiated from the antenna in audio frequency range is Practically zero
3 The audio signals transmitted from the different broadcasting stations will get inseparably
mixed.
13) Pulse modulation is a system in which continuous wave forms are sampled at regular
intervals. Information regarding the signal is transmitted only at the sampling times together
with any synchronizing pulses that maybe required. Pulse modulation is the process of
transmitting signals in the form of pulses ( dis continuous signals ) by using special
techniques.
14) The term channel is commonly used to special the frequency range allotted to a particular
transmission from a broadcast station or a transmitter eg a telephone channel is also used for
15) Atmospheric pressure decreases with in crease in altitude. The high energy particles (ie &
rays and cosmic rays) coming from outer space and entering our earths atmosphere cause
ionization of the atoms of the gases present there . The ionizing power of these radiation
decreases rapidly as they approach the earth. due to decrease in number of collision with the
gas atoms . It is due to this reason that the electrical conductivity of earths atmosphere
increases with altitude
the signal
16) Refractive index p of core of core of optical fibre is slightly higher than glass cladding .
Light propagates through and along the fibre by the series of bounces caused by internal
reflection at the interface of the core and cladding. For total internal reflection the light
should enter the fibre at an angle in accordance with core of acceptance angle c
NA = sinc = (12 - 22 )
Numerical aperature depends upon diameter of the core It decreases as the diameter of core
decreases vice versa
17) i) Pulse Amplitude Modulation : Amplitude of the pulse varies in accordance with the
modulating signal.

(ii) Pulse Position Modulation. : Pulse position (ie) time of rise or fall of the pulse )
changes with the modulating signal.

.
18)Dielectric loss increase beyond this frequency.
19)How does the effective power radiated by the antenna vary with wavelength?

## Power is inversely proportional to wave length

20)what should be the length of the dipole antenna for a carrier wave of 5 X 10 8hz ?
L =c/2 .
21) four times.
22) d= 2hR
d= 2x 0.1x 6400
= 1280 km
Area covered by broadcaste, A = d2 = 3.14 x 1280
= 3919.2 km2
population covered = Area x population density
= 3919.2 x 1000 = 3919200

## 23) (i) 5 MHz <fc sky wave propagation (ionospheric propagation).

(ii) 100 MHz > fc satellite mode of communication.

24)

## 25) Maximum voltage of AM wave,

Vmax = 16 = 8mV
2
Minimum voltage of AM wave,
Vmin = 4 = 2mV
2

ma = Vmax - Vmin
Vmax + Vmin

= 8-2 = 6 = 0.6
8+2 10

## 26) The AM wave equation is given by ;

v = 5(1+0.6cos6280t) sin 221 X 104t volts .(i)
(i) Maximum amplitude of AM wave
= EC + maEC =5 + 0.6 X 5 = 8V

## Minimum amplitude of AM wave

= EC - maEC =5 - 0.6 X 5 = 2V

## (ii) The AM wave will contain three frequency viz

fc-fs, fc, fc+fs
336-1 336 336+1
335kHz 336kHz 337kHz

27) (i) The AM wave has sideband frequency of (fc + fs) and (fc - fs).
Sideband frequency = (500+1) kHz and (500-1) kHz
501 kHz and 499 kHz

## (ii) Bandwidth required = 499 kHz to 501 kHz = 2 kHz

28) PS = ma2 PC
1.246 = 1 + ma2
2
ma2/2 = 0.246
ma = (2 X 0.246)1/2 = 0.701 = 70.1%
29) Modulation index ,
mf = Maximum frequency deviation
Minimum signal frequency
30) d = (2 6400 X103 160)1/2 = 45255m
Coverage range, d = (2Rh)1/2
h2 = 4h1 = 4 160 = 640m

d = (2Rh)1/2
= 37500m = 37.5 km
= 4.4 106
32) Microwave communication channel width =
2
10GHz
100 =0.2 GHz
band width of channel = 8 KHz
= 2.5 10 4
33) Energy corresponding to = 1400nm = 1400 10-9 m is
hc 1.42 10 19
eV
E= = 1.6 10 19 = 1eV
For detection E must be equal to greater then Eg. Hence only
suitable semiconductor is C.

34) Critical frequency fc and maximum electron density nmax are related
as
1/ 2

fc = 9(nmax)
fc 2
Squaring we get nmax = 81
6
Given fc = 10MHz =
10 10 = 10
7
Hz
7 2
(10 )
ie, nmax = 81 = 1.23 10 m
12 3
HINTS FOR HOTS-CLASS-XII(PHYSICS)
UNIT-1
HINTS FOR ELECTROSTAICS
1. In the dielectric medium between the plates.
2. High potential, as electrons are negatively charged.
3. Zero
4. Zero
5. ML-1T-2
6. Zero
7. No.
8. Because they are indicators of electric field, extending to infinite distance.
9. C is proportional to A (area) Therefore C2 = 2C1
Since C = Q/V ,So the slope represents more capacitance. Hence P represents C2,Q
represents C1
10. Each charge experiences two forces each of magnitude F inclined at an angle of 600.Their
resultant is given by [F2 + F2 +2F2cos 60]1/2 = 3.F
11. (i)According to defn of P.D.,
VP>VQ .So VP-VQ is +ve for q>0.
(ii)For q<0, VQ >VP .So VP-VQ is -ve
12. Flux = 0, since Qen = 0
13. Due to polaraisation,opposing electric field is created.
14. Electric field at the midpoint of a dipole of length 2a is 2kq/a pointing towards the ve
charge or in the
direction opposite to the dipole moment.
15. Inside the cavity field at any point is uniform and non zero.
16. No. If the initial velocity of the charged particle makes a certain angle with a line of
force, then the
charged particle shall not move along the line of force.
17. E= -dv/dr= -d(q/4or)/dr = q/4or2
18. Yes, at the mid point of electric dipole.
19. U = kq2/a- kq2/2a- kq2/2a = 0.
20. C = C+C+C = 3C = 75F
Therefore, charge = 75F x 4200 V = 315 mC*
21. Total = q0/o = 2/o , flux through one face = /6 = 1/3 o.
22. q ------------ Q
1/2mv2 = kQq/r
Or, v2 1/r
Or, r 1/v2
Or, r = r/4
23. V = V1+V2
Q =C1V = 6 X 10-6 X 2 = 12C
As C2 is in series same amount of charge will also flow through it.
Now V2= Q/ C2 = (12 X 10-6)/ (12 X 10-6) = 1 Volt
Total battery Voltage,V = 2 + 1 = 3 Volt
24.Capacitance of parallel plate capacitor with air between the plates is C0 = 0A/d
When the separation between the plates reduced to half,
C1=0A/(d/2) = 20A/d
Thus final capacitance is C2=10 X 8 pF=80 pF
25.The arrangement is of 5 capacitors in series.Therefore
1/C= (1/C) +(1/C) +(1/C) +(1/C) +(1/C) =(5/C)
Therefore C=C/5 Or 5=C/5 or C=25F.
26. The charge given to a capacitor is given by q=CV
So the remaining energy,qV- 1/2 qV =1/2 qV is lost as heat
27. On equatorial line ,the direction of electric field is reversed to that of axial line. Hence the
angle between
electric dipole moment& electric field strength is 1800
28. Eq. network is the Eq.capacitance
= (2C series C) (2C series C)
=4C/3
29. 4/3 R = 8 x 4/3 r3
3

## 30. dV = -E . dx = -2 x 103 x 4 V = -8 x 103 V

E = E1 E2 = Q1 - Q2/2A o
Now, V1 V2 = E . d = Q1 - Q2/2C
32. U = k (q2/a + qQ/a + qQ/2a)
But, U = 0
Therefore, Q = -2q/(2 + 2)
33. = q/40[1+1/4+1/16+1/64] = q/30.
34. Let q & q be the charges on inner and outer sphere.
Hence q/4r2= q/4R2
q=Qr2/(R2+r2) & q=Q-q=Q- (Qr2/R2+r2)
Now potential at O is given by
35 (i) Dipole has two equal and opposite charges. In the uniform electric field they will
experience equal and
opposite force. Net force is zero. So there cant be any translatory motion.
(ii) Torque, = rF=2l sin qE = p X E
Torque experienced by the dipole will rotate it.So the direction of the torque will be
outward from the
surface.
36. We have V=ar2+b
The electric field,Er = - dV/dr=-2ar-------(1)
From Gauss theorem, E.dS=q/0, where S is the spherical surface containing
the charge q
Or E.4r2=(1/0 )(4/3) r3-------(2)
From 1 and 2 =-60
UNIT-2
HINTS FOR CURRENT ELECTRICITY.
1. They have high resistively and low temperature coefficient of resistance.
2. 22*102 10%
3. Resistively remains the same.
4. As Vd V.
The different velocity will be doubled.
5. R=(l/A)
= (l2/Al)
= l2/V)
since, and V are constants
therefore, R l2
(R2/R1) = (l2/l1)2=9
because R2=9R1
=9*10=90
6. Now, 1/R=1/R1+1/R2
because l = 48/240 = 0.2 m
7. a) in parallel, power dissipation 1/R
Therefore 3 wire will dissipate more power
b) In series , power dissipation R
Therefore 9 wire will dissipate more power

8. R100/R27.5 = (1+100)/(1+27.5)
On solving, we get
= 0.0039/c
9. Superconductors are the materials that lose all its resistance at very low temperature
=0 K
Application:
Super conductor are used
b) In making very strong electromagnets
b) In producing very high speed computers .
10. Resistivity of copper is less , hence manganin wire is thicker.
11. High value of resistivity and low value of temperature coefficient.
12. Resistivity will be unchanged because it depends upon nature of the materials.
13. B is more sensitive.
14. Reduced by half.
15. Relaxation time decreases with increase of temperature.
16. Increase in heat.
17. Reistance remains same.
18. P 1/R. (i.e) 25Watts
19. 16 times of the original reisitance.
20. (i)Series - Iron
(ii)Parallel - Copper.
21. R = L/A.
(i.e) 10.25%
22. Parallel(i.e) R.
23. 1:4.
24. 2:1
25. R.

Unit-5
HINTS FOR EM WAVE.
1. Due to change in electric field.
3. Same as velocity of light.
4. 90 degree
6. rays, radio waves, X-rays, UV rays
7. i)X-rays
ii)microwave.
8. doubled
9. Charge.
10..Increases.
11. Gausss law
13. X-rays because = 0.825A
14. Micro waves
15.By varying potential difference.
16. Ex and By.

UNIT-6
1.Ans:Wavelength
2. Ans:Photo electric effect.
3. Ans:4NL.
4. Ans: It will turn gradually blue.
5. Ans:Zero.
6. Ans:90 .
7. Ans:o= e
8. Ans:90
9. Ans:Violet.
10. Ans: Shrinks.
11. Ans.(i) The upper part of the mirror is convex.
(ii) The middle part of the mirror is concave.
(iii) The lower part of the mirror is plane.

12. Ans. The ray of light bends away from the normal.

13. Ans.
As = sini/sinr = c/v or v = sinr/sini *c
For a given angle of incidence, v sinr, vA sin15 , vB sin25 , vC sin35
But sin15 < sin25< sin35.
vA < vB < vC .
i.e. the velocity of light is minimum in medium A.

14 Ans.For i = 90, lateral shift is maximum and is equal to the thickness of the slab.
d = t sin( i r )/ cos r
dmax = t sin(90- r)/cos r = t cos r/cos r = t.

## 15. Ans.The apparent shift caused by a slab of thickness t is given by

d = t( 1 -1/ )
As the refractive index of the galass is maximum for red light, so red coloured letters are
more raised up.

16. Ans. No Apparent depth is maximum for that part of the bottom of the tank which is
observed normally. Apparent depth decreases with increasing obliquity. Due to this unequal
refraction, the flat bottom of the tank appears concave.

## 17. Ans. For glass-air interface, sin ic = 1/ag

The critical angle ic for glass water interface is given by
Sin ic = 1/ wg
Now wg < ag,
Sin ic > Sin ic or ic > ic

18. Ans. Light entering water is totally reflected from the air bubble. For the observer, this
light appears to come from the buble. So it shines.

19. Ans. As the critical angle for diamond-oil interface is greater than that for the diamond
air interface, so the shining of diamond reduces when it is dipped in a transparent oil.

## 20. Ans. It behaves like a biconvex lens.

21. Ans. Air bubble has spherical surface and is surrounded by medium ( water) of higher
refractive index. When light passes from water to air it gets diverged. So air bubble behaves
as a concave lens.

22. Ans.When the refractive index of the liquid is same as the lens material, no light will be
reflected by the lens and hence it will not be visible.

23. Ans. No, the image will be formed at the same position.From lens makers formula,
1/f = ( -1) [ 1/R1 1/R2 ] , it is clear that when we interchangeR1 and R2, the magnitude of
f remains the same.

24. Ans. focal lengthf of a convex lens is related to its refractive index as
f 1/( -1)
As wg < ag , so focal length of a convex lens will increase when it is immersed in water.

## 25. Ans.Focal length, f 1/( -1)

As R < V , so the focal length of a convex lens will increase when red light is used.

## 26. Ans:For the original lens: R1 = +R and R2 = -R, so we can write

1/f = ( -1) [ 1/R +1/R ] = 2( -1)/R.
When one surface is made plane by grounding, we have R1 = +R and R2 = - .
Therefore, 1/f = ( -1) [ 1/R +1/ ] =( -1)/R
f / f = 2 or f = 2f
Thus the focal length becomes double and power becomes one half.

## 27. Ans. When the prism is held in water,

w
g = Sin (A + m/2) /SinA/2
As wg < ag , so the angle of minimum deviation decreases in water.

## 28. Ans. Total internal reflection.

29. Ans. The sunlight will not be scattered in the absence of atmosphere. So the sky will
appear dark.
30. Ans. Clouds have large particles like dust and water droplets which scatter light of all
colours almost equally, hence clouds generally appear white.

31Ans. When the sun or the moon is seen through a thin veil of high clouds, holes are seen.
These are formed due to reflection of light by the icy crystals present in the atmosphere.

32. Ans. Ultra-violet light has wavelength shorter than that of violet light. Bees have some
retinal cones that are sensitive to ultra violet light, so they can see objects in ultra-violet light.
Human eyes do not posses retinal cones sensitive to ultra-violet light, so human beings
cannot see objects in ultra-violet light. In other words, human beings are ultra-violet blind.

33. Ans. In a chickens eye, the retina has a large number of cones but only few rods. The
rods are sensitive to bright light only. That is why a chicken is not able to see in dim light. As
it needs bright light to see, so it wakes up early in the morning with the sunrise and goes to
sleep by sunset.

## 34. Ans. Magnifying power of a simple microscope ,

m = 1 + D/f
as fV < fR so the magnifying power is greater when the object is seen in violet light.

35. Ans. This is done so that the objective lens forms image within the focal length of the
eyepiece.

## 36. Ans. (i) We should take f0 =1 cm and fe = 3cm for a microscope.

(ii) We should take f0 = 100 cm and fe = 1 cm for a telescope.

37. Ans. Yes, because the light gathering power of objective will increase and even faint
objects will become visible.

## 38. Ans. For relaxed eye,

L = f0 + fe (normal adjustment)
For least distance of distinct vision,
L = f0 + ue , ue < fe
Therefore, L < L. so that distance between the two lenses should be decreased.
39. Ans. Here u = - (f+a), v = -(f+b), f = -f
As 1/f = 1/u +1/v
F = uv/ u + v
Or -f = [-(f+a)] x [-(f+b)] / -(f+a) f(a+b)
= f2 + af +bf +ab / -(2f+a+b)
or 2 f2 + af +bf = f2 + af +bf +ab
or f2 = ab
40.Ans. (i) Angle of refraction (/2) in medium 2 is less than the angle of incidence () in
medoum 1 i.e. the ray bends towards the normal in medium 2. so medium 2 is optically
denser than medium 1.
(ii) From Snells law,
= sin i/sin r = sin / sin /2 = 2sin /2 cos /2 /sin /2 = 2 cos /2

Also = c1 / c2

## hence 2 cos /2 = c1 / c2 or = 2cos-1(c1 / 2c2) .

41. Ans. The point of convergence shifts away from the glass, as shown in the ray diagram
given below. The screen has to be moved towards right to receive the point of convergence
again.

## 42. Ans. Real depth = y cm

Apparent depth = y- x cm
Refractive index of oil,
= real depth/ apparent depth = y / y-x

43. Ans. Using Snells Law for refraction from glass to air,
Sin i/sin r = ga = v / c

Where c is the speed of light in air and v is the speed of light in glass, In the consition of
critical incidence, we have i = ic and r = 900

## Sin ic/ sin 900 = v / c or Sin ic = v / c

Or ic = sin -1 ( v / c)
44. Ans. Twinkling of stars. The light from stars undergoes refraction continuously before it
reaches earth. So the apparent position of the stars is slightly different than its actual position.
Due to variation in atmosphere conditions, like change in temperature, density etc., and this
apparent position keeps on changing. The amount of light entering our eyes from a particular
star increases and decreases randomly with time. Sometimes, the star appears brighter and
other times, it appears fainter. This gives rise to the twinkling effect of stars.
The planets do not show twinkling effect. As the planets are much closer to the earth, the
greater and the fluctuations caused in the amount of light due to atmospheric refraction are
negligible as compared to the amount of light received from them.

45. Ans. Light from the stars near the horizon reaches the earth obliquely through the
atmosphere. Its path changes due to refraction. Frequent atmospheric disturbances change the
path of light and cause twinkling of stars. Light from the stars overhead reaches the earth
normally. It does not suffer refraction. There is no change in its path. Hence there is no
Twinkling effect.

## 46. Ans. Magnification produced by any lens,

m = v/u = f / f + u

given m = N N = f / f + u

or f + u = f / N or u = - f f / N

|u| = f f / N

## given P = 1/f = + 2.5 D

f = 1/ 2.5 = 0.4 m = 40 cm
Also N = 4
|u| = 40 40/4 = 40 10 = 50 cm or 30 cm.

47. Ans.
(a) for a convex lens, f>>0 and for an object on left, u<0. when the object is placed within the
focus of a convex lens,
0 < |u| < f or 0< 1 / |u| > 1/f
1/v = 1/f+1/u=1/f-1/|u|<0

## i.e. v < 0 so a virtual image is formed on left.

Now as u<0 and v<0, so 1/v = 1/f + 1/u

## = - 1/ |v| = 1/f 1/|u| or 1/|u| - 1/|v| = 1/f

As f>0
1/|u| - 1/|v| > 0 or 1/|u| > 1/|v| or |u|<|v|
i.e. |v|>|u| |m| = |v/u| > 1
Hence image is enlarged.
(b) For a concave lens f<0 and for an object on left, u<0
1/v = 1/f +1/u = 1/|f| - 1/|u|
= - [1/|f|+1/|u|] < 0 for all u.
i.e. v<0 for all values of u. hence a virtual image is formed on the left.
Also 1/|v| = 1/|f| + 1/|u| 1/|v| > 1/|u|
Or |v|<|u| |m| = |v/u| < 1
i.e. the image is diminished in size.
48. Ans. A hollow prism contains air which does not cause dispersion. The faes AB and AC
of the hollow prism behave like parallel sides of glass plates. The beam is laterally deviated
at each of the two refracting faces. However, the rays of different colours emerge parallel to
each other. So there is no dispersion.
49. Ans. (i) Moon has no atmosphere. There is no scattering of light. Sunlight reaches moon
straight covering shortest distance. Hence sunrise and sunset are abrupt.
(ii) Moon has no atmosphere. So there is nothing to scatter sunlight towards the moon. No
skylight reaches moon surface. Sky appears black in the day time as it does at night.
(iii) No water vapours are present at moon surface. No clouds are formed. There are no rains
on the moon. So rainbow is never observed.
NUMERICAL PROBLEMS
50. Ans. The total apparent shift in the position of the image due to all the three media is
given by
d = t1[1-1/(1)+ t2[1-1/(2)+ t3[1-1/(3)
Given t1 = 4.0 cm, t2=6.0 cm , t3 =8.0 cm
1 = 1.5 , 2=1.4 , 3 =1.3 cm
d= 4.0(1-1/1.5)+6.0(1-1/1.4)+8.0(1-1/1.3)
= 1.33 + 1.71 + 1.85 = 4.89 cm

51. Ans. Clearly , the fish can see the outside view of the cone with semi vertical angle,

But = 1 / sin ic
Or 1/3 = 1 / sin ic
Or sin ic = = 0.75
/2 = ic = sin-1 (0.75) = 48.60

52. Ans. (i) As the lens forms a real iamge, it must be a convex lens.
(ii) From the graph, when u=20 cm , we have v = 20 cm.
For the convex lens forming a real iamge, u is negative and v and f are positive.
U = -20 cm v = +20cm
Using this lens formula,
1/f = 1/v 1/u = 1/20 1/-20 = 1/10 or f = + 10 cm
53. Ans. A=600 , m=300
i = e = A = 450 ,
as A + = i + e
60 + = 45 + 45
or = 300
Refractive index,
= sin a+m /2 /sin A/2 = sin 600+300/2 / sin 600/2
= sin 450/sin300 = 1/2 / = 2 = 1.414
WAVE OPTICS
54. Ans. Two light sources will be coherent if
(i) The frequency of the two light sources is same and,
(ii) The phase difference between them remains constant.
55. Two independent light sources cannot act as coherent sources. Why?
Ans. Two independent sources of light cannot be coherent. This is because light is emitted by
individual atoms, when they return to ground state. Even the smallest source of light contains
billions of atoms which obviously cannot emit light waves in the same phase.
56. Ans. Fringe width , = D/d
i.e. 1/d , when d 0,
fringe width is very large. Even a single fringe may occupy the entire screen. The
interference pattern cannot be observed.
57. Ans. The given path difference satisfies the condition for the minimum of intensity for
yellow light, Hence if yellow light is used, a dark fringe will be formed at the given point. If
white light is used, all components of white light except the yellow one would be present at
this point.
58. Ans. The positions of bright and dark fringes will change rapidly. Such rapid changes
cannot be detected by our eyes. A uniform illumination is seen on the screen i.e. interference
pattern disappears.
59. Ans. For diffraction to take place the wave length should be of the order of the size of the
obstacle. The radio waves (particularly short radio waves) have wave length of the order of
the size of the building and other obstacles coming in their way and hence they easily get
diffracted. Since wavelength of the light waves is very small. They are not diffracted by the
buildings.
60. Ans. Muslin cloth is mde of very fine threads and as such fine slits are formed. White
light passing through these silts gets diffracted giving rise to colored spectrum. The central
maximum is white while the secondary maxima are coloured. This is because the positions of
secondary maxima (except central maximum) depend on the wavelength of light.
In a coarse cloth, the slits formed between the threads are wider and the diffraction is not so
pronounced. Hence no such spectrum is seen.
61. Ans. A wavefront is a surface obtained by joining all points vibrating in the same phase.
A ray is a line drawn perpendicular to the wavefront in the direction of propagation of light
wave.
The wavefronts of light emerging from a point source are spherical, as shown in figure. When
a point source is placed at the focus of a convex lens, the emerging light has the plane
wavefronts, as shown in figure.
62. Ans. As shown in figure the bright fringes B1 and b2 on either side of O coincide with S1
and S2 respectively.
Clearly ,
= d/2
As = D/d d/2 = D/d or = d2/2D
63Ans. For intensity distribution of light in diffraction at a signal slit, see figure
Width of central maximum is given by
0 = 2D/d
(i) When wavelength of light used is increased, the width of central maximum increases.
(ii) When width of the slit is increased, the width of central maximum decreases.
Wavelength of light in water decreases, so width of central maximum also decreases.
64. Ans. When the monochromatic source is replaced by a source of white light, the
diffraction pattern shows following changes:
(i) In each diffraction order, the diffracted image of the slit gets dispersed into component
colours of white light. As fringe width wavelength, so the red fringe with higher
wavelength is wider than violet fringe with smaller wavelength,
(ii) In higher order spectra, the dispersion is more and it causes overlapping of different
colours.
65. Ans. R.P.of a compound microscope
= 2 sin/ = 2 sin x v /c
(i)When the frequency v of the incident light increases, the resolving power increases (R.P.
v).
(ii) Resolving power does not change with change in focal length of objective lens.
(iii) When the aperture of the objective lens increases, the semi-vertical angle increases and
hence the resolving power of the microscope increases.
66. Ans. According to the Brewster law, when a ray of light is incident on a transparent
refracting medium at olarising angle,
= tan ip
but ip + rp = 900 or ip = 900 - rp
= tan(900 - rp ) = Cot rp = 1/ tan rp

## As ic is the critical angle for the transparent medium, so

= 1/sin ic
on comparing (i) and (ii) we get
tan rp = sin ic or rp =tan-1(sin ic)

NUMERICAL QUESTIONS

## 67. Ans. The resultant intensity at a point where phase difference is is

I R = I1 +I2+2I1I2 Cos
As I1 =I and I2 = 4I therefore
I R = I +4I+21.4I Cos = 5I +4I cos
(i) when =0 , I R = 5I +4I cos 0 = 9 I
(ii) when =/2 , I R = 5I +4I cos /2 = 5 I
(iii) when = , I R = 5I +4I cos = I

68. Ans. The fringe width in the two cases will be = D/d
And = D/d
- = (D-D)/d
or wavelength = ( - )d / (D-D)
But D-D = 5 x 10-2 m
And - = 3 x 10-5 m , d= 10-3m

## = 3 x 10-5 x 10-3 / 5 x 10-2 = 6 x 10-7 m = 6000A

69. Ans. Let I be the intensity of beam I incident on first glass plate. Each plate reflects 25%
of light incident on it and transmits 75%.
Therefore,
I1 =I and I2 = 25/100I = I/4
I3 =75/100 I = 3/4I
I4 = 25/100 I3 = x I = 3/16 I
I5= 7/100 I4= x 3/16 I = 9/64 I
Amplitude ratio of beams 2 and 5 is
R = I2/I5 = I/4 x 64/91 = 4/3
Imin/ Imax = [r-1/r+1]2 = [4/3-1 / 4/3+1]2 = 1/49 = 1:49
UNIT-7
HINTS FOR DUAL NATURE OF MATTER
1. E = h
=hc/
E 1/ energy of proton reduces to half.
2. Alkali metals have too low work functions. Even visible light can eject electrons from
them.
3. UV are most effective since they have highest frequency hence more energetic.
4. Yes. X-rays cause photoelectric effect in sodium, zinc & copper.
5. K.E of photons remains unaffected since they do not depend
6. stopping potential V0 = Kmax/e = 5ev/e =5 V
7. w0 = h0 = hc/0
0 1/ w0
Since sodium has lower work functions than copper it is easier for electron ejection.
As it is lower work function, higher wavelength.
8. Photocells are used for reproduction of sound.
9. 1/2 mv2 = (m2 v2)/2m = p2/2m
According to De Broglie wave length = h/p
e/ p = pp/pe = (mp /me )
me < mp
e > p
electrons have greater De broglie wavelength than proton .
10. = 90 - /2
= 90 52/2 =64
11. = hc /
= 3.310-19 J
12. KE of photoelectrons is given by Einsteins photoelectric equation.
Ek =1/2 mv2
= h - w0
V 1/
As wavelength decreases velocity increases.

13.
stopping
potential
frequency

## 14. E= h c/6.6) = x 10-34 x 3 x 108)/ (4 x 10-7) = 4.98 x 10-19 j

E= (4.98 x 10-19)/ (1.6 x 10-19) =3ev
Hence, metal x will emit electrons.

## 15. For a photon E1=hc/

For an electron =h/mv or m=h/v
E2/E1=c/v>1
Therefore,E2>E1.thus, electron has total energy greater than that of photon.
16. ph=e==h/mv
K.E. of electrons E=1/2mv2=1/2 m [h/m 2[
=h2/2m 2
Eph=Ee(2mc /h)
17 . E=1/2 mv2=m2v2/2m=p2/2m p=2Em
=h/p=h/2Em
From Kinetic theory of gases average K.E.=3/2 KT
=h/(2m(3/2 KT)=h/(3m KT)
18. The energy of light obtained from the bulb is much less than work function of the
wodden block.Hence no photon electrons are emitted.

19. Mo will not emit photo electron , because its work function is more than 4 ev.

## 20. Alpha particles due to its largest mass.

21. R 1/q

22. Ee = Mv2/r

23. = /2.
24. /2.
25. = hc/ = 2823 A.
UNIT-8
HINTS FOR ATOMS AND NUCLEI.
1) The entire positive charge and the mass were concentrated at one place inside the atom,
called the nucleus.
2) A larger number of alpha particle went through undeflected.
3) R=R0A1/3 R1/R2=A11/3/A21/3=1 1/3/27 1/3=1/3

## 4) R= R0A1/3 R1/R2=A11/3/A21/3=(1/8)1/3 =1/2

R1: R2=1:2
5) -particles have more ionizing power than -particles.
6) N/N0=(1/2)n
t=2T =2*30 =60 days
7) They are neutral in nature and get absorbed by nucleus, thus distributing the neutron
proton ratio.
8) The ratio of neutrons to proton ratio increases, after the emission of a particle.
9) Owing to greater mass and charge, it is able to knock out/pull out electrons which
colliding with atoms and molecules in its path.
10) T = 20 minutes t = 60 minutes
N/No = (1/2)n = (1/2)60/20 = (1/2) 3 =1/8
After one hour, 1/8th of the original mass would remain.
11) The nucleus looses energy, but remains same isotope it was.
12) No a nucleus either emits a particle or a particle and if left in the exited state,
it
may emit ray also.
13) 1:1 (independent of A).
14) At t = T N = No / 2 Using N = No e- t
No / 2 = No e- t
Solving we get, T1/2 = ln2/ = 0.693/
15) Size of nucleus can approximately be estimated using the concept of distance of
closest
approach. The rebounding particle is selected and its information is substituted in the
expression Ro = 1/4Eo x 2Ze2 / E for particle where E is its energy.
B. Using N =No (1/2)t//2 N =1/16No
1/16 = (1/2)t//2
T1/2 = 30/4 = 7.5 days.
17) 235 = 142+Y+3
Y = 90
And 92 = 57+Z+0
Z = 35
18) a) Yes. Since X & Y are having same atomic number.
b) Y4 3 is likely to be more stable because for its neutron to proton ratio is smaller.
19) Disintegration constant =0.693/T1/2
=0.693/30x24x60x60
Therefore T avg =1.44xT1/2 = 1.44x30 = 43.2 days.
20) Remaining amount (undecayed) =1/4N0
Using N= N0 (1/2)t/T1/2
1/4= (1/2)t/60
Solving t=2x60=120days
21) Mass defect m= (22.9945-22.9898) =0.00474
Energy Q= (0.00474) (931.5)
=4.4MeV
Hence the energy of beta particle can range from 0 to 4.4MeV.

2700=4750 e-5t
=0.113min-1

## b) Using T1/2=0.693/ =0.693/0.113 =6.132min

23) In the process of beta decay, a neutron gets converted to proton inside the nucleus .
Hence number of neutrons decreases by one whereas number of proton increases by
one. Hence n/p ratio decreases.
210
Bi83-------------------- 210Po84 + 0-1 +
Before decay =127/83
After decay=126/84
24) Let and be the decay constant of element A and B respectively. Given is
T1/2(A) = T1/2(B)
0.693/=1/ or / =0.693
Let N be the number of atoms of each of the two samples and R and R their
disintegration rate, then
R/R= N/ N= / =0.693
R > R
25) Find m using
m= (7x1.00783+7x1.00867-14.003074) U
Calculate Eb=mx931.5 MeV

## 26) a) 226Ra88--------------222Rn86 +4He2

b) 32P15------------------32S16 +0e-1 +
c) 32P15------------------11B5 +0e+1 +
27) i) 6Li3 +1n0 ----------3H1 + 4He2 +Q (energy)
ii) Q=mx931 MeV
Where m=6.01512+1.0086654-4.0026044-3.0100000
UNIT-9
HINTS FOR ELECTRONIC DEVICES
1. Conductor - no energy gap
Semi Conductor - It is of the order of 1 ev.
Insulator - 6 ev (or) more than 6 ev.
2. When a semi conductor is heated more & more electrons get enough energy to jump
across the forbidden energy gap from valence band to the conduction band, where they are
free to conduct electricity. Thereby increasing the conductivity of a semi conductor.
3. In an intrinsic semi conductor the number of free electrons and holes is same.
4. C.B
___________ Donor energy level

V.B
5.
C.B

## ____________ Acceptor energy level

V.B

7. Transistor is a current controlled devices.
8. Reverse biased.
9.NAND GATE.
10.If ne/nh =1 . Hence A is intrinsic semi conductor.
If ne/nh <1 , ne<nh hence B is P-type.
11. For half wave rectification 50 Hz.
For Full wave rectification 100Hz.
12. Mobility of an electron is defined as the drift velocity of electron per unit electric field,
i.e. e= Ve /E
Mobility of a hole is defined as the drift velocity of hole per unit electric field,
i.e. h= Vh /E
The electrical conductivity() is the reciprocal of resistivity (p), therefore
Conductivity, =1/ = e(ne e + nh h ) Where ne & nh are free electron density & hole
density respectively.
13. Diagram

## 14. The drift velocity of a charge carrier is proportional to electric E.

Therefore V = eET/m ie. V E
But V cannot be increased indefinitely by increasing E . At high speed relaxation time (T)
begins to decrease due to increase in collision frequency. S: so drift velocity saturates at
thermal velocity (lOms-1). An electric field of 106 V/m causes saturation of drift velocity.
Hence semi- conduction obey ohms law for low electrical field and above this field ( E < 106
V/m ) current becomes independent of potential.

15. The factors upon which transconductance of a transistor depend are as follows--
i) Geometry of the transistor
ii) Doping levels.
iii) Biasing of the transistors.
16. For faster action NPN Transistor is used .In an NPN transistor, current conduction is
mainly by free electron ,whereas in PNP type transistor .it is mainly holes Since electron are
more mobile than holes we prefer NPN for faster action as well as high conduction current.
17. graphs:
:

18. Because the energy gap for Ge ( Eg = 0.7 ev) is smaller than the energy gap for Si
(Eg = 1.1ev ) . Moreover, the germanium diode is much more open to the danger of
high temperature affect than silicon at high voltage.
19. The output of the AND gate is Y = A.B consequently the input of the OR gate are A and
A.B . Then the final Y = A + A.B

## Input for AND gate Output of Input of output of OR

AND gate OR gate gate
A B Y= A.B A Y Y=A+Y
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 1 0 0 0 0
1 0 0 1 0 1
1 1 1 1 1

20. The output of OR gate is A+B. Consequently, the inputs of AND gate are A+B & C
Hence the Boolean equation for the given circuit is
Y=(A+B).C

## 21) AND Gate using NAND GATE:-

A B Y= A.B
0 0 0
0 1 0
1 0 0
1 1 1
22. NOT gate using NAND gate:-
Truth Table:-
A Y=A
0 1
1 0

## 23. Here =50

Ie =6.6mA
=Ic /Ib
Ic=Ib =50Ib
Ie=Ic + Ib
Ib=0.129mA
Hence,
Ic =50 6.6/51 = 6.47mA
= / (1 - )
= / (1 + )
= 0.98

24. Here
Ib = 100A = 0.1mA
Ic = 3mA
a) =Ic / Ib = 30
= / (1- )
= 0.97
= Ic / Ie
Ie = 3.1 mA
b) Ib = 20A 0.02 mA
a.c. = Ic / Ib
a.c. = 25

25. Here
Ic=95% of Ie = (95 / 100 ) Ie
Ie = (100 / 95) 5 mA = 5.26mA
Ie= Ic+ Ib
Ib = 0.25 mA
26. Here
Ie = 5mA
Ic = 4.75 mA
Ie = Ic + Ib
Ib = 75 10-5 A
V = Ib Rb
V = 5V
Rb = V / Ib
Rb = 6.67 k

## 27. This is AND logic gate

Output wave form

28. R

1.5V
Here
e.m.f of the source, E = 1.5V
Voltage drop across the diode , Vd = 0.5V
Maximum power rating of the diode
I = (P / Vd)
I= 0.2A
Potential drop across resistance R
V= E Vd
= 1V
R = V / I = 1 / 0.2 = 5
29. = 0.96 , Ie = 7.2mA
= Ic / Ie
Ic = Ie = 6.91 mA
Ib = Ie Ic
Ib = 0.29 mA.

30. = 70
Ie = 8.8mA
Ie= Ic + Ib
Ib = 8.8 / 71
Ib = 0.124 mA
31. Ib = 105 10-6 A Ic = 2.05 10-3A
= Ic / Ib = 19.5
Also,
Ie = Ib + Ic = 2.155 10-3 A
= Ic / Ie = 0.95
Ib = 27A = 27 10-6 A
= Ic / Ib = 24.1
32. Ie = 7.89 10-3 A
Ic = 7.8 10 3 A
Now a.c. = Ic / Ie = 0.9886

## We have, ac = ac / (1-ac) = 86.72

Also,
ac = Ic / Ib
Ib = Ic / ac
Ib = (7.8 10-3 ) / (86.72)
Ib = 89.94 10-6A

UNIT-10
HINTS FOR COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS
1) In a radar, a beam signal is needed in particular direction which is possible if wavelength
of signal waves is very small. Since the wavelength of microwave is a few millimeter, hence
2 The television signals have frequencies in 100-200 MHz range. As ionosphere cannot
reflect radio waves of frequency greater than 40 M back to earth, the sky waves cannot be
used in the transmission of TV signals.
3) A diode detector should have the following characteristic for proper detection a) high
rectification efficiency.
c) low distortion.
4) Velocity factor (VF) of a cable is the ratio of reduction speed of light in the dielectric of
the cable.
Velocity of light in vacuum is 3 x108 m/sec. It reduces when light passes through a medium.
Velocity of light in a medium is given by
v=c / k & where, c-velocity of light in vacuum and
k- is the dielectric constant of the medium
Vf. =v/c=l/k
For a line velocity factor is generally of the order of 0.6 to 0.9.
5) Delta modulation involves simple pulse coding and decoding methods. A simple delta
modulation uses just one bit per sample i.e. a non-zero sample or one per sample. Thus, this
method is convenient to use.

6) Two wire transmission line and coaxial cable are employed for AF and UHF region.
For optical fiber is employed for optical frequency.
7). Mixing two frequencies across nonlinear impedance.
8). When light strikeds the atoms of the Laser medium, it must stimulate emission rather than
be absorbed. This means that more atoms must be in an excited state than in the ground state.
This is an unnatural condition and is known as population inversion.
9). Solid Lasers, Semi conductor Laser, Liquid laser, Gas Laser.
10) Laser surgery ,Laser printing, Optical communication .
11) 1)Transmission System, 2) Switching Systems and 3) Signaling Systems.
12) 1 .The length of the antenna required is so large (L = 5000m ) that is practically
impossible
to set up it.
2 The energy radiated from the antenna in audio frequency range is Practically zero
3 The audio signals transmitted from the different broadcasting stations will get inseparably
mixed.
13) Pulse modulation is a system in which continuous wave forms are sampled at regular
intervals. Information regarding the signal is transmitted only at the sampling times together
with any synchronizing pulses that maybe required. Pulse modulation is the process of
transmitting signals in the form of pulses ( dis continuous signals ) by using special
techniques.
14) The term channel is commonly used to special the frequency range allotted to a particular
transmission from a broadcast station or a transmitter eg a telephone channel is also used for
15) Atmospheric pressure decreases with in crease in altitude. The high energy particles (ie &
rays and cosmic rays) coming from outer space and entering our earths atmosphere cause
ionization of the atoms of the gases present there . The ionizing power of these radiation
decreases rapidly as they approach the earth. due to decrease in number of collision with the
gas atoms . It is due to this reason that the electrical conductivity of earths atmosphere
increases with altitude
the signal
16) Refractive index p of core of core of optical fibre is slightly higher than glass cladding .
Light propagates through and along the fibre by the series of bounces caused by internal
reflection at the interface of the core and cladding. For total internal reflection the light
should enter the fibre at an angle in accordance with core of acceptance angle c
NA = sinc = (12 - 22 )
Numerical aperature depends upon diameter of the core It decreases as the diameter of core
decreases vice versa
17) i) Pulse Amplitude Modulation : Amplitude of the pulse varies in accordance with the
modulating signal.

(ii) Pulse Position Modulation. : Pulse position (ie) time of rise or fall of the pulse )
changes with the modulating signal.
.
18)Dielectric loss increase beyond this frequency.
19)How does the effective power radiated by the antenna vary with wavelength?

## Power is inversely proportional to wave length

20)what should be the length of the dipole antenna for a carrier wave of 5 X 10 8hz ?
L =c/2 .
21) four times.
22) d= 2hR
d= 2x 0.1x 6400
= 1280 km
Area covered by broadcaste, A = d2 = 3.14 x 1280
= 3919.2 km2
population covered = Area x population density
= 3919.2 x 1000 = 3919200

## 23) (i) 5 MHz <fc sky wave propagation (ionospheric propagation).

(ii) 100 MHz > fc satellite mode of communication.

24)

## 25) Maximum voltage of AM wave,

Vmax = 16 = 8mV
2
Minimum voltage of AM wave,
Vmin = 4 = 2mV
2

ma = Vmax - Vmin
Vmax + Vmin

= 8-2 = 6 = 0.6
8+2 10

## 26) The AM wave equation is given by ;

v = 5(1+0.6cos6280t) sin 221 X 104t volts .(i)
(i) Maximum amplitude of AM wave
= EC + maEC =5 + 0.6 X 5 = 8V

## Minimum amplitude of AM wave

= EC - maEC =5 - 0.6 X 5 = 2V
(ii) The AM wave will contain three frequency viz
fc-fs, fc, fc+fs
336-1 336 336+1
335kHz 336kHz 337kHz

27) (i) The AM wave has sideband frequency of (fc + fs) and (fc - fs).
Sideband frequency = (500+1) kHz and (500-1) kHz
501 kHz and 499 kHz

## (ii) Bandwidth required = 499 kHz to 501 kHz = 2 kHz

28) PS = ma2 PC
1.246 = 1 + ma2
2
ma2/2 = 0.246
ma = (2 X 0.246)1/2 = 0.701 = 70.1%
29) Modulation index ,
mf = Maximum frequency deviation
Minimum signal frequency

## 30) d = (2 6400 X103 160)1/2 = 45255m

Coverage range, d = (2Rh)1/2
h2 = 4h1 = 4 160 = 640m

d = (2Rh)1/2
= 37500m = 37.5 km
= 4.4 106
32) Microwave communication channel width =
2
10GHz
100 =0.2 GHz
band width of channel = 8 KHz
= 2.5 10 4
33) Energy corresponding to = 1400nm = 1400 10-9 m is
hc 1.42 10 19
eV
E= = 1.6 10 19 = 1eV
For detection E must be equal to greater then Eg. Hence only
suitable semiconductor is C.

34) Critical frequency fc and maximum electron density nmax are related
as
1/ 2

fc = 9(nmax)
fc 2
Squaring we get nmax = 81
6
Given fc = 10MHz =
10 10 = 10
7
Hz
2
(10 7)
ie, nmax = 81 = 1.23 10 m
12 3
Physics - Sample Question Papers and Answers
PHYSICS
SET I
6. Calculate the ratio of energies of photons produced
due to transition of electron of hydrogen atom from
Time : 3 Hrs. Max Marks : 70 its,
General Instructions (i) Second permitted energy level to the first level, and
(a) All questions are compulsory. (ii) Highest permitted energy level to the second per-
(b) There are 30 questions in total. Questions 1 to 8 mitted level.
carry one mark each, questions 9 to 18 carry two 7. Give expression for the average value of the a c
marks each, questions 19 to 27 carry three marks voltage V = V0 Sinw t over the time interval t = 0
each and questions 28 to 30 carry five marks each.
and t = .
(c) There is no overall choice. However, an internal
choice has been provided in one question of two 8. How is the band gap, Eg, of a photodiode related to
marks, one question of three marks and all three the maximum wavelength, lm that can be detected
questions of five marks each. You have to attempt by it?
only one of the given choices in such questions. 9. Keeping the voltage of the charging source con-
(d) Use of calculators is not permitted. stant, what would be the percentage change in the
(e) You may use the following physical constants wher- energy stored in a parallel plate capacitor if the
ever necessary : separation between its plates were to be decreased
c = 3 108ms-1 by 10%?
h = 6.6 10-34Js 10. Explain how the average velocity of free electrons
e = 1.6 10-19 C in a metal at constant temperature, in an electric
m0 = 4p 107 TmA1 field, remain constant even though the electrons
Boltzmann constant k = 1.38 1023 JK-1 are being constantly accelerated by this electric
Avogadros number NA = 6.023 1023/mole field?
Mass of neutron mn = 1.6 10-27 kg 11. How is the resolving power of a microscope
SECTION A affected when,
1. Two identical charged particles moving with same (i) the wavelength of illuminating radiations is
speed enter a region of uniform magnetic field. If decreased?
one of these enters normal to the field direction (ii) the diameter of the objective lens is decreased?
and the other enters along a direction at 300 with Justify your answer.
the field, what would be the ratio of their angular 12. What is the basic difference between the atom or
frequencies? molecule of a diamagnetic and a paramagnetic ma-
2. Why does a metallic piece become very hot when terial? Why are elements with even atomic num-
it is surrounded by a coil carrying high frequency ber more likely to be diamagnetic?
alternating current? 13. Why are infrared radiations referred to as heat
3. How is a sample of an n-type semiconductor elec- waves also? Name the radiations which are next to
trically neutral though it has an excess of negative these radiations in electromagnetic spectrum hav-
charge carriers? ing
4. Name the characteristics of electromagnetic waves (i) Shorter wavelength. (ii) Longer wavelength.
that (i) increases (ii) remains constant 14. The following data was recorded for values of ob-
in the electromagnetic spectrum as one moves from ject distance and the corresponding values of im-
radiowave region towards ultraviolet region. age distance in the experiment on study of real im-
5. How would the angular separation of interference age formation by a convex lens of power +5D. One
fringes in Youngs double slit experiment change of these observations is incorrect. Identify this ob-
when the distance of separation between the slits servation and give reason for your choice:
and the screen is doubled?

1
Physics - Sample Question Papers and Answers

S.No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 19. The following data was obtained for the depen-
dence of the magnitude of electric field, with dis-
Object dis- tance, from a reference point O, within the charge
25 30 35 45 50 55
tance (cm) distribution in the shaded region.
Image dis- 97 61 37 35 32 30
Field
tance (cm)
point A B C A B C
15. Two stu- E
dents X and R Magnitude of
Y perform electric field E E/8 E/27 E2 E16 E/64
an experi- A B (i) Identify the
ment on po- charge distri- C
G
tentiometer bution and jus-
B
using the swer.
circuit diagram shown here. (ii) If the potential
Keeping other things unchanged due to this A
(i) X increases the value of distance R charge distri-
(ii) Y decreases the value of resistance S in the set bution, has a 123456 123456
123456
up. value V at the 123456123456
O A B C
How would these changes affect the position of point A, what is
null point in each case and why? its value at the point A?
16. The following table gives the values of work func- 20. A charge Q located at a point rr is in equilibrium
tion for a few photosensitive metals under the combined electric field of three charges
S.No. Metal Work Function (eV) q1,q2, q3. If the charges q1,q2 are located at points
r r
1. Na 1.92 r and r respectively, find the direction of the force
1 2

r r
on Q, due to q3 in terms of q1,q2, r1 . r2 and rr .
2. K 2.15
3. Mo 4.17
21. 12 cells, each of emf 1.5V and internal resistance
If each of these metals is exposed to radiations of 0.5W , are arranged in m rows each containing n
wavelength 300 nm, which of them will not emit cells connected in series, as shown. Calculate the
photoelectrons and why? values of n and m for which this combination would
OR send maximum current through an external resis-
By how much would the stopping potential for a tance of 1.5W . R = 1.5W .
given photosensitive surface go up if the frequency
of the incident radiations were to be increased from
4 1015 Hz to 8 1015 Hz?
Given h = 6.4 10-34 Js, e = 1.6 10-19 C and m rows
c = 3 108 ms-1.
17. Prove that the instantaneous rate of change of the
activity of a radioactive substance is inversely pro- (n cells in each row)
portional to the square of its half life. 2V, 2W
OR A
18. What does the term LOS communication mean? B
For the circuit
Name the types of waves that are used for this com- shown here, 1V
2 1V1
munication. Which of the two-height of transmit- calculate the 1W 2W
ting antenna and height of receiving antenna - can 1W
potential dif-
affect the range over which this mode of commu- ference be- D
nication remains effective? C 3V, 3W
2
Physics - Sample Question Papers and Answers
tween points B and D. real image coincides
22. A beam of light of wavelength 400 nm is in- with the needle it-
cident normally on a right angled prism as self. The distance of
shown. It is observed that the light just grazes the needle from the
along the surface AC after falling on it. Given lens is measured to Liquid
that the refractive index of the material of the be a. On removing
prism varies with the wavelength l as per the the liquid layer and repeating the experiment the distance
b
is found to be b. Given that two values of distances mea-
relation mA= 1.2 + . sured represent the focal length values in the two cases,
2
obtain a formula for the refractive index of the liquid.
Calculate the value of b and the refractive in-
dex of the prism material for a wavelength 25. A circular coil having 20 turns, each of radius 8 cm, is
l = 5000 [(Given q = Sin-1 (0.625)] rotating about its vertical diameter with an angular speed
. A of 50 radian s-1 in a uniform horizontal magnetic field of
magnitude 30 mT. Obtain the maximum average and
)

q
r. m. s. values of the emf induced in the coil. If the coil
forms a closed loop of resistance 10W , how much power
is dissipated as heat in it? 3
92 Y
26. The nucleus of an atom of 235 , initially at rest, decays
B C
by emitting an a-particle as per the equation
23. Three students X, Y, and Z performed an ex- 235
Y 231
X + 24 He + Energy .
92 90
periment for studying the variation of alter-
It is given that the binding energies per nucleon of the
nating currents with angular frequency in a
parent and the daughter nuclei are 7.8 MeV and 7.835
series LCR circuit and obtained the graphs
MeV respectively and that of a-particle is 7.07MeV/
shown below. They all used a.c. sources of
nucleon. Assuming the daughter nucleus to be formed in
the same r. m. s. value and inductances of the
the unexcited state and neglecting its share in the energy
same value. What can we (qualitatively) con-
of the reaction, calculate the speed of the emitted a-par-
ticle. Take mass of a-particle to be 6.68 10-27 kg. 3
(i) capacitance value (ii) resistance values
27. Define the term modulation index for an AM wave. What
used by them? In which case will the quality
would be the modulation index for an AM wave for which
factor be maximum?
the maximum amplitude is a while the minimum ampli-
What can we conclude about nature of the im-
tude is b ? 3
pedance of the set up at frequency w o?
28. Two circular coils X and Y having radii R and R 2 re-
I spectively are placed in horizontal plane with their cen-
X tres coinciding with each other. Coil X has a current I
Y flowing through it in the clockwise sense. What must be
Z the current in coil Y to make the total magnetic field at
the common centre of the two coils, zero? With the same
w0 w currents flowing in the two coils, if the coil Y is now lifted
vertically upwards through a distance R, what would be
24. An equiconvex lens with radii of curvature of the net magnetic field at the centre of coil Y?
magnitude r each, is put over a liquid layer OR
poured on top of a plane mirror. A small A straight thick long wire of uniform cross section of ra-
needle, with its tip on the principal axis of the dius a is carrying a steady current I. Use Amperes cir-
lens, is moved along the axis until its inverted cuital law to obtain a relation showing the variation of the

3
Physics - Sample Question Papers and Answers
magnetic field (Br) inside and outside the wire with Input signals A and B are applied to the input termi-
distance r, (r a) and (r > a) of the field point from nals of the dotted box set-up shown here. Let Y be
the centre of its cross section. Plot a graph showing the final output signal from the box. Draw the wave
the nature of this variation. Calculate the ratio of forms of the signals labelled as C1 and C2 within the
a box, giving (in brief) the rea-
magnetic field at a point above the surface of sons for getting these wave
2
forms. Hence draw the wave
a form of the final output signal
the wire to that at a point below its surface. What
2 Y. Give reasons for your
is the maximum value of the field of this wire? choice. What can we state (in
5 words) as the relation between
29. State the principle which helps us to determine the the final output signal Y and
shape of the wavefront at a later time from its given the input signals A and B ?
shape at any time. Apply this principle to
(i) Show that a spherical/ plane wavefront continues A C1
to propagate forward as a spherical/plane wavefront.
(ii) Derive Snells law of refraction by drawing the re- Y
fracted wavefront corresponding to a plane
wavefront incident on the boundary separating a B
C2
rarer medium from a denser medium. 5
OR
(a) What do we understand by polarization of a wave? SET II
How does this phenomenon help us to decide
whether a given wave is transverse or longitudinal General instructions same as set 1
in nature? 1. What is the angle between the directions of electric
(b) Light from an ordinary source (say a sodium lamp) field at any (i) axial point and (ii) equatorial point
is passed through a polaroid sheet P1 .The transmit- due to an electric dipole? 1
ted light is then made to pass through a second 2. A (hypothetical) bar magnet (AB) is cut into two
polaroid sheet P2 which can be rotated so that the angle equal parts. One part is now kept over the other, so
(q) between the two polaroid sheets varies from 00 to that pole C2 is above C1. If M is the magnetic mo-
90o. Show graphically the variation of the intensity ment of the original magnet, what would be the mag-
of light, transmitted by P1 and P2, as a function of the netic moment of the combination so formed? 1
angle q . Take the incident beam intensity as I0. Why
does the light from a clear blue portion of the sky, A C1 C2 A
show a rise and fall of intensity when viewed through
a polaroid which is rotated? 5
30. A student has to study the input and output charac-
teristics of an n-p-n silicon transistor in the Com- 3. A rectangular
mon Emitter configuration. What kind of a circuit wire frame,
shown below, B B
arrangement should she use for this purpose? Draw
the typical shape of input characteristics likely to is placed in a
be obtained by her. What do we understand by the uniform mag-
cut off, active and saturation states of the transis- netic field di-
rected upward A A
tor? In which of these states does the transistor not
remain when being used as a switch? and normal to
OR the plane of the paper. The part AB is connected to

4
Physics - Sample Question Papers and Answers
a spring. The spring is stretched and released when 10. The I-V characteristics
the wire AB has come to the position AB(t = 0). of a resistor are ob-
How would the induced emf vary with time? Ne- served to deviate from
glect damping. 1 a straight line for
4. From the following, identify the electromagnetic higher values of cur-
waves having the (i) Maximum (ii) Minimum fre- rent as shown below.
quency. 1 Why?
(i) Radio waves (ii) Gamma-rays (iii) Visible light 11. A charged particle moving with a uniform velocity
(iv) Microwaves (v) Ultraviolet rays, and (vi) In- r
V enters a region where uniform electric and mag-
frared rays. r r
5. A partially plane polarised beam of light is passed netic fields E and B are present. It passes through
through a polaroid. Show graphically the variation the region without any change in its velocity. What
of the transmitted light intensity with angle of rota- can we conclude about the
tion of the polaroid. r r r
(i) Relative directions of E , V and B ?
6. The given graphs r r
show the variation of (ii) Magnitudes of E and B ?
photo electric current 12. Figure shows two long coaxial solenoids, each of
(I) with the applied length l. The outer soleniod has an area of cross-
voltage (V) for two section A and number of turns/ length n1 . The cor-
different materials responding values
and for two different for the inner sole-
intensities of the in- noid are A2 and n2.
Identify the pairs of curves that correspond to dif- sion for self induc-
ferent materials but same intensity of incident ra- tance L1, L2 of the
diations. two coils and their mutual inductance M. Hence
7. Four nuclei of an element fuse together to form a
heavier nucleus. If the process is accompanied by show that M< L1 L 2 .
release of energy, which of the two - the parent or 13. Two identical plane metallic surfaces A and B are
the daughter nucleus would have a higher binding kept parallel to each other in air separated by a dis-
energy/nucleon? tance of 1.0 cm as shown in the figure.
8. Zener diodes have higher dopant densities as com- B
pared to ordinary p-n junction diodes. How does it A
affect the (i) Width of the depletion layer? (ii) Junc- X
tion field?
9. Four point charges are placed at the four corners of
Z
a square in the two ways (i) and (ii) as shown be- Y 1.0 cm
low. Will the (i) electric field (ii) Electric potential,
at the centre of the square, be the same or different
in the two configurations and why? Surface A is given a positive potential of 10V and the
Q Q Q +Q
D C D C outer surface of B is earthed. (i) What is the magni-
tude and direction of the uniform electric field be-
tween points Y and Z? (ii) What is the work done in
A B
moving a charge of 20 mC from point X and point Y?
A B
Q Q +Q Q 14. In the circuit shown below, R represents an electric
bulb. If the frequency u of the supply is doubled,

5
Physics - Sample Question Papers and Answers
how should the values of C and L be changed so 19. In a double slit interference experiment, the two
that the glow in the bulb remains unchanged? coherent beams have slightly different intensities I
and I + dI (dI << I). Show that the resultant inten-
sity at the maxima is nearly 4I while that at the
R C L
(I ) 2

minima is nearly .
4I
W r
20. An electric dipole of dipole moment P is placed in
K r
a uniform electric field E . Write the expression for
OR the torque r experienced by the dipole. Identify two
An air cored coil L and a bulb B are connected in pairs of perpendicular vectors in the expression.
series to the ac mains as shows in the given figure Show diagramatically the orientation of the dipole
: in the field for which the torque is (i) maximum
B
(ii) half the maximum value (iii) zero.
OR
Two capacitors with capacity C1 and C2 are charged
AC to potential V1 and V2 respectively and then con-
Mains nected in parallel. Calculate the common potential
The bulb glows with some brightness. How would across the combination, the charge on each capaci-
the glow of the bulb change if an iron rod were in- tor, the electrostatic energy stored in the system and
serted in the coil? Give reasons in support of your the change in the electrostatic energy from its ini-
15. Experimental observations have shown that X-rays 21. Using a suitable combination from a NOR, an OR
(i) travel in vacuum with a speed of 3 108 ms-1, and a NOT gate, draw circuits to obtain the truth
(ii) exhibit the phenomenon of diffraction and can table given below:
be polarized. A B Y A B Y
What conclusions can be drawn about the nature of 0 0 0 0 0 1
X-rays from each of these observations? 2 0 1 0 0 1 1
16. Write the relation between the angle of incidence 1 0 1 1 0 0
(i), the angle of emergence (e), the angle of prism 1 1 0 1 1 1
(A) and the angle of deviation (d) for rays undergo- (i) (ii)
ing refraction through a prism. What is the relation 22. Which two main considerations are kept in mind
between i and e for rays undergoing minimum while designing the objective of an astronomical
deviation? Using this relation, write the expression telescope? Obtain an expression for the angular mag-
for the refractive index (m) of the material of a prism nifying power and the length of the tube of an as-
in terms of A and the angle of minimum devia- tronomical telescope in its normal adjustment po-
tion (dm). 2 sition. 3
1 23. Calculate the de-Broglie wavelength of (i) an elec-
17. A radioactive material is reduced to of its origi- tron (in the hydrogen atom) moving with a speed of
16
nal amount in 4 days. How much material should 1
one begin with so that 4 10-3 kg of the material is of the speed of light in vacuum and (ii) a ball
100
left after 6 days. 2 of radius 5mm and mass 3 10-2 kg moving with a
18. Distinguish between point to point and broad- speed of 100ms-1. Hence show that the wave nature
cast communication modes. Give one example of of matter is important at the atomic level but is not
each. 2 really relevant at the macroscopic level. 3

6
Physics - Sample Question Papers and Answers
24. Show that during the charging of a parallel plate ing formula for the series combination? Two cells
capacitor, the rate of change of charge on each plate of EMF 1V, 2V and internal resistances 2W and 1W
equals e0 times the rate of change of electric flux respectively are connected in (i) series, (ii) parallel.
(fE) linked with it. What is the name given to the What should be the external resistance in the circuit
d E so that the current through the resistance be the same
term 0 ? 3 in the two cases? In which case more heat is gener-
dt
ated in the cells ? 5
25. The spectrum of a star in the visible and the ultra-
29. (i) Describe an expression for the magnetic field at
violet region was observed and the wavelength of
a point on the axis of a current carrying circular
some of the lines that could be identified were found
loop.
to be :
(ii) Two coaxial circular loops L1 and L2 of radii 3cm
824, 970, 1120, 2504, 5173, 6100.
and 4cm are placed as shown. What should be the
Which of these lines cannot belong to hydrogen
magnitude and direction of the current in the loop
atom spectrum? (Given Rydberg constant
L2 so that the net magnetic field at the point O be
1 zero?
R = 1.03 107m-1 and = 970. Support your 4 cm
R 3 cm
26. What is space wave propagation? Which two com-
munication methods make use of this mode of propa- 4 cm 3 cm
gation? If the sum of the heights of transmitting and I1 IA
receiving antennae in line of sight of communica- L1
tion is fixed at h, show that the range is maximum L2
h OR
when the two antennae have a height each. (i) What is the relationship between the current and the
2
27. Draw the transfer characteristics of a base biased magnetic moment of a current carrying circular
transistor in its common emitter configuration. Ex- loop? Use the expression to derive the relation be-
plain briefly the meaning of the term active region tween the magnetic moment of an electron moving
in these characteristics. For what practical use, do in a circle and its related angular momentum?
we use the transistor in this active region? (ii) A muon is a particle that has the same charge as an
28. A cell of unknown emf E and internal resistance r, electron but is 200 times heavier than it. If we had
two unknown resistances R1 and R2 (R2 > R1) and a an atom in which the muon revolves around a pro-
perfect ammeter are given. The current in the cir- ton instead of an electron, what would be the mag-
cuit is measured in five different situations : (i) With- netic moment of the muon in the ground state of
out any external resistance in the circuit, (ii) With such an atom?
resistance R1 only, (iii) With resistance R 2 only, 30. (i) Derive the mirror formula which gives the rela-
(iv) With both R1 and R2 used in series combination tion between f, v and u. What is the corresponding
and (v) With R1 and R2 used in parallel combina- formula for a thin lens?
tion. The current obtained in the five cases are 0.42A, (ii) Calculate the distance d, so that a real image of an
0.6A, 1.05A, 1.4A, and 4.2A, but not necessarily in object at O, 15cm in front of a convex lens of focal
that order. Identify the currents in the five cases listed length 10cm be formed at the same point O. The
above and calculate E, r,, R1 and R2. radius of curvature of the mirror is 20cm. Will the
OR image be inverted or erect?
Describe the formula for the equivalent EMF and
internal resistance for the parallel combination of
two cells with EMF E1 and E2 and internal resis-
tances r1 and r2 respectively. What is the correspond- O 15 cm d

7
Physics - Sample Question Papers and Answers
OR 7. Carbon and silicon are known to have similar lat-
(i) Using the relation for refraction at a single spherical tice structures. However, the four bonding electrons
refracting surface, derive the lens makers formula. of carbon are present in second orbit while those of
(ii) In the accompanying silicon are present in its third orbit. How does this
diagram, the direct difference result in a difference in their electrical
image formed by the conductivities? 1
lens (f = 10cm) of an 8. An unknown input (A) and the input (B) shown here,
object placed at O O 15 cm 50 cm are used as the two inputs in a NAND gate. The
and that formed after output Y, has the form shown below. Identify the
reflection from the spherical mirror are formed at intervals over which the input A must be low.
the same point O . What is the radius of curvature
of the mirror?
SET III
General instructions same as set 1.
1. The graph shown here, shows
the variation of the total en-
ergy (E) stored in a capacitor
against the value of the ca-
pacitance (C) itself. Which of
the two - the charge on the
capacitor or the potential used to charge it is kept
constant for this graph?
2. An a- particle and a proton are moving in the plane 9. The two graphs drawn
of the paper in a region where there is a uniform below, show the varia-
r q1
magnetic field ( B ) directed normal to the plane of tion of electrostatic v
the paper. If the two particles have equal linear mo- 1
menta, what will be the ratio of the radii of their potential (V) with (r
r
trajectories in the field? 1
1
being distance of the
3. State the condition under which a microwave oven r
field point from the
heats up a food item containing water molecules point charge) for two q2
most efficiently. point charges q1 and
4. An electrical element X, when connected to an al- q2.
ternating voltage source, has the current through it (i) What are the signs of the two charges?
(ii) Which of the two charges has a larger magnitude
2 and why? 2
an expression for its reactance. 1 10. Calculate the temperature at which the resistance
5. A double convex lens, made from a material of re- of a conductor becomes 20% more than its resis-
fractive index m1, is immersed in a liquid of refrac- tance at 270C.The value of the temperature coeffi-
tive index where m2 > m1. What change, if any, would cient of resistance of the conductor is 2.0 10 4/K.
occur in the nature of the lens? 1 2
6. The de Broglie wavelengths, associated with a pro- 11. A student records the following data for the magni-
ton and a neutron, are found to be equal. Which of tudes (B) of the magnetic field at axial points at dif-
the two has a higher value for kinetic energy? 1 ferent distances x from the centre of a circular coil
of radius a carrying a current I. Verify (for any two)

8
Physics - Sample Question Papers and Answers
that these observations are in good agreement with these wavelengths in decreasing order of their mag-
the expected theoretical variation of B with x. nitude.
x x = 0 x = a 16.What do the terms depletion region and barrier
x = 2a x = 3a
potential mean for a p-n junction? 2
B B0 0.25 2 B0 0.039 5 B0 0.010 10 B0 17. We do not choose to transmit an audio signal by
just directly converting it to an e.m. wave of the
a same frequency. Give two reasons for the same. 2
P 18. Light of wavelength 550 nm. is incident as parallel
O beam on a slit of width 0.1mm. Find the angular
I width and the linear width of the principal maxima
in the resulting diffraction pattern on a screen kept
at a distance of 1.1m from the slit. Which of these
12.An armature coil consists of 20 turns of wire, each
widths would not change if the screen were moved
of area A = 0.09m2 and total resistance 15.0W . It
to a distance of 2.2m from the slit? 2
rotates in a magnetic field of 0.5T at a constant
19. The given figure shows the experimental set up of a
150 metre bridge. The null point is found to be 60cm
frequency of Hz. . Calculate the value of
away from the end A with X and Y in position as
(i) maximum (ii) average induced emf produced in shown. X Y
the coil. 2 B
13. Two cells of emf E1 and E2 have internal resistance
r1 and r2. Deduce an expression for equivalent emf
of their parallel combination. C
A
OR
A cell of emf (E) and internal resistance (r) is con-
nected across a variable external resistance (R). Plot When a resistance of 15W is connected in series with
graphs to show variation of Y, the null point is found to shift by 10cm towards
(i) E with R , the end A of the wire. Find the position of null point
(ii) Terminal p.d. of the cell (V) with R if a resistance of 30W were connected in parallel
14. Fig. shows a light bulb (B) and iron cored inductor with Y. 3
connected to a DC battery through a switch (S). 2 OR
Why is a potentiometer preferred over a voltmeter
B
for determining the emf of a cell? Two cells of emf
E1 and E2 are connected together in two ways shown
s here.

## (i) What will one observe when switch (S) is closed? E1 E2 E1 E2

(ii) How will the glow of the bulb change when the
battery is replaced by an ac source of rms voltage The balance points in a given potentiometer ex-
equal to the voltage of DC battery? Justify your periment for these two combinations of cells are
answer in each case. found to be at 351.0cm and 70.2cm respectively.
15. Electromagnetic radiations with wavelength 2 Calculate the ratio of the Emfs of the two cells.
(i) l1are used to kill germs in water purifiers. 20. When a circuit element X is connected across
(ii) l2are used in TV communication systems. an a.c. source, a current of 2 A flows through it
(iii) l3play an important role in maintaining the and this current is in phase with the applied volt-
earths warmth. Name the part of electromagnetic age. When another element Y is connected across
spectrum to which these radiations belong. Arrange the same a.c. source, the same current flows in

9
Physics - Sample Question Papers and Answers

## 25. (a) Draw the block diagram of a communication

2
(i) Name the circuit elements X and Y. (b) What is meant by detection of a modulated
(ii) Find the current that flows in the circuit when the carrier wave? Describe briefly the essential steps
series combination of X and Y is connected across for detection. 3
the same a.c. voltage. 26. The given circuit diagram shows a transistor con-
(iii) Plot a graph showing variation of the net imped- figuration along with its output characteristics.
ance of this series combination of X and Y as a Identify
function of the angular frequency w of the applied (i) the type of transistor used and
voltage. 3 (ii) the transistor configuration employed.
+
21. Give reasons for the following : 3 + CMA + +
(a) Astronomers prefer to use telescopes with large VCE
VL
R B L
objective diameters to observe astronomical ob- v R1
L
jects. VBE
(b) Two identical but independent monochromatic
sources of light cannot be coherent.
(c) The value of the Brewster angle for a transpar-
(Collector current Ic) in mA

## ent medium is different for lights of different

12.5
colours.
Base current Ib
22. The given graphs 10
show the variation of M1 M2 60mA
50mA
7.5
the stopping potential V 40mA
Vs with the frequency 30mA
5
( u) of the incident 20mA
2.5 10mA
ferent photosensitive u01 u02 0 1 1.5 2 2.5 4
0.5 3 3.5
materials M1 and M2. Collector to emitter voltage (VCE) in volts
(i) What are the values of work functions for M1 and
Use these graphs to obtain the approximate value
M2 ?
of current amplification factor for the transistor at
(ii) The values of the stopping potential for M1 and M2
VCE = 3V. 3
for a frequency u3 (> u02) of the incident radiations
27. State Bohrs postulate for the permitted orbits for
are V1 and V2 respectively. Show that the slope of
the electron in a hydrogen atom. Use this postulate
V1 V2 to prove that the circumference of the nth permit-
the lines equals . 3 ted orbit for the electron can contain exactly n
02 01

23. What is a wavefront? Distinguish between a plane wavelengths of the deBroglie wavelength associ-
wavefront and a spherical wavefront. Explain with ated with the electron in that orbit. 3
the help of a diagram, the refraction of a plane 28. Obtain an ex- 3mF
wavefront at a plane surface using Huygens con- pression for
struction. 3 the capaci- 1mF
tance of a par- 3mF
24. Define the term Activity of a radioactive sub- 2mF
stance. State its SI unit. Two different radioactive allel plate
elements with half lives T1 and T2 have N1 and N2 (air)capacitor. 2mF
(undecayed) atoms respectively present at a given The given
instant. Determine the ratio of their activities at this figure shows
instant. 3 a network of
100V
10
Physics - Sample Question Papers and Answers
five capacitors connected to a 100V supply. Calcu- (a) Draw diagrams to depict the behaviour of mag-
late the total charge and energy stored in the net- netic field lines near a bar of:
work. (i) copper (ii)Aluminium
OR Y
(iii) Mercury, cooled to a very low temperature
(a) Use Gausss law to ob- (4.2K)
tain an expression for (b) The vertical component of the earths magnetic field
the electric field due to N
M at a given place is 3 times its horizontal compo-
an infinitely long X
straight uniformly nent. If total intensity of earths magnetic field at
10 cm the place is 0.4 G, find the value of :
charged wire.
Z (i) angle of dip
(b) Electric field in the above figure is directed along (ii) the horizontal component of earths magnetic
+ X direction and given by Ex = 5Ax + 2B, where field.
E is in NC-1 and x is in metre, A and B are constants 30. (a) Draw a ray diagram to show the refraction of
with dimensions Taking A = 10NC 1 m 1 and light through a glass prism. Hence obtain the rela-
B = 5NC-1. calculate: tion for the angle of deviation in terms of the angle
(i) the electric flux through the cube. of incidence, angle of emergence and the angle of
(ii) net charge enclosed within the cube. 5 the prism.
29. (a) Draw the labelled diagram of moving coil gal- (b) A right angled isosceles glass prism is made
vanometer. Prove that in a radial magnetic field, from glass of refractive index 1.5. Show that a ray
the deflection of the coil is directly proportional to of light incident normally on
the current flowing in the coil. (i) one of the equal sides of this prism is deviated
(b) A galvanometer can be converted into a volt- through 90o
meter to measure up to (ii) the hypotenuse of this prism is deviated through
(i) V volts by connecting a resistance R1 in series 180o.
with coil. OR
(a) With the help of a labelled ray diagram, show
V
(ii) volts by connecting a resistance R2 in series the image formation by a compound microscope.
2 Derive an expression for its magnifying power.
with its coil. Find the resistance (R), in terms of R1 (b) How does the resolving power of a compound
and R2 required to convert it into a voltmeter that microscope get affected on
can read up to 2V volts. (i) decreasing the diameter of its objective?
OR (ii) increasing the focal length of its objective?

SET I (or the angular separation remains the same).
6. We have
1. 1 : 1
1 1 3
2. Large induced current is produced due to electro- E 21 = const. 2 2 = const.
magnetic induction which heats up the metallic 1 2 4
piece.
1 1 1
3. The charge of the excess charge carriers gets bal- and E 2 = const. 2 2 2 = const. 4

anced by an equal and opposite charge of the ion-
ized cores in the lattice. \ Ratio = 3 : 1
4. (i) Frequency (ii) Speed in free space 2 V0 7
7. or V0
5. No effect 11

11
Physics - Sample Question Papers and Answers

## hc hc and hence a smaller length (for the same potential

8. We have = E g or m = E gradient) would be needed for balancing it]
m g

hc
1 1 0 A 2 16. Energy of a photon of the incident radiation =

9. E = CV = V
2

2 2 d
6.4 10 34 3 10 8
E 2 d1 100 10 = eV = 4eV
= = = 300 10 9 1.6 10 19
\ E1 d 2 90 9 This being less than the work function of Mo, there
E E 2 E 1 10 would be no photo-emission from Mo.
\ E = E1
= 1 100% = 11.1% OR
1 9
eVs = hu - W \ e(V2 V1) = h (u2 u1)
r r eE eE
10. We have Vt = Vi + t \ Vt = Vt + t AV h
m AV AV
m or V2 V1 = (2 1 )
r e
Vt = zero (Random nature of motion and colli-
6.4 10 34
(8 4 ) 1015 volt = 16 volt
AV

r \ V2 V1 =
Vt =
eE

1.6 10 19
sions). \ = constant
AV m
dN
as t, the average time between collisions, remains 17. Instantaneous Activity = R = = N
dt
contant under constant temprature conditions.
dR d dN
11. (i) It increases (ii) It decreases
\ = ( N ) =
12. The atom/molecule of a diamagnetic material has dt dt dt
zero net magnetic moment. For a paramagnetic ma-
2

log e
2
terial it is not so. With an even atomic number, the dR 1
l (lN) = l2N = N
(T1 2 )2
T1 2
\
electrons in an atom of an element can pair off, dt
which can makes the net magnetic moment of each 18. LOS line of sight
pair as zero. This makes the element more likely to Waves used space waves
be diamagnetic. It is both - the height of transmitting antenna as well
13. Infrared radiations get readily absorbed by water as the height of the receiving antenna that affects
molecules in most materials. This increases their the range of the mode of communication.
thermal motion and heats them up. 19. We observe that the field magnitude (i) Varies as
(i) visible light (ii) Microwaves the inverse cube of the distance of the field point
1 along one line. (ii) Has a magnitude half of its mag-
14. Focal length of the lens = 100 cm = 20 cm
5 nitude (at an equidistant point) on the line
Obervation at 3 is incorrect . perperdicular to this line. These properties tell us
This observation is incorrect because for an object that the given charge distribution is a (small) elec-
distance lying between f and 2f, the image distance tric dipole centered at the reference point O. The
has to be more than 2f. point A is an equatorial points for the given dipole.
15. For student X, the null point would shift towards Hence potential of A= zero.
right (i.e. towards B) [Increase in R decreases the r 1 Qq 1 rr rr
20. We have F1 =
potential gradient. Hence a greater length of wire 4 0 r r
3 1

r r1
would be needed for balancing the same emf.
For student Y, the null point would shift towards r
left (ie. toward A) [A decrease of S would decrease and F2 =
1 Qq 2
r r (rr rr )
4 0 r r2
3 2

## the terminal p.d.V across the unknown battery r r r

For equilibrium, we must have F3 = F1 + F2 = 0
E r
(V = E - ir and i =

increases as S decreases,
r+S

(r
or F3 = F1 + F2
r
)
12
Physics - Sample Question Papers and Answers
r r
Q q1
(rr rr ) + q r(r r r )
r - 2I1 + 2 - 1 - 1 I1 - 2I2 = 0 or 3 I1+ 2 I2 = 1
Hence F3 = r r 2 2

4 0 r r1
3 1
r r2
3
and, -3(I1- I2) + 3 - 1- 1 (I1- I2) + 2 I2 = 0

r or 4 I1- 6 I1 = 2
\ The direction of F3 is given by the direction of 5 1
Solving, we get I1 = A and I2 = A
r r r r
13 13
q1 q2
the vector rr rr 3 (r1 r ) + rr rr 3 (r2 r ) 1 2
1 2 P.d. between B and D = 2 V = V = 0.154V
21. The equivalent internal resistance of each row of 13 13
n cells in series = nr. The net equivalent internal (Point B is at a higher potential w. r. t. point D)
22. The ray must fall on the surface AC at just the criti-
nr cal angle, qc. The angle of incidence at the face AC
resistance of the combination =
m equals q.
Net equivalent emf of the combination = n E Hence q = qc .
(E = emf of one cell)
1 1 b
= = = 1.6 1.6 = 1.2 +
\ Current drawn by R = nE = mnE = NE
nr mR+ nr mR+ nr
sinc 0.625 (4 10 )7 2

## R+ \ b = 0.4 16 1014m2 = 6.4 1014 m2

m
The refractive index for l =5000 is given by
NE
2 6.4 10 14 6.4
m = 1.2 + = 1 .2 +
= mR nr + 2 mnRr
(5 10 ) 7 2
25
= 1.2 + 0.256 = 1.456
NE
=
2 23. (i) We have C1 = C2 = C3
mR nr + 2 NRr
1
For maximum current, the denominator should be Resonant frequency = is same for all three
2 LC
minimum.
and we are given that L has same value for all.
nr (ii) We have R1< R2 < R3 . Bandwidth for X< B and
This happens when, mR = nr or R =
m width for Y< Bandwidth for Z. Max.current for
n X >Max. current for Y > Max.current for Z. Stu-
\ n 0.5 = 1.5 or =3
m m dent X has the maximum value for the quality fac-
Also n m = 12 (given) tor because the bandwidth is least in this case. The
Solving, we get n = 6 and m = 2 impedance at the resonant frequency w 0 is purely
OR resistive in nature.
We can draw the circuit explicitly as shown. The 24. The liquid layer can be regarded as forming a plane
current distribution can be taken as shown. Apply- concave lens.The first value (= a ) of the measured
ing Kirchhoffs second law to loops BADB and distance is, therefore, the focal length of the com-
DCBD, respectively, we get the equations: bination of the given lens and the liquid lens. The
2V
second value (=b ) represents the focal length of
2W I1
A
I1 B the lens itself. Hence, if f = 16 is the focal length of
the liquid lens, we have
1W
1V 1 1 1 1 1 1 b a
= + or = =
1W 2W 1V a b f f a b ab
I2
1 1 1 1
But, f = ( 1) R + = R
D 3W (1 1) C
3V

13
Physics - Sample Question Papers and Answers

(b a ) = ( 1) R (a b ) 0 I
=
0 I
I
\ , = +1 \ 2R 2. R or I= 2
ab R ab 2
25. When the normal to the plane of the coil makes an The coil Y must carry this current in the anticlock
angle with the direction of the magnetic field, the wise sense. When the coil Y is lifted through a dis-
flux linked with it is f = NBA cos q = NBA coswt tance R, its centre becomes an axial point for coil
\ Induced Emf = d = NBA w sin wt X. Hence
dt o IR 2 0 I
Bx = = 0I 2
2(R + R )
\ Max. Emf = NBA w = NB (pr )w 2
2 2 32 =
4 2R 8R
= 20 30 103 p ( 8 102)2 50 volt
= 0.603 volt 1
Average Emf = Average of Sinw t over a Also By = 2 = 0 I
2R 2R
cycle = Zero 2
Max. Emf 0.603 \ Magnitude of net field
rms value of Emf = = volt
2 2 I 2
I
= By Bx = 2 R 1 4 = = 0.323 0
0
= 0.426V R

(E ) rms
2

=
(0.426) 2

## W = 0.018W This net field is in the direction of the field due to

Power dissipated =
R 10 the coil Y, i.e; perpendicular to its plane and di-
26. Total B.E. of parent Nucleus = 7.8 235 MeV rected vertically upwards.
= 1833 MeV OR
Total B.E. of daughter nucleus Consider a closed path of radius r inside the cross
= 7.835 231 MeV = 1809.9MeV section of the wire. The current enclosed by this
Total B.E. of a-particle = 7.07 4 MeV
path is I = I 2 r 2 = I r 2
2

= 28.28 MeV
Increase in B.E. after the reaction a a
= [(180.9 + 28.28) - (1833)]MeV = 5.18 MeV
This is the energy released in the reaction, since it By Amperes circuital law, B .dl = I
r 0

## assumed to be taken up totally by the a-particle, r2 I

1
or Br 2 r = 0 I \ Br = 0 2 r or B r (for r < a)
mv 2 = 5.18 1.6 1013 J a2 2 a
2 Outside the wire, the field of the wire is given by
5.18 3.2 0 I
v2 = 1014 m 2 s 2 = 2.48 10 7 ms 1 B.2pr = m0 I or B = (r > a )
6.68 2 r
= 1.58 107 ms-1 The relevant graph is, therefore, as shown.
27. The modulation index (m) for an AM wave equals
the ratio of the peak value of the modulating signal B2
(Am) to the peak value of the carrier wave (Ac)
Am
m= A r a
C

## Given thata = Ac + Am and b = Ac Am r

If B1 and B2, denote respectively, the values of the
a+b ab a b
\ Ac = and Am = \ m= a
2 2 a+b a
magnetic field at points above and below the
r r 2 2
28. We have Bx = By
surface of the wire, we have

14
Physics - Sample Question Papers and Answers

(ii) Incident
0 I I
B1 = = 0 wavefront
a 3a and B = 0 I = a = 0 I A B
2 3 2
2 a 2 2 4 a
2 u v1 t
B1 4 Medium 1 i
\ = P r C P
B2 3 Medium 2
v2 t
The maximum value of the field is at r = a. Refracted
E
wavefront
0 I
we have Bmax = PPis the surface separating medium 1 and me-
2 a
29. The scientist Huygens gave a hypothesis for geo- dium 2. Let v1 and v2 represent speed of light in
metrical construction of the position of common these media. AB is a plane wavefront falling ob-
wavefront at any instant during the propagation of liquely. By the time the wave from B reaches C,
waves. The postulates are: the wave from A would have travelled a distance
(a) Every point on the given wavefront called pri- in the second medium after refraction. If t is the
mary wavefront acts as a fresh source of light called time taken by the ray to travel, then BC = v1t and
secondary wavelets, which travel in all directions the ray would travel a distance = v2t in the second
with the velocity of light in the medium. medium in the same time.
(b) A surface touching these secondary wavelets To determine the shape of the refracted wavefront,
tangentially in the forward direction at any instant draw a sphere of radius v2t with the point A as cen-
gives the new wavefront at that instant. This is tre. Let CE is the tangent drawn from the point C
called secondary wavefront. to this sphere. Then AE = v2t. CE would represent
the refracted wavefront. Consider the Dles ABC
and AEC,
BC vt AE v 2 t
sin i = = 1 ; sin r = =
AC AC AC AC
where i and r are angles of incidence and refrac-
tion respectively.
Let us consider a diverging wave and let F1 F2 rep- sin i v1
=
resent a portion of spherical wavefront at t = 0. sin r v 2 = a constant = n21. If r < i, v2 < v1
According to Hugygens principle each point of
If c represents the speed of light in vacuum, then
the wavefront is the source of a secondary distur-
bance and each point on this wavefront emits c c sin i n 2
waves which travel in the medium with the same n1 = ; and n2 = v , sin r = n
v1 2 1
speed as that of primary wavelets. To construct
new wavefronts draw spheres with each point on n1sini = n2 sin r
F1 F2 as centre and vt as radius. v is speed of light This is Snells law of refraction.
in the medium. If we draw a common envelope OR
touching all these spheres, that will be the new (a) The phenomenon of restricting the vibrations of
wavefront. G1 G2 is the new wavefront. In a simi- light (electric vector) in a particular direction per-
lar manner new wavefronts can be constructed for pendicular to the direction of wave motion is called
a plane wavefront also. polarisation of light.
Figure of plane wave propagation: Refer revision
Polarization is possible only with transverse
page 45
waves and not with longitudinal waves.

15
Physics - Sample Question Papers and Answers

Unpolarised light
12345
Plane polarised
12345
light sphere. This scattered light is polarised. It, there-
12345
12345 12345
12345
12345 12345 fore, shows a variation in intensity when viewed
12345 12345
12345
12345 12345
12345 through a polaroid on rotation.
12345 12345
12345
12345 12345
12345 30. Circuit diagram for drawing the input and output
Polariser Analyser characteristics.
12345
12345
12345 12345
12345 12345
12345
12345
12345
12345
12345
No light
12345 12345
12345 12345
12345
12345 12345
12345
T1 12345T
2
T1 and T2 are two thin plates of tourmaline cut
with their faces parallel to the axis of the crystal.
When unpolarised light falls on T1, it allows only Typical shape of the input characteristics.
those vibrations which are parellel to its axis.
Therefore plane polarised light comes out of T1.
When T2 is placed with its axis parallel to T1,
light is allowed. When the crystals are in crossed
position no light is allowed.
When T2 is rotated with respect to T1 the inten-
sity of light varies. Maximum intensity occurs
when T1 and T2 are parallel and zero intensity
when they are in crossed positions. This obser-
vation can be explained only when we assume
light waves are transverse.
Incident intensity = I0
Cut off Stage : When the input voltage is less than a
The light passing minimum value ( 0.6V for Si), there is no current
Through P1
through P 1 re- flow in the input or output sides of the transistor. The
mains constant transistor is then said to be in its cut-off stage.
I0 Active Stage : This is the stage of the transistor when
i.e. . the input is greater than about 0.6 V and there is some
2
The light passing current in the output path.
through P2 varies Saturation stage : With increase in the input voltage
with q as per the beyond a certain value, the output voltage decreases
relation, I 2 = and becomes almost constant at a near to zero value.
I 1 cos 2 q . The I0 The transistor is then said to be in the saturation state.
light coming 2
from a clear Through P2
portion of the
sky is nothing I0
but sunlight
that has chan-
ged its direction
due to scatter- 90o
ing by mol-
ecules in the
q
earths atmo-

16
Physics - Sample Question Papers and Answers

## The Transistor does not remain in the active stage 5.

when it is being used as a switch.
OR
The output C1 is the output of an AND gate having
A and B as its two inputs.
The output C2 is the output of an AND gate having
A and B as its two inputs. 6. (1, 3), (2, 4)
The output Y is the output of an OR gate having 7. The daughter element (release of energy is accom-
C1 and C2 as its two inputs. Using the truth tables panied by an increase of B.E)
for AND and OR gates, we can or therefore get the 8. (i) Depletion layer width decreases.
wave forms shown for C1, C2 and Y. (ii) Junction field becomes very high
9. (i) Potential is same (= zero) in both cases
A
00 1 2 3 4 (ii) Electric field is different in the two cases.
0 10. For higher values of current, we observe that the
A current value for a given voltage is less than given
by Ohms law. This means that R has increased for
B higher values of current. The increase of R is be-
cause of the increase in temperature of the resistor
B at higher values of the current.
11. E v , E B
C1 = A B
v is not parallel or antiparallel to B
C2 = A B E = vB sin

2
12. L1 = 0 n1 A1l, L 2 = 0 n 22 A 2l
2

Y = C1 + C2 1

## Looking at the shapes of A, B and Y, we can say M r2

M = m0n1n2 p r22 l , = A 2 A1 = <1
that : (1) The output Y is low when both A and B L1 L 2 r1
are high. (2) The output Y is high when one of
the input signals is high while the other is low. dV 10 V
13. (i) E = =
(10 2 )m
= 1000 Vm1
dr
SET II E = 1000Vm1
1. 180o or antiparallel Its direction is from higher potential to lower
2. Nearly Zero or Zero potential point, i.e. from Y to Z.
3. Sinusoidal Variation (ii) The surface of a charged metal plate is an equipo-
OR tential. \ X and Y are at the same potential.
DV = Vy Vx = 0
e \ Work done in moving a charge in an elecrtic
field = qDV
\ Work done in moving 20mC from X to Y
= 20 106 0 = 0
14. For same current value, the total impedance must
remain same.
4. (i) Maximum - g-rays
1
(ii) Minimum - Radiowaves \ wL must remain same. Thus L and C must
C
17
Physics - Sample Question Papers and Answers

## both be halved simultaneously. r r r

20. = p E
OR r r r r
The glow of the bulb will decrease. Two Pairs : and p , and E
As the iron rod is inserted in the coil, its induc- r
P
tance increases. As inductance incresases, its reac- (i) 90o
tance also increases resulting in an increase in the
impedance of the circuit. r r
r
r E P
As a result, the current in the circuit and hence the E
P
(ii) P o
150
or
glow of the bulb will decrease. 30o
15. (i) X-rays are e.m. waves r
r E
P
(ii) X-rays are transverse in nature E
P
16. i + e d = A (iii) r or
P r
For minimum deviation i = e P
OR
a + m
i = Q C V + C 2 V2
2 V= = 1 1
C1 + C 2 C1 + C 2
For minimum deviation, we also have
Charges = Q1 = C1V, Q2 = C2V
A
r = r = 1
2 Energy stored = (C1 + C2 )V 2
2
A + m
1 (C 1 V1 + C 2 V2 )
2
sin
sin i 2
\ = = 2 C1 + C 2
sin r A
sin
2 Change in energy stored = DU
2
1 1 C V + C 2 V2
17. Reduction factor = = 4 in 4 days. 1 1 1 C V 2 + C V 2
16 2 1 1 2
2 C1 + C 2
2
=
Hence Half life = 1 day

1 1
For 6 days reduction factor would be =
2 6 64 1 C 1C 2
= (V1 V2 )2
3
Original amount = 4 10 64kg = 0.256 kg 2 C1 + C 2
18. Point to Point : Communication over a link between 21. Output not symmetric for A, B = (0, 1) and
a single transmitter and receiver. (1,0) NOT gate in one input.
Example : Telephone (i) has three zeros NOR gate
A Y
B
to a single transmitter.
Example : Radio (ii) has three ones OR gate
A Y
19. The two amplitudes are I and I + I Thus B

## \ Intensity at minima 22. The two main considerations

( I + I I ) = I + I + I 2
2
I 2 + I. I
(i) Large light gathering power
(ii) Higher resolution (resolving power)
= (I )2 4I [Both these requirements are met better when an
objective of large focal length as well as large
and intensity at maxima = ( I + I + I )
2
aperture is used]
= I + I + I + 2 I 2 + I. I = 4 I
In an astronomical telescope, an objective O of
large focal length and large aperture is used. It

18
Physics - Sample Question Papers and Answers
forms the image of the distant object at the focal Let us take n2 = 1 (Lyman series of hydrogen spec-
plane of the lens. trum)
In normal adjustment of the telescope the eye piece Here can take values
is placed in such a way that the final image is 970 A
o o
970 A 970 A
o
970 A 0

, ,
formed at infinity. 3 4 8 9 15 16 1

(Corresponding to n1 = 2, 3, 4, -------------- )
\ Permitted values of l are 1293.3, 1091,
1034.6 , --------- 970
Let us next take n2 = 2 (Balmer series of hydrogen
spectrum)
Here l can take values
o o o
970 A 0 970 A 970 A 970 A
. ,
5 36 3 16 21 100 1 4
f
m= f
0
f0 - focal length of objective (Coresponding to n1 = 3, 4, 5----------- )
e
Possible values of l are 6984, 5173. 3, 4619, -
fe- focal length of eyepiece. ------3880
Eyepiece can be placed in such a way that final Hence l = 824, 1120 , 2504 , 6100, of the
image is formed at least distance of distinct vision. given lines, cannot belong to the hydrogen atom
spectrum.
0 e f f
Magnification produed m = f 1 + D 26. Space wave : A space wave travels in a straight line
e
from the transmitting antenna to the receiving an-
Length of the telescope tube = f0 + fe tenna:
h h Two ways : Line of sight communication and satel-
23. = p = mv lite communication
6 .6 10 34 We have D = 2 Rh + 2 Rh
\ e =
1 2
= 2.44 1010 m
9 10 31 3 10 6
Let h1 = x so that h2 = (h x)
6 . 6 10 34
ball = = 2.2 1034 m D = 2 Rx + 2 R (h x )
3 10 2 100
le ~ size of atom, lball << size of ball. dD R R
=
2(h x )
dx 2x
= 0 x = h/2
0 A
24. q = CV = CEd = Ed =0 AE
d 27.
Transfer charac-
dq d E
= 0 E (Q E = EA ) = 0 teristics of a base
dt dt
biased transistor
d E
The term 0 is known as displacement current. in its common
dt emiter configura-
This term has been used to modify and generalize
tion:
Amperes Circuital law.

25. = 1 = R 1 2 1 2 When Vi > 0.7V, the transistor is in active state. There
n2 n1 will be some current Ic. From eqn.V0 = Vcc IcRc, value
o of output voltage V0 decreases as the term IcRc increases
1 970 A
. With the increase of Vi, Ic increases almost linearly
= R = 1 2 1 2
2
(
1 n 2 1 n1
2
)
n2 n1 and so V0 decreases linearly till Vi is less than about 1V.

19
Physics - Sample Question Papers and Answers
M
Beyond this the transistor goes to saturation level. We 29. (i) dB cos f
s S
operate the transistor in the active region for using r
f
f dB sin f
it as an amplifier O
x P dB sin f
28. Total resistance in the five cases are : f
T
dB cos f
R 1R 2
r, r + R 1; r + R 2 ; r + R 1 + R 2 ; r + N
R1 + R2

## R R According to Biot Savart law

or r, r + r 1 2
, r + R1 , r + R2, r + R1 + R2 in
R1 + R2 0 Idl sin

dB = ;
increasing order 4 s2
\ The correct order of values of I are : 4.2A, 1.4A, 0 Idl sin
1.05 A, 0.6 A and 0.42 A
B = dB sin f = 4
s2
E E
= 4 .2 , 0 I

Also , = 1 . 05 sin dl
r r + R1 B=
4 s2
E E But from the symmetry of figure,
= 0 .6 , = 0 . 42
r + R2 r + R1 + R 2
r

and r+
E
= 1 .4
sin f =
r + x2
2
and dl = 2pr
R 1R 2
R1 + R 2 0 I r 2 r
Solve first four to obtain, E = 4.2V, r = 1W ,
B = 4 r 2 + x2( ) (r 2
+ x2 )
12 ( Q s2 = r2 + x2)
R1 = 3W , R2 = 6W The magnetic field due to a circular coil of radius r
OR carrying a current I on a point P at an axial distance
(i) (a) In series
0 IR 2 n
E1 E2 Eeq x from the centre is B = 3 where n is
A B C C 2( x 2 + R 2 ) 2

r1 r2 x A req I
the number of turns.
E = E1 + E2, r = r1 + r2 (ii) Numerical

0 I(3 102 )
(ii) In parallel combination
We have : B =
I
I1
C
Eeq
[
(3 102 )2 + (4 102 )2 ]
32

0 I 2 (4 102 )
A B1 B2 I C 2
A req
I2 =
E
E r + E 2 r1 r r

[
(4 102 )2 + (3 102 )2
32
]

E= 12 R = 1 21
(r1 + r2 ) , r1 + r2 9
Thus I2 = A
(iii) Numerical 6
Current is in opposite sense to that in L1 .
2 +1 (1 2 + 2 1) (1 + 2)
1 + 2 + R = 1 2 OR
r
r
(i) For current carrying circular loop, m = NIA , where
1+ 2 r is the magnetic moment of the coil, I is the cur-
9 m
R = ; rent.
4
N is the number of closely wound turns in the cir-
More heat is generated in series. cular loop.A is the area vector of the loop

20
Physics - Sample Question Papers and Answers

## Applying sign convention

An electron moving around the central nucleus has
a magnetic moment ml given by 1 1 1 1 1 1
+ = ie, + =
u v f u v f
l = e l . Where l is the magnitude of the angu-
2m 1 1 1
lar momentum of the circulating electron about Thin lens formula =
f v u
the central nucleus. The smallest value of ml is
called the Bohr magnetron. mB = 9.27 1024J/T. 1 1 1
(ii) Numerical = v = +30 cm
v u f
= eh
(ii) = 4.63 1026 A.m2
4 m Distance of this image from the mirror must be
20 cm [m For image to from at O,mirror must re-
30. (i) verse the light \ d = (30 + 20) cm = 50 cm) The
final image is inverted.
OR
(i) A

. .
O c
B
C
D
I c1 I1
2

n1 n2

## The concave mirror forms a real inverted image of

Image formation by a lens is due to refraction at
the object between focus and centre of curvature
two surfaces ABC and then ADC. ABC forms the
Right angled triangles ABF and MPF are similar. virtual image of object at I1 and it acts as the object
B A B F B A B F formation of real image I.
\ = or = -------- (1)
PM FD BA FD For refraction at ABC
Right angled triangles AB P and ABP are similar. n1 n n n1
+ 2 = 2
OB BI1 BC1 -------- (1)
B A B P
\ = ------- (2) Comparing (1) and (2) For refraction at ADC,
BA BP
n n n n
DI + DI = DC -------- (2)
2 1 1 2
B F B P B P FP B P
= --------- (3); = ----- (4) 1 2
FP BP FP BP Since lens is assumed to be very thin distances mea-
We have BP = u object distance sured from B and D are same as measured from
opticcentre
B P = v image distance, FP = f focal length BI1 = DI1. Adding 1 & 2
vf v 1 1
+ 1 = (n 2 n1 )
= n1 n
Substituting in (4), ------ (3)
f u OB DI BC1 DC 2
uv uf = vf, Dividing by uvf, When OB = , DI = f
1 1
= (n 2 n1 )
1 1 1 1 1 1 n1
= ie, + = ------ (4)
f v u u v f f R1 R 2

21
Physics - Sample Question Papers and Answers

1 n 2 n1 1 1 1 q q 1
= (ii) V = 4 r = 4 . r
f n1 R 1 R 2 0 0

q
1 1
= (n 21 1)
1 \ Slope of the V versus graph is 4
------- (5) 0
f R1 R
Since the slope of the graph for q1 has a larger mag-
This is lens makers formula. nitude, q1 has the larger magnitude of the two.
(ii) Numerical 10. RT = R0 [1+ a (T T0)]
[v = 15 cm, f = 10 cm u = 30 cm
120 6
Distance of O from mirror: 20 cm \ = = 1 + a ( T T 0)
But O must be at radius of curvature for rays to 100 5
reverse R = 20 cm 1
\ T 104 ( T 300) = ; T = 1300 K
5
SET III Ia 2 0 I
11. B = =
2(a + x )
2 32
2a (1 + x 2 a 2 )
32
1 1 Q 2 2

1. E = Energy stored = CV 2 =
2 2 C
I
\ B = B0 (1 + x a )
3 2
B0 = 0
2 2

1 2a
(The graph is showing E ) ,
C
B0 2
\ B (at x = a) = B0 (2 )
3 2
Hence Q the charge on capacitors is kept constant. = = 0.25 2 B0
4
mv 2 mv p
2. = Bqv , or r = = B0 5
r Bq Bq and B (at x = 2a) = B0 (5)
3 2
= = 0.04 5B0
25
\ r : r = q p : qa = 1 : 2
Thus the given values are in good agreement with
3. The frequency of the microwaves should match the the theoretically expected values.
resonant frequency of the water molecules in the 12. Emax = NBAw = NBA 2pu
food.
150
1 = 20 0.5 0.09 2p volt = 270V
4. X is a pure capacitor ; Impedance =
C Eaverage = Zero.
E1
13.
1 1 1 1 +
5. f = 1 r r , the lens would now behave r1
2 1 2 I1
like a diverging (concave) lens. E2
I1
h h
6. = = \ The proton will have a higher r2
p 2mk
E1 V E2 V E1 E2 1 1
K.E. (mass of proton is slightly less than that of the
I = I1 + I 2 = + + v +
neutron). r1 r2 = r1 r2 r1 r2
7. The ionisation energy of silicon gets (considerably) rr
E 1 r2 + E 2 r1
reduced compared to that of carbon. Silicon (a semi- \ V = I 1 2

r1 + r2 r1 + r2
conductor), therefore, becomes a (much) better con-
ductor of electricity than carbon (an insulator). Comparing with V = Eeq Ir eq
8. (0 to t1), (t3 to t4). E1r2 + E 2 r1
9. (i) q1 is a negative charge and q2 is a positive charge. We get Eeq = r1 + r2

22
Physics - Sample Question Papers and Answers
(i) OR sets a potential barrier at the junction which op-
E poses further diffusion of majority charges. The
potential barrier will behave as if an imaginary bat-
R tery is connected with positive pole to n section
and negative pole to p section.
17. Modulation is the process in which a low audio
frequency base band message is superimposed on
a high frequency wave called carrier wave.
Modulation is necessary because of the following
reasons.
r
V = E ir = E 1 + 1. Size of antenna or aerial:- Antenna is needed both
R
for transmission and reception. Antenna should have
14. (i) The glow gradually increases till it becomes
maximum a minimum height of , so that time variation of
4
Reasons : There is a back (induced) emf in the in-
the signal is properly sensed by the antenna. Audio
di frequency range is 20 Hz to 20 kHz. For an audio
ductor = L dt when the current is growing and
signal of 15kHz frequency,
this delays the growth of current to its final steady c 3 10 8
= = = 20000 m The required length of
15 10 3
value.
(ii) The glow will decrease. 20000
Reasons : The impedance of circuit will increase the antenna is = 5000 m.
4
due to the presence of the inductive reactance of
It is difficult to construct and operate such a tall
the circuit.
antenna. By modulation if transmission frequency
15. (i) UV rays (ii) (UHF) radio waves (iii) Infrared
waves. l3 > l3 > l1 3 10 8
is raised to 1MHz, then, l= = 300 m . Length
16. During the formation of pn junction two processes 10 6
occur 1) diffusion 2) drift. 300
of the antenna is = 75m , a reasonable height.
Due to difference in the concentration of charge 4
carriers in two regions of p-n junction, the electrons Hence it is necessary to do modulation.
from n- region diffuse through the junction into p- 2) Effective power radiated by antenna: Power radi-
region and holes from p- region diffuse into n- re-
gion. ated by an antenna P 12
l
When electron diffuses from n- region to p- region
of p-n junction, it leaves behind an ionised donor For good transmission l should be small. For smaller
atom in n- region, having positive charge which is antenna length, should be small or frequency
immobile as it is bound to the surrounding atom. should be high.
As diffusion continues more positively charged do- 550 10 9
nor atoms are created in n- region and it acquires 18. Angular width q = = radians
a 1 10 4
positive charge at the junction. = 5.5 103 radians
When holes diffuse from p- region to n-region it Linear width = Dq
leaves ionised acceptor atoms in p-region having = 1.1 5.5 103 m = 6.05 mm
negative charge. This results in the formation of a The angular width would not change.
layer of negative charge at the p- region. Accumu-
x 60 10
lation of charges on p side and n side produces an 19. x = 60 = 3 and = =1
electric field across the junction. The electric field y 40 2 y + 15 40 + 10

23
Physics - Sample Question Papers and Answers

## solving, we get , x = 45W , y = 30W h h02

For the parallel connection Similarly, For M2, V2 = 3
e e
30 y 30 30
Y = = = 15 h
30 + y 30 + 30 \ V 1 V2 = (u02 u01)
e
x l 45 l h V V
= = \ Slope of either line = e =
1 2
\ , l = 75.0 cm
y 100 l 15 100 l 02 01

## OR 23. Continuous locus of all the particles of a medium

The emf of a cell equals the p.d. between its termi- which are vibrating in the same phase is called a
nals when it is in an open circuit i.e. not supplying wavefront.
any current. A voltmeter measures p.d. (and not Refer set 1, page 153 answer 29 (first part)
emf.) as it draws a (small) current for its working. 24. The activity of a radioactive element at any instant,
The potentiometer draws no (net) current (form the equals its rate of decay at that instant. Its SI unit is
cell) at the balance point. So the cell can be treated Becquerel (Bq) (= 1 decay per second)
as if it were in an open circuit.
dN log 2e
E1 + E2 = k (351) and E1 E2 = k (70.2) Activity R = = N = N
dt T
E +E 351 5 E 2
\ E E = 70.2 = 1 , This gives E = 3
1 2 1
R N N NT
\ R = T T =NT
1 1 2 1 2
1 2 2

2 1 2 2 1
20. X a resistor , Y A capacitor
25. (i)
V
= 2 and R = Xc Information Transmission
R Source Transmitter
channel

Message
V V V 2 Transmitted Received
\ I= = = , I= = 1 .0 A Signal Signal Signal
2 R2 + Xc
2
R 2 2 (ii) Detection is the process of recovering the modu-
(iii) X Net Impedance lating (or information) signal from the modulated
carrier wave. The essential steps followed in the
process of detection are (i) The AM input wave is
R passed through a rectifier to obtain its rectified
waveform. (ii) The rectified wave is passed through
21. (a) Because such telescopes an envelope detector which retrieves the message
(i) have high resolving power signal as the envelope of the rectified wave.
(ii) produce brighter images 26. (i) n - p -n transistor. (ii) Common emitter
(b) Two identical but independent light sources cannot (iii) Considering characterstics for
produce light waves continuously either in the same Ib = 10mA and Ib = 50mA
(8.5 2.5) 10 3
phase or having a constant phase difference between I
them. (c) Brewster angle (ip) is given by tanip = m B = c = = 150
m depends upon the wavelength (l) of the incident I b (50 10 ) 10 6
light. Hence ip will be different for different colours 27. The permitted stationary orbits for the electron in
of light. a hydrogen atom are those for which the angular
22. Work functions (i)For M1 = hu01 momentum of the electron is an integral multiple
For M2 = hu02 h h
of h/2p mvnrn = n \ 2 rn = n
h h 2 mv
(ii) For M1, hu3 = hu01 + eV1 \ V1 = 3 o1
e e
h
But mv = n the associated de Broglie wavelength
n

24
Physics - Sample Question Papers and Answers

for electron in its nth orbit Electric flux through the face with point M on it
Hence 2prn = nln 1 E.ds = E ds cos 180o
or circumference of ntn permitted orbit f1 = E1ds= (0 +10) 0.01 = 0.1 NC1 m2
= n de Broglie wavelength Similarly, flux through the face having point N
associated with the electron in the nth orbit. on it
28. Capacitance of a capacitor is the ratio of charge f2 = E2ds cos 00 = (50 0.1 + 10) 0.01
Q = 0.15 NC1m2
given to the p. d between the plates. C = . Its (Flux through all other faces will be Zero)
V
unit is farad. \ Total flux through the cube = f1 + f2
Capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor is = 0.1 + 0.15 = 0.05NC1 m2
0A q
C=
d
, where A is the area of the plates and d is (ii) f = \ q = 0 = 44.25 1014 C
0

the separation between the plates. 29. (a) Labelled diagram of moving coil galvanometer
(ii) Net capacitance = 4mF Scale

1 CV 2
Energy stored (W) = = 0.02 J
2
Charge q = CV = 4 104 coulomb Permanent magnet
Pointer
OR N
N
(a) Consider a long straight +
Coil
wire carrying a charge q. +
+
Let l be its linear charge II +
N S
density. Hence Q = ll. +
Sp
+
Let us consider a +
Gaussian cylinder as I + Pivot

shown in figure. +
E + Soft-iron
In regions II and III + core
+
fII = fIII = E.dsCos +
III + r
r r + Deflecting torque on the coil = NI BA sinq
=o E ds, ie, = 90 +
In radial magnetic field q = 90o
The flux through the curved surface [region I] \ Deflecting torque = NIA B
Counter torque provided by the spring = Kf
I = E . ds cos
NBA
= E . ds (q = 0) = E .2rl [Q ds = 2rl] \ In equilibrium Kf =NIAB \ = K I

The total flux through the Gaussian cylinder
The quantity in bracket is constant \ fI
= I + II + III = E .2 rl ---(1)
Q l V V
According to Gausss theorem flux = = ---- (2) R1 = G = R1 + G
0 0 (b) (i) Ig Ig

l V V
Comparing (1) & (2); E .2 rl = (ii) and R 2 = 2I G I = 2R2 + 2G
0 g g

l On comparison G = R1 2R2
2 0 r 2V
R3 = G = 2(R + G) G = 2R + G
(b) (i) E = 5Ax + 2 B = 50 x + 10 Ig 1 1

25
Physics - Sample Question Papers and Answers

## = 2R1 + R1 2R2 = 3R1 2R2 (b) ( 45o

OR
(a) We know that (i) copper is diamagnetic (ii) Alu- 45o ( 45 o

(
minium is paramagnetic and (iii) mercury (cooled
o
to 4.2 K) is perfect diamagnetic. Hence the (i) Turning a ray by 90o (ii) Turning a ray by 180
behaviour of field lines is as shown here OR
Aluminium
(a) Compound microscope:- It is used for observing
highly magnified images of objects. The objective
Copper
lens of small focal length and short aperture forms
II a real, enlarged inverted image of the object. The
I eye of large focal length and large aperture is placed
in such a way that the first image is within the fo-
cus of the eyepiece. Eyepiece forms an enlarged
Mercury
virtual image at least distance of distinct vision.

III

V 3H
(b) (i) tan q = = = 3
H H

( )
\ q = tan-1 3 or 60o
(ii) Horizontal Component = BE cosq = BE cos 60o
= 0.4 3 2 = 0.346 G
30.(a) A
The magnification produced by the eyepiece is
T D
i1 ( Q
d R Me = 1 + f
( i2 e
r1 r2

M 0 = AB = 0
v
P
N S AB u 0
B C
v0 D
M= 1 +
u 0 fe
Figure shows passage of a light ray through a prism.
It undergoes two refractions and finally emerges The focal length of the objective lens is very small,
out along RS bending towards the base. u0 = f0. The focal length of the eye piece is also
In Quadrilateral AQN + ARN = 180o ( normals very short. So that v0 = L, where L is equal to
at Q and R) length of the microscope tube.
\ A + N = 180o ------ (1) L d
\ M = f 1 + fe
In D QNR, r1 + r2 + N = 180o ------ (2) 0
From (1) and (2) 2 sin
(b) Resolving power of microscope RP =
r1 + r2 = A ------- (3) 1.22
From DTQR, d = ii r1 + i2 r2 = i1 + i2 (r1 + r2) (i) Decreasing diameter of objective will decrease
b Hence R P will decrease.
d = i1 + i2 A --------- (4)
(ii) No effect

26
Additional Support Material on Value Based
Questions

Subject: Physics
Class : XII
Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE), whose educational process is inclusive of co-scholastic
areas of life skills, attitude and values, sports and games as well as co-curricular activities, is aiming to
strengthen its education system in the area of value education. For the same, the board will be
introducing value-based questions in the papers of final examinations in all major subjects for classes XI
and XII from the academic session 2012-13 .

The Board has decided to assess students for 5 percent weight age in classes XI and XII through
questions which will be integrated with the content of the subject and analyzed on the basis of the
values it reflects. The questions will be 3-4 marks in a question paper of 70-90 marks.

The sample value based questions deal with the life skills and values attained by students like Self
Awareness, Empathy, Critical thinking, Creative Thinking, Decision Making, Problem Solving, effective
Communication, Interpersonal Relationships, Coping with Stress and Coping with Anger, and Dealing
With Emotions.
CLASS-XII PHYSICS
VALUE BASED QUESTIONS

Q: 1. A child is observing a thin film such as a layer of oil on water show beautiful colours when
illuminated by while light. He feels happy and surprised to see this. His teacher explains him the reason
behind it .The child then gives an example of spreading of kerosene oil on water to prevent malaria and
dengue.

## Name the phenomenon involved ?

Q: 2. Ravi is using yellow light in a single silt diffraction experiment with silt width of 0.6 mm. The
teacher has replaces yellow light by x-rays. Now he is not able to observe the diffraction pattern. He
feels sad. Again the teacher replaces x-rays by yellow light and the diffraction pattern appears again. The
teacher now explains the facts about the diffraction and

## Give the necessary condition for the diffraction.

Q: 3. Aditya participated in a group discussion in his school on Human eye and its defects in the
evening he noticed that his father is reading a book by placing it at a distance of 50 cm or more from his
eye. He advised him for his eye check-up.

Suggest the focal length/power of the reading spectacle for him, so that he may easily read the
book placed at 25 cm from eye.

## Name the value displayed by Aditya.

Q: 4. Mohit was watching a program on the topic MOON on the Discovery channel. He came to know
from the observations recorded from the surface of Moon that the sky appears dark from there. He got
surprised and wanted to know the reason behind it. He discussed it with his friends, and they had the
reasons as 1. Phenomenon of refraction of light 2.Phenomenon of scattering of light and explained the
topic to him in detail.
(i) Name the value that was displayed by Mohit

## (ii ) what values were displayed by his friends

Q: 5 A teacher has given three lenses of power 0.5 D, 4 D, 10 D to a student. He is not sure as to which
lenses would he use for constructing a good astronomical telescope. So he consults his seniors and the
teacher also and constructs a telescope. Later he shows this telescope to the junior classes and explains

## Which lenses are used as objective and which one as Eyepiece?

Q: 6.A person looking at a person wearing a shirt with a pattern comprising Vertical and Horizontal lines
is able to see vertical lines more distinctly than the horizontal ones. He shares his problem with his
friend who suggests him to go to a doctor immediately.

## (iii) How is such a defect of be corrected ?

Q: 7. Students of class XII big mirrors in their classroom for science fair. the mirrors are so arranged that
one can see six images of himself .all the students of other classes who came to see this were very
happy and Geeta of class X th was determined to know the reason behind it . She went to the library,
consulted other students and next day came up with the answer.

## Give the reason for seeing six images?

Q: 8. A child uses a semi conductor device in listening radio & seeing pictures on T.V. He was asked to
suggest the techniques as the cost of LPG/CNG is going up, to cope up with future situations.

## What are the values developed by the child?

What may be the suitable semi conductor material used for utilization of maximum solar energy
with reasons?

Q: 9. Ruchis uncle who was a kabadiwalah was getting weak day by day. His nails were getting blue, he
stated losing his hair. This happened immediately after he purchased a big container of heavy
mass from Delhi University Chemistry Department. Doctors advised him hospitalization and
Ruchi immediately convinced her uncle to get admitted and start treatment.

(i) What according to you are the values utilized by Rama to convince her uncle to get admitted in
hospital

Q: 10. Medhas grandfather was reading article is newspaper. He read that after so many years of
atomic bombing is Hiroshima or Nagasaki, Japan National census indicated that children born
even now are genetically deformed. His grandfather was not able to understand the reason
behind it. He asked his Granddaughter Medha who is studying in class XII science. Medha sat
with her grandfather and showed him pictures from some books and explained the harmful

(i) What are the values/ skills utilized by kajal to make her grandfather understand the
reason of genetically deformity?

## (ii) Name the nuclear reactions that occurred is atom bomb.

Q: 11. Muthuswami a resident of Kundakulam was all set to leave everything and shift to another place
in view of the decision of Govt. to start nuclear thermal power plant at Kundakulam. His
granddaughter Prachi, a science student, was really upset on the ignorant decision of her
grandfather. She could finally convince him not to shift, since adequate safety measures to avoid
any nuclear mishap have already been taken by the Govt. before starting nuclear thermal plants.

## Why is heavy water used as moderator?

Q: 12. Nishas uncle was advised by his doctor to get an ECG for his heart,Her uncle did not Know much
about the details & significance of this Test. She told her uncle that an ECG (Electro cardio
Graph) would enable the doctors to know of the condition of his heart without causing any
harm to him.Her uncle was convinced and got the required ECGdone.The resulting information
greatly helped his doctors to treat him will

## Whatare the values displayed by Nisha

Q: 13. Geeta has dry hair. A comb ran through her dry hair attract small bits of paper. She observes that
Neeta with oily hair combs her hair; the comb could not attract small bits of paper. She consults
her teacher for this and gets the answer. She then goes to the junior classes and shows this
phenomenon as Physics Experiment to them. All the juniors feel very happy and tell her that
they will also look for such interesting things in nature and try to find the answers .she succeeds
in forming a Science Club in her school.

## What according to you are the values displayed Geeta?

Q: 14. Raniss mother who was illiterate was folding her synthetic saree. She saw a spark coming out of
it .She got frightened and called Rani. Rani being a science student gave the reason behind it.
After knowing the reason her mother calmed down.

## what value was displayed by Rani

Q: 15. A picnic was arranged by school for the student of XII class. After some time it was raining heavily
accompanied by thundering & lightening. The Student got afraid. Some students went inside the
room. Two students asked for the key of the car and sat inside the car folding their legs on the
seat. The other students called them to come out but they refused. They knew that charge
inside the conducting shell is zero as told by the teacher and told others not to stand near the
electric pole when it is lightening.

## What value was displayed by these students?

Q: 16. A semiconductor device is used as a rectifier that allows the EMF to flow in positive direction and
a very small value in the reverse direction. Now a days , there is a problem of supply of less voltage
that damages the house hold appliances .You are asked to give the technique to save the appliances in
use

## (i) What can you think to solve the situation?

Can a diode be fabricated in terms of Doping, and choice of material to control the input
voltage to save your appliances from damage?

Q: 17. Chitra was watching her favorite TV serial suddenly the picture started shaking on TV screen. She
asked her brother to check the dish antenna. Her brother found no problem in dish. Chitra
noticed the same problem in TV picture again after some time. At the same time she heard the
sound of low flying air craft passing over their house. She asked her brother again. He explained
the cause of shaking picture on TV screen when air craft passes over head.

## Name the values used by Chitrasbrother ?

Why the picture on the TV screen was shaking when air craft was passing over head?

Q: 18.Pooja went to the market with her mother and decided to come back home by metro. At Metro
station they were made to pass through a gate way for security check. Pooja passed through it and
was waiting for her mother to come. She heard a long beep when her mother passed through metal
detector. Pooja was confused why metal detector beeped in case of her mother. She asked the duty
staff, who explained her in detail. Both were satisfied with the security system.

## What values are displayed by pooja

What is cause of sound through metal detector
Write the Principle on which a Metal detector works

Q: 19. Mr. Sanjeev, a physics teacher, was doing an experiment in lab using dry cell battery. The dry cell
was weak, giving less voltage, which was not sufficient to give proper reading. One of the student
asked, Sir, cant we step-up the voltage using a transformer? Teacher replied, No, we cannot step
up DC voltage using step-up transformer and explained the reason and working of a transformer
.the student then constructed a transformer for his Physics project and studied the factors
responsible for losses in a transformer.

## What values are displayed by the student

Why transformer cannot be used to step-up DC voltage

Q: 20. Raj Pal Yadav, a retired Physics Teacher was working in his field with his grandson. There was a
big high tension tower carrying thick wires in their field. Grandson wanted to know as to why cant
the tower be removed from their field, so that they may get more space for crops. Raj Pal explained
him the necessity of HT tower, and said it is very high voltage AC transmission line and is a lifeline of
their town.

## What values are displayed by Raj Pal Yadav?

Why Long distance AC transmission is done at very high voltage.
What is the principle of transformer?
What are the energy losses in transformer?

Q: 21. Rahul after having lived in US for 12years returned back to India. He had a discussion with his
cousin Sumit on domestic power supply in US and in India. In US domestic power supply is at 110v,
50Hz, whereas in India it is 220V, 50Hz. Rahul was stressing that US supply is better than Indian
supply. Both went to Sumits father an electrical Engineer and asked his opinion on the issue. He

## What values are used by Rahul and Sumit?

Write one advantage and one disadvantage of 220V supply over 110V supply
Q: 22. One Sunday Rahul and Rama were enjoying with their friends at home. Suddenly their ceiling fan
stopped working. Out of shear enthusiasm Rahul first switched off the power supply of the fan and
opened the cap of the fan to check the problem. Vipin tried to stop him but he did not listen. The
moment he touched the interior part of the fan, he fell down because of electric shock. All friends
were scared as to what has happened as the power supply was already switched off.

## i )What negative trait do you think has been displayed by Rahul?

ii) What could be the possible cause of electric shock?
iii) Write expression of current and emf of the component used in fan with phase
difference.

Q: 23.Sandeeps mother had put lot of clothes for washing in the washing machine, but the machine did
not start and an indicator was showing that the lid did not close. Sandeep seeing his mother
disturbed thought that he would close the lid by force but realized that the mechanism was
different. It was a magnetic system. He went to the shop and got a small magnetic door closer and
put it on the lid. The machine started working. His mother was happy that Sandeep helped her to
save Rs.300/- also.

## What was the value developed by Sandeep?

What values did his mother impart to Sandeep?
Every magnetic configuration has a north pole and a south pole. What about the field due to
torpid

Q: 24.Two girls Pooja and Ritu were very good observers and performed in the school function using
their cassette player. One day when they were performing, tape got stuck up and the music
stopped. But Pooja was determined not to let down the performance so she sang the song instead
of dancing and Ritu completed the dance.

## What were the values displayed by Pooja and Ritu?

What kind of Ferro magnetic material is using for coating magnetic tapes used in cassette

## players or building memories stories in modern computers?

Q: 25.Tushar was using a galvanometer in the practical class. Unfortunately it fell from his hand and
broke. He was upset, some of his friends advised him not to tell the teacher but Tushar decided to tell
his teacher. Teacher listened to him patiently and on knowing that the act was not intentional, but just
an accident, did not scold him andused the opportunity to show the internal structure of galvanometer
to the whole class.
(i) What are the values displayed by Tushar.
(ii) Explain the principle, Construction and working of moving coil galvanometer.

Q: 26. Group discussion was arranged in class XII on the topic atmosphere. Three groups were made.
Teacher asked the Question. Why can moon be not used as a communication satellite? Answers were
given by all the three groups. Each group can give only one reason. Teacher told them that reason given
by each group is correct. The groups collected all the three reasons and come to correct conclusion.

## (ii) Give the correct reason for the above question.

Q: 27. Lot of people like TV program CID. In this program there is some murder mystery which has to be
solved by the team of CID people. Every member of CID team work with full dedication. They collect
information from everywhere which can lead to correct conclusion. They use ultraviolet rays in forensic
laboratory. Some people got surprised to see the advantage of ultraviolet rays because they only know
that that ultraviolet rays coming from SUN are harmful .

## Give the use of Ultraviolet rays in forensic laboratory

Q: 28.Deepas uncle wants to talk to his son in USA. He does not have much money to spend on
telephone calls. He has a computer at his home. Deepa told her uncle that he can talk to his son with the
help of computer and told him about internet. Her uncle now talks to his son every day. He thanked

## How does internetwork?

Q.29. In an experiment of photoelectric effect, Nita plotted graphs for different observation between
photo electric current and anode potential but her friend Kamini has to help her in plotting the correct
graph. Neeta Thanked Kamini for timely help.

## b) Draw the correct graph between I and V (NCERT)

Q: 30. A function was arranged in the school auditorium. The auditorium has the capacity of 400
students. When entry started students entered in groups and counting becomes a great problem. Then
science students took responsibility at the gate. All the students entered the hall one by one. This
helped them to maintain discipline and counting became easy with the help of a device used by these
students.

## (ii) Name the device which is based on application of photoelectric effect.

Q: 31. Monicas mother was heating food on a gas stove. Her friend Deepti came and saw her mother
heating food on the gas stove. Deepti told Monicas mother, Why dont you buy a microwave oven?
Monicas mother replied at once that she doesnt like to use microwave oven. Monica and Deepti made
it clear that microwave is not harmful for cooking food. This is an easy and safe process. Monicas
mother got convinced and ordered for a microwave oven. Monicas mother then arranged a small party
for her friends and told them the advantages of a microwave oven.

## What value was displayed by Monica to her friends?

Q: 32. Renu has to take admission in some professional college. It was last date of admission and Renu
left her birth certificate at her home. College was very far from the home. She called her brother and he
faxed the birth certificate. She got the admission and thanked her brother.

## What value was displayed by her brother?

Q: 33. Two boys were going to the market .They saw two welders using welding machine. One welder is
using the goggles and face masks with window in order to protect his face. The other one is welding with
naked eye. They went to the welder who was not using face mask and explained him the advantages of
goggles and masks. Next day the welder bought a set of goggles. He created awareness among other
welders.

## What values were displayed by welder?

Q: 34. Mrs. Gupta family was fast asleep during Night. They had no clue that there living room has
caught fire due to a short circuit. Suddenly they heard sound of alarm and woke up. They were surprised
to see that the sound was coming from the model of fire alarm prepared by their son. They were all
happy that a small science model has saved their life

## (ii) Name the devise use in the model.

Q: 35.Mrs Thakur left her car headlights on while parking. The car would not start when she returned.
Seeing her struggle, Mohit went to her help. Not knowing much about cars, he ran and brought a
mechanic Raju from a garage nearby. Raju realized that the battery had got discharged as the headlight
had been left on for a long time. He brought another battery and connected its terminals to the
terminals of the car battery to get the engine started. Once the engine was running, he disconnected
this second battery. This is known as JUMP STARTING. Mrs. Thakur thanked both Mohit and Raju for
helping her.

## (i)What values did Mohit have?

(ii) A storage battery of emf 8.0 volts and internal resistance 0.5 ohm is being charged by a 120
volt DC supply using a series resistor of 15.5 ohms. What is the terminal voltage of the battery
during charging? What is the purpose of having a series resistor in the charging circuit?

Q: 36.RenuRitu and Kajal lived in a resettlement colony where they observed most houses stole power
from transmission lines using hooks. They had learnt in school about fire caused due to electric short
circuit. They decided to make people aware of the risks involved and also the importance of paying their
electricity bills. They got all their friends and responsible elders together and with the help of the
electricity board, succeeded in changing the situation.

## What values did Renu, Ritu and Kajal have?

A low voltage supply from which one needs high currents must have a very low internal
resistance, why?
A high tension supply of say 6 KV must have a very large internal resistance. Why?

Q: 37. Rahul and Rohit bought an electric iron. They had a 2 pin plug. Rahul was keen to start using the
new iron with the 2 pin plug. However, Rohit insisted that they buy a 3 pin plug before using it. Rahul
got angry. Rohit patiently explained the importance of using a 3 pin plug and the earthing wire. He said
that if the metallic body of the iron came in contact with the live wire at 220 volts, they would get an
electric shock. If earthed, the current would go to the earth and the potential of the metallic body
would not rise. The iron would then be safe to use. Hearing Rohit, Rahul calmed down and agreed.

## What values did Rahul and Rohit have?

Which has greater resistance 1 K watt electric heater or 100 watt electric bulb, both
marked 220 volts?

Q: 38.Sachin had gone to meet his grandfather who was staying in a village. In the evening, they were
both watching TV, when suddenly the lights went off. Grandfather told Sachin that the fuse must have
blown up as all their neighbors had electricity. Luckily Sachin knew how to change a fuse. His
grandfather was happy and told him that if he had been alone, he would have had to spend the night in
the dark without a fan. Sachin felt and made up his mind to replace the fuse with a circuit breaker which
uses a solenoid with a core so that his grandfather would not have any problems in future.

## What values did Sachin have?

The main power supply of a house is through a 5 ampere fuse. How many 100 watt
bulbs can be used in the house simultaneously at 220 volts?
Q: 39.While watching Discovery Channel.Sheela was impressed that certain organisms have the ability
to sense the field lines of earths magnetic field. They use this ability to travel from one location to
another. Sheela wanted to find the angle of dip at her place. She got a magnetic compass , using which
she found the magnetic meridian. She then mounted the compass on a cardboard and placed it
vertically along the magnetic meridian. She was able to measure the angle of dip.

## What values did Sheela have?

Define the magnetic elements of the earth.

Q: 40. Shama, a science student, while studying, was impressed that the nervous system in animals
depends on the electrical signals to work. Neurons pass on signals from sense organs to the brain. The
passage of an electrical signal constitutes an electric current. Shama was curious to know the range of
currents in different situations. She found that current in domestic appliances is a few amperes. During
lightning, the electric current is in tens of thousands of amperes, while in the nervous system, it is only a
few microamperes. She further discussed with her teacher about the magnitude of the magnetic field
created by these currents.

## What values did Shama have?

A galvanometer coil has a resistance of 15 ohms and the meter shows full scale deflection for a
current of 4 milliampere. How will you convert the meter into an ammeter of range 0 m- 6 amperes?
Q: 41. The number of electrical generators used in areas where small workshops existed created lot of
pollution. Rishab and his five friends did a survey and realized that like in multistoried apartments, a
common generator could be set up for all these small workshops so that the noise and air pollution
could be reduced considerably. They had a tough time convincing the local bodies and now they are
going to the NGOs and some financiers to help them organize funds to do the needful. It is admirable to
see their perseverance.

## What values did Rishab and his friends have?

Kamla pedals a stationary bicycle, the pedals of which are attached to a 100 turn coil of
area 0.10 sqmetres. The coil rotates at half a revolution per second and is placed in a
uniform magnetic field of 0.01 Tesla perpendiculars to the axis of rotation of the coil.
What is the maximum voltage generated in the coil?

Q: 42.Alka and her sister were watching a movie in which the phenomena of aurora boriolis was shown.
Alka could not believe her eyes that such a colorful display like the one during commonwealth games
could be created by nature. She went to the library, but could not find the right book. So she consulted
her teacher who guided her. Hence, Alka understood that during a solar flare, a large number of
electrons and protons are ejected from the sun. Some of these get trapped in the earths magnetic field
and move in a helical path along the field lines. As the density of the field lines increases near the poles,
these particles collide with atoms and molecules of the atmosphere emitting green and pink light. Alka
shared this knowledge with her class when they studied the chapter of moving charges in magnetic field.

## What values did Alka have?

What is the radius of the path of an electron moving at a speed of 3 x 107 m / sec in a magnetic
field of 6 Gauss perpendicular to it? What is its frequency? Calculate its energy in kilo electron
volt.

Q: 43. Renu saw her aunt suffering from severe joint pain. Her aunt could not take any pain killer as she
was allergic to them. Renu in her quest to help her aunt found the use of magnets. She read Dr.
Philpotts work on magnetic therapy, that most people are negative magnetic field deficient due to
electromagnetic pollution. Supplementing the body with negative field energy has shown to restore
balance and encourage healing. Renu takes her aunt to the doctor daily without fail for the treatment.
Her aunt is improving at a phenomenal speed.

## (i)What values does Renu have?

(ii)A short bar magnet has a magnetic moment of 0.48J/T. Give the direction and
magnitude of the magnetic field produced by the magnet at a distance of 10cm from the
centre of the magnet on a) axial line b) the equatorial line of the magnet.

Q: 44. Raju was enjoying TV programme at his home with his family at night. Suddenly the light went off
causing darkness all over. Mother asked Raju to bring candle along with matchstick from kitchen to put
the TV switch off. Raju at once picked the mobile phone and pressed the button lighting up the
surrounding. Her mother was surprised and asked where from the light was coming. Raj proudly
showed her the mobile.

## Which material is used in LED ?

Q: 45. Garima and Gaurav want to purchase a new TV set. They visited electronic shops to look for some
branded TV. The dealer showed them LCD and LED TV, s. Now they were confused which set to buy.
Finally after discussing with friends, reading relevant literature and searching the internet, they decided
to purchase LED.

## What is the difference between LED and LCD?

Q: 46. Vikas was reading semi conductor in physics. His teacher has explained that electronic
components operate at very low voltage. But at home he daily saw his father using wall socket for
charging mobile.(220V) Confused Vikas put his doubt in front of his teacher and was satisfied. Next day
he went to school and shared the information with his classmates.

(1)

## (ii) Interference of light

(2)

(i) Motivation

(ii) As the wavelength of x-rays is much smaller than that of yellow light, so the diffraction pattern is lost
when the yellow light is replaced by x-rays

(3)

(i) As the person wants to read a book placed at 25 cm, so if u = -25 cm than its image should be formed
by spectacle lens at v=50 cm, so that the defective eye may focus it on retina.

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

## ___ = ___ - ___ = ___ - ___ = ___ - ___ = ___

F v u (-50) (-25) 25 50 50

(4)

(i ) curiosity

(5)

## (i )curiosity, sharing of knowledge

(ii)Out of these three lenses, he will use a lens of power 0.5 D for objective lens and lens of power 10D
as the Eyepiece

(6)

Empathy

(7)

## (i)Determination and Critical Thinking

(ii)Two adjacent walls inclined at 90 degree will give three images and the ceiling will repeat them

(8)

(9)

(10)

## (i) Sympathy, compassion

(ii) Nuclear- fission reactions

(11)

## (iii)Nuclear Fuel, Moderator, Control rods, Coolant, Shielding

(iv) Neutrons produced during fission get slowed if they collide with a nucleus of same mass. As ordinary
water contains hydrogen atoms so it can be used as a moderator. But it absorb neutron at a fast rate. To
overcome this difficulty, Heavy waters is used as a moderator which has negligible cross sections for
neutron absorption

(12)

(13)

(14)

(15)

(16)

(17)

## (i) Critical thinking and problem solving

(ii) Low lying air crafts reflect TV signals. Due to interference between direct signal received by antenna
and reflected signal the picture on TV shakes

(18)

## ( i) Curiosity, Power of Observation

(ii) & (iii) Resonance (NCERT)
(19)

## (i) Creativeness, curiosity.

(ii) DC supply does not produce changing magnetic flux in the primary hence no emf is set in the
secondary coil of transformer.

(20)

( i) Social awareness
( ii) To minimize power loss due to generation of heat.
(iii), (iv) (NCERT, alternating current)

(21)

## (i) Critical thinking, awareness.

(ii) Advantage the power loss at 220v supply is less than at 110v
Disadvantage 220v supply has peak value 311v which is much higher than peak value of 155.5V for 110v
supply

(22)

## Careless attitude towards life.

Capacitor
NCERT Chapter on Alternating Current

(23)

## i) Sympathy, responsibility, nature of helping, self-reliance

ii )Appreciation, thankfulness, economical nature.
iii )NCERT page 179

(24)

## NCERT Page 202 Ex 5.17(d)

(25)

(i) Courage to tell the truth, Gratitude to his teacher for her patience and tolerance

(26)

## Brotherhood, team spirit, critical thinking

NCERT chapter on Principles of Communications

(27)

(28)

(ii)NCRT

(29)

b) Refer NCERT

(30)

## (ii) Photo cell.

(31)

Sharing knowledge.

Understanding.

Creating awareness.

(32)

(i) Awareness

(ii) Understanding

(33)

(i) Knowledge
(ii) Awareness

(34)

(35)

(36)

(37)

(38)

(39)

## Nature of appreciation, curiosity, diligence, self-reliance, creative skill.

NCERT p 186

(40)

(i) Curiosity, nature of appreciation, critical thinking, research oriented mind and ambitious.

## (ii)NCERT p 172 exercise 4.28

(41)
(i) Team spirit, patience, tolerance, magnanimity, determination, responsibility and dutifulness.

(42)

(43)

(44)

(45)

## (ii)NCERT (SEMI Conductors)

(46)

( i) Scientific thinking

(ii )Rectifier