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GOOD & BAD

of
Mini Hydro Power

Volume 1
Site Identification Civil Works Electro-Mechanical
GOOD & BAD
of
Mini Hydro Power

Klaus Jorde
with the resources of Entec AG
Ekart Hartmann, Heinz Unger

Edited by
Roman Ritter
GTZ

ASEAN-German Mini Hydro Project


(AGMHP)
Imprint

GOOD & BAD


of Mini Hydro Power

Authors:
Klaus Jorde with the resources of Entec AG;
Ekart Hartmann, Heinz Unger

Editing:
Roman Ritter, GTZ

Photos, drawings and graphics provided by:


The Indonesian-German Mini Hydro Power Project (MHPP)

Published by:
The ASEAN Centre for Energy (ACE)
under the direction of its Executive Director, Nguyen Manh Hung,
supported by the ASEAN-German Mini Hydro Project (AGMHP)

Jl. HR. Rasuna Said, Blok X-2, Kav 7-8, Kuningan


Jakarta 12950, Indonesia
Phone : +62 (0)21 527 8027
Fax : +62 (0)21 529 63820
Websites : http://www.aseanenergy.org
http://agmhp.aseanenergy.org
http://www.gtz.de/energy

First published by ACE in June 2009

Photographs, drawings and any other graphical elements are intellectual copyright protected
and therefore must not be extracted separately from this publication.
However, complete chapters of this book may be translated into other languages and thereby
be reproduced for training purposes, provided the publisher is informed of these purposes
and proper acknowledgements are made.

Disclaimer:
The publication has been prepared to illustrate good & bad practice examples in micro and mini hydro power
planning, implementation, operation & management.
While all reasonable care has been taken in the preparation of this publication, the authors, editors, ACE, AGMHP,
Entec AG, GTZ, MHPP, PT Entec Indonesia and any other individuals and parties involved accept no responsibility
for damage, injury or any other undesirable events resulting from its application or interpretation.
The ultimate responsibility for quality, reliability and safety remains with designers, suppliers, installation teams
and operating agencies. It is strongly recommended that any design, construction, electrical or mechanical
installation, operation, maintenance and repair works are carried out and/or supervised and checked by qualified
technicians and engineers only.

ISBN : 978-979-8978-26-5/978-979-8978-27-2

i GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power


Table of Contents
Volume 1

1 SITE IDENTIFICATION 1
1.1 General 2
1.2 Run of River Hydro Power Station 2
1.3 Feasibility 4
1.3.1 Site Identification and Flow Measurement 4
1.3.2 Rough Calculation of Possible Hydro and Electrical Power 6
1.3.3 Estimate Electrical Load 7
1.3.4 How to Measure the River/Stream Flow? 7
1.3.5 Discharge Measurements and Flow Duration Curve 14
1.3.6 Head Measurement 15
1.3.7 General Project Data 24
1.3.8 Synergies, Ownership and Management 26
1.3.9 Energy Supply and Demand 27
1.3.10 Consultants 29

2 CIVIL WORKS 31
2.1 Construction Basics 32
2.2 Individual Components 44
2.2.1 Weir and Intake 44
2.2.2 Sand Trap - Settling Basin 53
2.2.3 Headrace Channel 57
2.2.4 Forebay 70
2.2.5 Trash Rack 75
2.2.6 Spillway 81
2.2.7 Penstock and Support 85
2.2.8 Power House and Tailrace 97

3 ELECTRO-MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT 105


3.1 Basics 106
3.2 Individual Components 111
3.2.1 Turbine 111
3.2.2 Main Elements of a Generator 117
3.2.3 Panel, Controller and Ballast 121
3.2.4 Inside the Power House 129
3.2.5 Power House Wiring 136
3.2.6 Mechanical Transmission 143
3.2.7 Tools and Spare Parts 152

GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power ii


Volume 2

4 TRANSMISSION & DISTRIBUTION 161


4.1 General Basics 162
4.1.1 Basics for Grid Planning, Design & Layout 162
4.1.2 Implications of Productive End Use on Network Design 163
4.2 Major Components 164
4.2.1 Transformer Station 164
4.2.2 Distribution Poles and Lines 168
4.2.3 Wiring connections 170
4.2.4 Maintenance 178

5 HOUSE INSTALLATION 181


5.1 General 182
5.2 Major Elements 183
5.2.1 Service Connection 184
5.2.2 Current Limiting Device 186
5.2.3 Metering 188
5.2.4 House Wiring and Fittings 192

6 MANAGEMENT AND ADMINISTRATION 201


6.1 Community Participation and Mobilisation 202
6.2 Institutional Setup 207
6.3 Capacity Building and Training 210
6.4 Tariff Policy 211
6.5 Financial Management 215
6.6 Monitoring and Documentation 216

7 UTILIZATION OF ENERGY 219

iii GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power


Foreword

The urgent call for reducing the carbon footprint of our economies combined with the worlds
ever growing demand for scaling-up access to energy is a priority challenge on the global
agenda which defines the role for renewables.

Renewable energies offer climate-friendly, low risk technology options for decentralized
power generation. In remote areas, utilizing local renewables to support the development
of poor rural communities is often more economically viable than transporting diesel fuel
or expanding the national electricity grid over long distances. In locations where however
the network infrastructure is already in place, harnessing natural resources for feeding power
into the central grid also offers an important source of local income that contributes to
macroeconomic stability by gaining independence from price-volatile fossil fuels.

In the light of this, the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) is emphasizing the
need to strengthen the development of renewable energies. Promoting mutual cooperation
for the transfer of knowledge and skills in order to narrow development gaps among the
ASEAN countries, to empower the regions peoples, and ultimately to alleviate poverty is seen
as the way forward.

With this publication, GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power, the ASEAN Centre for Energy (ACE)
aims to provide valuable lessons from experiences gained in one member country for the
dissemination of good practices throughout the whole region. This is intended to support
the capacity development of ASEANs human resources in the sustainable planning, design,
implementation, management, operation and maintenance of mini hydro power (MHP).

The two underlying principles of this book are: a picture is worth a thousand words and the
only real mistake is the one from which we learn nothing. Thus along the sequence from
water to wire contrasting pictures of good & bad examples are provided to illustrate what
actually defines the difference. Each picture is complemented by short explanations so that
the book can serve as a technical training manual that offers direct and easy-to-understand
guidance.

Although MHP is a relatively mature and cost-competitive energy technology, a lot of


mistakes are still being made which lead to increased maintenance cost, reduced power
output, shortened service life or even physical danger. The good news is that in many cases
it is only small changes which need to be made doing things the right way often requires
no more funds than doing them the wrong way. However, what is definitely required is a
proper awareness and expertise among hydro practitioners and their principals for whom,
quite literally, knowledge is power.

Nguyen Manh Hung Roman Ritter


ACE, Executive Director GTZ, Principal Advisor AGMHP

GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power iv


Acknowledgements
This book draws on countless photographs and experiences which have been collected in
practically applying international MHP know-how for the successful improvement of mini
hydro power implementation in Indonesia.

Therefore special thanks go to the Indonesian Directorate General for Electricity and Energy
Utilization (DGEEU) and its Mini Hydro Power Project (MHPP) which has been jointly
implemented for more than 10 years by DGEEU and GTZ, the German Technical Cooperation
Deutsche Gesellschaft fr Technische Zusammenarbeit.

Big thanks also go to the team of authors who made great efforts in bringing together Entecs
expertise in MHP development with the didactical concept of using contrasting pictures
which require only short explanations to point out the decisive difference.

Last but certainly not least, the ASEAN Centre for Energy (ACE) is highly grateful to the German
Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) for its continuous support
of the ASEAN-German Mini Hydro Project (AGMHP) which provided the necessary resources
for compiling this publication.

Nguyen Manh Hung


ACE, Executive Director

v GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power


1. Site Identification

GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power


Site Identification

1.1GENERAL

Mini hydro power stations (MHP) are installations often referred to as generating less than
1,000 kW electrical energy. The hydraulic sources are:
t 3JWFSTBOETUSFBNT
t 8BUFSTPVSDFT
t 8BUFSTVQQMZNBJOT
t 8BTUFXBUFSTZTUFNT

To create electricity in a small hydro power station the following two questions are essential:
t )PXNVDIXBUFSJTBWBJMBCMFUISPVHIPVUUIFZFBSGPSUIFUVSCJOF PX

t 8IBUJTUIFQPTTJCMFEJFSFODFJOIFJHIU IFBE

1.2 RUN OF RIVER HYDRO POWER STATION

Flow and head are the most important parameters for the design of a hydro power plant.

Typical example of a diversion type run-of-river hydropower plant

t "SVOPGSJWFSIZESPQPXFSQMBOUJTB.)1XJUIPVUBOZSFTFSWPJSPSTUPSBHFDBQBDJUZ
t "EJWFSTJPOUZQFIZESPQPXFSQMBOUJTB.)1XIFSFUIFXBUFSJTEJWFSUFEGSPNUIFSJWFSJOUP
a channel and/or penstock system

2 GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power


Site Identification

t *OHFOFSBM UIFSFBSFUXPUZQFTPG.)1SFHBSEJOHHSJEDPOOFDUJPO
- Isolated MHP
- Grid connected MHP
t *O TPNF BTQFDUT UIF EFTJHO PG BO JTPMBUFE .)1 JT EJFSFOU UIBO UIF POF PG B HSJE
connected. Most components, such as civil works and hydraulic components are the
same
t *OTPNFDBTFT .)1BSFCVJMUBTJTPMBUFE.)1BOEMBUFSBSFDPOOFDUFEUPUIFHSJE

Note:

CHOOSING INCORRECT PARAMETERS AND DEVELOPING THEREWITH A NON-OPTIMIZED


DESIGN RESULTS IN MASSIVE COST INCREASES OR UNSATISFYING PERFORMANCE!
IT IS THEREFORE STRONGLY RECOMMENDED TO CALL AN EXPERIENCED MHP EXPERT
FOR THE DESIGN PHASE!

GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power 3


Site Identification

1.3 FEASIBILITY

The most important information which must be available is the general location and
UPQPHSBQIZPGUIFTJUF UIFPXXIJDIJTBWBJMBCMFJOUIFSJWFSUISPVHIPVUUIFZFBSBOEUIF
head difference which can be utilized. Additionally it is important to know the distance to the
potential electricity consumers and/or the closest power line near by.

1.3.1 Site Identification and Flow Measurement

The following information must be gathered:


t 5IFXBUFSPXEVSJOHUIFXIPMFZFBSXJUINBYJNVNBOENJOJNVNPX
t 5IF PQUJNBM MBZPVU PG UIF XIPMF TDIFNF XJUI JOUBLF  IFBESBDF  TBOE USBQ  QFOTUPDL 
powerhouse and tailrace
t 4J[FBOEMFOHUIPGUSBOTNJTTJPOBOEEJTUSJCVUJPOMJOFGSPNQPXFSIPVTFUPUIFVTFSTPG
the electricity
t "EFNBOEGPSFDBTUGPSIPVTFIPMET TNBMMJOEVTUSJFTBOETPDJBMJOGSBTUSVDUVSFGBDJMJUJFTGPS
be connected in the future

Collect river/stream flow data

'PSIZESPQPXFSEFTJHOJUJTWFSZJNQPSUBOUUPIBWFPXEBUBPWFSBTNBOZZFBSTBTQPTTJCMFUP
be sure how much water (in rainy and dry season) is available to run a turbine. These data give
the designer the basic information for the selection of a turbine that works most efficiently.

With this information and the demand of the consumers, the designer can choose the proper
turbine and generator as well as he can define size and length of the grid for an isolated
MHP.

Hydrographs for a 16 year period

5IFHVSFTIPXTEBJMZPXTNFBTVSFEPWFSBQFSJPEPGZFBST5IJTJTBOJEFBMEBUBTJUVBUJPO
In reality, such good data are often not available.

4 GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power


Site Identification

Flow duration curve

"TPDBMMFEPXEVSBUJPODVSWFJTHFOFSBUFECZTPSUJOHBMMNFBTVSFEPXEBUBTJ[FXJTFBOE
printing them over 100% of the time covered by the measurements. The diagram says for
example that during 23% of the time the discharge is higher than 10 m3/s. This curve is the
most important information for the design of the hydropower plant. If it is not based on good
data everything else becomes equally speculative as well.

*G UIF SFRVJSFE NFBTVSFNFOUT BSF OPU BWBJMBCMF  UIFO UIF PX TIPVME CF NFBTVSFE BOE
recorded every day during minimum one year in order to get the following curve:

&YBNQMFPGBPXEVSBUJPODVSWFGPSPOFZFBS

5IFPXEVSBUJPODVSWFJTHFOFSBUFEGSPNUIFSJWFSEJTDIBSHFDVSWFCZTPSUJOHBMMUIF
WBMVFT#BTFEPOUIFPXEVSBUJPODVSWF UIFEFTJHOFSFWBMVBUFTUIFBWBJMBCMFDBQBDJUZ5IF
EJNFOTJPOJOHPGUIFQMBOUEFQFOETPOUIFBWBJMBCMFPXPGXBUFSBOEUIFFTUJNBUFEGVUVSF
demand of the customers. Ideally the MHP should allow covering the demand all around the
year. If the demand is higher than the available capacity, alternative energy resources have to
be identified and/or energy efficiency measures have to be taken into consideration.

GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power 5


Site Identification

If you cannot get good measurements over an extended period of time you need the help of
an experienced hydrologist for this analysis.

1.3.2 Rough Calculation of Possible Hydro and Electrical Power

By answering the following questions youll find out, if the scheme is worth to go ahead with
the planning:

)PXNVDIPXJTBWBJMBCMF
.FBTVSFBOEESBXBXBUFSPXDVSWF IZESPHSBQI
BTTIPXO
BCPWF GPS NJOJNVN POF ZFBS 5BLF UIF NJOJNVN PX GPS
ZPVSGVSUIFSDPOTJEFSBUJPOT5IJTJTUIFPXPGXBUFSXIJDI
you have available all year round.

2. How much head is available?


Measure the head from the location of the possible forebay
to the place where the turbine is planned to be placed.

8IFOIFBEBOEEJTDIBSHF XBUFSPX
JTLOPXO JUJTFBTZUPDBMDVMBUFUIFUIFPSFUJDBMIZESP
power:

P = Power in Watt
Q = Minimum available flow
H = Head, difference in height in meter

This formula shows the hydraulic capacity only and refers to 100% efficiency without losses.
Losses in penstock, turbine, gear transmission, generator and electricity transmission reduce
the final electrical power. By calculating losses of 20.30%, the final electrical power will
approximately be:

6 GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power


Site Identification

EXAMPLE:

-FUTVTFUIFPXEVSBUJPODVSWFGPSPOFZFBSPOPOFPGUIFQSFWJPVTQBHFTBTBOFYBNQMF
5IFNJOJNVNUVSCJOFPXXIJDIJTJOEJDBUFEUIFSFJTBSPVOEMT5IJTPXJTFYDFFEFE
EBZTQFSZFBS UIFSFNBJOJOHEBZTUIFPXJTTMJHIUMZTNBMMFSTPUIFIZESPQPXFSQMBOUXJMM
generate less power accordingly. Lets assume that we have a head of 30 m available. In this
case the power generation will be:

So this MHP will generate almost 19 kW.

If the designer chooses a larger turbine, lets say with the design charge of 220 l/s, the MHP
DPVMEHFOFSBUFBSPVOEL8 CVUPOMZGPSBCPVUEBZTFWFSZZFBS EVSJOHIJHIPXT5IF
remainder of the year, around 300 days, the MHP would generate much less power, depending
on the discharge which is available.

1.3.3 Estimate Electrical Load

Try to estimate the required electrical power supply needed for all households, public
infrastructure facilities (e.g. schools, markets, clinics, community buildings, and street
lightings), workshops, etc in the electrical system. For each household calculate around
50150 W for lighting, radio, TV, fan, refrigerator, etc.
8JUIUIFPXPGUIFBCPWFFYBNQMFBSPVOEIPVTFIPMETDBOCFTVQQMJFEBMMZFBSSPVOE
by a possible MHP.

1.3.4 How to Measure the River/Stream Flow

*UTOPUFBTZUPNFBTVSFBOBDDVSBUFPXPGBSJWFSPSTUSFBN
5IFPXNFBTVSFNFOUIBTUPCFUBLFOFWFSZEBZEVSJOHPOFGVMMZFBS'PSUIJTUIFJOTUBMMBUJPO
has to be appropriate and robust. Depending on the size of the river or stream there are
EJFSFOUNFUIPETUPNFBTVSFUIFPX

t #VDLFU.FUIPE
t 'MPBU.FUIPE
t $VSSFOU.FUFS.FUIPE 7FMPDJUZ"SFB.FUIPET

t 4IBSQ$SFTUFE8FJS.FUIPE
t 4BMU$PODFOUSBUJPO.FUIPE

GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power 7


Site Identification

Bucket Method

'PSTNBMMPX BSPVOEMT
POMZ
t *GZPVIBWFPOMZBTNBMMPXZPVDBOEPUIFNFBTVSFNFOUTXJUIUIJTNFUIPE
t *UTJNQPSUBOU UPUBLFBCJHUBOL BSPVOE MJUFS
XJUIESBJOQMVHBUUIFCPUUPN
t 5IFPXUPCFNFBTVSFEJTEJWFSUFEJOUPUIFUBOLPGLOPXOWPMVNF
t 5IFUJNFJUUBLFTUPMMUIFUBOLNVTUCFSFDPSEFE
t #ZEJWJEJOHUIFWPMVNF JOMJUFS
PGUIFUBOLCZUIFMMJOHUJNF JOTFDPOET
UIFPXJO
liter/seconds can be calculated

Note:

THIS METHOD IS VERY ACCURATE IF YOU ARRIVE TO REALIZE SUCH AN INSTALLATION!


BUT USE IT FOR SMALL FLOWS ONLY!

8 GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power


Site Identification

Float Method

'PSPXMT

Profile

Define the cross section area first. Normally its more difficult than in our example (Cross
section = H x W). Try to divide the whole cross section into several sections, when the profile
is not rectangular, and add the different sections together to define the whole cross section.

Float

For a known length of the stream (L), an average cross section should be available, where a
half filled plastic bottle of water has to be timed over a measured length (L = 1020 m). By
NVMUJQMZJOHDSPTTTFDUJPOBSFBXJUIBWFSBHFPXWFMPDJUZ BOFTUJNBUJPOPGPXSBUFDBOCF
made now. For any case a correction factor of +/- 20% must be applied.

GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power 9


Site Identification

Current Meter Method (Velocity-Area Methods)

t "UBOZQPJOUJOUIFSJWFS UIFWFMPDJUZJTEJFSFOUoGBTUFSPOUIFTVSGBDFBOETMPXFSPO
UIFCPUUPN5IFWFMPDJUZPGUIFPXDBOCFNFBTVSFEBUEJFSFOUEFQUITBOEBUBOZQPJOU
of the rivers cross section by a so called current meter
t 5IF WBMVFT IBWF UP CF BWFSBHFE 5IF WFMPDJUZ NFBTVSFNFOU EBUB BSF UIFO VTFE UP
DBMDVMBUFUIFBDUVBMPX CBTFEPOUIFBSFBPGFBDITFHNFOU
t #FGPSF TUBSUJOH UIF WFMPDJUZ NFBTVSFNFOUT  NBSL UIF DSPTT TFDUJPO XJUI B IPSJ[POUBMMZ
laid out piece of steel or timber to get a reference height. Note the location of the cross
TFDUJPOPOBNBQBOEBMTPOPUFEBUFBOEUJNFPGUIFPXNFBTVSFNFOU

Note:

THIS METHOD IS SUITABLE FOR FLOW VELOCITIES RANGING FROM 0.2 - 5 m/s AND WHERE
YOU CAN SAFELY WADE THE STREAM!

10 GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power


Site Identification

Sharp Crested Weir Method

Measuring rod

Why is this a good example?

t 4IBSQDSFTUFEXFJSTXJUIDPOUSPMMFEPXQSPWJEFHPPEPXNFBTVSFNFOUT

But:

t 5IFJOTUBMMBUJPOJTOPUFBTZBOEOFFETBMPUPGTLJMMBOEFYQFSJFODF
t 3FGFSFODFUBCMFTIBWFUPJOEJDBUFSFMBUJPOCFUXFFOIFJHIUIBOEPX2
t 5IFXFJSPOUIFQJDUVSFJTOPURVJUFSFDUBOHVMBS

GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power 11


Site Identification

'PSSFDUBOHVMBSXFJSTXJUICNBOE-JTBQQSPYJNBUFMZoN UIFPXDBOCFSFBEPVU
from following table:

t "OZNBUFSJBMDBOCFVTFEGPSUIFXFJS CVUUIFOPUDITIPVMEIBWFTIBSQFEHFT NFUBMJT


the best)
t 8FJSTBSFBMXBZTPSJFOUFEBUBSJHIUBOHMFUPUIFTUSFBNPX
t *GCJTXJEFSPSOBSSPXFSUIBONZPVDBOTJNQMZNVMUJQMZUIF2WBMVFTJOUIFUBCMFCZ
UIFTBNFSBUJP-FUTTBZGPSBNXJEFXFJSZPVNVMUJQMZUIF2WBMVFTCZBOEGPSB
NXJEFXFJSZPVNVMUJQMZUIF2WBMVFTCZ
t " TIBSQ DSFTUFE XFJS JT BMTP B HPPE EFWJDF UP HFOFSBUF B PX EVSBUJPO DVSWF
(hydrograph) over a longer period of time, e.g. one year. You only need to install a staff
gauge 2-3 m upstream of the weir, read the gauge level every day at the same time,
calculate the discharge based on the table above, and write this into a table

12 GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power


Site Identification

Salt Concentration Method

B
gauging
point of tracer injection point
tracer cloud A
M=V.C1

Distance: injection to gauging point


tracer concentration

FA
FB

tA Time
tB

The figure shows intensity of conductivity

t " CVDLFU XJUI TBMU XBUFS PG LOPXO DPODFOUSBUJPO JT QPVSFE JOUP UIF NJEEMF PG UIF
TUSFBN5IFTBMUDPODFOUSBUFDMPVEXJMMCFTQSFBECZUIFPXPGUIFSJWFS
t 5IF QSPCF JT JOTFSUFE BU MFBTU  UJNFT UIF SJWFS XJEUI EPXOTUSFBN UP NFBTVSF UIF
electric conductivity of the stream / salt concentrate mixture. So if the river is 10 m wide,
you should measure at least 200 m downstream
t 5IFTUSFBNPXXJMMCFNFBTVSFEBOEDBMDVMBUFECZUIFDPOEVDUJWJUZNFUFS

Note:

THIS METHOD OF MEASUREMENT CAN ONLY BE USED BY A TRAINED PERSON WITH


PROPER EQUIPMENT!

GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power 13


Site Identification

1.3.5 Discharge Measurements and Flow Duration Curve

0GDPVSTFJUJTBDPOTJEFSBCMFFPSUUPNFBTVSFUIFPX OPNBUUFSXIJDINFUIPEZPVVTF
4PZPVPOMZXBOUUPEPUIJTBGFXUJNFTCVUJUNVTUCFBUEJFSFOUPXT MFUTTBZEVSJOHUIF
MPXFTUPXZPVDBOPCTFSWF BOEGVMMSJWFSPXBOEUXPTNBMMFSPXTJOCFUXFFO"UUIFTBNF
time you always measure the stage of the river at the same location and you must install a
permanent staff gauge for this purpose. Then you can develop a relationship between the
stage and the discharge, based in your measurements. It is a simple curve, shown green in
the figure below.

Staff gauge (cm)

Discharge (l/s)

Staff gauge for quick and easy water level reading

The red stars represent the measurements which you have taken. From then on you must
only measure the stage, lets say every day at noon, and your curve will tell you what the
discharge is at the same time. The two blue arrows indicate how this works. If you do this for
POFZFBSZPVIBWFUIFQFSGFDUEBUBGPSBPXEVSBUJPODVSWF

Note:

IF YOU DO NOT UNDERSTAND THIS PROCEDURE YOU MUST HIRE AN EXPERT TO HELP
YOU!

14 GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power


Site Identification

1.3.6 Head Measurement

Head is the difference in height between the water level of the planned forebay and the
planned position of the turbine shaft. There are different ways to measure it.

Level of forebay

Head
turbine

Schematic example of head measurement

GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power 15


Site Identification

Head Measurement by Level

The principles of measurement by the levelling method

16 GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power


Site Identification

Head Measurement by Water Level

This method is similar to the levelling method, except that a water-filled hose is used

GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power 17


Site Identification

Head Measurement by Pressure Gauge

What are the specifics of this simple head measurement method?

t 0OMZBQSFTTVSFHBVHFBOEBDMFBSQMBTUJDIPTFBSFOFFEFE
t 0OMZUXPNBJOFSSPSTDBOBSJTF
- The gauge is not properly calibrated
- There are air bubbles in the hose
t 'JSTU DBMJCSBUF UIF HBVHF TDBMF GSPN B MPX UP B IJHI SFBEJOH EP UIBU  UJNFT UP HFU
reliable results
t $IFDL UIF TJ[F BOE MFOHUI PG UIF IPTF  CFDBVTF UIF XBUFSMMFE IPTF NVTU CF DBSSJFE
around the entire length from intake to tailrace
t 3FDPSEBMMEBUBPOBDIBSU

18 GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power


Site Identification

Head Measurement by Barometer/Altimeter

Elevation 1 Water level of


forebay

Elevation 2 Turbine inlet

Head is the difference of elevation 1 and 2

An altimeter is based on atmospheric pressure.


The atmospheric pressure is different at different
elevations. It decreases with increasing elevation
above sea level.

When to use an altimeter?

t 6TFUIJTNFUIPEPOMZEVSJOHTUBCMFXFBUIFSDPOEJUJPOT
t .FBTVSFNFOUTTIPVMECFDBSSJFEPVUJOBTIPSUUJNF
t 1FSGPSNUIJTNFBTVSFNFOUTFWFSBMUJNFTBOEUIFODBMDVMBUFUIFBWFSBHFIFBE
t %P OPU VTF UIJT NFUIPE GPS MPX IFBET #FDBVTF CBSPNFUFST IBWF DPOTJEFSBCMF
uncertainties this method should not be used for heads less than about 50 m
t 5IJT NFUIPE JT SFDPNNFOEFE BT B STU RVJDL NFBTVSFNFOU XIJDI MBUFS NVTU CF
validated by more accurate measurements

GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power 19


Site Identification

Head Measurement by Clinometer

Up- and downward


measurements are
possible

Clinometer
4 scales available

What is the use of a clinometer?

t %JFSFOUNFBTVSFNFOUTDBOCFQFSGPSNFEXJUIBDMJOPNFUFS
t 'PSBOHMFNFBTVSFNFOUTUIFDMJOPNFUFSNVTUIBOHWFSUJDBMMZ
t 'PSTMPQF 
NFBTVSFNFOUTUIFDMJOPNFUFSNVTUCFIFMEBOEQPJOUFEXJUIUIFiwBU
the bottom/top of the point to be measured
t 'PSEJTUBODFNFBTVSFNFOUUIFDMJOPNFUFSNVTUCFIFMEBOEQPJOUFEXJUIUIFiiBUUIF
bottom/top of the point
t #FTU BOE NPTU BDDVSBUF SFTVMUT BSF PCUBJOFE CZ FJUIFS TUFBEZJOH UIF IBOE PO UIF
forehead or on a pole
t 'SPN UIF NFBTVSFNFOU UIF EJFSFODF JO IFJHIU CFUXFFO UIF UXP QPJOUT DBO CF
calculated

20 GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power


Site Identification

Head Measuring by Level Instrument

b foresight
foresight
a
O% O% O%
backsight

O% Change
Point

La -b Lb -c

Why to use an automatic level instrument?

t .FBTVSFNFOUTBSFGBTUBOEBMTPXPSLGPSMPOHFSEJTUBODFT TVDIBTJOBUUFSSBJOJOTUFFQ
terrain, the instrument has to be set up more often
t 5IFBDDVSBDZPGNFBTVSFNFOUTJTWFSZIJHI JGUIFZBSFEPOFDPSSFDUMZ
t .BLFTVSFUIBUMFWFMJOTUSVNFOUJTTFUVQIPSJ[POUBMMZPOUIFUSJQPE
t -FWFMJOTUSVNFOUTDBONFBTVSFPOMZJOBIPSJ[POUBMMJOFoOPEFFDUJPOJTQPTTJCMF
t 5IF SFTVMU PG NFBTVSFNFOU JT UIF EJFSFODF
in height and distance between the two
points where the rod is set up
t #Z SFDPSEJOH BMM NFBTVSFNFOUT BOE BEEJOH
them up, the distance and the height (which
is the available head) can be calculated
t 5IJTNFUIPEJTTJNJMBSUPUIFPOFVTFEXJUIB
clinometer but more accurate

GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power 21


Site Identification

Land Survey Instruments (Theodolite or Total Station)

Theodolite On site Total Station

Specifics of the high tech instruments:

t "UIFPEPMJUFDBONFBTVSFEJTUBODFT IFJHIUTBOEBOHMFT EBUBBSFSFDPSEFENBOVBMMZ


t " i5PUBM 4UBUJPOw EPFT UIF TBNF  CVU UIF TVSWFZ EBUB BSF TUPSFE BVUPNBUJDBMMZ PO B
memory chip
t 5IFTFJOTUSVNFOUTBSFVTFECZQSPGFTTJPOBMMBOETVSWFZPST
t 'PS IFBE DBMDVMBUJPO POMZ  TVDI JOTUSVNFOUT BSF OPU SFBMMZ OFDFTTBSZ  CVU UIFZ DBO CF
very useful if larger areas have to be surveyed

22 GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power


Site Identification

Head Measurement with High-Tech Instruments

Altimeter Clinometer Leveling Instrument

Theodolite Total Station

These instruments should be used by people who are trained to handle them as well as to analyze
the data of the measurements

GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power 23


Site Identification

1.3.7 General Project Data

Try to get an answer to the following questions:

t 8IFSFJTUIFQSPKFDUBSFBMPDBUFE oEFOFDPPSEJOBUFTCZ(14
t 8IP XJMM CF UIF EFWFMPQFS PG UIF QSPKFDU  NFBOT XIJDI PSHBOJ[BUJPO T
 TVQQPSU T
 UIF
project?
t 'JOEBQFSTPOXJUIJOUIFWJMMBHFGPSDPNNVOJDBUJPOBOZUJNF
t 'JOEBQFSTPOXJUIJOUIFEFWFMPQFSPSHBOJ[BUJPOGPSDPNNVOJDBUJPOBOZUJNF
t )PX JT UIF FMFDUSJDBM JOGSBTUSVDUVSF PG UIF WJMMBHF EFWFMPQFE  "TTFTT FYJTUJOH HSJE XJUI
voltage and transformers/medium voltage lines with length and number of wires/low
voltage lines with length and number of wires
t *TUIFSFHPPEBDDFTTJCJMJUZUPUIFOFYUWJMMBHFUPXO NBSLFUBOETVQQMJFST FUD oEJTUBODF
in km and time should be recorded
t *TUSBOTQPSUBUJPOBWBJMBCMF UZQFBOEDPTUPGUSBOTQPSUBUJPO
t "SFUIFSPBETBDDFTTJCMFBMMUIFZFBS
t "SFOFJHICPSJOHWJMMBHFTPSIBNMFUTBMSFBEZDPOOFDUFEUPUIFFMFDUSJDHSJE
t %SBXBOBQQSPYJNBUFNBQPGUIFWJMMBHFBOEJUTMPDBUJPOBOEDPOUFYU

24 GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power


Site Identification

Demographic and Socio-Economic Parameters

t )PXNBOZIPVTFIPMETMJWFJOUIFNBJOWJMMBHFBOEJOJUTTVSSPVOEJOHBSFB 
t )PXNBOZQFSTPOTMJWFJOBOBWFSBHFIPVTFIPME 
t 8IBUJTUIFQPQVMBUJPOTHSPXUISBUFJOUIJTBSFB
t 8IPIBTFMFDUSJDJUZBMSFBEZ BOEIPXNBOZXBOUUPCFDPOOFDUFEUPBNJOJIZESPQPXFS
system?
t 3BUFQFPQMFTJOUFSFTUBOEVOEFSTUBOEJOHBCPVUUIFXBZUPCFDPNFiFMFDUSJFEw
t 'JOE PVU UIF WBSJPVT TPVSDFT PG JODPNF o BHSJDVMUVSF  USBEJOH  TVQQMZ PG MBCPS 
remittances, etc.
t &TUJNBUFUIFBWFSBHFNPOUIMZJODPNFPGBOBWFSBHFIPVTFIPME
t )PX NBOZ QFSTPOT BSF OPU FNQMPZFE BOE IBWF OP JODPNF PS SFDFJWF TVQQPSU GSPN
others?
t "SFUIFWJMMBHFSTXJMMJOHUPQBZGPSUIFVTFPGFMFDUSJDJUZBOEIPXNVDIDBOUIFZBPSE
monthly?
t "SFUIFSFBOZQVCMJDTVQQPSUTZTUFNTGPSQFSTPOTXJUIMPXJODPNF 
t 8IJDIFUIOJDHSPVQTMJWFJOUIFBSFB 

GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power 25


Site Identification

1.3.8 Synergies, Ownership and Management

Try to consider following points:

t .BLFOPUFPGBOZSFDFOU POHPJOHBOEGVUVSF JOGSBTUSVDUVSF


EFWFMPQNFOUQSPKFDUT
t $IFDLPVUPUIFSJOWPMWFNFOUTJOUIFWJMMBHF MJLF/(0T HPWFSONFOUPSBJEBHFODJFT
t (BVHFUIFBOUJDJQBUFEMFWFMPGDPNNVOJUZQBSUJDJQBUJPO
t .BLFTVSFUIFSFJTFOPVHIJOWPMWFNFOUJOUBSJTFUUJOH NBLJOHQPMJDZEFDJTJPOTTVDIBT
how to handle payment defaulters etc
t 8IBUJTUIFBWBJMBCJMJUZPGMPDBMQFPQMFXJUINBOBHFNFOUCVTJOFTTTLJMMBTXFMMBTXJUI
civil, electrical and mechanical background?
t 'PSUIFIZESPQPXFSFOUFSQSJTF FYQMPSFBOEQSPQPTFEJFSFOUPXOFSTIJQNPEFMT FH
community-based, private, company-driven)

26 GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power


Site Identification

1.3.9 Energy Supply and Demand

t *T UIFSF BOZ FMFDUSJD HSJE OFBS UIF WJMMBHF GPS DPOOFDUJPO  *G TP  DIFDL PVU XIBU JT UIF
least-cost option (electricity supply from the existing grid vs. setting up a stand-alone
MHP scheme vs. selling surplus energy from the MHP to the grid)
t -VNQTVNQBZNFOUPSNFUFSFETFSWJDF
t $MVTUFSJOHPSTFQBSBUFJOTUBMMBUJPOT
t 8IBUJTUIFEPNFTUJDEFNBOEPGFBDIIPVTFIPME MJHIUJOH SBEJP 57 GBO SFGSJHFSBUPS 
etc ask all households
t $IFDLUIFEFNBOEPGQVCMJDGBDJMJUJFT MJLFTDIPPMT NBSLFU DMJOJD DPNNVOJUZCVJMEJOHT 
street lighting, place of worship etc.
t "SF UIFSF BOZ FYJTUJOH PS QSPQPTFE
 QSPEVDUJWF BQQMJDBUJPOT JO UIF WJMMBHF NJMM PG BOZ
type, kiosk, manufacturing, cottage industry, etc.?
t 'JOEPVUBUXIBUUJNFBOEIPXMPOHUIFWBSJPVTEFNBOEJTOFFEFE BOEXIFOBOEIPX
long are the peaks of usage
t .BLF B TVNNBSZ PG BMM EFNBOE BOE DBMDVMBUF UIF EBJMZ  UIF BOOVBM BOE UIF QFBL
demand for the village
t 'PSUIFEFTJHOBEEPSTPNFPUIFSQFSDFOUBHFGPSGVUVSFFYUFOTJPOTUPUIFTVNNBSZ
demand

Example: see following page!

GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power 27


Site Identification

28 GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power


Site Identification

1.3.10 Consultants

MANY FACTS HAVE TO


BE CONSIDERED BEFORE
STARTING WITH HYDRO
108&345"5*0/%&4*(/

When to look for consultants?

If communities intend to implement an electrical system they are well advised to ask a
consultant for support:
t "IZESPQPXFSTUBUJPOJODMVEJOHBOFMFDUSJDBMTZTUFNJTBDPNQMFYTVCKFDUBOEUIFIFMQ
of a reliable professional is very important. Only with such a professional you prevent
mistakes in calculation, design, construction and operation
t *GBOFMFDUSJDBMTZTUFNTIPVMECFJOTUBMMFEUIFTPVSDFGPSUIFFOFSHZIBTUPCFTFMFDUFE
very carefully. Hydro, wind or solar potential will be checked in detail. The professional
consultant will recommend the most appropriate energy system

Note:

SUCH SYSTEMS SHOULD NOT HARM THE ENVIRONMENT!


THIS FACT BECOMES MORE AND MORE IMPORTANT EVEN MHP IF NOT DESIGNED, BUILD
AND OPERATED PROPERLY, CAN HARM THE ENVIRONMENT IN CERTAIN CASES!

GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power 29


Civil Works

2. Civil Works

GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power 31


Civil Works

2.1 CONSTRUCTION BASICS

This chapter will provide general advice for construction and show a number of good and
bad examples to illustrate what makes the important difference.

32 GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power


Civil Works

+ +
Cement Sand Gravel

+ =
Good quality concrete

Water

How to make concrete

What has to be considered for good workmanship?

t 5IF RVBMJUZ PG DPODSFUF EFQFOET PO UIF DPSSFDU QSPQPSUJPOT PG BMM UIF JOHSFEJFOUT  JF
cement, sand, gravel and water
t /PUFOPVHIDFNFOUJOUIFNJYNBLFTXFBL MPXTUSFOHUIDPODSFUF
t 5PPNVDIXBUFSBMTPNBLFTQPPSRVBMJUZDPODSFUF
t *UJTJNQPSUBOUUPNFBTVSFBOEBEEBHHSFHBUFTQMVTTBOETFQBSBUFMZGPSNBLJOHEFOTF
concrete of good quality
t 6TFPOMZDMFBOBHHSFHBUFT

Note:

THERE IS NEVER AN ALTERNATIVE TO GOOD QUALITY WORKMANSHIP!

GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power 33


Civil Works

Measure & mix the ingredients


with care

Let the concrete slip into the


formwork

Construction of anchor block

What has to be considered for good workmanship?

t (PPEQSFQBSBUJPOJTFTTFOUJBMGPSHPPEDPODSFUF
t %POPUESPQUIFDPODSFUFJOUPUIFGPSNXPSLGSPNBOZIFJHIU CVUMFUJUTMJQ
t .BYJNVNESPQPGDPODSFUFJTN PUIFSXJTFUIFBHHSFHBUFTHFUTFQBSBUFE
t "WPJEDPMEKPJOUTEVSJOHDPODSFUJOHEPPOFTFDUJPOJOPOFMJGU
t .BLFTVSFDPODSFUFMMTBMMWPJET VTFBWJCSBUPS TUJSEVSJOHQPVSJOH LOPDLPOGPSNXPSL
from outside etc

34 GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power


Civil Works

Corner bracing

Supports all around


the formwork

Puddle flange welded on pipe

Anchor block ready for concreting

What has to be considered for good workmanship?

t 5IFCPBSETPGUIFGPSNXPSLBSFPGHPPERVBMJUZ
t 5IF TVQQPSUT BSF GBTUFOFE UP UIF GPSNXPSL BOE CSBDFE BHBJOTU UIF HSPVOE UP BWPJE
movements during placing the concrete
t 1VEEMFBOHFTBSFXFMEFEUPUIFQFOTUPDLQJQFUPCFUUFSBODIPSJU
t 3FJOGPSDFNFOUJTJOQMBDFBOESFBEZGPSDPODSFUJOH
t 'PSNXPSLNVTUCFXFMMYFECFDBVTFJUJTJNQPTTJCMFUPIPMEJUVQXIFOUIFDPODSFUFJT
being poured into the formwork
t #FGPSF QPVSJOH  DMFBSMZ NBSL UIF OFDFTTBSZ UPQ PG DPODSFUF TVSGBDF UP HFU FOPVHI
coverage of reinforcement, at least 3 cm
t 7JCSBUFDPODSFUFXFMMoUIJTXJMMHJWFDPODSFUFUIFEFOTJUZBOEMMBMMWPJETTPJUIBTUIF
strength and quality to fulfill the task of an anchor block

GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power 35


Civil Works

Earthing cable connected to


reinforcement

Earthing cable

Steel base fixed to rods

Construction details of equipment foundation

What has to be considered for good workmanship?

t 5IFGPVOEBUJPOTPGUVSCJOFBOEHFOFSBUPSNVTUCFCVJMUXJUIDBSF
t "TUBCMFGPVOEBUJPOBWPJETNPWFNFOUTPGUIFFRVJQNFOUXIJDIJTBCTPMVUFMZOFDFTTBSZ
for a trouble-free operation of the plant
t 5IFHFOFSBUPSTIPXOJOUIFQJDUVSFJTQSPQFSMZGBTUFOFEBOEBEKVTUFECZUVSOCVDLMFTUP
keep the equipment stable and horizontal while the concrete is being placed
t "OBCTPMVUFMZIPSJ[POUBMCBTFJTFTTFOUJBMGPSBTNPPUIUSBOTNJTTJPO
t 5IFFBSUIJOHDBCMFJTDPOOFDUFEUPUIFSFJOGPSDFNFOUPGUIFCBTFBOEXJMMCFMBUFSBMTP
connected to the equipment itself. This is very important to avoid short circuits during
operation
t *OPSEFSUPHFUHPPERVBMJUZDPODSFUF UIFDPODSFUFNVTUCFWJCSBUFEBGUFSCFJOHQPVSFE

36 GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power


Civil Works

Screw thread on steel rod

Equipment base

25 mm
Sheet metal packing 16 mm

-FWFMPGDPODSFUFPPS

Steel plate must overlap hole in concrete


by at least 30 mm all around

)PMFJODPODSFUFPPSBQQSPYYEJOEJBNFUFS
It must not be larger at the top than the bottom

Small plates welded to screw rod and


washer (to prevent rotation)

Thick washer (approx, 4d x 5 mm thick)


welded to rod
'BTUFOJOHPGFRVJQNFOUUPDPODSFUFPPSXJUIPVUCVJMEJOHBGPVOEBUJPO

What has to be considered for good workmanship?

t *G OP OFX GPVOEBUJPO JT UP CF CVJMU  FRVJQNFOU DBO BMTP CF YFE UP UIF DPODSFUF BT
shown above and described below
t 5IJT NFUIPE JT BMTP BQQMJDBCMF XIFO B GBTUFOJOH CPMU CFDPNFT MPPTF  BOE NVTU CF
repaired
t %SJMM B WFSUJDBM IPMF JO UIF DPODSFUF PPS BOE NBLF TVSF UIBU UIF UPQ EJBNFUFS JT OPU
larger than the diameter of the bottom of the hole
t 'PSHSPVUJOHVTFPOMZIJHIEFOTJUZNPSUBS OPOTISJOL BOETMPXTFUUJOH
t 1PVS NPSUBS STU BOE UIBO JOTFSU CPMU WFSUJDBMMZ TFU FRVJQNFOU PO UPQ o EVSJOH UIJT
operation the mortar is still soft and all parts are adjustable

GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power 37


Civil Works

Earthing cable

Earthing rod

Earthing must be done properly for the sake of safety

What has to be considered for good workmanship?

t &BSUIJOHJTBTBGFHVBSETZTUFNGPSQFPQMFBOENBDIJOFT
t &BSUIJOHDBCMFNVTUIBWFBHPPEDPOOFDUJPOUPUIFFBSUIJOHSPE
t 6TF0/-:BQQSPWFEFBSUIJOHDMBNQT
t -FOHUIPGFBSUIJOHQPMFEFQFOETPOUIFDPOEVDUJWJUZPGUIFHSPVOECVUNVTUCFBUMFBTU
3 m long
t &BSUIJOHTIPVMECFMBJEBSPVOEUIFQPXFSIPVTFBUUIFGPVOEBUJPOMFWFM
t $POOFDUBMMSFJOGPSDFEDPODSFUFGPVOEBUJPOT QPXFSIPVTFBOEQPXFSFRVJQNFOU
BOE
any other electrical equipment to the earthing ring
t -JHIUOJOHDPOEVDUPSUPCFDPOOFDUFEUPFBSUIJOHSJOHo 1 m above ground
t 5IJTDPOOFDUJPOXJMMCFVTFEUPNFBTVSFUIFSFTJTUBODFGPSOEJOHPVUJGUIFFBSUIJOHJT
still functioning as it should be

Note:

EARTHING IS A SAFEGUARD FOR PEOPLE AND MACHINES!


NO EARTHING oDEADLY DANGER!

38 GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power


Civil Works

Washed out

%FBMJOHXJUITVSGBDFXBUFSIFSFVODPOUSPMMFEXBUFSPX

What has to be considered for good workmanship?

t 1SPQFSESBJOBHFPGBMMTUSVDUVSFTJTOFDFTTBSZGPSMPOHFSMJGFFYQFDUBODZ
t 5IFCBTFPGTUSVDUVSFT FHGPVOEBUJPOPGQPXFSIPVTF QFOTUPDLTVQQPSUTFUD DBOCF
easily destroyed by water, unless they have a stable concrete foundation
t 'MPXJOHTVSGBDFXBUFSXJMMXBTIPVUTPJMBOEDBVTFFSPTJPOVOEFSOFBUITUSVDUVSFTBOE
foundations - keep an eye on surface water where it comes from and where it goes
t 8BUFSEJTDIBSHFJTBOJNQPSUBOUTVCKFDUPGDPOTUSVDUJPOoEPOPUOFHMFDUJU

Note:

WATER CAN BE A HAZARD TO STRUCTURES!

GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power 39


Civil Works

Material is not suitable

No concrete foundation

Wall is too high


compared to thickness

Big structure without static design

What has to be considered for good workmanship?

t 'PSBMMTUSVDUVSFT FTQFDJBMMZGPSCJHPOFT JUJTFTTFOUJBMUPIBWFBTUBUJDTUSVDUVSBMEFTJHO


before construction works starts
t $IPPTFNBUFSJBMBDDPSEJOHUPEFTJHOBOESFRVJSFETUSFOHUI
t $BSSZPVUXPSLTWFSZDBSFGVMMZBOEGPMMPXUIFBEWJDFPGUIFFOHJOFFS
t 8FBLBOEVOTUBCMFXBMMDPOTUSVDUJPOTDBOCFBIB[BSEUPQFPQMFXIFODPMMBQTJOH
t 5IF PPE GPMMPXJOH B CSPLFO SFUBJOJOH XBMM JT WFSZ EBOHFSPVT UP QFPQMF XIP MJWF
downstream

40 GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power


Civil Works

Mesh width ~ 5cm

Good design

Max water level

Max water pressure

Gabion used for weir construction

What has to be considered for good workmanship?

t 5IF EJNFOTJPO PG UIF MPXFTU SPX PG HBCJPOT NVTU CF MBSHFS UIBO UIF NBY XBUFS
pressure, e.g. if the water is 1 m deep, the lowest gabion should be 1.2 m
t "MMTUFQTPGUIFHBCJPOXFJSNVTUCFBCPWFXBUFSQSFTTVSFMJOF
t 5PSFBDICFUUFSTUBCJMJUZPGUIFDPOTUSVDUJPO EJHUIFMPXFTUHBCJPOJOUPUIFSJWFSCPUUPN
t 5JFUIFHBCJPOFOETJOUPUIFSJWFSCBOLTPSJOUPXJOHXBMMT
t "TBMUFSOBUJWFUPBTUSBJHIUBMJHONFOUTFUUIFHBCJPOTJOBOVQTUSFBNDVSWF
t 'PS CFUUFS GSJDUJPO  UIF MFOHUI PG UIF VQQFS HBCJPO TIPVME CF  PG UIF MFOHUI PG UIF
lower one
t .BLFTVSFUIBUUIFNBYJNVNTJ[FPGUIFXJSFNFTIJTDN EFOJUFMZTNBMMFSUIBOUIF
smallest cobbles in the gabions
t $POOFDUBMMHBCJPOTUPFBDIPUIFS
t 6TFPOMZXJSFNBUFSJBMUIBUEPFTOPUSVTU TVDIBTHBMWBOJ[FEPSFQPYZDPBUFE

GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power 41


Civil Works

Sand bags are not


enough support

Headrace channel too close to a steep slope

What has to be considered for good workmanship?

t 5IFTJEFXBMMTPGBDIBOOFMNVTUCFBCMFUPXJUITUBOEUIFXBUFSQSFTTVSF
t 5IFXBUFSQSFTTVSFJTBUUIFIJHIFTUBUUIFCPUUPNPGUIFDIBOOFM
t #VJME UIF DIBOOFM BT B SJHJE CPY BOEPS EJH UIF DIBOOFM JO EFFQFS XJUI FOPVHI
undisturbed material remaining on the down slope side
t *G UIFSF JT OP PUIFS BMJHONFOU QPTTJCMF  VTF NBUFSJBM XIJDI DBO XJUITUBOE UIF XBUFS
pressure o use concrete on a good base foundation
t 5IFBSFBBSPVOEUIFDIBOOFMTIPVMECFXFMMESBJOFEUPMJHIUFOBOZXBUFSQSFTTVSFBOE
keep the slope from sliding

42 GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power


Civil Works

Broken channel invert caused by erosion and sliding

What has to be considered for good workmanship?

t "DIBOOFMVTVBMMZDPOTJTUTPGUXPTJEFXBMMTBOEBOJOWFSU CFE

t *G B DIBOOFM IBT OP VQTMPQF SFUBJOJOH XBMM  XBUFS XJMM TFFQ UISPVHI VOEFSOFBUI UIF
channel and erode and damage the bed
t 5IFNPOFZTBWFECZOPUCVJMEJOHBOVQTMPQFXBMMXJMMIBWFUPCFTQFOUGPSSFQBJSTPGUIF
channel this becomes more expensive because the channel invert must be repaired
too
t *U JT B HPPE JOWFTUNFOU UP CVJME B SFUBJOJOH XBMM PO UIF VQTMPQF TJEF VOMFTT UIFSF JT B
stable rock face where only a thin liner is needed
t 6QTMPQFSFUBJOJOHXBMMTBMTPIFMQUPQSFWFOUUIBUFSPEFENBUFSJBMESPQTJOUPUIFDIBOOFM
t .BLF TVSF UIBU UIF TMPQF BSPVOE UIF DIBOOFM JT XFMM ESBJOFE UP LFFQ UIF TMPQF GSPN
sliding, place drainpipes underneath the channel

GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power 43


Civil Works

2.2 INDIVIDUAL COMPONENTS

2.2.1 Weir and Intake

Weir or diversion
structure

Side spillway
Sluice gate

Flushing gate

Intake orifice
Sand trap

Optional: Gravel trap


with flushing gate Optional: coarse trash rack

Intake gate or stop log


on sill Headrace

Main elements of a weir and intake structure

Main functions and design principles of weir & intake structure:

*OUBLF NVTU EJWFSU UIF SFRVJSFE TUSFBN PX JOUP UIF IFBESBDF DIBOOFM BU BMM UJNFT BOE
all water levels in the river
Intakes should if possible be located on the outer side of a river bend to minimize
sediment in headrace
1SPWJTJPOT TIPVME CF NBEF UP FYDMVEF MBSHF PBUJOH EFCSJT PBUJOH CBS PS TVCNFSHFE
JOUBLFPSJDF
BOEDPBSTFHSBWFM CPUUPNTJMM
GSPNUIFPXEJWFSUFEJOUPUIFIFBESBDF
5IF TMVJDF HBUF NVTU CF JOTUBMMFE DMPTF UP UIF JOUBLF PSJDF JO PSEFS UP BMMPX VTIJOH PG
sediments depositing in front of the intake orifice

44 GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power


Civil Works

Intake gate

Sluice gate
Wing wall

Flow to sand trap


Weir

Intake orifice

3D sketch of weir and intake

Main elements of an intake:

This drawing shows a typical combination of weir and intake including a sluice gate which
can be used to remove deposited sand and gravel from the intake. The main function of the
intake is to allow a certain amount of water into the sand trap and headrace and to keep
TFEJNFOUTBOEPBUJOHEFCSJTBXBZGSPNUIFIFBESBDFTZTUFN&YDFTTXBUFSNVTUCFSFUVSOFE
into the river.

GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power 45


Civil Works

NO side walls

NO intake structure

NO sluice gate

Only earth channel as


headrace

Most elements of a proper weir and intake structure are missing

How can I improve it?

t #VJME B XFJS FRVJQQFE XJUI PWFSPX TQJMMXBZ  TMVJDF HBUF BOE JOUBLF HBUF UP UIF
headrace or a properly dimensioned intake opening with stop log grooves
t 5IFIFBESBDFTIPVMECFCVJMUPGDPODSFUF NBTPOSZPSTJNJMBSNBUFSJBM
t 4JEFBOEXJOHXBMMTVQBOEEPXOTUSFBNPGUIFXFJSBSFFTTFOUJBM

Why?

t 5IFSJWFSCFEVQTUSFBNPGUIFXFJSNVTUCFVTIFESFHVMBSMZUPQSFWFOUTFEJNFOUTGSPN
entering the headrace
t "O FMFWBUFE JOUBLF HBUF PS JOUBLF PQFOJOH JT OFFEFE UP DPOUSPM UIF PX JOUP UIF
headrace and prevent sediments from entering
t *GUIFSFJTOPHBUF TUPQMPHTDBOCFVTFEUPDMPTFUIFPQFOJOHGPS0.
t 8JUIPVUQSPQFSTQJMMXBZUIFXFJSTUSVDUVSFNBZCFFSPEFEBOEEBNBHFEEVSJOHPPET
t 8JUIPVUXJOHXBMMTBOETJEFXBMMTUIFSJWFSCBOLTXJMMCFFSPEFE

46 GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power


Civil Works

Cover over both gates

Sluice gate
Intake gate
Weir
Side walls on
both sides

Headrace
Stilling basin to forebay /
powerhouse

Main elements of a weir and intake structure

Why is this a good example?

t "MMFMFNFOUTOFDFTTBSZGPSBXFMMGVODUJPOJOHJOUBLFBSFJODMVEFEJOUIJTTUSVDUVSF
t 5IFNBJOFMFNFOUTBSFXFMMBSSBOHFE
t 5IFRVBMJUZPGDPOTUSVDUJPOJTHPPE
t 5IFTUSVDUVSFJTXFMMNBJOUBJOFE
t (BUFTBOEBDDFTTUPUIFHBUFTJTDPWFSFECZBSPPG

GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power 47


Civil Works

Dam structure has


shifted already

Rocks and plastic sheets


do NOT make a good dam

Gabions cannot with-


stand flood flows

Examples of unsuitable dam materials

48 GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power


Civil Works

Concrete weirs can last for a long time

Why are these good examples?

t $PODSFUFDPODSFUFNBTPOSZJTUIFQSFGFSSFENBUFSJBMGPSCVJMEJOHXFJST
t .BTTDPODSFUFXJMMXJUITUBOEUIFIJHIIZESBVMJDMPBETEVSJOHPPET
t $PODSFUFJTBTUSPOH EVSBCMFNBUFSJBM BMTPSFTJTUBOUUPDIFNJDBMT
t $PODSFUFDBOCFVTFEGPSBOZUZQFPGXFJS

GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power 49


Civil Works

Columns on both
sides missing

An unstable construction

How can I improve it?

t #VJMEDPODSFUFDPMVNOTPOCPUITJEFT
t 4VQQPSUUIFGSBNF ZPLF
PGUIFHBUFTPMJEMZ

Why?

t 5IFHBUFTMJEFTJOTJEFUIFGSBNF
t *G UIF GSBNF HFUT CFOU PS UXJTUFE  UIF HBUF XJMM OPU NPWF BOZNPSF t PX DBOOPU CF
controlled
t 5IFGSBNFDPVMEBMTPHFUCFOUPSUXJTUFECZBPPEJOUIFSJWFSPSTPNFPUIFSJODJEFOU
TVDIBTPBUJOHEFCSJT

50 GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power


Civil Works

Solid columns

The columns are good supports for the gate

Why is this a good example?

t 5IFGSBNFPGUIFHBUFTIPVMECFCVJMUBTBTPMJEXBMMPSJOTUSPOHDPMVNOT
t 5IFTUFFMGSBNFNVTUCFLFQUTUSBJHIUBMMUIFUJNFUPMFUUIFHBUFTMJEFJOUIFSBJMT
t 5IFHBUFNVTUCFBCMFUPCFNPWFEUPDPOUSPMUIFPXUPUIFTBOEUSBQBOEGVSUIFSPO
to the headrace and forebay

GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power 51


Civil Works

5 1
3
6

Points for operation and maintenance

What must I do to keep system running well?

1 Daily : Keep the intake orifice clean


2  8FFLMZ  $IFDLGPSEFQPTJUT JGUIFSFBSFBOZ VTIBUJOUBLFHBUF
3 Monthly : Flush through sluice gate to clean upstream basin
4 As needed : Apply grease on wheels and threads of the gates
5  %VSJOHBGUFSPPE  $IFDLGPSCBOLFSPTJPOCFIJOEXJOHXBMMT
6  %VSJOHBGUFSPPE  $IFDL GPS FSPTJPO BOE EBNBHF JO TUJMMJOH CBTJO BOE on
downstream banks

Note:

IF ANY PROBLEMS ARE FOUND, REPAIRS MUST BE MADE IMMEDIATELY!

52 GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power


Civil Works

2.2.2 Sand Trap - Settling Basin

Weir or diversion
structure

Sluice gate Side spillway

Flushing gate
Intake orifice

Optional: Gravel trap


with flushing gate
Sand trap
Intake gate or stop
Optional: coarse
log on sill
trash rack

0.25 0.60 0.25 0.10 Headrace

Cross Section A-A'


0.20

0.80

Side spillway
0.20

Long Section

0.25 0.80 0.25

A'
2.00 5.00 1.00

Spillway Trash rack if penstock follows


From Intake Headrace or
Penstock
0.80

Bottom outlet with gate for flushing

Intake channel

A'

Main construction details of a sand trap/settling basing

GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power 53


Civil Works

NO flushing gate

Headrace

Shrubs need cutting

NO Spillway
NO bank
protection

Vortices erode
bank
Intake structure

There are a number of problems with this intake

How can I improve it?

t #VJMEBDPODSFUFXBMMGVSUIFSCBDLPOUIFIJMMTJEFCBOL
t $VUCBDLBMMTISVCTBOENBJOUBJOSFHVMBSMZ
t 4QJMMXBZTIPVMECFMPDBUFEBUUIFFOEPGUIFTBOEUSBQ /05JOUIFIFBESBDFtrap

Why?

t 0OHPJOHTDPVSJOHCZXBUFSXJMMDBVTFUIFCBOLUPFSPEF
t 4FUUMJOHPVUPGTFEJNFOUXJMMCFMFTTFFDUJWFJGPXJTOPUMJOFBS
t 4FEJNFOUT GSPN CBOL FSPTJPO XJMM TJMU VQ UIF IFBESBDF BOE XJMM IBWF UP CF NBOVBMMZ
SFNPWFECFDBVTFUIFSFJTOPVTIJOHHBUF

54 GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power


Civil Works

Gate Sluice gate Weir Wingwalls

Transition

Spillway

Sandtrap

Grooves for Overflow channel


Headrace to
stop logs
forebay

This picture shows all main elements of a well designed water intake with sandtrap

Why is this a good example?

t 5IFUSBOTJUJPOJTJNQPSUBOUUPDBMNBOETMPXEPXOUIFPXWFMPDJUZ
t 4FEJNFOUTTFUUMFPVUNPSFFBTJMZXIFOUIFWFMPDJUZJTMPXBOEUIFPXJTMJOFBS
t 5IFTQJMMXBZDPOUSPMTUIFNBYJNVNWPMVNFPGPXJOUPUIFIFBESBDF
t 4UPQ MPH HSPPWFT BMMPX UIF JOTFSUJPO PG CPBSET UP CMPDL UIF PX GPS DMFBOJOH BOE
repairing the headrace

But:

t 'PSBTBOEUSBQ UIFCBTJOJTUPPTIPSU UIFPXWFMPDJUZJTUPPIJHIBOEUIFTBOENBZOPU


settle down
t *G UIF TBOE TFUUMFT EPXO  UIFSF JT OP VTIJOH HBUF BOE UIF TBOE NVTU CF SFNPWFE
manually

GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power 55


Civil Works

5
5

2
2

Issues for operation and maintenace of a sandtrap

What must I do to keep the system running well?

1 3FNPWFBOZSFNBJOJOHTFEJNFOUNBOVBMMZBGUFSVTIJOHUIFTBOEUSBQ
2 Clean concrete surface from vegetation
3 Repair broken parts of the sandtrap
4 Check gates and/or stop logs to be ready for use (not shown in the picture)
5 Remove all grass, shrubs, debris and dirt and do it regularly

Note:

SEDIMENT PARTICLES MAY DAMAGE PENSTOCK AND TURBINE!

CHECK AT LEAST ONCE A MONTH!

56 GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power


Civil Works

2.2.3 Headrace Channel

Simple earth channel Lined channel - masonry

Concrete lined channel Sealed channel Clay or


concrete slurry

Cover of channel where rock


PXBOEFSPEFENBUFSJBM
cannot be halted

Retaining wall
Drainage below channel
is needed on water-
Covered channel because of rockfalls or eroded material saturated slopes

Examples of headrace channels

What do I have to consider regarding headrace channels?

t "WPJEFBSUIDIBOOFMTJGQPTTJCMFBUBMMo higher maintenance and higher risk of erosion


material which could reach the turbine
t $VUTMPQFTCBDLGSPNDIBOOFMUPBWPJEFSPEFENBUFSJBMPSSPDLTGSPNESPQQJOHJOUPUIF
headrace channel
t 3FUBJOJOHXBMMTNVTUBMXBZTCFESBJOFEXFMMXJUIXFFQJOHIPMFTUPBWPJETMJEJOHTMPQFT
t $PWFSFEDIBOOFMDPVMEBMTPCFSFQMBDFECZBCVSJFEQJQFo high costs
t ,FFQBSFBBMPOHUIFDIBOOFMGSFFPGWFHFUBUJPOo cut back regularly

GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power 57


Civil Works

Erosion material will


fall into headrace

Avoid steep eroding banks along headrace channel

How can I improve it?

t %POPUCVJMEIFBESBDFDIBOOFMDMPTFUPTUFFQFSPEJOHTMPQFT
t $VUCBDLTMPQFTTPUIFSFJTOPFSPTJPONBUFSJBMDBSSJFEJOUPDIBOOFM
t $IFDLIFBESBDFDIBOOFMSFHVMBSMZ BOEDMFBOBTOFFEFE
t *O TFDUJPOT XIFSF FSPTJPO NBUFSJBM DBOOPU CF QSFWFOUFE  DPWFS UIF DIBOOFM FH XJUI
wooden boards
t 3FNPWFFSPTJPONBUFSJBMBOETFEJNFOUTGSPNUIFDIBOOFM

Why?

t 4UFFQCBOLTXJUIPVUWFHFUBUJPOtNPSFFSPTJPONBUFSJBMJOUIFDIBOOFM
t &SPTJPONBUFSJBMDBOTJMUVQBOEFWFOUVBMMZCMPDLUIFDIBOOFM
t &SPTJPONBUFSJBM TFEJNFOU
BMTPSFEVDFTUIFPXDBQBDJUZ
t &SPTJPONBUFSJBMDPVMEEBNBHFUIFUVSCJOFJGOPUDBVHIUJOUIFTBOEUSBQ

58 GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power


Civil Works

Cut back slope from


edge of channel

BUT : remove debris


from this ditch
Area is free of shrubs

The channel should be free of vegetation and away from steep slopes

Why is this a good example?

t 5IFBSFBBMPOHUIFIFBESBDFDIBOOFMJTGSFFPGWFHFUBUJPOo less debris from vegetation


in the channel
t *GTUFFQTMPQFTBSFBXBZ PSDVUCBDL
GSPNUIFFEHFPGUIFDIBOOFMUIFSFJTMFTTSJTLPG
dirt and sediment dropping into the headrace
t 1SPQFS NBJOUBJOFE HSBTT JT B HPPE DIPJDF GPS FBSUI TMPQF  JU TUBCJMJ[FT UIF CBOLT BOE
reduces erosion
t *OTQFDUJPOGPSPQFSBUJPOBOENBJOUFOBODFBMPOHUIFDIBOOFMXJMMCFFBTZ

But:

t 5IF EJUDI CFUXFFO UIF DIBOOFM BOE UIF TMPQF NVTU CF DMFBOFE GSPN EFCSJT BOE LFQU
open

GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power 59


Civil Works

Vegetation like a jungle

Headrace channel must be free of vegetation

How can I improve it?

t $IFDLIFBESBDFSFHVMBSMZBOEDVUCBDLWFHFUBUJPO
t 3FNPWFQMBOUT MFBWFT EFCSJT FUDGSPNUIFDIBOOFMSFHVMBSMZ

Why?

t 7FHFUBUJPO JO UIF IFBESBDF SFEVDFT UIF PX WFMPDJUZ BOE DBQBDJUZ XIJDI XJMM DBVTF
NPSFTFEJNFOUBUJPOJOUIFDIBOOFMBOEMFTTPXUPUIFQPXFSIPVTF
t 5PPNBOZMFBWFTJOUIFIFBESBDFNBZDMPHUIFUSBTISBDL

60 GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power


Civil Works

Free of vegetation

Vegetation well cut along the left bank

Why is this a good example?

t 5IFBSFBBMPOHIFBESBDFDIBOOFMJTLFQUGSFFPGEJTUVSCJOHWFHFUBUJPO
t (SBTTBOETISVCTBSFDVUUPLFFQQBUIBOEMFGUDIBOOFMCBOLGSFF

Note:

THE SLOPE ON THE RIGHT SIDE IS VERY STEEP AND EROSION MATERIAL WILL EASILY DROP
IN THE EARTH CHANNEL. MAINTENANCE IS VERY IMPORTANT IN THIS SECTION OF THE
HEADRACE!
TRY TO STABILIZE THE STEEP SLOPE WITH VEGETATION AND/OR OTHER BIO-ENGINEERING
MEASURES!

GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power 61


Civil Works

Velocity is too fast

Eroded slope

Earth channel can erode easily when velocity is too high

How can I improve it?

t -JOFUIFDIBOOFMXJUINBTPOSZPSDPODSFUF JGQPTTJCMF
t #VJMEESPQTJOUIFDIBOOFMUPSFEVDFUIFWFMPDJUZPGUIFPX
t 1SPUFDUUIFESPQTXJUISJQSBQBHBJOTUCFEFSPTJPO
t 1SPUFDUUIFPVUFSDVSWFPGFBSUIDIBOOFMTXJUISPDLT SJQSBQ
UPSFEVDFFSPTJPO
t 1SJPSUPDPOTUSVDUJPO ESBXBMPOHJUVEJOBMTFDUJPOUPEFUFSNJOFUIFPQUJNBMTMPQFCBTFE
on the proposed channel material

Why?

t 5IFTMPQFPGUIFDIBOOFMEFUFSNJOFTUIFWFMPDJUZPGUIFPX
t 5IF GPSDF PG PXJOH XBUFS DBO DBVTF FSPTJPO EFQFOEJOH PO UIF DIBOOFM NBUFSJBM BOE
slope
t $IBOOFMTXJUIUPPTUFFQTMPQFTPXUPPGBTUBOEUIVTXJMMFSPEFGBTUFS
t $IBOOFMTXJUITMPQFTUPPBUXJMMCFCMPDLFECZTFUUMFETFEJNFOUT
t #VJME DIBOOFM TMPQF BDDPSEJOH UP SFDPNNFOEFE WFMPDJUJFT JO DIBOOFMT  VOOFDFTTBSZ
drops reduce the available head for MHP:
- Earth channel : < 0.4 m/s
- Masonry lining : < 2.0 m/s
  $PODSFUFMJOJOH  NT
  .JOJNVNWFMPDJUZ  NTUPBWPJETFEJNFOUBUJPO

62 GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power


Civil Works

Slope is set back

Headrace channel is free of vegetation

Why is this a good example?

t 4JEFTMPQFJTXFMMCBDLGSPNFEHFPGDIBOOFM
t 5IFSFJTOPWFHFUBUJPOHSPXJOHJOUPUIFDIBOOFM
t "TBDPOTFRVFODFZPVDBOFYQFDU
- less debris in the channel
- a clean trash rack
- well operating turbine
- efficient electricity generation
- happy consumers

GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power 63


Civil Works

Slopes are too steep

Suggested retaining wall

Headrace in a deep and steep cut section

How can I improve it?

t *GUIFDVUJTOPUTUBCMF CVJMESFUBJOJOHXBMMTUPQSFWFOUFSPTJPONBUFSJBMGSPNGBMMJOHJOUP
the channel
t $PWFSUIFIFBESBDFXJUIQSFGBCDPODSFUFTMBCTPSXPPEFOCPBSET
t 3FQMBDFUIFPQFOIFBESBDFDIBOOFMXJUIBCVSJFEQJQF

Why?

t %FFQBOETUFFQDVUTXJMMBMXBZTCFQSPOFUPCBOLFSPTJPO
t &YDFTTJWFNBJOUFOBODFPGTUFFQCBOLTNBZCFWFSZDPTUMZ
t 4UFFQCBOLTNBZTMJEFBOECMPDLDIBOOFMDPNQMFUFMZ

Note:

SEDIMENT PARTICLES MAY DAMAGE PENSTOCK AND TURBINE!

64 GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power


Civil Works

Slopes are set back


from headrace

Retaining wall

Space to walk

Retaining wall stabilizes the toe of the slope

Why is this a good example?

t "SFUBJOJOHXBMMSFEVDFTUIFOBUVSBMBOHMFPGSFQPTFPGUIFTMPQF
t -FTTFSPTJPONBUFSJBMXJMMGBMMJOUIFIFBESBDF
t .BJOUFOBODF PG UIF IFBESBDF JT FBTJFS o less sediment, which however still must be
removed
t 5IFSFBSFOBSSPXXBMLXBZTBMPOHUIFDIBOOFMGPSFBTJFSNBJOUFOBODF

GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power 65


Civil Works

Shaky supports

This a not a good creek crossing

How can I improve it?

t 3FQMBDFUIFXPPEFOTVQQPSUTXJUIDPODSFUFDPMVNOTVQQPSUT
t 4FUUIFTVQQPSUTPOHPPEGPVOEBUJPOT FTQFDJBMMZVOEFSXBUFS
t "EEBODIPSCMPDLTPOCPUITJEFTPGUIFTUSFBNUPTVQQPSUUIFQJQF

Why?
t 1JQFDSPTTJOHTOFFETUBCMFTVQQPSUT PUIFSXJTFUIFQJQFNBZCVDLMFBOEDPMMBQTF
t 8PPEFOTVQQPSUTNBZSPUSBUIFSRVJDLMZXJUIUJNF UIFQJQFXJMMTJOLBOEXJMMFWFOUVBMMZ
fail
t "TJOLJOHQJQFDBVTFTUIFBOHFDPOOFDUJPOTUPDPNFMPPTF

66 GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power


Civil Works

Spillway

Strong supports

Stable abutments
Storm water creek

Well-built pipe crossings in a headrace

Why is this a good example?

t 5IF DPOOFDUJPO PG UIF PQFO IFBESBDF DIBOOFM UP UIF QJQF DSPTTJOH JT B TPMJE DPODSFUF
structure
t 5IFTQJMMXBZVQTUSFBNPGUIFQJQFJOMFUJTBHPPETPMVUJPOUPEJTDIBSHFFYUSBPPEXBUFS
it does not seem to affect the stability of the abutments
t 5IFTJ[FPGUIFDSPTTJOHQJQFJTMBSHFFOPVHIUPDBSSZUIFPXJOUIFIFBESBDF UIFSFGPSF
the pipe cross section equals the wetted area of the channel
t 5IF QJQF JOMFU TIPVME IBWF B TNPPUI  SPVOEFE USBOTJUJPO UP SFEVDF IFBE MPTTFT BOE
backwater effects
t 5IF TQJMMXBZ JT MPDBUFE VQTUSFBN PG UIF DSPTTJOH QJQF  JG UIFSF JT UPP NVDI CBDLXBUFS
effect, the water will be spilled in a controlled way

GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power 67


Civil Works

3
2

What must I do to keep system running well?

1 Remove sediment and rocks from the channel


2 Cut grass and shrubs, and remove debris do it regularly
3 Check slopes for erosion
Repair broken parts of the headrace
Check functionality of stop logs and spillways - if existing

Note:

SEDIMENT PARTICLES MAY DAMAGE PENSTOCK AND TURBINE!


CHECK REGULARLY AS NEEDED!

68 GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power


Civil Works

2.2.4 Forebay

River

Spillway

Flushing gate
Headrace

Penstock to
Forebay power house

Trash rack

Main elements and functioning principles of a forebay:

t " GPSFCBZ GVODUJPOT JO B TJNJMBS NBOOFS BT B TBOE USBQ  UIF PX TMPXT EPXO TP
sediments can settle down
t 5IFUSBOTJUJPOBUUIFCFHJOOJOHPGUIFGPSFCBZBOEUIFXJEUIPGUIFGPSFCBZBSFFTTFOUJBM
GPSTMPXJOHEPXOUIFPXWFMPDJUZ
t 4FEJNFOUTDBOTFUUMFPVUJOTMPXPXJOHXBUFSPOMZ
t 5IFUSBTISBDLBUUIFFOEQSFWFOUTEFCSJTGSPNPXJOHJOUPUIFQFOTUPDL
t 5IFGPSFCBZQSPWJEFTTVCNFSHFODFGPSUIFQFOTUPDLJOMFUUPQSFWFOUBJSGSPNFOUFSJOH
t 5IF TQJMMXBZ BMMPXT FYDFTT BOE PPE PXT UP PX CBDL UP UIF SJWFS  FTQFDJBMMZ VOEFS
rapid shut down conditions following load rejection
t 5IFVTIJOHHBUFJTFTTFOUJBMGPSDMFBOJOHUIFGPSFCBZPGTFEJNFOUTBTSFRVJSFE

70 GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power


Civil Works

Main elements of a forebay

Ventilation pipe Inlet gate

Service area
Transition to
Penstock Trash rack forebay

Overflow channel

Flush gate
Headrace
Spillway

The drawing shows a typical forebay which marks the transition between the open headrace
channel and the penstock. The water level in the forebay determines the head which is
available for power generation. The trash rack in the forebay and the forebay itself is the last
QPJOU UP SFNPWF BOZUIJOH UIBU DPVME EBNBHF UIF UVSCJOF GSPN UIF XBUFS  TVDI BT PBUJOH
debris or sediment. Also it provides a controlled way of escape over the spillway for surplus
water in case of a load rejection or when too much water enters the open channel part of the
headrace.

GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power 71


Civil Works

Horizontal bars are Flushing gate is


difficult to clean missing
Overflow spillway
NOT to the hillside!

Gradual transition would


Bottom sill is be better
missing

Forebay without sedimentation

How can I improve it?

t .BLFHSBEVBMUSBOTJUJPOXJUIBOBOHMFPG SBUJP
PSMFTT
t 1MBDFUIFUSBTISBDLPOUPQPGBTJMMBUUIFCPUUPNPGUIFGPSFCBZ
t *OTUBMMBVTIJOHHBUFBUUIFCPUUPNPGUIFGPSFCBZBOEDPOOFDUJUXJUIUIFTQJMMXBZ
t .BLF TQBDJOH XJEUI PG USBTI SBDL CBST EFQFOEFOU PO UVSCJOF NBOVGBDUVSFST
requirements

Why?

t "WPJEFEEJFTBOEEFBE[POFTJOUIFGPSFCBZ
t 'MPXBQQSPBDIJOHUIFUSBTISBDLTIPVMECFTUFBEZ MJOFBS

t 8BMM TJMM
XJMMIPMECBDLUIFTFUUMFEPVUTFEJNFOUT
t 'MVTIJOHHBUFBMMPXTUPFNQUZBOEDMFBOUIFGPSFCBZ

Note:

SEDIMENT REACHING THE TURBINE CAN DAMAGE THE RUNNER!

72 GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power


Civil Works

Inlet gate to penstock


Vent pipe of
penstock
Gate for flushing

Trash rack

min. 2x width of
Spillway headrace

Width of headrace
Ratio 1:2

Groove for stop logs

Forebay with sedimentation basin

Why is this a good example?

t 'PSFCBZXJUITFEJNFOUBUJPONVTUCFXJEFSBOEEFFQFSUIBOUIFIFBESBDF
t 8JEUIPGGPSFCBZTIPVMECFBUMFBTUUJNFTUIFXJEUIPGUIFIFBESBDFDIBOOFM
t -FOHUIPGUSBOTJUJPOTIPVMECFBCPVUUJNFTUIFXJEUIPGIFBESBDF PSUIFBOHMFPGUIF
transition should be around 25 degrees (a ratio of 1:2)
t 4UPQMPHHSPPWFTBMMPXUIFJOTFSUJPOPGCPBSET MPHT
UPCMPDLUIFPXXIFODMFBOJOH
and repairing the forebay

GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power 73


Civil Works

2.2.5 Trash Rack

Service area (platform)


Trash Rack
Forebay

Flow 4 x DN

DN Penstock

20cm
20cm min. high sill (low wall)

Main design principles of a trash rack:

t 5IFBOHMFPGBUSBTISBDLUPUIFIPSJ[POUBMTIBMMCFUP
t 5SBTISBDLTIPVMECFYFEUPUIFTJEFXBMMTBOEUPUIFTJMMXBMMBTXFMMCVUJOTVDIBXBZ
that the trash rack can be removed for service
t 6TF 0/-: WFSUJDBM CBST  XIJDI DBO CF TVQQPSUFE CZ IPSJ[POUBM CSBDJOH BU UIF CBDL  TP
that rack can be cleaned easily
t 5IF CBST NVTU CF EFTJHOFE UP XJUITUBOE UIF XBUFS QSFTTVSF PG B DPNQMFUFMZ DMPHHFE
rack with maximum water level upstream and no water downstream
t 5IFTQBDFCFUXFFOCBSTTIPVMECFIBMGPGUIFTQBDFCFUXFFOUVSCJOFSVOOFSPSHVJEF
vane blades, in accordance with the turbine manufacturer. Here are some examples:
  $SPTTPXUVSCJOF FH5
NN
Pelton turbine: 0.5 times nozzle diameter
t 5SBTI SBDL TIBMM CF EJWJEFE JOUP TFDUJPOT TP UIBU JU DBO CF SFNPWFE  SFQBJSFE BOE
transported more easily
t 1SPWJEFBTFSWJDFBSFBGPSFBTJFSDMFBOJOH JODMVEJOHBQMBUGPSNUPTUBOEPO

GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power 75


Civil Works

Outlet drain should be Width not according


at bottom level to requirements

Penstock inlet is too


close to the bottom

Avoid horizontal
bars

min. 20 cm

Angle should be 70 Sill (low wall or step)

Trash rack on top of a sill (low wall)

How can I improve it?

t 6TFUSBTISBDLTXJUIWFSUJDBMCBSTPOMZ
t 4QBDFCFUXFFOCBSTTIPVMECFIBMGUIFTJ[FPGBQBSUJDMFXIJDIDBONPWFUISPVHIUIF
turbine without doing any damage
t 1MBDFUSBTISBDLBUBOBOHMFPGBSPVOEUPUIFCPUUPN
t 'JYUSBTISBDLXJUICPMUTUPUIFTJEFXBMMTBOEUPUIFCPUUPNXBMMoCVUJUTUJMMTIPVMECF
removable
t 'PSMBSHFSUSBTISBDLT EJWJEFJUJOTFQBSBUFTFDUJPOT
t )FJHIUPGTJMM MPXXBMM
CFBNJOJNVNPGDN

Why?

t 7FSUJDBMCBSTNBLFDMFBOJOHUIFUSBTISBDLFBTJFS
t 5SBTISBDLQMBDFEBUBOJODMJOFEBOHMFXJMMOPUDMPHBTFBTJMZXJUIEFCSJT
t "QMBDFUPTUBOEBTTFSWJDFBSFBXJMMNBLFUIFNBJOUFOBODFFBTJFS

76 GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power


Civil Works

Trough for debris


Service area

Use rake for easy


cleaning

Trash rack at a
good angle

%FCSJTDBVTFTIFBEMPTTFTBOEPSSFEVDFTUIFXBUFSPXJOUPUIFQFOTUPDL

Why is this a good example?

t 5SBTISBDLJTNPVOUFEBUBOBOHMFPGBCPVUGSPNUIFIPSJ[POUBM
t 5SBTISBDLJTYFEUPUIFXBMMTCVUJUTIPVMETUJMMCFSFNPWBCMF
t 5IFUSBTISBDLIBTWFSUJDBMCBSTXIJDINBLFTJUFBTJFSUPDMFBO
t 5IFHBQTCFUXFFOCBSTBQQFBSUJHIUFOPVHIUPLFFQEBNBHJOHEFCSJTBXBZGSPNUIF
turbine
t -BSHFTFSWJDFBSFBBOEBQMBDFUPTUBOEGPSFBTZNBJOUFOBODF
t %FCSJTDBOCFDMFBOFEBOEUFNQPSBSJMZTUPSFEJOUIFTFSWJDFBSFB

GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power 77


Civil Works

A too small open area


causes head loss &
penstock inlet is not
enough submerged

The gaps are too narrow


and rack is not fixed at
an angle of about 70

Horizontal support
should be at the rear
side of the rack

Trash rack to be bolted


& fixed to the side walls -
not just leaning on them

4PNFCBETBNQMFToBWPJEUIFN

78 GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power


Civil Works

Rack properly fixed to


the walls

Service area for


maintenance

Trash rack fixed on top of


a bottom sill or step, with
service opening

4PNFHPPEFYBNQMFToEPMJLFUIJT

GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power 79


Civil Works

Service area

Trough for debris removal

What must I do to keep system running well?

1 Remove all debris and rubbish a rake is a good tool for this job
2 Trough at the top end of the trash rack makes the removal of debris easier
o store organic debris on a compost pile

Note:

DEBRIS MAY DAMAGE THE TURBINE!


CHECK AT LEAST TWICE A DAY AND EVEN MORE OFTEN DURING STORMS OR FLOODS!

80 GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power


Civil Works

2.2.6 Spillway

This drawing shows an example of a forebay and a stepped spillway which allows excess
XBUFSUPPXCBDLUPUIFSJWFSPWFSUIFTQJMMXBZXJUIPVUEPJOHEBNBHFUPUIFQFOTUPDLPS
its supports. The steps in the spillway reduce the velocity of the water and cause energy
dissipation. This is very important to prevent damage from the spill to the powerhouse and
other structures.

GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power 81


Civil Works

Spillway and tailrace to


the river

Power house

Penstock

Overflow spillway needs


drops

8BUFSDBSSJFTIJHIFOFSHZXIFOPXJOHEPXOBTUFFQTMPQF

How can I improve it?

t #VJMEPCTUBDMFTJOUPUIFTQJMMXBZUPSFEVDFUIFWFMPDJUZBOEEJTTJQBUFUIFXBUFSTFOFSHZ
t *U XPVME FWFO CF CFUUFS UP CVJME ESPQT JO UIF TQJMMXBZ  XIJDI JT UIFO DBMMFE B TUFQQFE
spillway

Why?

t 5IF EZOBNJD GPSDF PG XBUFS JT WFSZ IJHI XIFO PXJOH EPXO B TUFFQ TMPQF t JU DPVME
damage and destroy even concrete structures

82 GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power


Civil Works

Multiple drops

Energy dissipation is happening at every step

Why is this a good example?

t "TUFQQFETQJMMXBZSFEVDFTUIFWFMPDJUZBOEEJTTJQBUFTUIF JOUIJTDBTFIBSNGVM
FOFSHZ
of the water step by step

GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power 83


Civil Works

2.2.7 Penstock and Support

A thrust block is an anchor which is


used before the power house Intake Gate

Vent
Pipe

Restrained

Power house
Expansion joint

Slide Block

Serrations (small grooves) ensure proper key


between anchor and foundation

Main design principles for a stable penstock:

t 4FUBODIPSCMPDLBUFBDIDIBOHFPGEJSFDUJPOoIPSJ[POUBMBOEWFSUJDBMoPGUIFQFOTUPDL
t 4VQQPSUFBDIQJFDFPGQJQFXJUIB TMJEF
CMPDL
t 'BTUFOUIFQFOTUPDLUPUIFTVQQPSUTXJUITUFFMTUSBQT
t &OTVSF UIBU BMM CMPDLT IBWF B TPMJE BOE TUBCMF GPVOEBUJPO  XIJDI EFQFOET PO HSPVOE
material and slope
t #FGPSFQFOTUPDLFOUFSTQPXFSIPVTFUIFSFNVTUCFBUISVTUCMPDLUPBCTPSCBMMEZOBNJD
water forces in the pipe
t 1FOTUPDLJOMFUNVTUCFDNBCPWFCPUUPNJOWFSU BOEXBUFSEFQUIBCPWFJOMFUTIPVME
be 4 times the diameter of the penstock pipe

GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power 85


Civil Works

Anchor block Is
missing

NO base for a
solid support

A tree is NO pipe support

Penstock must have solid supports at regular intervals

How can I improve it?

t 6TFDPODSFUF PSTUFFM
TVQQPSU TFUPOBTPMJEGPVOEBUJPO
t 5IFSF NVTU CF BO BODIPS CMPDL BU FWFSZ IPSJ[POUBM BOE WFSUJDBM CFOE JO UIF QFOTUPDL
pipe
t 1JQFNVTUCFYFEUPUIFTVQQPSUTXJUITUFFMTUSBQT

Why?

t 5SFFTBOEUSVOLTSPUBOEMPTFUIFJSTUSFOHUI
t "ODIPSCMPDLTSFTJTUUIFIZESBVMJDGPSDFTBUCFOETJOUIFQJQF
t 8FBLPSVOTUBCMFTVQQPSUTNBZDBVTFUIFQFOTUPDLUPNPWFXIJDIDPVMEDBVTFVOEVF
stress on the pipe o risk of major failure
t "CSFBLJOB IJHI
QSFTTVSFQFOTUPDLDPVMEDBVTFTFSJPVTXBUFSEBNBHF

Note:

PVC PENSTOCKS HAVE TO BE COVERED TO AVOID PVC MATERIAL BECOMING BRITTLE AND
EVENTUALLY FAILING!

86 GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power


Civil Works

Penstock

Drainage of
surface water

Pipe supports regular


spacing

Steel strap

The penstock pipe sections are well supported

Why is this a good example?

t &WFSZQJQFTFDUJPOJTXFMMTVQQPSUFE
t 1JQFJTYFEUPUIFDPODSFUFTVQQPSUTXJUITUFFMTUSBQT
t $PODSFUFJTUIFCFTUNBUFSJBMGPSQJQFTVQQPSUT
t 1JQFJTBCPVUNFUFSBCPWFUIFHSPVOE
t 1SPQFSUSFODIESBJOBHFo important for long-term stability of supports

Note:

STEEL PENSTOCKS REQUIRE EXPANSION JOINTS BETWEEN ANCHOR BLOCKS AND FOR
SECTIONS LONGER THAN 30 m o INSTALL EXPANSION JOINTS DOWNSTREAM OF ANCHOR
BLOCKS!

GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power 87


Civil Works

Broken anchor block

Missing expansion
joint possibly caused
broken support

Penstock
Unsolid foundation

Expansion joint must be installed in penstock after each anchor block

How can I improve it?

t #VJMEBOFXBODIPSCMPDLXJUIBTPMJEGPVOEBUJPO
t "GUFSFBDIBODIPSCMPDLUIFSFNVTUCFBOFYQBOTJPOKPJOUPOUIFQJQF

Why?

t *GUIFSFJTOPFYQBOTJPOKPJOUUIFQJQFDBOOPUBCTPSCUIFMPOHJUVEJOBMNPWFNFOUTPGUIF
pipe due to hydraulic forces and temperature changes
t "CSFBLJOB IJHI
QSFTTVSFQFOTUPDLDPVMEDBVTFTFSJPVTXBUFSEBNBHFBOEXBTIPVU
the supports and even damage the powerhouse

Note:

RISK OF FAILURE!

88 GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power


Civil Works

Expansion joint

Steel strap to fix the


pipe to the support

Anchor block

Pipe support

An anchor block with an adjacent expansion joint

Why is this a good example?

t 5IFBODIPSCMPDLBCTPSCTUIFXFJHIUBOEIZESBVMJDGPSDFTPGUIFQJQFTFDUJPOBCPWFUIF
anchor block
t &YQBOTJPOKPJOUTBMMPXGPSMPOHJUVEJOBMNPWFNFOUTPGUIFQJQFTFDUJPOEPXOTUSFBNPG
the anchor block
t 1JQFDBOFYQBOEPSDPOUSBDUBTBSFTVMUPGUFNQFSBUVSFDIBOHFTBOEIZESBVMJDGPSDFT

GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power 89


Civil Works

Pipe sealed with tape

NO straps

Support is broken -
strap is not fixed

NOT a proper joint

Several examples of poorly installed penstocks

How can I improve it?

t %PQFSJPEJDJOTQFDUJPOBOENBJOUFOBODFUPOEBOEYQSPCMFNT
t "EETUFFMTUSBQTUPYUIFQJQFUPUIFTVQQPSUT
t 3FQMBDFQJQFTFDUJPOTXIFOQJQFJTMFBLJOHPSDSBDLFE
t 6TFBOHFEUUJOHTGPSQJQFDPOOFDUJPOT
t 3FQMBDFGBVMUZ FYQBOTJPO
KPJOUT

Why?

t -FBLJOHPSGBVMUZQJQFTBOEKPJOUTDPVMEDBVTFBCVSTUQJQFBOETFSJPVTXBUFSEBNBHF
oNO electrical power generation would result
t 8BUFSJOUIFQPXFSIPVTFPSBUUIFUSBOTGPSNFSDBODBVTFFMFDUSJDBMTIPDLT
t *NQSPQFSMZTVQQPSUFEBOEYFEQJQFDPVMEGBJM SFTVMUJOHJOMPTTPGQPXFSBOESFRVJSJOH
costly repairs

90 GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power


Civil Works

Penstock

Steel straps

Pipe supports

A well built and properly maintained penstock

Why is this a good example?

t 5IFSFBSFTVQQPSUTGPSFBDIQJQFTFDUJPOEVFUPUIFQJQFTIJHIXFJHIU
t 4UFFMTUSBQTGBTUFOUIFQJQFUPUIFDPODSFUFTVQQPSUT
t 5IFSFJTBEFRVBUFHSPVOEDMFBSBODFPGBCPVUDN
t 5IFSFBSFOPTJHOTPGNPWFNFOUT EFGPSNBUJPOPSDSBDLT
t 5IFQJQFJTXFMMQBJOUFEBTQSPUFDUJPOBHBJOTUDPSSPTJPO
t (SBTT PUIFSWFHFUBUJPOBOEEJSUIBWFCFFODMFBSFEBXBZGSPNQFOTUPDL

GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power 91


Civil Works

Base not well founded on


solid ground

PVC penstock well Cover is not


covered sufficient

Support leans on poor NO base for a support


base

4PNFCBEFYBNQMFTPGQFOTUPDLTVQQPSUToUPCFBWPJEFE

92 GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power


Civil Works

Some good example of penstock supports

GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power 93


Civil Works

NO ventilation pipe
Inlet gate

NO service area for


trash rack

Penstock inlet gate without required ventilation pipe

How can I improve it?

t *OTUBMMBWFOUJMBUJPOQJQFJOUIFQFOTUPDLEPXOTUSFBNPGUIFHBUF

Why?

t 5IF WFOUJMBUJPO QJQF BMMPXT BJS UP FOUFS UIF QFOTUPDL XIFO UIF QFOTUPDL JT SBQJEMZ
emptied. Without ventilation pipe the penstock could easily be damaged by a vacuum
collapse of the pipe
t *GQFOTUPDLJTFRVJQQFEXJUIBOJOMFUHBUFUIFSFNVTUCFBWFOUJMBUJPOQJQF

Note:

A PENSTOCK WITH INLET GATE REQUIRES A VENTILATION PIPE!

94 GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power


Civil Works

Ventilation pipe Inlet gate

Penstock Service area

Forebay with trash rack


and spillway

Penstock inlet gate and ventilation pipe

Why is this a good example?

t 1FOTUPDLQJQFTXJUIBOJOMFUHBUFNVTUIBWFBWFOUJMBUJPOQJQF
t %JBNFUFSPGWFOUJMBUJPOQJQFEFQFOETPOQFOTUPDLEJBNFUFS

Note:

THE VENTILATION PIPE PREVENTS A VACUUM COLLAPSE OF THE PENSTOCK PIPE WHEN IT
IS EMPTIED!

GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power 95


Civil Works

1 4
3
5

What must I do to keep system running well?

1 Check for rust and condition of paint clean and re-paint as needed
2 Check pipe supports and anchor blocks for deformation, settlings or any other
movements repair cracks with cement grout
3 $IFDLUJHIUOFTTPGOVUTCPMUTPGBOHFTBOETUSBQToUJHIUFOBTOFFEFE
4 Check all joints, especially expansion joints, for leaks fix if needed
5 Remove grass, shrubs and dirt do it regularly

Note:

CHECK PENSTOCK AT LEAST EVERY THREE MONTHS!

96 GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power


Civil Works

2.2.8 Power House and Tailrace

Tailrace

The drawing shows a typical setup for a small powerhouse and a short tailrace which takes the
XBUFSCBDLUPUIFSJWFSPODFJUIBTPXOUISPVHIUIFUVSCJOF5IFQPXFSIPVTFNVTUDMFBSMZ
TJUXFMMQSPUFDUFEBOEBCPWFQPTTJCMFPPEXBUFSMFWFMTJOUIFSJWFSTPJUDBOOPUHFUEBNBHFE
The tailrace is a part of the hydraulic system of the MHP and needs to function well just like
the headrace. It must not be blocked or full of vegetation or debris. Usually the tailrace is very
short but there are also MHP with tailraces several hundred meters or even kilometres long.
This depends on the specific situation or topography.

GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power 97


Civil Works

Broken roof and


windows

Dirty walls and windows

This power house is NOT a safe place for valuable equipment

How can I improve it?

t 1BJOUUIFXBMMTBTXFMMBTUIFXPPEFOQBSUTMJLFXJOEPXTBOEEPPS
t 'JYUIFSPPG
t ,FFQUIFPPSUJEZ
t $MFBOUIFPVUTJEFXPSLJOHTQBDF

Why?

t 5IFQPXFSIPVTFQSPUFDUTDPTUMZNFDIBOJDBMFMFDUSJDBMFRVJQNFOU
t *UQSFWFOUTBDDFTTCZVOBVUIPSJ[FEQFSTPOT
t "EWFSTFXFBUIFSDPOEJUJPOTDPVMEEBNBHFUIFFRVJQNFOU

98 GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power


Civil Works

Penstock with anchor


block and supports
Power house holds
costly equipment

Tailrace to the river


Safe access for the
operators

A well built and maintained power house located at a suitable place

Why is this a good example?

t "MMJNQPSUBOUFMFNFOUTIBWFCFFODPOTJEFSFE
t "MMOFDFTTBSZGFBUVSFTIBWFCFFOJODMVEFE
t 5IFCVJMEJOHJTXFMMNBJOUBJOFEBOENBLFTBOFBUJNQSFTTJPO
t 5IFIPVTFJTXFMMBDDFTTJCMFXIJDIJTJNQPSUBOUQBSUJDVMBSMZEVSJOHOJHIUIPVST

GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power 99


Civil Works

Step-up transformer for


medium voltage transmission

Power house in the river


o NOT a good place !

Wall

5IJTQPXFSIPVTFQSPWFE/05UPCFPPEQSPPG

How can I improve it?

t #VJME B SFUBJOJOH XBMM BSPVOE UIF CVJMEJOH BOE CBDLMM UIF BSFB UP QSPUFDU UIF
GPVOEBUJPOTPGUIFQPXFSIPVTF5BLFDBSFUPOPUCMPDLUIFPXPGUIFSJWFSCZUIFXBMM

Why?

t 5IFSF JT DPTUMZ NFDIBOJDBM  FMFDUSJDBM FRVJQNFOU JO UIF QPXFS IPVTF UIBU NVTU CF
QSPUFDUFE&WFOXJUIBSFUBJOJOHXBMM UIJTQPXFSIPVTFJTOPUPPEQSPPGCFDBVTFJUJT
located too low in the river. Waterproof doors and temporary sand bags can help possibly
JODBTFPGBTNBMMFSPPE#FUUFS DMPTFUIFXJOEPXBOEEPPSPQFOJOHXJUIDPODSFUFBOE
CVJMEBOFXBDDFTTWJBUIFSPPG,FFQQVNQTSFBEZJOUIFQPXFSIPVTFJODBTFPGBPPE
to protect the equipment
t "TUIFQJDUVSFJOUIFSJHIUDPSOFSTIPXT BTFWFSFPPEXIJDIPDDVSSFETIPSUMZCFGPSF
completion of this book has caused serious damage unfortunately even to a second
turbine which was installed at the same location

100 GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power


Civil Works

Penstock
Retaining walls protect the
power house area against
erosion and floods

Tailrace

A well located and properly built power house

Why is this a good example?

t 5IFQPXFSIPVTFJTXFMMQSPUFDUFEBHBJOTUPPETJOUIFSJWFSCFDBVTFJUTJUTBCPWFPPE
water level
t 5IFXBUFSJOUIFUBJMSBDFSFUVSOTUPUIFSJWFSXJUIBTNBMMESPQBOEEPFTOPUFSPEFUIF
river bank
t 5IFQPXFSIPVTFJTBTPMJEBOEOFBUMPPLJOHTUSVDUVSF

GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power 101


Civil Works

Power house

Penstock

Support does NOT


replace a thrust
block
Thrust block
missing
Joint between
house and pipe is
missing

Pipe support does NOT replace the need for a thrust block

How can I improve it?

t #VJMEBDPODSFUFUISVTUCMPDLBSPVOEUIFQFOTUPDL
t -FBWFBKPJOUCFUXFFOUIFCMPDLBOEUIFCVJMEJOH
t *OTUBMMBOFYQBOTJPOKPJOUBIFBE VQTUSFBN
PGUIFUISVTUCMPDL

Why?
t " UISVTU CMPDL BCTPSCT UIF QFOTUPDLT XFJHIU BOE IZESBVMJD GPSDFT PG UIF XBUFS JO UIF
penstock
t "OFYQBOTJPOKPJOUBCTPSCTQJQFFYQBOTJPOEVFUPUFNQFSBUVSFDIBOHFT BOEBMTPUIF
hydraulic forces in the pipe between anchor blocks

102 GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power


Civil Works

Power House

Turbine Trust block

Thrust block

Power House

Penstock

Solid thrust block prevents the penstock from moving

Why is this a good example?

t 5IFUISVTUCMPDLBTTVSFTUIBUUIFQFOTUPDLJTYFEBOEEPFTOPUNPWFBOEQVTIPSQVMM
the house wall
t *UJTCFUUFSJGUIFUISVTUCMPDLJTTFQBSBUFEGSPNUIFIPVTF
t %SBJOBHFEJUDIFTBSPVOEUIFCVJMEJOHLFFQTVSGBDFXBUFSBXBZGSPNUIFQPXFSIPVTF

GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power 103


Civil Works

What must I do to keep system running well?

1 Keep tailrace clean and free of debris


2 Check for erosion in the river

Note:

ONLY FREE FLOW IN THE TAILRACE KEEPS THE TURBINE RUNNING!


CHECK AND CLEAN AS NEEDED!

104 GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power


Electro-Mechanical Equipment

3. Electro -Mechanical
Equipment
3. Electro-Mechanical
Equipment

GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power 105


Electro-Mechanical Equipment

3.1 BASICS

to Panel

Automatic voltage
regulator (AVR)

Turbine Generator

Mechanical Flywheel
transmission

Typical electro-mechanical elements of a Micro Hydro Power Plant

t 5VSCJOF
t .FDIBOJDBMUSBOTNJTTJPOHFBS
t (FOFSBUPS
t 5VSCJOFDPOUSPMMFS
t $POUSPMBOEQPXFSDBCJOFU

106 GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power


Electro-Mechanical Equipment

Generator
Belt drive in a cage Turbine

Coupling
Bearings

Adjustable steel
base

What are the main challenges to set up these machines?

It is most important that the electro-mechanical components and their baseframe are sitting
on a solid and stable foundation and that the shafts of all components are perfectly aligned
as required.

GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power 107


Electro-Mechanical Equipment

Runner TURBINE
GENERATOR Bearing
Pulley
Gen. Shaft Turbine Shaft

Inter line coupling


Puley
Slide rails
Axial alignment
H = Horizontal deviation Subframe

V = Vertical deviation

Perfectly aligned shafts are essential for good operation

What should be considered for good workmanship?

t 5IFJOTUBMMBUJPOPGUVSCJOFBOEHFOFSBUPSNVTUCFEPOFXJUIDBSF
t .BLF TVSF UIBU UIF TIBGUT PG UVSCJOF BOE HFOFSBUPS BSF QFSGFDUMZ QBSBMMFM UP UIF
IPSJ[POUBMBOEUPUIFWFSUJDBMQMBOF
t 5IJTQBSBMMFMBMJHONFOUJTWFSZJNQPSUBOUGPSBTNPPUIUSBOTNJTTJPOBOEMPOHFSMJGFUJNF
t #FMUQVMMFZTSFRVJSFBYJBMBMJHONFOU
t 5IFBEKVTUNFOUTPGUIFTIBGUTNVTUCFEPOFXJUIBMPUPGDBSF
t 4VCGSBNFOFFETUPCFBEKVTUBCMF JOPSEFSUPBMMPXQSFDJTFBMJHONFOU
t 'PSCFMUUJHIUFOJOH UIFTVCGSBNFTIPVMEBMXBZTCFNPWFEJOQBSBMMFM
t .JTBMJHONFOUDBVTFTUSBOTNJTTJPOQSPCMFNTUIFSFXJMMCFBMPUPGXFBSBOEUFBSPOCFMU
and bearings they may have to be replaced much sooner
t $BSF TIPVME CF UBLFO EVSJOH DBTUJOH PG UIF DPODSFUF GPVOEBUJPO UP HFU JU QFSGFDUMZ
horizontal to make adjustments of the equipment bases at a later stage easier

108 GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power


Electro-Mechanical Equipment

Belt driven Generator

Both shafts must be horizontal and TURBINE


paralell to each other

Both pulleys must be in the same


plane

Direct driven Generator Misalignments

Induction motor and


gearbox used as alternator
Generator
Gearbox Turbine

In-line coupling

Turbine runner

Shafts must be on the same axis

GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power 109


Electro-Mechanical Equipment

3.2 INDIVIDUAL COMPONENTS

3.2.1 Turbine

Guide vane

Runner blades

.BJOFMFNFOUTPGBDSPTTPXUVSCJOF

Note:

THE GUIDE VANE REGULATES THE FLOW TO THE TURBINE!

GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power 111


Electro-Mechanical Equipment

Bolt slot not covered


and washers are too
small

Bolt slots

Washers should be
of this size

Incorrect size of washers

How can I improve it?

t 6TFUIFDPSSFDUTJ[FPGXBTIFST JOUIJTDBTFMBSHFS

t 5IFFEHFTPGUIFXBTIFSTNVTUCFQBSBMMFMUPUIFCPMUTMPUBOENVTUDPWFSJUDPNQMFUFMZ

Why?

t #PMUTDPOOFDUUIFUVSCJOFUPUIFTUFFMCBTFBOEYJUTQPTJUJPO
t 5IFXBTIFSTEJTUSJCVUFUIFMPBEFWFOMZPOUIFTUFFMCBTF

Note:

WASHER SIZE SHOULD BE TWICE THE DIAMETER OF THE HOLE!


BOLT SLOTS ALLOW A PRECISE ALIGNMENT OF THE EQUIPMENT!

112 GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power


Electro-Mechanical Equipment

Correct size
Turbine

Inclination

Steel base,
horizontally
Turbine housing

Tapper washer
compensates inclination

Tapper washer Base

Why is this a good example?

t 5IFXBTIFSTIBWFDPSSFDUEJNFOTJPOTBOEBSFDFOUFSFEUPUIFIPMF
t 5IF UBQQFS XBTIFS JT OFDFTTBSZ UP DPNQFOTBUF UIF TMPQF PG UIF TUFFM TFDUJPO XJUI UIF
horizontal steel base
t 4DSFXTIBWFUPCFJOTUBMMFEWFSUJDBMMZ

GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power 113


Electro-Mechanical Equipment

Debris between the guide


vanes and runner blades

Clogged runner and guide vanes

How can I improve it?

t 1SFWFOUEFCSJTGSPNHFUUJOHJOUPUIFQFOTUPDLCZJOTUBMMJOHBOFUSBTISBDLBDDPSEJOHUP
the requirements of the turbine manufacturer
t $MFBOBOENBJOUBJOUIFUSBTISBDLSFHVMBSMZ

Why?
t %FCSJTJOUIFUVSCJOFCMBEFTJOJUJBMMZSFEVDFTUIFQFSGPSNBODFPGUIFUVSCJOFCVU
eventually will clog and damage the turbine
t &TQFDJBMMZ'SBODJTBOEQSPQFMMFSUVSCJOFTBSFTVTDFQUJWFUPHFUCMPDLFECZEFCSJT

114 GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power


Electro-Mechanical Equipment

No debris all
clean

A turbine in good condition thanks to a functional sand trap and trash rack

Why is this a good example?

t 5IFQFSGPSNBODFPGUIFUVSCJOFJTOPUJOVFODFECZEFCSJT
t 5IF USBTI SBDL JT CVJMU BDDPSEJOH UP UIF SFDPNNFOEBUJPO PG UIF UVSCJOF TVQQMJFS BOE
keeps the turbine clean
t 5IBOLTUPBTBOEUSBQOPBCSBTJPOJTWJTJCMFPOUIFUVSCJOFSVOOFS

Note:

PROTECT THE TURBINE AND IT WILL KEEP RUNNING FOR A LONG TIME!
CLEAN TRASH RACK AND SAND TRAP REGULARLY!

GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power 115


Electro-Mechanical Equipment

3.2.2 Main Elements of a Generator

Cable in ducts to
panel AVR

Ventilation grating
Shaft of generator
connected with pulley

The drawing depicts a synchronous generator with an AVR (Automatic Voltage Regulator).
In island mode, the AVR controls the generator voltage which is the system voltage as well.
In grid-connected mode, the AVR is not able to change the system voltage but by adjusting
the excitation current it can determine the reactive power characteristics. Asynchronous
generators do not have an AVR.

GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power 117


Electro-Mechanical Equipment

Very messy cable


connections
AVR dismantled

Belt without cover

Power cable not


Protection missing protected

Generator and AVR in bad condition

How can I improve it?

t 3FQMBDFBMMNJTTJOHQBSUTPGUIFHFOFSBUPSBOE"73
t .BLFQSPQFSDBCMFDPOOFDUJPOTJOBDDPSEBODFXJUITBGFUZSFHVMBUJPOT
t 1PXFSDBCMFNVTUCFMBJEJOBEVDU
t $POOFDUHFOFSBUPSBOEDPOUSPMMFSUPBOFBSUIJOHTZTUFN
t 5SBOTNJTTJPOCFMUNVTUCFQSPUFDUFEXJUIBDBHF

Why?

t 5IF QSFTFODF PG VOUSBJOFE QFSTPOT JO UIF QPXFSIPVTF JT QPTTJCMF 5IFZ NVTU CF
protected from the dangers of electricity and mechanical power.
t 4BGFUZSFHVMBUJPOTBMXBZTNBLFTFOTFBOEIBWFBSFBTPO UIFZIFMQUPQSFWFOUBDDJEFOUT
and injuries
t (PPEBOEDPOTDJFOUJPVTPQFSBUJPOBOENBJOUFOBODFXPSLXJMMMFBEUPHPPEPQFSBUJPO

118 GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power


Electro-Mechanical Equipment

AVR
Belt cover

Generator

Earthing
connection

Sledge
Well protected
power cable
Adjustment screws

Generator well installed

Why is this a good example?

t 5IFFRVJQNFOUJTJOTUBMMFEJOBDDPSEBODFXJUITBGFUZSFHVMBUJPOT
t 1PXFSDBCMFJTQSPUFDUFECZBFYJCMFQJQF
t (FOFSBUPSBOEDPOUSPMMFSBSFDPOOFDUFEUPUIFFBSUIJOHTZTUFN
t 5IFCFMUJTQSPUFDUFEXJUIBDPWFS
t 5IFSFJTFOPVHITQBDFUPTIJGUUIFHFOFSBUPSJOUPUIFSJHIUQPTJUJPO5IFCFMUDBOCF
tightened by moving it on the sledge on the frame
t 5IFPPSJTDMFBO BMMPXJOHUPEFUFDUXBUFSMFBLBHFTPUIFSJSSFHVMBSJUJFTJNNFEJBUFMZ

GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power 119


3.2.3 Panel, Controller and Ballast

A safe place for all electrical devices

The control cubicle provides a safe place, dry and free of dust, for the electrical devices and
also protects people working in the powerhouse from electrical shocks.
Electro-Mechanical Equipment

Boxes are not covered

Wires are not insulated

Mouse in panel

Alignment of cables and


components is confusing

Bad example of wiring and electric components

How can I improve it?

t .PVOUFMFDUSJDDPNQPOFOUTBOEXJSJOHJOBXFMMBSSBOHFETDIFNF
t &MFDUSJDBMDPNQPOFOUTNVTUCFJOTUBMMFEJOBMPDLBCMFNFUBMDBTF
t 1SFWFOU QVCMJD BDDFTT UP FMFDUSJD DPNQPOFOUT  XJSJOH o JODMVEJOH BDDFTT GPS BOJNBMT
which can bite away the insulation of cables

Why?

t *NQSPQFSMZCVJMUQBOFMTBSFBQPUFOUJBMTPVSDFGPSUFDIOJDBMGBJMVSFT
t &WFOFYQFSUTDBOVOEFSTUBOE BOEUIFSFBGUFSY
BTZTUFNPOMZXIFOJUJTXFMMBSSBOHFE
t #BSFXJSFTBSFEBOHFSPVT

Note:

RISK OF INJURY & DEATH!

122 GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power


Electro-Mechanical Equipment

All elements are


well arranged

Panel of control
cubicle

All cables are


labeled

Example of a well arranged control cubicle

Why is this a good example?

t $MFBSBSSBOHFNFOUPGBMMDPNQPOFOUTNBLFTNBJOUFOBODFTJNQMFBOEGBTU
t $BCMFTBOEEFWJDFTBSFQSPQFSMZMBCFMFE
t 3FQBJSTBSFRVJDLBOEFBTZUPEP
t 8PSLJOHPOUIFDVCJDMFJTTBGFS

Note:

DURING OPERATION THE PANEL MUST BE CLOSED AND SHOULD BE LOCKED!

GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power 123


Electro-Mechanical Equipment

Ventilation

Wires are not protected


against contact risk of
electric shock

Never touch the


glowing rods

Unprotected ballast presents a real hazard

How can I improve it?

t 3FJOTUBMMCBMMBTUBUBXFMMWFOUJMBUFEQMBDF
t "UUBDICBMMBTUIJHIFSoPVUPGSFBDIPGQFPQMF
t .PVOUBTBGFUZDBHFBSPVOEUIFCBMMBTU
t *OTUBMMBIFBUTIJFMEBHBJOTUUIFXPPEFOXBMMBOEDFJMJOHCPBSET

Why?

t )PUCBMMBTUJTBSFIB[BSEFTQFDJBMMZGPSXPPEFOCPBSET
t 1MBTUJDDBCMFDPBUJOHTNBZNFMU
t *GUIFCBMMBTUJTJOTUBMMFEUPPMPXTPNFCPEZNBZUPVDIJUBOEHFUCVSOFE

Note:

RISK OF INJURY!

124 GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power


Electro-Mechanical Equipment

Protected and
shaded by roof
Inner cage

Outer cage

Well protected ballast at outer wall of the power house

Why is this a good example?

t 5IFSPPGQSPUFDUTUIFCBMMBTUJOTUBMMBUJPOBHBJOTUSBJO
t #BMMBTUJTXFMMWFOUJMBUFE
t 5IFPVUFSDBHFQSFWFOUTBDDFTTCZVOBVUIPSJ[FEQFSTPOT

Note:

IN CASE OF LOW LOAD IN THE VILLAGE (WITH MOST APPLIANCES SWITCHED OFF) THE
CONTROLLER DIVERTS ELECTRICITY TO THE BALLAST WHERE IT IS CONVERTED TO HEAT!
RODS ARE GLOWING HOT!

GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power 125


Electro-Mechanical Equipment

Distance too short

Ceiling

The distance between ceiling and the top edge of ballast must be at least 50 cm

How can I improve it?

t *OTUBMMCBMMBTUMPXFS PSJGUIBUJTOPUQPTTJCMF PVUTJEFPGUIFQPXFSIPVTF


t 1SPUFDUUIFCBMMBTUXJUIBTBGFUZDBHF
t 1SPWJEFWFOUJMBUJPOGPSUIFHMPXJOHSPET

Why?
t *GUIFFMFDUSJDJUZEFNBOEJTMPX UIFFYDFTTFOFSHZJTTFOUUPUIFCBMMBTU5IFSPETHFUWFSZ
hot and enough space to the roof plus a good ventilation is required to convey the heat

Note:

RISK OF FIRE!

126 GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power


Electro-Mechanical Equipment

Roof
Ballast in a cage

Cable duct should be guided


inside the cage

Power cable ducts

Penstock

A good installation of ballast

Why is this a good example?

t #BMMBTUJTXFMMQSPUFDUFEJOBTUFFMDBHF
t #BMMBTUJTQSPQFSMZWFOUJMBUFEBTJUHFUTWFSZIPU
t *OTUBMMBUJPOVOEFSUIFSPPGJTBHPPESBJOQSPUFDUJPO
t 5IFXJSJOHUPUIFCBMMBTUJTSVOUISPVHIEVDUT
t 6OBVUIPSJ[FE QFSTPOT IBWF OP BDDFTT UP UIF CBMMBTU BOE DPVME OPU CF CVSOFE CZ UIF
glowing rods

Note:

CABLE DUCTS SHOULD BE GUIDED INSIDE THE CAGE TO PREVENT DAMAGE OF THE
CABLES!
IF THESE CABLES ARE INTERRUPTED THE TURBINE CANNOT BE CONTROLLED ANYMORE!

GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power 127


Electro-Mechanical Equipment

2
3

What must I do to keep the system running well?

Keep panel clean of dust and grease


Check all electrical devices and control instruments for functionality
Make sure that all cable connections are okay

Note:

ONLY PROPERLY WORKING DEVICES PRODUCE ELECTRICITY!


CHECK AT LEAST ONCE A WEEK!

128 GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power


Electro-Mechanical Equipment

3.2.4 Inside the Power House

Tailrace to river

Thrust block

Electro-mechanical
equipment

Penstock
Panel

Tool & spare part


cabinet

GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power 129


Electro-Mechanical Equipment

Turbine & generator


are crammed in the
corner of power house

Main equipment is too close to walls

How can I improve it?

t "UUIFEFTJHOTUBHFFOPVHITQBDFNVTUCFQMBOOFEBSPVOEUIFUVSCJOFBOEHFOFSBUPS
t 5SZUPSFBSSBOHFFRVJQNFOUPSFOMBSHFQPXFSIPVTFUPNBLFNPSFSPPNBSPVOENBJO
equipment

Why?

t "EFRVBUFXPSLJOHTQBDFJTSFRVJSFEGPSTFSWJDFBOENBJOUFOBODF
t 'PSEJTBTTFNCMZPGUIFUVSCJOFTIBGU BDFSUBJONJOJNVNTQBDFJTOFFEFEEFQFOEBOUPO
the length of the shaft

130 GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power


Electro-Mechanical Equipment

B C

Here is adequate space around the equipment

Why is this a good example?

t 5IFSFJTTVDJFOUTQBDFGPSPQFSBUJPO NBJOUFOBODF SFQBJSBOEBTTFNCMZEJTBTTFNCMZ


work around the generator and turbine
t 3FDPNNFOEFETQBDF
- A = minimum 1.5 m when also entrance area
- B = minimum 1.0 m
- C = minimum 1.5 m or at least length of turbine shaft plus 0.5 m
t "SFB BSPVOE BMM FMFDUSPNFDIBOJDBM FRVJQNFOU JT LFQU DMFBO o no greasy and/or wet
surfaces

Note:

WATER CONDUCTS ELECTRIC CURRENTS VERY WELL!


HAZARD FOR OPERATOR!

GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power 131


Electro-Mechanical Equipment

Panel and boards


Walls are damaged
are greasy
and dirty

Floor is slippery &


dirty
Oil and grease are
everywhere on
equipment

A poorly maintained, run-down power house

How can I improve it?

t $MFBOVQUIFQPXFSIPVTF
t $MFBOIBOETUIPSPVHIMZBGUFSNBJOUFOBODFXPSLXJUIHSFBTFPJM
t 8JQFPPSFWFSZUJNFBGUFSXPSLJOHJOUIFQPXFSIPVTF

Why?

t &YQFOTJWFFRVJQNFOUNVTUCFLFQUDMFBOUPXPSLXFMM
t 8PSLJOBDMFBOFOWJSPONFOUJTNVDITBGFSBOEBMTPFOKPZBCMF
t 0JMDPVMESFBDIXBUFSBOETPJMBOEQPMMVUFJU
t %JSUBOEHSFBTFDBODBVTFUIFFMFDUSJDBMFRVJQNFOUUPGBJM

Note:

A GREASY FLOOR IS SLIPPERY AND UNSAFE!

132 GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power


Electro-Mechanical Equipment

Panels

Tool shelf

AVR

Generator

Turbine
Penstock

All equipment is well arranged, clean and well maintained

Why is this a good example?

t 0QFSBUJPOBOENBJOUFOBODFJTFBTJFSXIFOBMMFRVJQNFOUJTXFMMBSSBOHFE
t "MMFRVJQNFOUoUPPMT TQBSFQBSUTFUDoJTXJUIJOFBTZSFBDI
t $MFBOMJOFTTBOEUJEJOFTTBTTVSFUIBUOPUIJOHJTMPTUPSEBNBHFECZEVTUPSMUI
t "DMFBOPPSQSFWFOUTJUGSPNCFDPNJOHTMJQQFSZBOENBLFTXPSLTBGFS

GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power 133


Electro-Mechanical Equipment

A power house is NO stage for a


show or family visits

Belt drive in
operation !!!

Power house is NO stage for a show or family visits

How can I improve it?

t ,FFQPVUBMMQFSTPOTXIPIBWFOPCVTJOFTTJOUIFQPXFSIPVTF FTQFDJBMMZDIJMESFO
t *GVOBVUIPSJ[FEQFSTPOTFOUFSUIFQPXFSIPVTF TUPQNPWJOHFRVJQNFOUJNNFEJBUFMZUP
avoid accidents
t "DUJOBDDPSEBODFXJUIBMMTBGFUZSFHVMBUJPOTBOEQSPDFEVSFT

Why?

t "QPXFSIPVTFJTOPUUIFQMBDFGPSWJTJUTPSNFFUJOHTXIFOGBTUNPWJOHFRVJQNFOUJTJO
operation and electricity is generated

Note:

BE AWARE THAT AN UNPROTECTED ROTATING BELT DRIVE, FLYWHEEL AND TURBINE-


GENERATOR SHAFTS ARE DANGEROUS FOR (UNAUTHORIZED) PERSONS o CLOTHES CAN
EASILY BE CAUGHT!
A RISK TO EVERYBODYS HEALTH!

134 GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power


Electro-Mechanical Equipment

3 1

What must I do to keep the system running well?

 ,FFQPPSBOEXBMMTDMFBOBOEUJEZ
Clean all parts of the equipment after maintenance
At the end of maintenance work put all removable parts back in place again

Note:

ONLY CLEAN EQUIPMENT WORKS WELL!


CLEAN AT LEAST AFTER EACH MAINTENANCE ROUTINE!

GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power 135


Electro-Mechanical Equipment

3.2.5 Power House Wiring

Nail!!

Wires!!!

Never bridge fuses oJUJTGBSUPPEBOHFSPVT

How can I improve it?

t /&7&3SFQMBDFGVTFTXJUIBXJSFPSPUIFSNFUBMMJDPCKFDU
t *OTFSUBMMGVTFTSFRVJSFEJOUIFQBOFMBOELFFQQBOFMDMPTFEEVSJOHUIFPQFSBUJPO
t *UJTPQFSBUPSTSFTQPOTJCJMJUZUPIBWFGVTFTJOTUPDL

Why?

t 'VTFTJNQMFNFOUJNQPSUBOUFMFDUSJDTBGFUZGVODUJPOT
t #SJEHFEGVTFTDBVTFTIPSUDJSDVJUBOEDBOJOKVSFUIFPQFSBUPSPSCVSOEPXOUIFQPXFS
house

Note:

DEADLY DANGER!

136 GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power


Electro-Mechanical Equipment

Devices of power and control cubicle

Why is this a good example?

t $MFBSMBZPVUPGBMMXJSFTBOEEFWJDFT XIJDINBLFTUIFTFBSDIGPSGBJMVSFTNVDIFBTJFS
t 5IFDVCJDMFJTLFQUDMFBO
t &WFSZEFWJDFJTMBCFMFE GBDJMJUBUJOHBOFBTZVOEFSTUBOEJOHPGUIFTZTUFN

Note:

CLOSE CUBICLE DURING OPERATION!

GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power 137


Electro-Mechanical Equipment

Bad cable
connections

No cable extention
like this!

Good cable
connections

Bad cable connections are a source for major damages

How can I improve it?

t 0/-:VTFDBCMFTIPFTGPSDBCMFDPOOFDUJPOToUIFSFJT/0BMUFSOBUJWF

Why?

t &MFDUSJDBMXJSFTIBWFUPCFDPOOFDUFEQSPQFSMZUPBWPJEMPTTFT
t #BEDPOOFDUJPOTDBVTFJNQSPQFSPQFSBUJPOBOEDBOCFUIFSFBTPOPGTIPSUDJSDVJUT
t 4IPSU DJSDVJUT BSF IB[BSEPVT GPS PQFSBUJPO BOE FRVJQNFOU BOE MFBE UP VOOFDFTTBSZ
interruptions in operation

138 GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power


Electro-Mechanical Equipment

Proper cable
connections

A proper and
simple way to fix
cables

Cables are properly fixed with cable shoes

Why is this a good example?

t $BCMFTIPFTBSFBDDPSEJOHUPDBCMFEJBNFUFSBOEBSFYFEXJUITDSFXT
t $BCMFDPOOFDUJPOTDBOOPUNPWFCFDBVTFUIFZBSFYFEUPUIFXBMMCFGPSFFOUFSJOHUIF
panel
t /PUFOTJPOPODBCMFT

GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power 139


Electro-Mechanical Equipment

Use earthing
clamps only

Earthing connection will probably not work

How can I improve it?

t 5IFFBSUIJOHSJOHNVTUCFDPOOFDUFEUPBMMNBJOJOTUBMMBUJPOTJOUIFQPXFSIPVTFoFH
reinforcement of foundations of power house, equipment and all the other pieces
t 6TFFBSUIJOHDMBNQTGPSBOZDPOOFDUJPOUPUIFFBSUIJOHTZTUFN

Why?

t 5IFFBSUIJOHTZTUFNJTBTBGFHVBSETZTUFNGPSJOTUBMMBUJPOT BQQMJBODFTBOEQFPQMFJOUIF
power house
t 5IFEJTUBODFCFUXFFOUIFFBSUIJOHSJOHoXIJDIJTMBJEBSPVOEUIFQPXFSIPVTFoBOE
the installations has to be at least 1 m and must be done with earthing clamps
t 5IJTBCPWFUIFHSPVOEDPOOFDUJPOJTFTTFOUJBMUPNFBTVSFUIFSFTJTUBODFJOPSEFSUP
find out if the earthing system functions properly

140 GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power


Electro-Mechanical Equipment

Equipment base of
steel

Earthing
connection Earthing cable

Reinforcement of
foundation

Reinforcement of foundation & steel base connected to earthing rod

Why is this a good example?

t 3FJOGPSDFNFOU PG UIF GPVOEBUJPO CBTF BOE UIF FRVJQNFOU TUFFM CBTF NVTU CF
connected to the earthing system with earthing clamps
t 5IJT DPOOFDUJPO BWPJET TFWFSF EBNBHF UP QFPQMF BOE FRVJQNFOU JO DBTF PG
malfunctioning of a device
t &BSUIJOH TZTUFN QSPUFDUT BMM NBDIJOFT BOE FRVJQNFOU  XJSJOH  QPXFS IPVTF BOE UIF
people working there against lightning and stray currents

Note:

NO EARTHING A DEADLY DANGER!

GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power 141


3.2.6 Mechanical Transmission

Generator
Belt drive in a cage
Turbine

Coupling
Bearings

Adjustable steel
base

The mechanical transmission links the turbine to the generator. It is also often called speed
increaser. It is needed because the generator usually runs at a much higher rotational velocity
UIBOUIFUVSCJOF5IFSFBSFEJFSFOUUZQFTPGUSBOTNJTTJPOTJOUIFDBTFPG.)1XJUIDSPTTPX
turbines, belt drives are very commonly used. They are not suitable for turbines and generators
with more than 100 - 200 kW.
Electro-Mechanical Equipment

Cover has been


removed

Turbine is running

Flywheel and belt are not protected in a cage

How can I improve it?

t 1VUUIFTBGFUZDPWFSCBDLPWFSUIFZXIFFMBOECFMUCFGPSFSFTUBSUJOHPQFSBUJPO
t 'PMMPXBMMTBGFUZSFHVMBUJPOTBOEQSPDFEVSFT

Why?

t 6OQSPUFDUFEGBTUNPWJOHQBSUT XIFFMTBOEESJWFCFMU
BSFBIB[BSEUPUIFPQFSBUPS BOE
everybody else entering the powerhouse)

Note:

FAST MOVING PARTS A SERIOUS HEALTH HAZARD!

144 GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power


Electro-Mechanical Equipment

Panel
All fast moving
parts are covered

Turbine

AVR

Generator
Flywheel and drive
belt

Flywheel, drive belts and couplings covered by safety covers

Why is this a good example?

t 5IFTBGFUZDPWFSTQSFWFOUBDDJEFOUTXIFOUIFUVSCJOFJTSVOOJOH
t 'MPPSJTDMFBOBOEUJEZ
t 5IFSFJTFOPVHIXPSLJOHTQBDFBSPVOEUIFFRVJQNFOU

GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power 145


Electro-Mechanical Equipment

Use drive belts of Turbine


same length (=
same tension)

Generator shaft
Fast moving parts!

Tension of drive belts is very important for efficient transmission

How can I improve it?

t *GUIFUFOTJPOPGUIFESJWFCFMUTGFFMTPSMPPLTJOTVDJFOU UJHIUFOUIFNCZTIJGUJOHUIF
QPTJUJPOPGUIFZXIFFMBOEHFOFSBUPSTVCGSBNF
t 6TFPOMZESJWFCFMUTPGUIFTBNFNBOVGBDUVSFSBOETBNFBHFo buy and replace all belts
at the same time
t "MXBZTLFFQQVMMFZTBOEESJWFCFMUTGSFFGSPNBOZHSFBTF

Why?

t 'PSBOFDJFOUUSBOTNJTTJPOJUJTFTTFOUJBMUPIBWFFRVBMUFOTJPOPOBMMESJWFCFMUT
t "XFMMSVOOJOHHFOFSBUPSQSPEVDFTNPSF

146 GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power


Electro-Mechanical Equipment

Drive belts are


aligned and
properly tightened

Fast moving parts!

Tension of all belts must be the same

Why is this a good example?

t "QSPQFSMZBMJHOFEBOEUFOTJPOFEUSBOTNJTTJPOMFBETUPBIJHIFDJFODZ
t 6OFWFO UFOTJPO PG UIF ESJWF CFMUT MFBET UP NPSF TUSBJO PO UIF NPSF UJHIUFOFE POFT 
reduces efficiency and can cause additional strain on bearings

Note:

OPERATOR MUST CHECK TENSION OF DRIVE BELTS BEFORE START-UP!

PULLEY AND BELT MUST BE KEPT FREE FROM GREASE!

GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power 147


Electro-Mechanical Equipment

Must be on same
level

Same distance all


around!

Coupling 2

Coupling 1

Precise work is required when coupling is being adjusted

How can I improve it?

t 5IFEJTUBODFBOEFMFWBUJPOCFUXFFOQBSUTPGUIFDPVQMJOHNVTUCFUIFTBNFtFRVBM
pressure is necessary to ensure long service life of the coupling

Why?

t 1SPQFSDPVQMJOHBMJHONFOUJTWFSZJNQPSUBOUBTJUFYUFOETUIFTFSWJDFMJGFTJHOJDBOUMZ
t .JTBMJHONFOUMFBETUPVOOFDFTTBSZBOEQSFNBUVSFEBNBHFPGUIFDPVQMJOH

148 GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power


Electro-Mechanical Equipment

both sides on same level

same distance all


around

Connection adjustment check

Why is this a good example?

t 5IFSFRVJSFEEJTUBODFTPGUIFDPVQMJOHFMFNFOUTBSFSFTQFDUFEFYBDUMZ
t *U JT WFSZ JNQPSUBOU  UIBU UIF BMJHONFOU PG UIF DPOOFDUJPO JT EPOF DBSFGVMMZ  PUIFSXJTF
the seal will soon be destroyed and has to be replaced more often o avoidable costs

Note:

EVERY INTERRUPTION OF THE OPERATION CAUSES A POWER OUTAGE FOR THE CONSUMERS
AND MEANS NO INCOME FOR THE MHP!

GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power 149


Electro-Mechanical Equipment

.PSFHSFBTFPOUIFPPSUIBOJOUIFCFBSJOH

How can I improve it?

t )BOEMFHSFBTFXJUIDBSF
t 1SFTTHSFBTFPOMZJOUIFOJQQMFTXIFSFJUJTOFFEFE
t $MFBOBMMFRVJQNFOUBOEPPSBGUFSHSFBTJOH
t ,FFQUIFPPSDMFBOBOEUJEZ

Why?

t 0/-:UIFNPWJOHQBSUTPGUIFFRVJQNFOUOFFEMVCSJDBUJPO
t (SFBTFPOUIFPPSJTBTFSJPVTSJTLGPSUIFPQFSBUPSBOEBOZCPEZFMTFJOUIFQPXFS
house oPPSTCFDPNFTMJQQFSZ

Note:

SLIPPERY POWERHOUSE HIGH RISK OF INJURIES!

150 GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power


Electro-Mechanical Equipment

When grease
appears - it is
greased enough

Grease properly applied

Why is this a good example?

t "MMNPWJOHQBSUTPGBNBDIJOFOFFEHSFBTFGPSHPPEPQFSBUJPO
t "QQMZHSFBTFVOUJMJUTUBSUTUPPP[FPVUoUIFOJUJTFOPVHI
t $MFBOPTVSQMVTHSFBTF
t 1SFWFOUHSFBTZPPSToBMXBZTDMFBOVQBGUFSMVCSJDBUJOHNBDIJOFT

Note:

TOO MUCH GREASE CAN TEMPORARILY LEAD TO AN INCREASED BEARING


TEMPERATURE!
IT IS ADVISABLE TO GREASE CAREFULLY AND OBSERVE THE BEARING TEMPERATURES!

GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power 151


Electro-Mechanical Equipment

3.2.7 Tools and Spare Parts

Greasy spare parts

What a mess !

Spare parts and tools have to be cleaned and stored well organized

How can I improve it?

t 4UPSFTQBSFQBSUTJOBDBCJOFUPSUPPMCPYBOELFFQJUMPDLFE
t 4UPSFGSFRVFOUMZOFFEFEUPPMTSFBEJMZPOBUPPMTIFMGPSCPBSE
t "MXBZTDMFBOUPPMTJNNFEJBUFMZBGUFSVTF

Why?

t 5IFPQFSBUPSNVTULOPXXIJDITQBSFQBSUTBSFJOTUPDLBOEXIJDIIFTIPVMEPSEFS
t 5IFPQFSBUPSTIPVMELFFQBXSJUUFOJOWFOUPSZPGBMMUPPMTBOETQBSFQBSUT BOEVQEBUFJU
regularly
t 5IJTXJMMTBWFNPOFZCFDBVTFPOMZXIBUJTOFFEFEXJMMCFQVSDIBTFE
t 5IF DPOEJUJPO PG UIF UPPMT BOE TQBSF QBSUT TIPXT UIF RVBMJUZ PG UIF PQFSBUPS BOE IJT
work

152 GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power


Electro-Mechanical Equipment

Various wrenches

Screwdrivers

Pliers

Compartments for
small spare parts

Well stored tools always within easy reach

Why is this a good example?

t 'PSGSFRVFOUXPSLUPPMTTIPVMECFXJUIJOFBTZSFBDIPGUIFPQFSBUPS
t 5PPMTBSFTUPSFEPOUIFUPPMCPBSETBOETIFMWFTBGUFSVTF
t 5IFUPPMCPBSETBOETIFMWFTBSFDMFBOoUIJTJTBMTPHPPEGPSBTBGFXPSLJOHFOWJSPONFOU
t 8PSLJTQSPCBCMFNPSFFOKPZBCMFXIFOUPPMTBSFBUIBOEBOEDMFBO

GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power 153


Electro-Mechanical Equipment

Proper tools & lubricants: essential for operation & maintenance

154 GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power


Electro-Mechanical Equipment

What must I do to keep the system running well?

1 Electrical tools are essential for electrical maintenance


2 Various accessories for effective maintenance
3 Equipment for lubrication and grease must be available
4 Common electrical spare parts must be stocked
5 Common mechanical spare parts must also be stocked

Note:

KEEP TOOLS AND SPARE PARTS CLEAN AND COMPLETE ALL THE TIME!
GOOD TOOLS MAKE THE JOB EASY!
SPARE PARTS IN STOCK SHORTEN MAINTENANCE WORKS!
CHECK COMPLETENESS OF TOOLS AND SPARE PARTS AT LEAST AFTER EACH MAINTENANCE
ROUTINE!

GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power 155


Electro-Mechanical Equipment

Just any tree trunk


may not be strong
enough test it first!

Use snaplinks
instead of knots

Heavy and costly equipment must only be moved with a lot of care

How can I improve it?

t 6TFQSPQFSMJGUJOHFRVJQNFOU
t "MUFSOBUJWFMZ VTFBTVDJFOUMZTUSPOHUSFFUSVOL TUSVDUVSBMQJFDFPGXPPEPSTUFFM PSB
heavy steel pipe (but test it first for its strength)
t 6TFTOBQMJOLTJOTUFBEPGLOPUTCFDBVTFTOBQMJOLTEPOPUPQFOEVSJOHMJGUJOH

Why?

t )ZESPQPXFSFRVJQNFOUTJTDPTUMZBOEIBSEUPSFQMBDF
t *NQSPQFSMJGUJOHPGIFBWZFRVJQNFOUNBZQVUUIFXPSLUFBNBUSJTL

Note:

RISK OF INJURIES!

156 GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power


Electro-Mechanical Equipment

Wall-mounted type
of crane

Mobile crane for


larger equipment

Two types of lifting equipment for heavy loads in larger power houses

Why is this a good example?

t 4USPOHMJGUJOHFRVJQNFOUJTFTTFOUJBMGPSCPUI JOTUBMMBUJPOBOENBJOUFOBODF
t 5IFNPWFNFOUBOEPSUSBOTQPSUPGIFBWZFRVJQNFOUNVTUCFEPOFXJUIBMPUPGDBSF
and with regard to all necessary safety procedures

GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power 157


Electro-Mechanical Equipment

Weak-looking
branches

Three tree trunks tied together as a tripod look rather weak

How can I improve it?

t 1SFGFSBCMZSFQMBDFUIJTLJOEPGUSJQPECZVTJOHTUFFMTFDUJPOTPSQJQFT
t *GJUDBOCFBPSEFEBOENBOBHFE VTFBDSBOF PSTJNJMBSFRVJQNFOU GPSNPWJOHIFBWZ
loads
t 6TFTOBQMJOLTJOTUFBEPGLOPUTGPSTBGFMJGUJOH

Why?

t 8PPEFO USVOLT DBO CSFBL XIFO MJGUJOH IFBWZ MPBET BOE IPPLFE FRVJQNFOU DBO HFU
damaged and hurt operator

Note:

RISK OF INJURY!

158 GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power


Electro-Mechanical Equipment

Tripod made of
steel Solid steel top

Strong chain and


hook

BUT: worker should also


wear safety shoes

Strong tripod used for lifting a heavy piece of equipment

Why is this a good example?

t "TUFFMUSJQPE NFFUJOHBMMTBGFUZSFRVJSFNFOUT JODMVEJOHBTUSPOHTUFFMDIBJOBOEIPPL 


is used for lifting and transport
t )FBWZBOEFYQFOTJWFIZESPQPXFSFRVJQNFOUJTCFJOHMJGUFEUSBOTQPSUFEWFSZDBSFGVMMZ

But:

t 5IFGFFUPGUIFXPSLFSBMTPOFFEQSPUFDUJPO

GOOD & BAD of Mini Hydro Power 159


ISBN 978-979-8978-26-5
ISBN 978-979-8978-27-2 (Vol.1)

ASEAN-German Mini Hydro Project (AGMHP)


ASEAN Center for Energy
Jl. HR. Rasuna Said Blok X-2, Kav. 7 - 8, Kuningan
Jakarta - Indonesia