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THE ROMANS

Culture and Architecture

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The Romans Culture and Architecture

Culture Architecture
Origins Techniques and Innovations
Society City Planning / The Forum
Religion / Character Temples / Public Buildings

Image Credit: By Berthold Werner, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=32224321


Culture: Origins Historial Timeline

The Roman Republic (509 - 27 BCE) The Roman Empire (27 BCE - 1453 CE)
Laws of the
12 Tables

The Etruscans
The Christian Roman Empire

753 550 509 494 450 265 146 46-44 27 14 80 305 330 395 476 1453

BCE Conquest Conquest of the BCE CE CE


Height of the of Italy Mediterranean Colosseum Constantinople The Dark Ages
Dictatorship (built) (new capital)
Etruscan(s)
of Julius
City of Rome Romans revolted against the Caesar Reign of Caesar Constantine Rome splits Byzantine
(founded) Etruscan kings and created Augustus (Octavian) -the first (Western & Empire
the system of government by to 14CE. First emperor Christian Eastern ends
the Senate and the Assembly and the beginning of Emperor Empire)
the Roman Empire.

Vitruvius writes De
architectura

BCE: Before the Common (Current) Era


CE: The Common (Current) Era

Source:
http://www.softschools.com/timelines/roman_empire/timeline_9/

http://courses.wcupa.edu/jones/his101/web/t-roman.htm
ORIGINS
The Etruscans

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Who were the
Etruscans?
Settled and developed their own
culture in north-central Italy
(modern day Tuscany)

Religion emphasized on providing


worldly goods for the afterlife,
similar to the Egyptians.

Economy was based on agriculture


and international trade.

Temple architecture had


influenced from the Greek orders
but the Etruscans made it their own.

The Etruscans greatly influenced


the Roman civilization with their
architecture, art and cultural
customs.

Source: Fazio, Michael W., Marian Moett, and Lawrence Wodehouse. A World
History of Architecture. 3rd ed. London: Laurence King, 2013. Print. p.105
Image Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/87/
Etruscan_civilization_map.png
Culture: Origins The Etruscans

Tile- Cella Cella Cella


covered
wooden
roof

Unfluted
columns

Podium

Narrow
staircase

Etruscan temple resembled Greek temples but


had widely spaced unfluted wood columns
(Tuscan Order) only at the front, walls of sun-
dried mud brick, and a narrow staircase at the
center of the facade. (Gardner, 2013, p.167)
Fluted Doric Columns

Unlike the Greek Temple, the Etruscan temple


were not meant to be seen as a sculptural mass.
Wide staircase
Etruscan temple frequently had three cellas,
one for each of their chief gods, Tinia (Zeus),
Uni (Hera) and Menrva (Athena). (Gardner, 2013,
p.168) Narrow spacing between columns Cella

Source: Gardner, Helen, and Fred S. Kleiner. Gardner's Art Through The Ages: A Global History. 14th ed.
Australia: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning, 2013. Print. p.165
Greek Temple: Temple of Theseus
Image Source: http://www.bible-history.com/ibh/images/fullsized/
plan_and_elevation_so_called_temple_of_theseus.jpg
Culture: Origins The Etruscans

Porta Marzia, Perugia, Italy


The Porta Marzia was one of the gates in Perugias walls. The use of fluted pilasters or engaged columns
to frame arches typifies Etruscan builders adaptation of Greek architectural motifs (Gardner, 2013, p.175).

Source: Gardner, Helen, and Fred S. Kleiner. Gardner's Art Through The Ages: A Global History. 14th ed. Australia: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning, 2013. Print. p.165

Image Source: http://landscapedesignn.top/porta-marzia-perugia.html


Culture: Origins The Etruscans
Chimera of Arezzo (Etruscan Art, c. 400 BC)
Bronze

Image Source: https://artislimited.wordpress.com/2012/09/16/classic-


metal-rocks-the-house-epic-bronze-exhibition-of-150-bronzes-at-londons-
royal-academy-fetes-the-mighty-alloy-through-6000-years/
Culture: Origins The Etruscans

According to legend, the she-wolf nursed


Romulus and Remus after being abandoned
as infants. In 753 BCE, Romulus founded
Rome and became the citys king. The
Capitoline Wolf thus became the symbol for
the City of Rome.

The Twins - Romulus and Remus


(later Renaissance addition)

Capitoline Wolf
(Etruscan Art, c. 500-480 BCE) Bronze
Image Source: http://antinousgaygod.blogspot.my/2012/06/capitoline-wolf-may-be-
much-newer-than.html

Source: Gardner, Helen, and Fred S. Kleiner. Gardner's Art Through The Ages: A Global
History. 14th ed. Australia: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning, 2013. Print. p.173
ORIGINS
The Romans

Image Credit: By Till Niermann - Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=388210


Culture: Origins The Hills of Rome
Surrounded by a group of hills, the location Southern Hills
of these hills was favorable for defense, and
the beginning of a strong settlement. 1. Palatine
2. Aventine
3. Caelian

4 Northern Hills
5
4. Esquiline
5. Viminal
6
6. Quirinal
3 7. Capitoline

7
1

Image Source: http://lonelypilgrim.com/2013/11/12/

Source: http://www.forumromanum.org/history/morey02.html
Culture: Society The Romans
509 BCE - Romans overthrew the Senate keeps check

Etruscan kings and created a new I veto you!

governing system -The Republic No, I veto you!

Chosen by the Consuls


(Senate and Assembly) and elected for life
Consul members are
elected from the Senate

Senate
(group of 300 Patricians,
Consul lawmakers of Rome)
(highest position in the government)
Oversees the workings of the
Had the right to
governments and
assembly in the Forum
commander outside the city
of Rome As the republic aged,
the Assembly choose
2 consul members, but only 1
the Consuls
year term
Consuls were chosen
At times of crisis, one consul
Social Class

Assembly
Patricians from the Senate, not by
can be elevated to dictator the (Plebeians or common citizens)
(members of the upper class) the Senate
republic

449 - 450 BCE / Law of the 12 Tables Elected by the


Assembly
Code of laws which spells out civil
matters, crime and punishment, and Had the right to
relationships among citizens and family intervene in legal
members matters and veto
legislation
Applied to both Patricians and Plebeians
Plebeians
(the common people) Tribunes Had the right to
Allowed to intermarry between classes (representative of the Plebians)
Forbidden to intermarry summon the Senate
between social classes. A
strict division between
classes.

Source: http://study.com/academy/lesson/the-political-structure-of-the-
roman-republic.html

Image Source: http://when-in-rome.tumblr.com/post/520251751/


plebeians-vs-patricians
Culture: Society Religion
Gods and Goddesses of Greek and Roman Mythology
Description Greeks Roman The Roman belief system was originally an
animistic religion, a view that non-human
King of Gods Zeus Jupiter entities such as animals, plants, and
Goddess of Marriage Hera Juno inanimate objects possesses a spiritual
essence.
God of the Sea Poseidon Neptune

Goddess of Love Aphrodite Venus The Etruscans had introduced a pantheon


of Greek-like gods and began construction
God of the Underworld Hades Pluto
of temples dedicated to the gods. After
Goddess of Wisdom Athena Minerva contact with the Greeks, the Romans
invested their civic, gods with much of the
God of War Ares Mars
same characters as the Greek gods.
God of Love Eros Cupid
In 305 CE, Christianity became the official
Messenger of God Hermes Mercury
religion under Emperor Constantines rule.

Source: http://www.dummies.com/how-to/content/gods-and-goddesses-of-greek-and-roman-mythology.html

Source: Roth, Leland M. Understanding Architecture: Its Elements, History, and Meaning. New York, NY: Icon Editions, 1993. Print.

Image Credit: By Asram at French Wikipedia - Own work. Originally from fr.wikipedia; description page is/was here., CC BY-SA 3.0, https://
commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=1415896
Culture: Society The Roman Character
The Romans endeavored to achieve universality
and a clearly perceivable order in all of life, and
their unique achievement was to give form to this
civic order in the urban spaces they shaped a
form framed by clearly order ranks of axially
disposed and colonnaded buildings.

Unlike the speculative and idealistic Greeks, the


Romans were inherently pragmatic and realistic.
The Romans produced in abundance engineers
and builders who developed architectural form on
a scale the Greeks never could conceived. Romans
engineers built a network of roads linking all parts
of the empire. 1

The Romans compartmentalized their activities


and were able to build large interior as well as
exterior spaces to hold them. Roman construction
exploited structural elements that acted in
compression: the arch, the vault, and the dome,
elements developed by earlier civilizations but used
in a very limited fashion. 2

1. Roth, Leland M. Understanding Architecture: Its Elements, History, and Meaning. New York, NY: Icon
Editions, 1993. Print. p. 250
Image Credit: By Paul Vlaar - http://www.neep.net/photo/italy/
2. Fazio, Michael W., Marian Moett, and Lawrence Wodehouse. A World History of Architecture. 3rd ed. show.php?3390, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/
London: Laurence King, 2013. Print. p.108
w/index.php?curid=173413
ARCHITECTURE
Techniques and Innovation

Image Credit: By Emanuele - Flickr: Pont du Gard, CC BY-SA 2.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=18375492


Architecture: Techniques and Innovations The Order
The Roman forms of the Doric order
have smaller proportions and appear
lighter and more graceful than their
Greek counterparts. Unlike the Greek
Doric, the Roman Doric has a base.

The Tuscan order is a Roman


adaptation of the Doric. The Tuscan has
an unfluted shaft and a simple echinus-
abacus capital. It is similar in proportion
and profile to the Roman Doric but is
much plainer. This order is the most
solid in appearance of all the orders.

The Composite order, which was not


ranked as a separate order until the
Renaissance, is a late Roman
development of the Corinthian. It is
called Composite because its capital is
composed of Ionic volutes and
Corinthian acanthus-leaf decoration.

Image Source: https://classconnection.s3.amazonaws.com/837/flashcards/4112837/jpg/roman-order-141FB9F03AA69202290.jpg

Image Source: By Converted to PNG and optimised by w:User:stw. - http://artfl.uchicago.edu/images/encyclopedie/V18/plate_18_6_7.jpeg, Public


Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=47982

Source: "order".Encyclopdia Britannica. Encyclopdia Britannica Online. Encyclopdia Britannica Inc., 2016. Web. 01 May. 2016

<http://global.britannica.com/technology/order-architecture>.
Architecture: Techniques and Innovations The Arch
The arch, the vault and the dome became the
basis for structural system for the Romans, built
on a scale unimaginable with post-and-lintel
construction.
A true arch consists of voussoirs set in a
curved shape. A temporary formwork is needed
to support the voussoirs as they are laid, for the
arch will not stand on its own until all the
voussoirs, including the keystone are set in
place.
If the arch is continued along its longitudinal
axis, it produces a vault; if an arch is rotated on The Arch

its center, it produces a dome.


The arch was not a Roman invention as they
had been other arches used that predates the
Roman civilization, but they were certainly an
innovation used to its fullest by the Romans.

Arch Barrel Vault Dome

Source: Fazio, Michael W., Marian Moett, and Lawrence Wodehouse. A World History of
Architecture. 3rd ed. London: Laurence King, 2013. Print. p.109

Image Source: http://classconnection.s3.amazonaws.com/191/flashcards/1504191/png/


a1354152719777.png
Pont du Gard (20-16 BCE)
Earliest Roman vaults were built for utilitarian
structures, such as the aqueducts. Clean water
were brought from the springs in the Sabine
Hills (above Rome), piped in a gravity-fed
system of aqueducts to city-reservoir, then
distributed to fountains, public baths and other
uses around the city.

Image Source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Pont_du_Gard.JPG

Image Source: http://www.crystalinks.com/romeaqueducts.html


Architecture: Techniques and Innovations Concrete

Conventional stonecutting building technique was Concrete was widely used because
costly and required highly skilled stone-carvers.
The Romans developed a more expedient building Strength that span great lengths when
method by using a new material, hydraulic cement forming arches, vaults & domes
derived from a volcanic deposit discovered around Economical
Puteoli (todays Pozzuoli) and named pozzolana. Easy to work with
Fireproof
What the Romans discovered was that when Ability to set underwater for bridge and
pozzolana was mixed with lime, rubble, and water, harbor construction
the mixture reacts chemically and hardens to a
stone like consistency, even if under water.
The strength, durability, and economy of
concrete construction gave the Roman a versatile
material for large-scale building, and by the middle
of the first century CE, they were using it with
rapidly increasing architectural sophistication.1
1. Source: Fazio, Michael W., Marian Moett, and Lawrence Wodehouse. A World History of
Architecture. 3rd ed. London: Laurence King, 2013. Print. p.109-111

Image Source: By Ji-Elle - Own work, Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/


index.php?curid=4973633
Architecture: Techniques and Innovations Concrete / Roads

During the reign of Augustus, Rome


expanded its transportation network
massively.
Roads were mostly built by soldiers.

Image Source: http://www.emersonkent.com/map_archive/roman_empire_117_ad.htm


Architecture: Techniques and Innovations Concrete / Roads
Roadbeds were dug 3 ft down and 23 ft
across.
Foundation of the roadbeds are first filled
with large stone and sand.
A layer of smaller gravel was placed down
and leveled. The sides were lined with
blocks and hand-carved stones.
Stones were often pentagonal in shape
(five sided) and fitted together to make the
top layer of the road. The roads were
sloped from the center so rainwater would
drain off into ditches at the sides of the
roads.

23 ft

Paving stones
3 ft
Sand and lime or sand and clay
Pebbles of gravels with mortar
Foundation of large stones and sand

Image Source: http://www.danasrgi.top/roman-roads/

Image Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/ac/


PSM_V56_D0541_Sections_of_ancient_roman_roads.png
ARCHITECTURE
City Planning

Image Source: http://pompeii.virginia.edu/aerialforum.jpg


Architecture: City Planning The Forum

Roman life was focused on the city. Cities became part of a federation of communities
with participants exercising self-rule rather than acting as subject peoples. The forum
was the focus of public life.
Source: Roth, Leland M. Understanding Architecture: Its Elements, History, and Meaning. New York, NY: Icon Editions, 1993. Print.

Image Source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Forum_Comitium.jpg#/media/File:Forum_Comitium.jpg

Source: Fazio, Michael W., Marian Moett, and Lawrence Wodehouse. A World History of Architecture. 3rd ed. London: Laurence King, 2013. Print. p.111-113

Architecture: City Planning The Forum

Forum of Pompeii

The forum was the civic open space. Ideally rectangular in


proportion and generally dominated by a temple at one end of
the axis. Enclosing the forum and surrounding buildings are the
curia (city offices), and a basilica, a large roofed building where Source: Roth, Leland M. Understanding Architecture: Its Elements, History, and
Meaning. New York, NY: Icon Editions, 1993. Print.

legal cases were heard. Image Source: https://classconnection.s3.amazonaws.com/176/flashcards/


1597176/png/31350966975736.png

Architecture: City Planning The Forum

11

10

As Romes population grew, the 1. Basilica Amelia


7
2. Basilica Julia
old Forum Romanum became 3. Curia Julia
increasingly congested. 4. Libraries
Beginning with Julius Caesar, 5.
6.
Temple of Castor
Temple of Concord
additional forums were built 7. Temple of Divus Julius 6

around it. Apollodorus of 8. Temple of Saturn 5


9. Temple of Vespasian
Damascus designed the Forum 10. Temple of Trajan 9
of Trajan, the largest.
2
11. Markets of Trajan
8
Source: Roth, Leland M. Understanding Architecture: Its Elements, History,
and Meaning. New York, NY: Icon Editions, 1993. Print.
Architecture: Temples Overview
Roman temples were not built as
isolated structures as what the Greeks
had built, but they were part of the forum
and through an axial approach within an
urban setting. Roman temples are
typically placed at the end of a open
space, aligned on the axis of the
forum.
Temples are raised on podiums, with
narrow flight of stairs leading to the
colonnaded portico of the cella space.
To the side and rear, the cella wall are
dominant, with the columns merged Greek Agora Pompeii Forum

into the wall to form engaged columns


integrated with the wall of the cella.

Temple of Fortuna Virilis, Rome (Roman Temple) Temple of Ares, Athens (Greek Temple)

Image Source: Fletcher, Banister. A History of Architecture on the Comparative Method. Sixth edition, rewritten and enlarged. New York: Charles Scribners Sons, 1921.

Image Source: http://www.agathe.gr/overview/the_archaeological_site.html

Image Source: https://classconnection.s3.amazonaws.com/927/flashcards/2257927/jpg/picture201352487426650.jpg

Image Source: http://www.greeceathensaegeaninfo.com/a-greece-travel-destinations/athens/athenian-agora/atheniaan-agora-0019-lg.jpg

Text Source: Roth, Leland M. Understanding Architecture: Its Elements, History, and Meaning. New York, NY: Icon Editions, 1993. Print.

Text Source: Fazio, Michael W., Marian Moett, and Lawrence Wodehouse. A World History of Architecture. 3rd ed. London: Laurence King, 2013. Print. p.118

Architecture: Temples The Pantheon

rotunda

cella

Pantheon (118-128 CE)

Not all Roman temples were rectangular. The The cylindrical cella wall is visually divided into 2
Pantheon was an example of a circular-plan stories, on which a hemispherical dome, with a
Roman temple. It was constructed during the circular opening (oculus) at the top. The interior of
reign of Hadrian. It was a temple to all gods. the dome is articulated with five tiers of diminishing
square coffers, designed with exaggerated
There are two parts to the temple, the portico and
perspective to enhance the sense of depth.
the rotunda, which is the cella. The portico is 8
columns wide and 3 columns deep. The columns
in the portico are of unfluted Corinthian order.

Image Source: https://classconnection.s3.amazonaws.com/172/flashcards/525172/jpg/16_pc_35694_10235-148EDB41A0F34BB3676.jpg

Image Source: http://www.penfield.edu/webpages/jgiotto/photos/1488651/pantheon.jpg

Text Source: Roth, Leland M. Understanding Architecture: Its Elements, History, and Meaning. New York, NY: Icon Editions, 1993. Print.

Text Source: Fazio, Michael W., Marian Moett, and Lawrence Wodehouse. A World History of Architecture. 3rd ed. London: Laurence King, 2013. Print. p.118
Architecture: Temples The Pantheon

8 piers supporting
the barrel vault
and dome

Niche where statues of


gods were placed

The oculus is ~30ft


(9m) wide

Drum wall is
20ft thick

The dimensions of the


interior height and the
~142.5 ft (43.3m) high

diameter of the dome


are the same.
~142.5 ft (43.3m) wide

Interior of the Pantheon


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Image Source: http://www.thehistoryhub.com/pantheon-facts-pictures.htm


Architecture: Public Buildings Basilica
Apart from religious settings, the focus on
urban life and civic activities required the
development of new building types in
Roman architecture, building for use of the
public.
Legal proceedings required a large, covered
space where judges could hear cases, where
litigants wait their turn, and where public
could listen.
The basilica was designed to accommodate
this need. A long rectangular building
placed adjacent to the forum, a basilica
typically had an internal encircling
colonnade, with an apse or a cylindrical
projection at one end (or sometimes both
ends), where the judges would sit. At the Interior of the Basilica Ulpia

geometric center of the semicircular apse


would be an altar acknowledging the
spiritual presence of the emperor, for only in
his symbolic presence could cases be heard.
The basilica later served as the model for
Christian church design.

Source: Roth, Leland M. Understanding Architecture: Its Elements, History, and Meaning. New York, NY: Icon Editions, 1993. Print.

Image Source: https://classconnection.s3.amazonaws.com/626/flashcards/3182626/jpg/basilica1367257807965.jpg

Image Source: https://s3.amazonaws.com/classconnection/135/flashcards/5889135/png/


plan_of_the_basilica_ulpia-1493B16F8DC6BE96D37.png
Architecture: Public Buildings Basilica

The Basilica of Maxentius (307BCE-15CE) Reconstruction model of The Basilica of Maxentius

Not all basilicas had files of columns or were


timber roofed. The Basilica of Maxentius and
Constantine (aka The Basilica Nova) in Rome had
three great groin vault over its central space, with
three barrel-vaulted bays to each side.

Arch Barrel Vault Groin Vault

Floor Plan of The Basilica of Maxentius

Image Source: https://www.studyblue.com/#flashcard/view/1794208

Source: Fazio, Michael W., Marian Moett, and Lawrence Wodehouse. A World History of Architecture. 3rd ed.
London: Laurence King, 2013. Print. p.121

Image Source: https://www.thinglink.com/scene/721441141454536704

Image Source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=522993


Architecture: Public Buildings Theaters
To accommodate public
amusements, Roman theater,
derived from Greek models, were
scene for revivals of Greek plays,
but they never served the quasi-
politico-religious function of the
Greek theater. Hence, Roman
theaters were not located near
temples.
Greek theaters were typically Roman Theater (Theater of Aspendus, Belkiz, Turkey)
carved to the topography of a
hillside, but the Romans chose to
construct their facilities on any
terrain available to them, thus
they developed great vaulted
structures to create the slope
needed for spectator viewing.
Unlike Greek theaters, Roman
theater were exactly semicircular.

Greek Theater (Theater of Dionysus - Athens, Greece)

Source: Fazio, Michael W., Marian Moett, and Lawrence Wodehouse. A World History of Architecture. 3rd ed. London: Laurence King, 2013. Print. p.124-5

Source: Roth, Leland M. Understanding Architecture: Its Elements, History, and Meaning. New York, NY: Icon Editions, 1993. Print.

Image Source: http://www.cornellcollege.edu/classical_studies/lit/cla364-1-2006/01groupone/Scenery.htm

Image Source: https://www.whitman.edu/theatre/theatretour/aspendos/images/large%20images/aspendos.plan.jpg

Image Source: http://www.girlintrepid.com/2011/04/28/exploring-the-archaeological-sites-of-athens/

Image Source: http://www.tourmakerturkey.com/uploads/8/7/4/4/8744530/2317877_orig.jpg


Architecture: Public Buildings Amphitheaters
Athletic competitions and were also
part of the Roman culture. These
were inherited from the ancient
Greeks, but the Romans also added 510 f
t (156
gladiator combats of the Etruscans, m)
which they needed a stadium to )
m
stage these events. (188
t
5f
The principal Roman innovation in 61

theater design was to combine two


theaters to form the oval
amphitheater (amphi meaning
both sides, so a theater on both
sides) devoted to gladiatorial
contests and other large-scale
amusements.
Greatest of all was the Flavian
Amphitheater in Rome (aka the
Colosseum), completed in 80 CE. It
can seat 50,000 people. Seating are
separated according to social status, Flavian Amphitheater (80 CE)

gender, profession, and marital


status.

Source: Fazio, Michael W., Marian Moett, and Lawrence Wodehouse. A World History of Architecture. 3rd ed. London: Laurence King, 2013. Print. p.124-5

Source: Roth, Leland M. Understanding Architecture: Its Elements, History, and Meaning. New York, NY: Icon Editions, 1993. Print.

Image Source: http://cdn.history.com/sites/2/2014/01/aerial-view-colosseum.jpg

Architecture: Public Buildings Amphitheaters


Seating arrangement of the Flavian Amphitheater
The Velarium
Velarium or awning could be extended with ropes
and pulleys to shade spectators. Shades are either
made from sailcloth, linen or cotton.

Maenianum Secundum In Lignies


Steep wooden seats mostly for women, slaves and
common poor.

Maenianum Secundum Summum


Reserved for Plebeians. Divided to two sections.
Upper part (summum) for poor citizens.

Maenianum Secundum Imum


Reserved for Plebeians. Divided to two sections.
Lower part (imum) for wealthy citizens.

Maenianum Primum
Non-senatorial noble class, knights

Ima Cavea Emperor, Vestal Virgins, Priests, Senators

Image Source: http://fineartamerica.com/featured/colosseum-


cross-section-granger.html

Cross Section of the Flavian Amphitheater


Architecture: Public Buildings Amphitheaters
Under the arena floor are a series of subterranean
chambers and passageways through with lions and
other animals could be admitted to the arena floor.

Image Source: http://media.smithsonianmag.com/images/Colosseum-Secrets-animal-entrance-drawing-6.jpg


Source: Fazio, Michael W., Marian Moett, and Lawrence Wodehouse. A World History of Architecture. 3rd ed. London: Laurence King, 2013. Print. p.124-5

Source: Roth, Leland M. Understanding Architecture: Its Elements, History, and Meaning. New York, NY: Icon Editions, 1993. Print.

Architecture: Public Buildings Amphitheaters

Exterior design of the Flavian Amphitheater also


Corinthian Pilasters incorporated the Roman Orders. Stacked half columns in
the Roman Doric, Ionic and Corinthian orders combined
with the arches of the supporting barrel vaults to create
three stories of the facade. A fourth level of Corinthian
pilasters without arches completes the elevation around
two upper galleries.
Corinthian Columns

Ionic Columns

Roman Doric Columns

Flavian Amphitheater (80 CE)


Image Source: By Dili - Own work, CC BY-SA 2.5, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=2067974

Source: Fazio, Michael W., Marian Moett, and Lawrence Wodehouse. A World History of Architecture. 3rd ed. London: Laurence King, 2013. Print. p.124-5

Architecture: Public Buildings Stadiums


Even larger than the amphitheaters
were the stadiums, or circuses where
they were used for chariot races. The
biggest of them all was the Circus
Maximus, in Rome. Shaped like a
modern football stadium, but much
longer at 1,820 ft (555m) and
approximately 380 ft (115.8m) wide.

Circus Maximus (Reconstruction) 329BCE

Present day location of the Circus Maximus

Image Source: http://www.circusmaximus.us/circus3.jpg

Image Source: http://orig07.deviantart.net/1d05/f/2009/003/6/0/


circus_maximus_by_psbox362.jpg

Source: Roth, Leland M. Understanding Architecture: Its Elements, History, and


Meaning. New York, NY: Icon Editions, 1993. Print.
Architecture: Public Buildings Stadiums
The Circus Maximus has since Present Day - Piazza Navona

disappeared, but a smaller Circus of


Domitian survives as a ghost image in
the open space of Piazza Navona,
Rome, for the enclosing walls of the
circus seating were reused in medieval
building that were replaced with new
buildings in the Renaissance.

Reconstruction of Circus Domitian

Image Source: https://classconnection.s3.amazonaws.com/629/flashcards/514629/jpg/92_piazza_navona_31304970992470.jpg


Image Source: https://maitaly.wordpress.com/tag/stadium-of-domitian/
Source: Roth, Leland M. Understanding Architecture: Its Elements, History, and Meaning. New York, NY: Icon Editions, 1993. Print.

Architecture: Public Buildings Public Baths

Every significant Roman city would had at least one


Present Day - Rome theater and one bath. The Baths of Diocletian
(298-306 CE) were the largest complex in ancient
Baths of Diocletian (298-306CE)
Rome, covering almost 50 acres. Roman baths were
primarily hygienic facilities, but they also provided for
exercise, relaxation, and informal socializing.

Image Source: http://www.jebondono.com/TouristInRome/BathsOfDiocletian.html


Image Source: http://rubens.anu.edu.au/htdocs/bycountry/croatia/spalatro_palace_of_diocletian/split19.jpg
Source: Fazio, Michael W., Marian Moett, and Lawrence Wodehouse. A World History of Architecture. 3rd ed. London:
Laurence King, 2013. Print. p.121-122

Source: Roth, Leland M. Understanding Architecture: Its Elements, History, and Meaning. New York, NY: Icon Editions,
1993. Print.
Architecture: Public Buildings Public Baths
In 1561, Michelangelo converted the
frigidarium into the Church of S. Maria
degli Angeli.
Interior of the Baths of Diocletian

Entrance Present day - conversion of the interior frigidarium to the Church of S. Maria deli Angeli
Image Source: http://www.jebondono.com/TouristInRome/RomeImages/IMG_3025-20121026.jpg
Image Source: http://projectsreview2010.aaschool.ac.uk/submission/uploaded_files/DIP-14/Cristina.Asenjo-01%20Diocletian%20Bath.jpg
Image Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/04/3223_-_Roma_-_Santa_Maria_degli_Angeli_-_Interno_-_Foto_Giovanni_Dall'Orto_17-June-2007.jpg

Source: Source: Fazio, Michael W., Marian Moett, and Lawrence Wodehouse. A World History of Architecture. 3rd ed. London: Laurence King, 2013. Print. p.121-122

Overview Roman Architecture

Roman buildings, like the more elemental Greek buildings that influenced them,
addressed not the mysteries of the hereafter but the problems and civic needs of
the present. Roman structures were visually and intellectually comprehensible,
composed of parts that had recognizable proportional relationships and clear
connections. Then having found a new and pliable material in concrete, Roman
architects discovered ways of shaping and playing with space, of molding light
and shadow discoveries that have repeatedly inspired architects ever since.
(Roth, 1993 p. 278)

Image Source: http://www.destination360.com/europe/italy/rome/images/s/ancient-rome-architecture.jpg

Image Source: http://www.ancient.eu/uploads/images/1093.jpg?v=1431030132

Source: Roth, Leland M. Understanding Architecture: Its Elements, History, and Meaning. New York, NY: Icon Editions, 1993. Print.
Overview Egyptians / Greeks / Romans

Building Materials

Egyptian sun-baked mud brick and stone

mud, wood, plaster and stone, marble and limestone for


Greek
temples, fired brick

mud, wood, plaster and stone, marble and limestone for


Roman
temples, fired brick or terracota, concrete

http://i.dailymail.co.uk/i/pix/
2014/12/17/241ECF8600000578-2877547-image-
http://www.eartharchitecture.org/uploads/India_mud_brick.jpg http://www.allcountries.eu/PICTURE/greece/TheParthenon.jpg a-10_1418825400924.jpg

Sun-dried bricks Greek marble Roman concrete


Overview Egyptians / Greeks / Romans

Building Purpose

Pyramids - tombs for Pharoahs afterlife


Egyptian
Temples - to worship the gods

Object/art to honor the gods


Greek
Ornate outside but plain inside

Public buildings
Roman Ornate both exterior and interior, reflecting the pursuit
of pleasure

Pyramids of Giza Temple of Artemis Pantheon


Overview Egyptians / Greeks / Romans

Style of Columns

Egyptian Geometric, botanical, hathoric

Greek Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian orders

Tuscan, Roman Doric, Ionic, Corinthian and Composite


Roman
orders
Overview Egyptians / Greeks / Romans

Construction Details

Post and lintel


Egyptian
Temples - rectilinear in form

Post and lintel, pediment supported by columns, set on


Greek
a plight for a base, rectilinear in form

Arches, barrel vaults, domes


Roman
Variation in form, temples - set on a podium

Temple of Karnak The Parthenon Colosseum Temple of Fortuna Viliris


Roman architecture shapes spaces.
H. Khler , The Art of Rome and Her Empire 1963

Image Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/6c/Internal_Pantheon_Light.JPG


References

Fazio, Michael W., Marian Moffett, and Lawrence


Wodehouse. A World History of Architecture. 3rd ed.
London: Laurence King, 2013. Print.

Roth, Leland M. Understanding Architecture: Its Elements,


History, and Meaning. New York, NY: Icon Editions, 1993.
Print.

Gardner, Helen, and Fred S. Kleiner. Gardner's Art Through


The Ages: A Global History. 14th ed. Australia: Wadsworth,
Cengage Learning, 2013.