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In summary, bones and joints can be subjected to various

forces, but these forces can be resolved into basic components

that create tension, compression, shearing, twisting, and bending.

These forces cause internal, compressive, tensile, and shear

stresses in the tissue. The stiffness of a fixation construct used

to stabilize a fracture describes how much it deforms under a

given load acting in a specific direction. Stiffness may vary with

direction and is highly dependent on the shape of the fixation

construct. The effect of shape is described by the moment of

inertia. In combination with the moment of inertia, the elastic

modulus of the material describes how stiff the fixation will be

under load, and its ability to withstand the forces of, for example,

the patients weight during ambulation. Failure of fixation

results not only from loading above a constructs yield point

but also as a result of repetitive stress. Repetitive loading can

Table 1-2 Definitions of the Units Used to

Describe the Basic Properties of

Fracture Constructs

Force, newtons (N) 1 N = 0.2246 lbs

Displacement, millimeters (mm)

Stress, pressure, modulus, megapascals (MPa) with 1 MPa =

force of 1 N / area of 1 mm2

Modulus = stress / strain, in which stress units are MPa;

strain has no units

Strain (no units); strain = change in length (mm) / original


length (mm)

cause the growth of a crack at a stress concentrator, and can

be significantly accentuated by corrosion when the implant is

immersed in bodily fluids. Biologic tissues behave viscoelastically,

that is, they creep under constant load, stressrelax when

the elongation is fixed, and increase in stiffness as the rate

of load application increases. In this chapter, these mechanical

properties are described in basic units of measurements,

defined in Table 1-2.

http://cal.vet.upenn.edu/projects/saortho/chapter_12/12mast.htm

http://www.slideshare.net/ssaseendar/principles-of-fracture-management-
saseendar

http://www.slideshare.net/shimaa2022/bones-15742097?next_slideshow=1

Ketika terjadi respon berupa mekanik, maka akan terjadi pemindahan


energy (transferenergy) ke jaringan, sehingga terjadi shock wave kortex
tulang karena benturan dan terjadipemindahan energy. Ketika energy
yang dihasilkan melebihi batas toleransi jaringan maka, akanterjadi disfungsi
jaringan sehingga menyebabkan trauma dan dapat berakibat fraktur.Ketika
terjadi trauma, aliran darah ke jaringan meningkat sehingga menyebabkan
edemadan terjadi proses inflamasi. Karena terjadinya edema, maka saraf
yang mensyarafi daerahsekitar jaringan yang mengalami edema terjepit
sehingga menyebabkan rasa nyeri dan kebaspada daerah tersebut. Tubuh
manusia yang mengalami inflamasi akan terus melakukanhomeostasis maka
tubuh akan mengeluarkan agen kimia seperti histamine dan bradikinin
yang juga berperan dalam rasa nyeri.