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Technology & Innovation

the significant electrical circuit as a consequence


An integrated methodology parameters during the
design and verification
of traction power demand
in the simulated traffic

for 2x25 kV, 50 Hz traction phase. Since specialised


software solutions for power
conditions. Currently, in
fact, the continuous increase

system calculation supply system analysis


were not fully suited to
the analysis of electrified
in computational power
potentiality has drastically
reduced the requirement for
Evaluation of the regenerative braking railway systems, custom
designed software has been
simplified solutions since
it is possible to calculate
effects in a HS/HC railway line developed. The quantity of the steady-state condition
calculations required, due to of networks with thousand
the need to simulate various of nodes in the order of just
Prof. Ing. Alfonso Capasso possible traffic scenarios, a few seconds. Nowadays,
Dott. Ingg. Marco Ciucciarelli in some cases suggested some specialised software
Stefano Lauria drastically simplifying solutions for the analysis
the electric system by a of electric traction systems
La Sapienza - University of Rome
symmetrisation [4] and/or available on the market,
Dipartment of Electrical Engineering
by reducing the number of often lack flexibility and
conductors [5-7][11]. therefore cannot be adapted
The multiconductor model to the various design
proposed in [8] and [9] requirements; in addition,

Summary
The paper describes an
integrated calculation
methodology which, by
simulating railway traffic,
allows analysis of the
performance of 2x25 kV
50 Hz electric traction
systems. This methodology
performs a multiconductor
electrical analysis of the
traction circuit utilising
ATP-EMTP software
(Alternative Transient
Program-Electromagnetic
Transient Program) and
therefore additionally
allows calculation of
Fig.1 - General configuration of the 2x25 kV-50 Hz system ( from [1])
electromagnetic transients
and all possible failure
regimes. The analyses reduction in induced type includes the rail distributed the closed characteristics
presented refer to the electromagnetic interference shunt conductance of this type of commercial
application of the compared to other A.C. and only neglects the software package makes
methodology in question to railway supply systems capacitive couplings and verifying the simulation
the study of a high speed in use. Fig. 1 shows the the autotransformer no- methodologies and results a
railway line section in typical configuration of load currents thus giving difficult task.
steady-state operation, with the 2x25 kV-50 Hz railway quite precise results despite
particular emphasis on the An objective was therefore
supply system; its peculiar the method complexity set to develop a software
electrical and energetic structure and principle are increases with the number
effects of train regenerative solution capable of reliably
often described in national of trains within the line and accurately calculating
braking. technical literature, and section. 225 kV, 50 Hz electric
therefore the present paper Under specific operating traction systems, easily
1. Introduction cites the most relevant conditions, the complete highlighting electrical
It is well known that the descriptions for reference [1] multiconductor model values of possible interest,
225 kV, 50 Hz railway [2][3]. adopted in [10] for analysis which could also be
supply system in use in Italy The circuit complexity of the interaction with interfaced with the typical
for new High Speed/High of the 225 kV electric the electric supply system output of railway traffic
Capacity lines ensures an traction systems, requires (dissymmetry, faults), also simulators in order to
outstanding performance in use of computer tools appears to be suitably analyse even complex
terms of operation capacity, capable of solving very applicable to the study electromechanical
reliability and flexibility complex mathematical of electrical regimes scenarios.
as well as a substantial models in order to evaluate attained in the traction
Evaluation of the regenerative braking effects in a HS/HC railway line

2. The EMTP-IERSS Systems Simulation) totally checking, post-processing solved with a specific EMTP
package manages electromechanical and possibly archiving. code.
simulation, processing The VBA environment The adoption of a lumped-
The ATP-EMTP program, and presentation of allowed quick development parameters Pi model is
well known internationally results interfacing within of client interfaces for widely justified, for steady-
as well as universally a Microsoft Windows improvement of the entire state power frequency
accessible, was chosen for environment with three pre- software but most notably it analyses, by the short length
simulation and electrical existing software programs: showed a very high database of the single line element
calculation of the 225, and file access speed. The with respect to the different
a railway traffic
50 Hz system; a new calculation phases can be 50 Hz wavelengths of the
simulator;
customised software was summarised as: railway line, ranging from
developed around this ATP-EMTP;
6000 km for the overhead
software called EMTP- Matlab. i - interfacing with the
conductors to 94 km for the
IERSS (EMTP Interface for traffic simulator;
The traffic simulator, rails.
Electric Railway Systems ii - ATP-EMTP based load
developed in an Excel As far as conductor
Simulation). It should be flow calculations;
environment using macros, arrangement is concerned
noted that ATP-EMTP, iii - pulling of results.
calculates the power drawn the following 4 typological
nowadays recognised at
on the pantograph by each sections have been taken
an international level as
single train in a specified 3. ATP-EMTP modelling into consideration:
being amongst the most
reliable electric power traffic scenario and within a of the electric supply
embankment/cutting;
system simulation software certain time interval, step by system
step; the program also takes viaduct;
programs, has already
into account the line traffic The equivalent electric natural tunnel;
been utilised at a design
(train headway along the circuit of a two-track 2x25 artificial tunnel.
stage, for analysis of some
up and down-line, starting kV-50 Hz high-speed/high-
types of specific electrical Messenger wires and contact
time delay between up-line capacity railway line is
phenomena (faults, wires were replaced by a
and down-line train fleets composed of 14 conductors
overvoltages) on high speed single equivalent conductor,
- referred to as time-shift in a given section (fig. 3),
railway lines. However, the suitably located, thus
from here on). namely rails (R1P,R1D, R2P,
direct application of the reducing the equivalent
ATP-EMTP is utilised as the R2D), overhead ground wires
above mentioned software circuit complexity to
electrical networks solver (CTP, CTD), buried linear
program to railway lines 12 conductors; sags of
routine, with additional grounding conductors (DIP,
is a complex task, with messenger wires, overhead
load-flow functionality DID), feeders (FDP, FDD),
regards to the development ground wires and feeders
supplied by the EMTP- messenger wires and contact
of equivalent circuit models were calculated for a
IERSS; finally, specific wires (COP, COD). Grounded
and, above all, with regards temperature of 55 C.
Matlab applications are used conductors are also bonded
to pulling and processing Particularly important is
for the automatic plotting of at regular intervals by
of results; consequently its the model implemented
graphs relating to the most means of equipotential
utilisation for parametric for rails and buried linear
significant electrical values. connections.
analysis purposes and /
or simulation of several The EMTP-IERSS
traffic scenarios, becomes structure was developed
practically impossible. in a Microsoft Excel
A software architecture environment and essentially
which uses ATP-EMTP consists of several
as a central solver, has macros, in other words
been therefore developed executive codes written
to manage automation in VBA (Visual BASIC for
phases, control, result post- Application).
processing and presentation This allows development, in
(fig. 2). a single file, of a structure
The complex structure based on the creation of
obtained, named EMTP- several databases where data
IERSS (EMTP Interface and results obtained from
for Electric Railway the macros can be saved for

Fig. 3 - Embankment cross-section of the 2x25 kV-50 Hz line


!"#$!%&
' !((")&*"+,#!'- Multiconductor line model grounding conductors. Each
consists of cascaded single rail is represented
lumped-parameter Pi- by an equivalent non-
circuits (fig. 4), each one ferromagnetic cylindrical
representing a 250 m line conductor of 220 mm
section (equipotential diameter (i.e. the perimeter
bonding connections occur of a UNI 60 rail), of which
at multiples of 250 m, i.e. the internal impedance
Fig. 2 - Block diagram of the EMTP-IERSS package 750 and 1500 m) that is accounts satisfactorily for
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load-flow algorithm takes load flow algorithm for the
into account the real P-V electric network solution
limit curve that defines (a linear network with the
the relation between exception of the loads,
active power demand and that is the trains); network
pantograph voltage. figs.5 solution is achieved by
and 6 show respectively iteratively adjusting
the two cases of traction the train equivalent
and recovery braking for impedances, according to
an ETR500 train. As far as the voltage values calculated
braking is concerned, the in the preceding calculation
standard curve implemented step, till reaching the
in most simulations is convergence; (a modification
named Case 1 in fig. 6 of the previous algorithm,
while Case 2 and Case often named YBUS and
3 variations refer to some commonly used in the
of the simulations detailed distribution network,
in 6. considers the variation of

Fig. 4 - Synthetic representation of a nominal Pi circuit and the


equivalent multipole

the 50 Hz skin effect of the i - inductive connections


rail. Shunt conductance, every 1500 m;
being the running rails ii - transformers and
included in a transmission autotransformers,
line model with conductors represented by
usually insulated from standard models Fig. 5 - Active power demand - pantopraph voltage limit curve of the
ground, was simulated by according to the ETR500AV train (traction)
linear lumped resistances relevant rating values;
connected to ground at
iii - train itself,
the ends of each 250 m
represented as a
Pi-circuit. The adopted
lumped impedance
representation is widely
connected between
accepted in most real cases
contact wire and
that can be found in the
rails at one end of
electric traction circuits [12],
a Pi-circuit; the
with the exception of some
complex impedance
specific situations where
evaluated by EMTP-
rails are poorly insulated
IERSS can have any
from ground (i.e. g=10 S/km)
argument, allowing
or in case of high resistivity
to reproduce a four-
soil ( =4000 m). Fig. 6 - Active power demand-pantograph voltage limit curve of the
quadrant operation
The equipotential ETR500AV train (braking phase) (Case 1: standard characteristics,
in the (P,Q) plane; as
connections between Case 2 and Case 3 modified characteristics, see 6)
the impedance can
overhead ground wires and only be connected
buried linear grounding Train electric modelling by the nodal current injections
at the Pi-circuit means of active and reactive equivalent to the loads).
conductors (they are ends, the simulated
connected to the contact power demands (constant or The relevant algorithm is
position of the train variable in a defined range illustrated in fig. 7. That
line masts every 50-60 along the line is
meters) are simulated at of the pantograph voltage) iterative procedure accepts
affected by a 125 m makes the equivalent maximum tolerances of
250 m intervals; overhead approximation.
ground wires running along impedance non-linear thus 0.5% with respect to the
the up and down lines are requiring the utilisation of active power constraints set
4. Load-flow
bonded every 750 m (three specific iterative load flow by the traffic simulator.
implementation algorithms for the solution
cascaded Pi-circuits). The The adopted algorithm
following elements have of the electric network non- is very robust, achieving
Although the input for the
been moreover included in linear equations. Radial always convergence up to
train electric modelling
the equivalent circuit: operation of the 2x25 kV-50 the physical loadability
is represented by the active
Hz system suggested the limit of the line; in addition
power value as given
utilisation of a specific it can be easily implemented
by traffic simulator, the
Evaluation of the regenerative braking effects in a HS/HC railway line

of both the Novara Node time, the overall active


interconnection and the power and energy demand
connecting section with the for the traffic scenario under
3 kV d.c. system, of which consideration, whereas figs.
the relevant POC (AC/DC 11 and 12 respectively show
separation Point) is located the active power demand
at km 85.300. and the pantograph voltage
Fig. 8 shows the single-line of a given train (TAD in fig.
diagram of the 25 kV-50 9) running the up-line from
Hz power supply system Settimo T. to the Novara
under normal operating Ovest interconnection.
condition, including the It is moreover obviously
specific location of ESSs possible to achieve other
and PAPs (Paralleling and quantities such as power
Auto-Transformation Posts) and current values in
along the Torino-Novara the different PAPs; in
high-speed/high-capacity general the program can
railway line. access and evaluate all
Under normal operation the electrical quantities
conditions only one 60 of the supply system. As
MVA transformer per ESS an exemplification of the
supplies both the traction achievable output variety,
circuits north and south of fig. 13 shows the active
the ESS itself. In all PAPs power demand and losses
only one autotransformer of TR3 transformer in the
is in operation with the Greggio ESS, whereas fig.
exception of the Alice 14 shows the track voltage

Fig. 7 - Flow-chart of the implemented load flow algorithm

by using the ATP-EMTP in the Chivasso ESS.


initialization (phasor) Despite the low sampling
routine as network solver. frequency of the available
As shown by flow-chart in fixed instrumentation it
fig. 7, the proposed software was possible to verify the
calculates the initial value good match, in terms of
of the impedance vector energy demand, with the
while the ATP-EMTP core calculation results.
software solves iteratively
a multiconductor and 5. Application to the
unsymmetrical linear study of the Torino- Fig. 8 - Single-line power supply diagram of the 2x25 kV 50 Hz HS/HC
network, the constant Novara HS/HC Torino-Novara railway line
impedance loads being railway line
recalculated in each Castello PAP where a phase at the TAD train location,
single step of the iterative The EMTP-IERSS change occurs, requiring measured with respect to
procedure. Load-flow calculation procedure was the operation of both the voltage of the system
algorithm is endowed with applied to the operation autotransformers being reference node, that is the
an outer control loop (fig. simulation of the high- one connected to the north remote ground.
7) taking into account the speed/high-capacity railway traction circuit and the
real traction characteristics line sub-section Torino- other to the south circuit. 6. Analysis of
of figs. 5 and 6; this loop Novara, part of the overall regenerative braking
modifies the active power project of the Torino-Milano Analysis results here
presented refer to one of effects
constraint of a given train HS connection, about 125
when the pantograph voltage km in length. The Torino- many simulated traffic
scenarios, namely the The regenerative braking
is such to impose a voltage- Novara sub-section, covering advantages are well known
dependant behaviour of a distance of about 91 km scenario with 15 minutes
train headway and 0 in the subway traction field,
power demand instead of a almost completely outdoor, due to extensive studies and
constant power behaviour. was put in operation on minutes time-shift between
trains entering the line at a long dated-back operation
An early experimental February 2006. The analysis experience (see for instance
here proposed refers to the the two opposite ends. As
verification of the EMTP- shown by the train path [13]). The frequent starting/
IERSS software was carried 2x25 kV-electrified line stopping cycles consequent
section between the Torino of fig. 9, this turns to have
out by comparing the at most two trains on each to the presence of numerous
simulation results with POC (AC/DC separation stations, together with
Point) at km 2.250 and the track at any given instant.
some power, energy and the line planimetric and
voltage measurements starting point, at km 84.000, Figure 10 shows, versus
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altimetric characteristics,
imply that during rush
hours the average recovered
energy can even reach 15-
20% of total consumption.
In high-speed railway lines,
differently from subway
lines, braking phases only
occur at the end of the
line sections or at the line
junctions/interconnections,
also as a consequence
of low line slopes, very
large curve radii and an
almost complete absence
of intermediate stops.
The energy balance of
regenerative braking
in high-speed railways
has been then largely
overlooked, attention being
Fig. 9 - Train Path for the reference traffic scenario (15 minutes headway, 0 minutes time-shift) mostly focused on savings
deriving from running
optimization [14].

6.1 Effects of line traffic


The EMTP-IERSS software
package allows to evaluate
all traffic-related issues
when studying regenerative
braking in a.c. traction
systems, taking into account
all the electromechanical
aspects characterizing this
phenomenon.
The reference case in fig. 9
(15-minutes headway and
0-minutes time-shift) makes
it possible to verify that the
positions of two different
trains within the line and
Fig.10 - Overall power ed energy demands for the reference traffic scenario (15 min. headway, 0 minutes time-shift) the possible simultaneous
occurrence of braking and
acceleration phases have a
significant influence on this
phenomenon.
The consideration of both
the traction supply system
diagram of the Torino-
Novara line section (fig. 8)
and the Train Path of fig.
9, reveals that only two
trains, TAD and TBP, fall
inside the line section
from Settimo T. POC (AC/
DC separation Point) to
Chivasso ESS, between t=70
s and t=180 s; in particular
train TAD running the
down line is in traction
phase while train TBP
running the up-line is in
braking phase. Paralleling
connections between tracks
allow the exchange of the
Fig. 11 - Active power demand at pantopraph of train TAD of Figure 9 vs. time excess braking energy
Evaluation of the regenerative braking effects in a HS/HC railway line

between the Up and Down


lines and make the line
fully receptive in terms of
braking energy recovery
capability. Fig. 15 shows
both power demand and
pantograph voltage increase
of the TAD train, that is in
regenerative braking phase
between t=1030 s and t=1140
s, anyway respecting the
limit curve of fig. 6.
A parametric analysis was
subsequently performed on
the HS/HC Torino-Novara
line section by varying
both train headway and
time-shift between up-
line and down-line train
fleet, in order to evaluate
the influence of main
Fig. 12 - Pantograph voltage for train TAD of Figure 9 vs. time traffic parameters on the
recovered energy amount.
The parametric analysis
results are synthetically
shown in fig. 16, where
the regenerative braking
efficiency (recovered
energy/theoretically
recoverable energy), a
significant measure of the
line receptivity, is plotted
as a function of both
traffic variables (headway
and time-shift), being the
theoretically recoverable
energy equal to train kinetic
energy variation as given
by traffic simulator, net of
conversion efficiency.
Figs 17 and 18 show the
cross-sections of the surface
Fig. 13 - Active power demand and losses of transformer TR3, Greggio ESS in fig. 16 representing the
braking efficiency curves
versus time-shift (for a
15-minutes headway) and
respectively versus headway
(for a 0 minutes time-shift).
When line receptivity is low
due to a higher headway,
pantograph voltage could
reach the limit beyond
which the regenerative
braking energy is partially
dissipated on rheostats (see
fig. 6), leading to a decrease
in the energetic efficiency as
shown in fig. 16.
This decrease is influenced
by both traffic conditions
and planimetric and
altimetric characteristics
of the line section; in the
present case, characterised
by the absence of
Fig. 14 - Track voltage at the TAD train location, vs. time intermediate stops and by
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a mainly flat and straight
layout, braking efficiency
is always greater than 0.95.
Table 1 finally reports the
main results of simulations
performed by varying
the headway by 5-minute
increments in the (5-25)
minutes range, as well as
by varying the time-shift
by 2-minute increments in
the (0-8) minutes range.
Overall recovered energy is
comprised between 4% and
8% of overall train demand
according to the different
traffic conditions.
This parametric analysis
also shows that receptivity
is unaffected by the
time-shift as long as the
headway does not exceed
Fig. 15 - Pantograph active power demand and voltage of the TAD train (base case)
15 minutes, being all the
recovered energy used in
the railway line (i.e. drawn
by other trains) without
any feedback to the HV
network through the ESSs.
For headways exceeding 20
minutes, receptivity falls
sharply, because in this case
there are no trains with
opposite running phases
(acceleration and braking)
along the same line, being
the braking energy transfer
only possible between trains
running the two different
electrically connected lines.
As far as this energy
transfer is concerned, for
headways greater than 20
minutes, the time-shift of
the train entrances in the
up-line and down-line is
Fig. 16 - Recovered energy/recoverable energy ratio as a function of traffic parameters (headway and time-shift)
even more important as it
can influence the possible
contemporary presence of
two trains on the same sub-
section in opposite running
phases.
The recovered energy, when
not occasionally drawn
by the train running the
opposite line, is fed back
into the HV supply network,
obviously net of line losses
and rheostatic dissipation
energy limiting the
pantograph voltages).

6.2. Influence of line


voltages
Voltage drops associated
Fig. 17 - Comparison between theoretical and actual (simulated) energy recovery as a function of time-shift (15 to power flows in a.c.
minutes headway) traction lines, especially
Evaluation of the regenerative braking effects in a HS/HC railway line

during regenerative braking


when train power factor is
approximately close to unity
(cos!=1), are significantly
affected, differently from
the HV transmission system
case, by line resistance
(not negligible with respect
to line reactance) with
consequent variations of the
line voltage r.m.s. value.
For high no-load voltage
values in the ESS and
low traffic conditions,
pantograph voltage of the
braking train could rise up
to the maximum allowable
limit (29 kV) possibly
causing undue trips of
pantograph maximum
Fig. 18 - Comparison of theoretical and actual (simulated) energy recover as a function of train headway voltage protection relays
(0 minutes time-shift) of other trains entering the
same line section.
In principle, the standard
train braking P-V curve
(Case 1 in fig. 6) could be
modified by reducing the
knee voltage Umax1 and the
limit voltage Umax2. The
effects of such modifications
on the recovery braking
characteristics have
been here evaluated by
simulating the same base
traffic scenario with
the two other braking
characteristics of Figure 6,
as achieved by reducing the
Umax1 and Umax2 values by
either 1 kV (Case 2 in fig.6)
or 2 kV (Case 3).
Figs. 19 and 20 show, for the
three considered cases, the
active power demand and,
respectively, the relevant
pantograph voltage of train
TAD, with a particular
attention to the braking
time-window. Cut of the
allowable braking voltages,
Table 1 - Summary of performed simulations results while causing only a slight
reduction (less than 1%)
in the pantograph voltage
strongly reduces the power
reinjection from the braking
train and then the recovered
energy. Simulation results
presented in Table 2 show
that the recovered energy
amount drops from 100%
(Case 1) to 70% (Case 2)
till to 0 (Case 3).
Simulation results show
that the modification of
the braking limit curve
Table 2 - Energy-related results of the simulations under light load conditions
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determines a huge reduction
of regenerable energy,
against a small reduction
of pantograph voltages. In
order to reduce line voltages
in light load conditions
without compromising
energy recover, the supply
system can be operated
with slightly lower no-load
supply voltages in the ESSs,
while keeping the nominal
limit P-V braking curves.
The real effect of this
measure was verified
by simulating the base
electromechanical scenario
and setting at 26.5 kV the
ESSs no-load voltages (Case
4 in Table 2). Case 4 of Table
2 shows that lower no-load
voltages in the ESSs turn
into an increase of the ESSs
Fig. 19 - Active power demand at the pantograph of TAD train versus Time, for the three different braking curves overall energy demand,
of fig. 6 if compared with Case 1
results, as a consequence of
the reduction (around 3%)
of the 25 kV transmission
efficiency; on the other
hand, regenerative braking
achieves 100% energy
recovery while line voltages
are kept fully compliant
with the European
Interoperability Technical
Specification limits [15].

Fig. 20 - Pantograph voltage of TAD train versus Time, for the three different braking curves of fig. 6

Table 3 - Results of simulations with 15 minutes headway and ESS neutral sections in open position
Evaluation of the regenerative braking effects in a HS/HC railway line

6.3. Influence of the


traction supply
system configuration
(switching
arrangements)
on the network
receptivity
Results of the above
illustrated parametric
analysis are obviously
related to the simulated
traction supply
configuration as the closure
of the SSE neutral sections
and the utilisation of only
one supply transformer, (fig.
8), make the traction circuit
electrically continuous
along half the line length
(that is about 50 km); the
Fig. 21 - Traction supply single-line diagram configuration with two transformers operating in each ESS
energy injected by braking
trains can thus be drawn
by other electrically to 8 minutes. The energetic energy reduction with the powerful and reliable
near trains. This network parameters differences respect to those case studies ATP-EMTP software to the
configuration makes the reveal to be small but where the SSE neutral simulation of 2x25 kV-50
railway line capable or anyway significant of the sections are operated in Hz traction power supply
partially capable to directly actual electromechanical closed position (cases 13, systems. The ATP-EMTP,
use the braking energy, phenomena. 18 and 23 of Table 3). a universally accessible
even for a train separation Line operation with the and internationally
In cases 3 and 8 of Table 3, recognised tool, is suitable
distance of about 50 km. ESS neutral sections in
relevant to time-shifts of 0 for the calculation
It can then guarantee, for open position implies the
and 2 minutes respectively, of multiconductor,
train headways below 20 subdivision of the line into
the two configurations yield symmetrical or
minutes, a sufficient traction electrically independent
the same results, as the unsymmetrical, electric
demand that makes the sections thus sharply
train running the up-line (in power systems, both in
braking energy transmission reducing, being identical
braking phase) and the train steady-state and in transient
back to the HV network not the traffic condition, the
running the down line (in conditions.
necessary. capability to transfer the
traction phase) are located
An energetic analysis of within the same line section braking train recoverable This methodology was
regenerative braking effects (supplied by the transformer energy to the trains in applied to the analysis of
has been considered quite TR1 in the Chivasso ESS). traction phase. the Torino-Novara HS/
interesting; in particular When the time-shift is Differences in the energetic HC line section, with a
the above illustrated results increased up to 4-8 minutes, parameters concerning the particular focus on the
have been compared with the two trains falls within two traction supply system electric and energetic
the results achieved with two different line sections, configurations become effects of train regenerative
a different traction circuit supplied by different obviously appreciable braking. The achieved
configuration where the transformers (namely TR1 only in high traffic results allowed to show the
ESSs are operated with and TR2 of Chivasso ESS), so density conditions (train influence of some specific
their neutral section in that they cannot exchange headway not greater than parameters on the recovered
open position and both the any braking energy that is 15 minutes); the traction energy amount, such as
transformers in operation. anyway fed back to the HV supply system configuration train headway, time-shift
In this specific case the supply system through the with ESS neutral sections between train departures
traction supply line ESS. in closed position is at the two opposite ends
is subdivided into 4 anyway better suited to the of the line, ESS no-load
The absence of other loads voltages, maximum allowed
electrically independent (trains in traction phase) application of regenerative
sections which can not braking in all possible pantograph voltage under
within the same line section braking conditions and the
directly exchange any makes the pantograph traffic scenarios, because of
braking energy. Table 3 the relevant increase in the 25 kV traction power supply
voltage of the braking train scheme
shows the comparison of the to exceed the standard train receptivity.
energy-related simulation limits thus imposing the In particular, the parametric
results for the two supply 7. Conclusions study showed the possibility
rheostatic dissipation of
configurations, considering part of the braking energy. to achieve a nearly global
The integrated methodology recovery of braking energy,
a 15-minutes headway and a This kind of analysis, also presented in this paper with savings between 4%
time-shift between trains on applicable to the Novara- allows an easy and and 8% of overall energy
the opposite lines (up and side line sub-sections, systematic application of demand. The not negligible
down) varying from 0 up explains the recovered
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energetic implications of References
the regenerative braking
phenomenon should suggest [1] G. Guidi Buffarini, E. Mingozzi, V. Morelli, Criteri generali per
a deeper investigation about lalimentazione delle linee del sistema alta velocit italiano, AEI-
this system potentiality. Automazione Energia Informazione, vol. 8 n. 12, dicembre 1993,
The proposed procedure pp. 56-61.
would allow a realistic [2] G. Guidi Buffarini, V. Morelli, Criteri di progetto del sistema di
evaluation, based on trazione elettrica 25 kV, 50 Hz, per le nuove linee ferroviarie italiane
train paths, of the average ad alta velocit, Ingegneria Ferroviaria, novembre 1994.
recoverable energy in HS
line sections, particularly [3] G. Guidi Buffarini, A. Colla, A. Fumi, Levoluzione degli
in presence of mountain impianti di trazione elettrica a 25 kV in Italia, Ingegneria
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