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Electrolysis: the decomposition of a chemical substance (in solution or the molten state) by the
application of electrical energy

Identify the difference between elements, compounds and mixtures in terms of particle

- Element: made up of identical atoms

- Compound: a pure substance composed of simpler substances with 2 or more elements
chemically bonded
- Molecule: the smallest unit of a substance containing 1 or more elements (can be 1 atom)

Identify that the biosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere contain examples
of mixtures of elements and compounds

Atmosphere - Mixture of gases(mostly elements)

- Nitrogen, oxygen, argon
- Water, carbon dioxide, nitrogen dioxide
Hydrosphere - Water, carbon dioxide, sodium/calcium/magnesium chlorids/sulfates
- Oxygen, nitrogen
Lithosphere - Rocks: silicon, oxygen, various metals
- Sand: silicon dioxide, ground-up shells, dirt
- Mineral ores
- Coal, oil, natural gas
Biosphere - Carbon-containing compounds: proteins, fats, vitamins

Identify and describe procedures that can be used to separate naturally occurring
mixtures of:

- Solids of different sizes

o Sieving separate small particles from large ones (eg. at quarries fine sand
separated from coarser material)
- Solids and liquids
o Filtration liquid/solution passes through paper, suspended solid stays on top
o Sedimentation + decantation solid settles to bottom and liquid carefully poured
- Dissolved solids in liquids
o Evaporation liquid heated to temp below BP so particles vaporise
o Boiling liquid heated to BP so liquid vaporises and solid remains
- Liquids
o Distillation (if BP sufficiently different) substance heated to boiling liquid with
lower BP vaporises first vapour rises and diffuses down side arm into water-
cooled condenser condenses and collected as liquid
o Fractional distillation (similar BP) fractionating column allows repeated
condensation/vaporisation eventually pure sample of more volatile emerges
o Separating funnel (immiscible liquids) put in separating funnel run off bottom
- Gases
o Distillation/fractional distillation gases liquefied fractionally distilled
o Solubility pass mixture though bubbler + U-tubes dissolves some gases,
condenses some
Eg. natural gas (containing CO2, hydrogen sulfide, water
Assess separation techniques for their suitability in separating examples of earth
materials, identifying the differences in properties which enable these separations

- Natural gas (above) uses different solubilities, boiling points

- Saltwater evaporation uses boiling points
- Crude oil fractional distillation uses diff. but similar BPs
- Argon from air fractional distillation separates nitrogen, then argon, then oxygen (diff. but
similar BPs)

Describe situations in which gravimetric analysis supplies useful data for chemists and
other scientists

- The process of separating components of an original mixture to find the composition of a

mixture in terms of grams and percentage mass that involves weighing
- A mining company wants to know composition of particular ore sample to see if its
economic to mine the ore

Apply systematic naming of inorganic compounds as they are introduced in the


Identify IUPAC names for carbon compounds as they are encountered

Explain the relationship between the reactivity of an element and the likelihood of its
existing as an uncombined element

- The more reactive less chance of finding it in earth as an uncombined element

- Because if more reactive then when contact with other elements it may react to form

Classify elements as metals, non-metals and semi-metals according to their physical


Metals Non-metals Semi-metals

Usually solid at room temp Usually gas/liquid (low BP) Properties of both classes
(high BP)
Shiny/lustrous appearance Dull
Conduct heat/electricity Dont conduct electricity/little
heat conductivity
Malleable and ductile Brittle
High strength Low strength

Account for the uses of metals and non-metals in terms of their physical properties

METALS Use Properties NON-METALS Properties

Aluminium Aircraft low density Carbon graphite Electrodes electrical
Iron Motor cars/trains high tensile Carbon diamond Jewellery very hard,
strength scatters light (high
refractive index)
Copper Electrical wiring high Liquid nitrogen Cooling agent
electrical conductivity suitability of MP/BP
Tungsten Filaments in light bulbs high

Identify that matter is made of particles that are continuously moving and interacting

Describe qualitatively the energy levels of electrons in atoms

- Electrons surround nucleus by orbiting in discrete energy levels

- Each energy level accommodates certain number of electrons and has certain amount of
- Number of electrons: 2n2
- Electron configuration: arrangement of electrons in energy levels

Describe atoms in terms of mass number and atomic number

- Atom consists of nucleus with proton/neutron and electron cloud

- Atomic number: number of protons in nucleus
- Mass number: protons + neutrons

Describe the formation of ions in terms of atoms gaining or losing electrons

- Atoms can transfer electrons to obtain noble gas configurations

- When an atom gains or loses an electron to obtain ^ it becomes an ion
- Because not equal number of protons/electrons atom is positively/negatively charged

Apply the periodic table to predict the ions formed by atoms of metals and non-metals

Apply lewis electron dot structures to:

- The formation of ions

- The electron sharing in some simple molecules

Describe the formation of ionic compounds in terms of the attraction of ions of opposite

- Ions are positively/negatively charged

- When an atom transfers electrons, forming ions there is strong electrostatic attraction
between the ions of opposite charge holds them together in ionic compound/bonding

Describe molecules as particles which can move independently of each other

Distinguish between molecules containing one atom (noble gases) and molecules with
more than one atom

Describe the formation of covalent molecules in terms of sharing of electrons

- Covalent bonds formed between pairs of atoms by atoms sharing electrons shared pair of
electrons orbits nuclei of both atoms holding atoms together in covalent molecule
- Covalent molecule made up of atoms covalently bonded by sharing electrons
- Covalent molecular substance: made up of covalent molecules

Construct formulae for compounds formed from:

- Ions
- Atoms sharing electrons

Identify the differences between physical and chemical change in terms of

rearrangement of particles

- Chemical: breaks up particles and rearranges the atoms

- Physical: rearrange particles without changing their nature

Summarise the differences between the boiling and electrolysis of water as an example
of the difference between physical and chemical change

Boiling Electrolysis
No new substance converts liquid water to Produces 2 new substances
Easily reversed cool the vapour to liquid Hard to reverse
Less energy required Much more energy required
- Boiling doesnt alter particles (molecule) only separates them from each other water
vapour contains same water molecules as liquid water

Identify light, heat and electricity as the common forms of energy that may be released
or absorbed during the decomposition or synthesis of substances and identify examples
of these changes occurring in everyday life

- Decomposition:
o Calcium carbonate (limestone) decomposed to make lime, cement, glass
o Aluminium extracted by electrolysing molten aluminium oxide
- Direct combination:
o Rusting of iron to form iron(III) oxide
o Lightning creates such high temp that N2 and O2 gases form nitric oxide

Explain that the amount of energy needed to separate atoms in a compound is an

indication of the strength of the attraction, or bond between them

- Stronger the bonds/strength of attraction more energy needed to separate the atoms
- Stronger the chemical bonding the more energy released when the compound is formed

Identify differences between physical and chemical properties of elements, compounds

and mixtures

Physical Chemical
Elements - Metals - Metals: form cations/basic
- Non-metals oxides/ionic chlorides
- Semi-metals - Non-metals: form anions/acidic
oxides/covalent chlorides
Compound - Ionic - Different chemical properties to
s o Solid constituent elements
o Soluble - Can be decomposed to component
o Conduct electricity when elements/simpler compounds
dissolved in solution (not solid)
- Covalent molecule
o Dont conduct electricity
o Low MP
o Soft, brittle
- Covalent network
o Non-conductors
o Insoluble
o Very high MP
o Very hard/brittle
Mixtures - Heterogenous - Demonstrate chemical properties of
o Demonstrate physical properties constituent pure substances
of constituent substances
o Dont look same throughout
- Homogenous
o Physical properties of
constituent substances
o Looks same throughout

Describe the physical properties used to classify compounds as ionic, or covalent

molecular or covalent network

- Ionic
o Solid at room temp
o Hard/brittle
o Conduct electricity as liquid/dissolved
- Covalent molecular
o Gases/liquids
o Dont conduct electricity
- Covalent network
o Solid very high MP
o Hard
o Dont conduct electricity except graphite

Distinguish between metallic, ionic and covalent bonds

Metallic Ionic Covalent

Lattice of positive metal ions in Electrostatic attraction Sharing of electrons between
sea of delocalised electrons between positive cation and atoms shared pair of
negative anion caused by electrons orbits nuclei of both
transfer of electrons atoms, holding them together

Describe metals as three-dimensional lattices of ions in a sea of electrons

- Delocalised electrons lost from valence shell of metal atom positive ions
- Attraction between positive metal ions/delocalised electrons is metallic bonding

Describe ionic compounds in terms of repeating three-dimensional lattices of ions

- Ionic compounds: infinite 3D array of cations and anions bonded by electrostatic attraction

Explain why the formula for an ionic compound is an empirical formula

- No discrete molecules, just infinite array of cations/anions

- Simplest ratio of ions present in the crystal determines empirical formula of ionic

Identify common elements that exist as molecules or as covalent lattices

Molecules: oxygen gas, carbon dioxide, water

Covalent lattice: diamond, sand (silicon dioxide)

Explain the relationship between the properties of conductivity and hardness and the
structure of ionic, covalent molecular and covalent network structures

Hard and brittle - Ions tightly bound by electrostatic forces

- Breaking lattice forces like charged ions together, when forced
together they repel accounts for hardness/brittleness
Non-conductor as solid - Ions in fixed positions
- Electrons strongly held by nuclei of ions no free electrons
Conductor as - Mobile ions can transfer electric charge


Soft - Intermolecular forces are weak

Non-conductor of - Molecules are uncharged
electricity - Electrons are localised in covalent bonds/with atoms


Hard and brittle - Atoms strongly bound in covalent bonds

- Strong covalent bonds very hard
Non-conductor of - Electrons are localised in covalent bonds or with atoms
Outline and examine some uses of different metals through history, including
contemporary uses, as uncombined metals or alloys

Metal Use
Copper - Over 8000yrs
- Electrical wiring
- Pipes and plumbing fittings
- Electroplating, jewellery, household decorations
Iron and steel - History: tools/weapons
(alloy of iron) - Railways, bridges, buildings
- Motor car bodies, ships, trains, heavy machinery in industry
- Pipes, nails, nuts, bolts
- Fridge, washing machine, domestic appliances
Lead - Car batteries
- Plumbing and in solder
Aluminium - Buildings (window/door frames, panelling)
- Aeroplanes, motor car parts
- Domestic pots/pans, wrapping foil, drink containers
- High voltage transmission lines

Describe the use of common alloys including steel, brass and solder and explain how
these relate to their properties

Metal Use How the use is related to properties

Brass (50-60% - Plumbing fittings - Lustrous gold appearance
copper with zinc) - Musical decorations/musical instruments
instruments, - Hard but easily machined plumbing
decorations fittings
Bronze (80-90% - Ships propellers - Hard, resists corrosion, easily cast
copper with tin) - Casting statues
Solder (30-60% - Joining metals - Low melting point and adheres firmly
tin with lead) together in to other metals when molten
plumbing/electroni joining metals

Mild Steel - Car bodies, pipes, - Soft, malleable roofing

(<0.2% carbon) nuts and bolts,
Chrome steel (2- - Safes, files, ball - Hard, shock resistant structural
4% chromium) bearings purposes
Stainless steels - Food processing - Hard, resist corrosion
(10-20% machinery, kitchen knives/hammers
chromium, 5- sinks and
20% nickel) appliances,
cutlery, surgical
and dental
instruments, razor

Explain why energy input is necessary to extract a metal from its ore

- Most metals found in minerals and energy necessary to extract metal from
- Energy required to break metal ion-oxide bonds in the ore to separate pure metal from
other substances
Identify why there are more metals available for people to use now than there were 200
years ago

- Technology/science developed (eg. electricity, nuclear reactors) better metal extraction

techniques to extract more reactive metals (eg. aluminium) from compounds in nature
- Development of metallurgical skills for making new alloys

Describe observable changes when metals react with dilute acid, water and oxygen

- Metal + oxygen metal oxide

o Those that burn (eg. Mg) will form crystalline white solids with no physical
properties of original (lustre, strength, malleability, conductivity)
o Those that react slowly in room temp. (eg. Al, Zn) lose shiny lustre and some (Al,
Zn) are coated in dull layer of oxide preventing further reaction
- Metal + water metal hydroxide + hydrogen
o Bubbles of H2
o Na and K often produce flame as H2 ignites
o Some produce precipitate (calcium hydroxide)
- Metal + dilute acid salt + hydrogen
o Bubbles of H2
o If salt insoluble then precipitate formed

Describe and justify the criteria used to place metals into an order of activity based on
their ease of reaction with oxygen, water and dilute acids

Sodium Magnesium Iron Copper

Oxygen Yes Yes No No
Water Yes Yes No No
Acid Yes Yes Yes No
- From table Na and Mg least reactive sodium more reactive because reactions more
- Iron more reactive than copper because reacted in acid
- Using reactions with water, acid, oxygen effective in ranking activities based on whether or
not they react + violence of reaction

Identify the reaction of metals with acids as requiring the transfer of electrons

- Reactions of metals with acids transfers electrons from metal metal becomes positive

Outline examples of the selection of metals for different purposes based on their
reactivity, with a particular emphasis on current developments in the use of metals

- Non-reactive aluminium/cheaper galvanised iron roof guttering for houses

- Non-reactive copper/cheaper corrodible iron water pipes
- Cheap copper (forms non-conducting oxide layer)/gold electrical contacts for replaceable
circuit boards in comp/electronics
- Extremely inert titanium alloys/long term corrosion-susceptible stainless steel body

Outline the relationship between the relative activities of metals and their positions on
the Periodic Table

- Group 1 most reactive, reactivity decreases across period

- Reactivity increases down a group

Identify the importance of first ionisation energy in determining the relative reactivity
of metals

- Ionisation energy decrease = reactivity increase

Identify an appropriate model that has been developed to describe atomic structure
- Daltons atomic theory (1803 and 1808):
o Matter composed of tiny invisible particles called atoms
o All atoms of one element identical but diff from atoms of other elements
o Chemical reactions consist of combining, separating, rearranging atoms in simple
whole number ratios

Outline the history of the development of the Periodic Table including its origins, the
original data used to construct it and the predictions made after its construction

- 1829 Dobereiner drew attention to groups of 3 elements (triads) with similar properties
o Lithium, sodium, potassium
o Calcium, strontium, barium
o Chlorine, bromine, iodine
- 1864 John Newlands proposed law of octaves elements arranged in order of increasing
atomic weight
o 8th element starting from given one is like the first
o Identified many similarities among elements but required similarities where there
were none works up to calcium
- 1869 Dmitri Mendeleev and Lothar Meyer produced forerunner of modern periodic table
o Elements arranged in increasing atomic weight similar elements placed under
one another
o Periodic law: properties of the elements vary periodically with atomic weight
o Mendeleev left gaps because recognised probs undiscovered elements
Predicted the properties of 6 undiscovered elements elements later
discovered with properties very similar to his predictions
- 1914 Henry Moseley determined atomic number of elements which he proposed was basic
feature to determine properties (instead of atomic weight)
o Modified periodic law: properties of elements vary periodically with atomic number
Once recognised properties dependent on atomic number tendencies
towards relating layout of table to electron configuration developed
current table developed

Explain the relationship between the position of elements in the Periodic Table and:

- Electrical conductivity
o Decreases across periods
- Ionisation energy
o Increase across periods (gaining another proton, electrons in same shell stronger
o Decrease down group (gaining another shell electrons further from nucleus)
- Atomic radius
o Decrease across period (stronger attraction between electrons and protons)
o Increase down group (gaining another shell)
- Melting point
o Highest in middle of period (bonding and structure)
o Decreases down group (more outer shells attraction of electrons to nucleus
- Boiling point
o Highest in middle of period (bonding and structure)
o Decreases down group (more outer shells attraction of electrons to nucleus
- Combining power (valency)
o Increases across period to group 4 where it goes back down and increases again
o Same down a group
- Electronegativity
o Increase across periods (stronger attraction because more positive nucleus and
outer electrons added to same shell)
o Decrease down group (outer electrons further away as theyre added to new shell
big atoms with more shell)
- Reactivity
o Decrease across period
o Increase down period

Define the mole as the number of atoms in exactly 12g of carbon-12 (avogadros

- A mole of substance contains as many elementary units as number of atoms in exactly 12g
of Carbon-12
- This number is Avogadros number = 6.02 x 10 23

Compare mass changes in samples of metals when they combine with oxygen

- OEI, burning Mg to MgO mass increase (all metals)

Describe the contribution of Gay-Lussac to the understanding of gaseous reactions and

apply this to an understanding of the mole concept

- Gay-Lussacs law of combining volumes:

o When measured at constant temp and pressure, volumes of gases in chemical
reaction show simple whole number ratios to one another
Mole ratios can be considered as volume ratios
Volume of gaseous product/reactant can be used to calculate amount of
another gaseous product/reactant
Can use results from quantitative analyses of compounds/reactions to
determine formulae for compounds + relative atomic masses for elements
existence of formulae/atomic weights + ability to write chemical
equations essential for talking about moles critically important

Recount Avogadros law and describe its importance in developing the mole concept

- At same temp and pressure, equal volumes of gases contain same number of molecules
(vice versa)
- (same as above) determined formulae + atomic masses for elements existence of
formulae/atomic weights + ability to write chemical equations essential for talking about
moles critically important

Distinguish between empirical formulae and molecular formulae

- Empirical: ratio in which atoms are present in compound

- Molecular: how many of each type of atom in a molecule of the compound

Define the terms mineral and ore with reference to economic and non-economic
deposits of natural resources

- Ore: mineral of economic value, defined on economics only defined as ore if

commercially viable
- Mineral: compound found in rocks

Describe the relationship between the commercial prices of common metals, their
actual abundances and relative costs of production

- Prices affected by abundance, location, cost of extraction, cost of transportation, world-

wide demand
- Less abundance ores generally higher royalties more expensive
- Expensive to extract higher price
- If shipped from remote location higher price

Explain why ores are non-renewable resources

- They were formed when earth was formed and no way of forming more of them
Describe the separation processes, chemical reactions and energy considerations
involved in the extraction of copper from one of its ores

1. Ore is mined then crushed

2. Froth floatation to concentrate ores
a. air blown through tiny jets into detergent solution
b. froth forms
c. particles wetted by solution sink to bottom, particles not wetted are drawn inside
the bubbles and float to surface
d. froth is skimmed off and is richer in non-wettable particles than the starting
e. by adding certain oils to finely crushed ore, sulfide particles can be made non-
wettable so can be separated out (most copper ores in aus are sulfides)
3. Copper concentrate heated with sand produce 2 immiscible liquids: one mainly copper
sulfide, one with unwanted iron silicate (discarded)
a. Remaining iron in second liquid removed by reheating with more sand and air
bubbled through it
4. Copper sulfide liquid heated with air bubbled through it reduces sulfide to copper metal,
sulphur dioxide produced
a. Some sulphur dioxide doesnt leave until cooling copper almost solid blister
copper 98% pure
5. Copper can be purified to 99.95% by electrolysis

Chemical reactions

- Copper sulfide with oxygen:

o Cu2S (l) + O2 (g) 2Cu (l) + SO2 (g)
- Chalcopyrite, silica (sand) and oxygen copper sulfide, iron silicate, sulfur dioxide
o 2CuFeS2 (s) + 2SiO2 (s) +4O2 (g) 2Cu2S (l) + 2FeSiO3 (l) + 3SO2 (g)

Energy considerations

- Large amount of energy needed to extract metal from ore

- Energy needed to:
o Mine the ore
o Purify/concentrate the ore
o Maintain high temp to make extraction reactions go
o Purify raw metal/form it into useful alloys

Energy required for production of 1kg of certain metals

Metal From natural ores (megajoules) From recycled material

Aluminium 200 7
Copper 70 4
Mild steel 40 8

Recount the steps taken to recycle aluminium

1. Collect used products from homes, shopping centres, factories etc
2. Transport to central processing plant
3. Separate aluminium from impurities (eg. labelling, food remnants, dirt)
4. Re-smelt into ingots and transport to product manufacturers
Solute: minor component of solution, dissolved in solvent

Solvent: major component of solution which dissolves solute

Solution: a homogenous mixture with a completely dissolved solute in solvent

Identify the importance of water as a solvent

Compare the state, percentage and distribution of water in the biosphere, lithosphere,
hydrosphere and atmosphere

Outline the significance of the different states of water on Earth in terms of water as:

- A constituent of cells and its role as both a solvent and a raw material in
o Comprises approx. 70% of cells and keeps them turgid
o Solvent for life processes to occur (eg. metabolism)
o Raw material in chemical reactions essential for photosynthesis
o Transports nutrients to cells and remove waste products
o Thermal regulator by smoothing out sudden large temp change
o Metabolic water produced by respiration is important water source for living things
- A habitat in which temperature extremes are less than nearby terrestrial
o Water bodies have less temp. fluctuation (high heat capacity) than land/air
o Ice less dense than water float on surface of waterbody insulating layer allows
aquatic life to survive
- An agent of weathering of rocks both as liquid and solid
o Ocean waves and rains wear surface rocks
o Glaciers wear away rocks and cause significant erosion as they move down valleys
from mountain top to ocean
o Freeze-thaw mechanism of water freezing cracking rocks
o Chemically weather rocks by reacting with minerals converting them to more
easily eroded minerals
- A natural resource for humans and other organisms
o Drinking, food prep, washing, recreation
o Irrigating crops and watering livestock
o Fluid in electricity generating station and coolant in industries
o Hydro-electricity
o Reactant, solvent, cleaning agent in industry and waste disposal, settling dust
o Mode of transport

Construct Lewis electron dot structures of water, ammonia and hydrogen sulphide to
identify the distribution of electrons

Compare the molecular structure of water, ammonia and hydrogen sulphide, the
differences in their molecular shapes and in their melting and boiling points

Describe hydrogen bonding between molecules

- Intermolecular force involving H atom bonded to F,O,N in a molecule attracted to F,O,N

bonded to H in another molecule
- F,O,N are 3 most electronegative and H is least electronegative significant negative
dipole on F,O,N and significant positive dipole on H
- Stronger form of dipole-dipole force

Identify the water molecule as a polar molecule

Describe the attractive forces between polar molecules as dipole-dipole forces

- Polar molecules have a net dipole because electron pairs unevenly shared
o -> due to differences in electronegativity
o Molecules line up so that positive end of one attracts negative end of another
o Electrostatic attraction acting between opp.-charged poles of the molecules

Explain the following properties of water in terms of its intermolecular forces:

- Surface tension: measure of resistance of a liquid to increasing its surface area

- Viscosity: measure of resistance of a liquid to being poured or to flowing through a tube
- Boiling and melting points: weaker forces = lower BP/MP (less energy needed to
overcome/break forces); stronger forces = higher BP/MP (more energy needed)

Explain changes, if any, to particles and account for those changes when the following
types of chemicals interact with water:

- A soluble ionic compound (eg. NaCl)

o Anions and cations in ionic compound break apart
o Negative end of water surrounds the cation
o Positive end of water surrounds anion
- A soluble molecular compound (eg. sucrose)
o Break up into individual molecules
o Forms hydrogen bonds with water because contains many O H groups
- A soluble or partially soluble molecular element or compound such as iodine,
oxygen or hydrogen chloride
o Molecule has weak dispersion forces with water molecules
o Because these forces are weak only slightly soluble
- A covalent network structure substance such as silicon dioxide
o Insoluble no change because water cant break the strong covalent bonds
between atoms
- A substance with large molecules, such as cellulose or polyethylene
o Insoluble no change because large molecule held together by hydrogen bonds in
orderly way that water cant separate them from each other
H-bonding with substance can occur but these arent sufficient because
substance so strongly H-bonded to itself
o Some large proteins are soluble because their complex structures dont pack neatly
into crystals so water can separate molecules by H-bonding with it
Analyse the relationship between the solubility of substances in water and the polar
nature of the water molecule

- Polar nature allows for H-bonding, dipole-dipole or dispersion interactions between water
and substance
- Polar ends of water molecule surround the substance and break it apart by attracting
oppositely charged particles OR
- Hydrogen bonding which occurs because of polar nature and breaks apart the substance

Identify some combinations of solutions which will produce precipitates, using solubility

Describe a model that traces the movement of ions when solution and precipitation

- Saturated solution of lead nitrate add some lead nitrate crystals with radioactive lead
- Half hour later amount of solid lead nitrate in solution is the same but some radioactivity
detected in solution previously no radioactivity in solution concentration of lead ions in
solution and mass of solid not changed

Identify the dynamic nature of ion movement in a saturated dissolution

- Ions moving from solid into solution at the same time as ions moving from solution back
into solid
o Both occurring at equal rates so concentration of solution and mass of solid doesnt
change dynamic equilibrium

Describe the molarity of a solution as the number of moles of solute per litre of solution
using c=n/v

- Molarity is number of moles of solute per litre of solution

- Concentration of solute in terms of moles per litre (c=n/V)

Explain why different measurements of concentration are important

- Each method has advantage in particular situations

- Commerce, industry, shopping amount of solute present is main concern mass per unit
volume convenient easier to measure out volumes than mass
- If solute liquid: volume per unit volume preferred because liquid measure in volumes
- Environmental context: concentrations quite low ppm give more manageable numbers
- Quantities in chemical reactions: concentration in terms of moles convenient

Explain what is meant by the specific heat capacity of a substance

- Amount of heat required to raise temp of unit mass of substance by 1degree celcius (1
- Measured in joules per Kelvin per gram: J K-1 g-1

Compare the specific heat capacity of water with a range of other solvents
Explain and use the equation H = -mC T

- Change in heat = - mass x specific heat capacity x change in temp

Explain how waters ability to absorb heat is used to measure energy changes in
chemical reactions

- Because specific heart capacity of water known and if water mass known, temp change in
water observed to work out heat change in water hence energy change in chemical
reaction in/immersed in water

Describe dissolutions which release heat as exothermic and give examples

- Exothermic dissolutions that release heat

- Eg. dissolution of sodium hydroxide, sulfuric acid in water

Describe dissolutions which absorb heat as endothermic and give examples

- Endothermic dissolutions that absorb heat

- Eg. potassium nitrate in water, dissolution of ammonium chloride/silver nitrate

Explain why waters ability to absorb heat is important to aquatic organisms and to life
on earth generally

- High heat capacity stable temp allow aquatic organisms thrive

- Water within cells provide necessary temp regulation all living organisms
- Water in biosphere (oceans) moderates global temp more hospitable environment for all

Explain what is meant by thermal pollution and discuss the implications for life if a body
of water is affected by thermal pollution

- Discharges into river/lake of quantities of hot water large enough to increase temp. of
water body
- When river/lake water used for cooling in industry/electricity generation discharged back
into river/lake but 10-15degrees hotter
- Oxygen less soluble in hotter water 5degree increase lowers O2 concentration but 10-
o Causes stress to organisms
o Increased metabolism rates increases demand for oxygen (but less oxygen)
o Fish eggs dont develop/hatch if temp too high
o False temp. cues to aquatic life migration/spawning at wrong time of year
o Sudden temp. change kill fish eggs
o Lethal temp limits may be exceeded
Outline the role of photosynthesis in transforming light energy to chemical energy and
recall the raw materials for this process

- Photosynthesis is process plants transform light to chemical energy

Outline the role of the production of high energy carbohydrates from carbon dioxide as
the important step in the stabilisation of the suns energy in a form that can be used by
animals as well as plants

- Solar energy chemical energy energy is stored in the glucose

- Production of high energy carbohydrates (glucose) from CO2 stores suns energy in form
that can be used by animals and plants carbs in plants are energy source for animals
- Production of carbs by photosynthesis is main way solar energy collected for plants/animals

Identify the photosynthetic origins of the chemical energy in coal, petroleum and
natural gas

- Fossil fuels basically stored solar energy from photosynthesis

Identify the position of carbon in the periodic table and describe its electron

- Electron configuration is 2, 4

Describe the structure of diamond and graphite allotropes and account for their
physical properties in terms of bonding

Diamond Graphite
Structure - C atoms bonded to 4 other C atoms - C atom bonded to 3 other C
- Tetrahedrally arranged atoms
- Planar structure
Bonding - Covalent bonds/network - Covalent bonds/network
Physical properties - Doesnt conduct electricity - Conductor of electricity
- Transparent and brilliant (orderly - Slipperiness/lubricating (weak
arrangement of atoms throughout) intermolecular forces between

Identify that carbon can form single, double or triple covalent bonds with other carbon

Explain the relationship between carbons combining power and ability to form a variety
of bonds and the existence of a large number of carbon compounds

- Readily forms carbon-carbon bonds that can be single/double/triple

- Readily forms cyclic compounds (rings) and straight and branched chain compounds

Describe the use of fractional distillation to separate the components of petroleum and
identify the uses of each fraction obtained

Identify and use the IUPAC nomenclature for describing straight-chained alkanes and
alkenes from C1 to C8

Meth, eth, prop, but

Compare and contrast the properties of alkanes and alkenes C1 to C8 and use the term
homologous series to describe a series with the same functional group

Homologous series: family of compounds represented by 1 general molecular formula

Alkanes Alkenes
- MP/BP/dispersion forces increases with - MP/BP/dispersion forces increase with
molecular weight molecular weight (but BP slightly lower
- Volatility decreases with increase than alkanes)
molecular weight - Insoluble (non-polar)
- Insoluble (non-polar) - Dont conduct electricity
- Dont conduct electricity
C1/C2 Gases Gases
C5 C8 Colourless liquids Liquids

Explain the relationship between the melting point, boiling point and volatility of the
above hydrocarbons, and their non-polar nature and intermolecular forces (dispersion

- MP/BP increases as volatility decreases

- Because they are non-polar intermolecular forces are dispersion forces

Assess the safety issues associated with the storage of alkanes C1 to C8 in view of their
weak intermolecular forces (dispersion forces)

- Extremely flammable and can be toxic

- Weak intermolecular forces molecules held less strongly exist as gases/liquids so
harder to store
- Also high volatility
- Safety precautions
o Use well-maintained cylinders and fittings for gaseous hydrocarbons
o Add odours for early detection of leaks
o Use sturdy containers for liquids
o Minimise quantities in everyday use
o Keep alkanes away from naked flames/sparks
o Erect warning signs
o Dont handle liquids in confined spaces

Describe the indicators of chemical reactions

- Colour, production of energy (light, heat, noise etc), formation of new substances, process
cant be easily reversed

Identify combustion as an exothermic chemical reaction releases heat

Outline the changes in molecules during chemical reactions in terms of bond-breaking

and bond-making

Explain that energy is required to break bonds and energy is released when bonds are

- Breaking bonds in molecules input energy

- Making bonds release energy

Describe the energy needed to begin a chemical reaction as activation energy

- Minimum amount of energy reactant molecules must possess to form products

Describe the energy profile diagram for both endothermic and exothermic reactions

Explain the relationship between ignition temperature and activation energy

- Ignition temp: of fuel/air mixture is min temp to which mixture must be heated for
- Higher activation energy higher ignition temp

Identify the sources of pollution which accompany the combustion of organic

compounds and explain how these can be avoided

Carbon Sulfur dioxide Oxides of Particulates

monoxide/soot nitrogen
Source Incomplete Impurities in fuel, Reaction of O2 and
combustion commonly coal N2 in air from high
insufficient oxygen temp in combustion
burning coal and
higher BP
fractions of crude
Avoidanc - Use excess air - Difficult - Locating power - Minimised by
e - Catalyst in exhaust to - Low-sulfur coal stations away electrostatic
convert to CO2 - SO2 removal from from population precipitators
because excess air effluent gas at centres
impossible power stations - Use catalyst to
remove from gas
effluents from
power stations

Describe the chemical reactions by using full balanced chemical equations to

summarise examples of complete and incomplete combustion