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Terms

Single Cylinder. Engine has one cylinder and piston connected to the crankshaft
Stroke- Movement distance of the piston from one extreme position to the other: TDC
to BDC or BDC to TDC.
Combustion chamber- The end of the cylinder between the head and the piston face
where combustion occurs.
Cylinders- The circular cylinders in the engine block in which the pistons reciprocate
back and forth.
Spark Ignition- An engine in which the combustion process in each cycle is started by
use of a spark plug.

Fuel- gas is any one of a number of fuels that under ordinary conditions are gaseous.
Manyfuel gases are composed of hydrocarbons (such as methane or propane),
hydrogen, carbon monoxide, or mixtures thereof.

Higher heating value - he heating value is the amount of heat released during the
combustion of a specific substance, usually a fuel or food. The higher heating value is
determined by bringing all the products of combustion back to the original pre-
combustion temperature, condensing any water vapor generated

Two-Stroke Cycle- A two-stroke cycle has two piston movements over one revolution
for each cycle
Four-Stroke Cycle - A four-stroke cycle experiences four piston movements over two
engine revolutions for each cycle.
Air-Fuel Ratio (AF)-Ratio of mass of air to mass of fuel input into engine
Otto Cycle- The cycle of a four-stroke, SI, naturally aspirated engine at WOT. This is
the cycle of most automobile engines and other four-stroke SI engines. For analysis,
this cycle is approximated by the air-standard cycle.
Gasoline - is a Petroleum-derived liquid that is used primarily as a fuel in internal
combustion engines. It consists mostly of organic compounds obtained by the fractional
distillation of petroleum, enhanced with a variety of additives
Petrol British term for gasoline

Natural gas - lammable gas, consisting largely of methane and other hydrocarbons,
occurring naturally underground (often in association with petroleum) and used as fuel.

Electricity- Electricity can be used as a transportation alternative fuel for battery-


powered electric and fuel-cell vehicles. Battery powered electric vehicles store power in
batteries that are recharged by plugging the vehicle into a standard electrical source.

Alternative fuel - Fuel other than petroleum diesel or gasoline.

Greenhouse gases- a gas that contributes to the greenhouse effect by absorbing


infrared radiation, e.g., carbon dioxide and chlorofluorocarbons.

Octane a colorless flammable hydrocarbon of the alkane series, obtained in petroleum


refining.

Butane a flammable hydrocarbon gas that is a constituent of petroleum and is used in bottled
form as a fuel. It is a member of the alkane series.

Propane a flammable hydrocarbon gas that is a constituent of petroleum and is used in bottled
form as a fuel. It is a member of the alkane series.

Isentropic having equal entropy.

Compression the reduction in volume (causing an increase in pressure) of the fuel mixture in
an internal combustion engine before ignition.
Introduction

The use of gasoline has taken a toll in our world . Petroleum is formed by
hydrocarbons with addition of certain other substances primarily sulphur. The most
known kind of petroleum fuel is gasoline, the mostly used in internal combustion, it is
made of boiling petroleum that is heated to a high temperature. Gasoline used in
high-compression internal combustion engine, each brand of gasoline has a
gasoline additives and gasoline is graded by its octane content that measures how
well it may burn. There are also alternatives fuels is known as advanced fuels,
alternative fuels have lower vehicle emission that contribute to smog, air pollution
and global warming.

Global warming is one of the major concerns that the whole world are currently
facing . Carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gases, is the main pollutant that contributes in
global warming and is widely associated cars, planes and powerplants and other
human activities that involves burning of fossil fuels such as gas and natural gas . as
time pass by , the temperature increase here in Earth is roughly 0.15-0.20C per
decade. One of the appropriate things to solve this kind of alarming problem is by
using LPG rather than using dirty energy as a source of energy .

Liquified petroleum gas(LPG) is a kind of fuel that is used as a fuel in internal


combustion engines in vehicles as well as generators. it is a byproduct of crude oil
extraction and the refining process. Most of people use it for cooking and heating.
Its common name is Autogas and sometimes called green fuel as it reduces CO2
exhaust emissions by around 15% compared to petrol. LPG is a mixture of butane
and propane and mixtures depends on the climatic nature of the country . It has an
octane rating (MON/RON) that is between 90 and 110 that gives higher compression
ratios and thermal efficiency.

There are other kinds of alternative fuels that you can use like ethanol, natural
gas, electricity, hydrogen, propane, biodiesel, methanol and P-series Fuels. It might
have other disadvantages but it will greatly help to fight the global warming and can
make the nation energy independent .
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF LPG
ADVANTAGES

Less expensive than gasoline


Potentially lower toxic emission
volume relative fuel consumption of LPG is about ninety percent in comparison
with gasoline
Fuel distribution in cylinders is improved and smoother acceleration and idling
performance of engine is achieved due to gaseous nature of LPG.
LPG has higher octane number, about 112, which enables higher compression
ratios to be employed and therefore gives more thermal efficiency

DISADVANTAGES
Limited availability
there is a small reduction in maximum power output running on LPG than in
gasoline operation.
LPG is stored under pressure, LPG tank is heavier and requires more space than
comparable gasoline tank
Less readily available compared to gasoline and diesel

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF GASOLINE


ADVANTAGES

Lightweight fuel that is easy to combust


Gasoline-fueled engines are easy to start in cold weather
Better burning rate that causes smooth acceleration and have a high power
Cost of fuel are not stable
Bad fuel mix will occur engine malfunction
Engine life might be shorter than other engines

THERMODYNAMIC ANALYSIS FOR LPG AND GASOLINE


Parameters LPG Gasoline
Air-Fuel ratio 15.6 14.6
Heating Value (LHV) 46500 43000
; KJ/kg
T1 333 K 333 K
P1 100 kPa 100 kPa
rc 14 8.6
Stroke to Bore ratio - 1.025
k 1.35 1.35
Combustion 100 100
Efficiency
Engine Cycle Otto Otto
RPM 3000 3000

This is to compare their temperatures and efficiency at the end of thermodynamic


analysis. The compression ratio and heating value of the LPG shown in the Table 1 was
given in the article of R.R. saraf et al.

COMPUTATIONS:
For Gasoline Thermodynamic Analysis:

(Four cylinder, 2.5 liter)

V 1=V d + V c =0.000625+0.000082 2

V 1=0.0007072 m3

P1 V 1 ( 100 )( 0.0007072)
m m= =
R T1 ( 0.287 ) (333 )

mm=0.000740 k g

State 1:

T 1 =60 333 K , From Table 1

P1=100 kpa , From Table 1

State 2: The compression stroke 1-2 is isentropic.


k 1.35
P2=P1 ( r c ) =( 100 kpa )( 8.6 ) =1826 kPa

T 2 =T 1 ( r c )k1=( 333 K ) ( 8.6 )1.351=707 K

T 2 =434

State 3: Using equation for the heat added during one cycle:

QHV E c =( AF +1 ) c v ( T 3T 2 )

( 43000 ) ( 1.0 )= (14.6+ 1 ) (0.821)(T 3707)

T 3 =4064.4 K 3791.4

For Constant Volume:

T3
P3=P2 ( )
T2
=( 1826 )
4064.4
707 ( )
P3=10497.3 kP a

State 4: Power stroke 3-4 is isentropic

k1 1.351
1 1
T 4=T 3
( )
rc
=( 4064.4 ) ( )
8.6

T 4=1913.9 K 1640.9
k 1.35
1 1
P4 =P 3
( )
rc
=( 10497.3 )
8.6 ( )
P4 =574.78 kPa

T1
Eotto =1 ( ) ( )
T2
=1
333
707

Eotto =0.52899 52.9

mm R ( T 2T 1 ) ( 0.00074 ) ( 0.287 ) (707333 )


W 12= = =0.227 k J
1k 11.35

mm R ( T 4T 3 ) ( 0.00074 ) ( 0.287 ) ( 1913.94064.4 )


W 34 = = =1.3 k J
1k 11.35

W net =w 12+w34 =0.227+1. 3

w net=1.078 k J

rev 1min

( )
3000 x
kJ min 60 s
( 1.078 CylCycle ) 2
rev
W N cycle
W i= net =
n 4 cyl

W i=6.7375 k W
mf = ( AFAF+1 ) ( %C ) (m )=( 14.6+1
m
14.6
) ( 1.0) ( 0.00074 )
mf =0.00069256 k g

[ ]
kg rev cycle
m
isfc= =
(f
0.0006956
cylcycle )( 50
s )( 0.5
rev )
( 4 cyl )
x
3600 s
Wi 6.7375 kW 1 HR

kg
isfc=37.17
kW HR

For LPG Thermodynamic Analysis:

(Four cylinder, 2.5 liter)


V 1=V d + V c =0.000625+0.000082 2

3
V 1=0.0007072 m

P1 V 1 ( 100 )( 0.0007072)
m m= =
R T1 ( 0.287 ) (333 )

mm=0.000740 k g

State 1:

T 1 =60 333 K , From Table 1

P1=100 kpa , From Table 1

State 2: The compression stroke 1-2 is isentropic.

k 1.35
P2=P1 ( r c ) =( 100 kpa )( 14 ) =3525.9 kPa

T 2 =T 1 ( r c )k1=( 333 K ) ( 14 )1.351=839 K

T 2 =566

State 3: Using equation for the heat added during one cycle:

QHV E c =( AF+1) c v ( T 3T 2 )
( 46500 ) ( 1.0 )=(15.6+1)(0.821)( T 3839)

T 3 =4251 K 3978

T3
P3=P2 ( )
T2
=( 3525.9 )
4251
839( )
P3=17864.84 kP a

State 4: Power stroke 3-4 is isentropic

k1 1.351
1 1
T 4=T 3
( )
rc
=( 4251 ) ( )
14

T 4=1688 K 1415

k 1.35
1 1
P4 =P 3
( )
rc
=( 17864.84 )
14 ( )
P4 =506.67 kP a

T1
Eotto =1 ( ) ( )
T2
=1
333
839

Eotto =0.603 60.3


m m R ( T 2T 1 ) ( 0.00074 ) ( 0.287 ) (707333 )
W 12= = =0.227 k J
1k 11.35

mm R ( T 4T 3 ) ( 0.00074 ) ( 0.287 ) ( 16884251 )


W 34 = = =1.56 k J
1k 11.35

W net =w 12+ w34 =0.227+1.5 6

W net =1.33 k J

rev 1min

( )
3000 x
kJ min 60 s
( 1.33 CylCycle ) 2
rev
W N cycl e
W i= net =
n 4 cyl

W i=8.31k W

mf =( AFAF+1 ) ( %C ) (m )=( 15.6+1


m
15.6
) ( 1.0) ( 0.00074 )
mf =0.0006954 k g
[ ]
kg rev cycle
m
isfc= =
(
f
0.0006954
cylcycle )( 50
s )( 0.5
rev )
( 4 cyl )
x
3600 s
Wi 8.31 kW 1 HR

kg
isfc=30.12
kW HR

EMISSIONS COMPARISON ( GASOLINE VS. LPG


Following graphs are plotted from above values in urban & extra urban cycles for
gasoline & LPG mode.

Emission comparison between gasoline and LPG mode in urban cycle (Phase1).
Emission comparison between gasoline and LPG mode in extra urban cycle (Phase2).

DISCUSSION

Based on the data gathered in the problem solving the two fuels is subject in an
increasing pressure , both start in the same pressure and temperature . as the analysis
come in the final process theres a temperature significant amount of temperature
difference in between those two fuels and LPG has a higher resulting temperature and
pressure than the gasoline

In the diagrams in emission comparison between gasoline and LPG in both urban
and extra urban cycle, you can clearly identify who releases a lot of carbon emission.
This will indicate how much harmful emissions are being exposed to our world resulting
global warming.

CONCLUSION

Based on the study we can clearly see that Liquefied petroleum gas(LPG) is
much better than gas in most aspects . LPG can be subjected in higher temperature
and pressure than gasoline. LPG has higher octane number, about 112, which enables
higher compression ratios to be employed and therefore gives more thermal efficiency
due to gaseous nature of LPG, fuel distribution in cylinders is improved and smoother
acceleration and idling performance of engine is achieved. We are now in the time that
we need to reduced greatly our emission of carbons because of the alarming effects
that global warming can do. By this we can say that LPG is a more reliable energy
source.

REFERENCES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liquefied_petroleum_gas

Alternative Fuels: Emissions, Economics, and Performance, Timothy T. Maxwell and


Jesse C. Jones, 1995
http://www.elgas.com.au/blog/474-converting-lpg-and-natural-gas-appliances

Development of a commercially attractive LPG vehicle,TNO Road Vehicles Research


Institute
http://www.elgas.com.au/blog/350-propane-lpg-whats-what

Emission Comparison of LPG / Gasoline / Diesel in passenger Cars, TNO Road


Vehicles Research Institute, November 1993
http://www.nextgreencar.com/lpg-cng.php

A Guide to Alternative Fuel Vehicles, California Energy Commission, April 1996


Developing An Infrastructure Plan For Alternative Fuel Vehicles, California Energy
Commission, September 1994
http://www.consumerenergycenter.org/transportation/afvs/lpg_propane.html