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CONTENT

Topic Page
Introduction 2
Overview of curriculum design 2
Learner-centered learning 4
Promoteactivelearningprocess 5
Flexibleandauthenticlearningexperience 6
Promotecollaborativelearning 8
Teacherasfacilitator 10
Conclusion 11
Reference 13
st
IntegratingLearnerCenteredLearningto21CenturyLearners

Introduction
Transcendinginto21stcenturyerahasdiversifiedandtransformedalmost
everyaspectsofhumanlife.Startingfromtheadvancementofvehicles,
theintegrationofartificialintelligencetechnologyintomachinesandthe
utmost importance is the changes in education to suit the needs of
learners specifically in term of curriculum design and structure. The
implementationofcurriculumineducationhasbeenanongoingprocess
to cater the needs of the everchanging society in preparing young
generationsforthefuture.Inunderstandingtheweightageofcurriculum
inmoldingtheeducationdesign,thiswritingwillbedividedintothree
distinctivecomponentsbeginwithdefinitionsection.Itisgoodtofirst
know the meaning of curriculum itself. Then, once the definition has
beendissected,therevelationofthreetypesofcurriculumdesignwillbe
thenextagendaandfinallyoncethesecomponents havebeenclearly
presented, this writing will examine the correlation between which
curriculumdesignswillbesuitabletobeinculcatedforthe21 st century
educationamongthethreesuggestedpreviously.

Overviewofcurriculumdesign
Curriculum carries multitude of definitions, which viewed differently
from one individual to another. However, all the definitions share a
common foundation that is curriculum is designed to cater learners
needsineducationandlaterknownascurriculumdesign.Accordingto
Luke,WoodsandWeir(2003),curriculumdesignisdeterminingabout
thestructureorconfigurationofacurriculumplan.Itencompassesthe
medley of content in line with the purposes and objectives of the
curriculum.Thedesignatedcontentwillhavetobeorganizedinaform
thatwillhelptheteacherinselectingandconsolidatingsuitablelearning
experiencesfortheclassroom.Occasionally,curriculumdesignisalso
denotedtoascurriculumorganization.Inshort,schemingthecurriculum

1
comprisesthetaskofassemblingorestablishingfourcomponents,which
are objectives, subject matter, teachinglearning experiences and
evaluation process into an inclusive and unified plan that can be
instigated with minimal difficulties. According to Giles (1942), these
fourcomponentsareintertwinedandinteractive.Alas,notallcurriculum
proposals and enterprises give equal emphasis to each component.
Hence,makingitsdifficulttochoosewhichcurriculumplansordesigns
arebestsuitedtobeinculcatedforlearningspecificallytocatertheneeds
ofthe21stcenturylearners.

From these definitions, three distinctive curriculum designs have


emerged and inculcated within various education system all over the
globeforcenturies.Eachofthesecurriculumdesignshassignificance
importanceandlimitation,whichsubjectedtoaquery,whichcurriculum
designs best to be integrated in the 21st learning education system?
AccordingtoOrnsteinandHunkins(2013)mostcurriculumdesignsare
modification of three basic designs, which are categorized into three
unique groups. The groups are subjectcentered designs, problem
centered designs and learnercentered designs. Ornestein and Hunkins
(2013) further defined these three groups by integrating specific sub
designs,whichbecomethebackboneandcharacteristicsforeachgroup.
SubjectCentered Designs comprises five types ofsubdesigns namely
academic subject design, discipline designs, broad field designs,
correlation designs and process designs. On the contrary, Learner
Centered Designs incorporate three types of subdesigns renowned as
childcentered,romanticorradicalandhumanisticdesigns.Apartfrom
that,ProblemCenteredDesignsconveyedthreedistinctivesubdesigns
knownas lifesituationsdesign,coredesignandlastlysocialproblem
design.

Allofthesecurriculumdesignshavetheirownbenefitsandlimitations
towardslearnerslearningprocess.However,throughmeticulousresearch

2
andreading,learnercenteredcurriculumdesignhasbeenpreferredmore
amongthethreedesignstobecompatibleandinlinewiththeneedsof
learnersinthe21stcenturylearningatmosphere.Thiswritingwillfurther
elaborated the importance of learnercentered curriculum design in
instigatingtheneedsforlearnerstoenjoythelearningthroughtheirown
authentic learning experience while integrating 21st century learning
skills needed to enable learners to learn in pertinent, real world 21st
centurycontexts.

LearnerCenteredLearning
Theoldschoolmodelofpassivelylearningfactsandrecitingthemoutof
contextisnolongersufficienttopreparestudentstosurviveintodays
world.Solvinghighlycomplexproblemsrequiresthatstudentstohave
both fundamental skills as stated in Malaysia National Philosophy of
Educationcomprisesoffourskillsnamelyreading,writing,arithmetic
andpredictingand21stcenturyskillssuchasteamwork,problemsolving,
research gathering, time management, information synthesizing and
utilizinggizmotoolsinlearning.Steward(2011)believedthat,through
the combination of skills, students become directors and managers of
their learning process, guided and mentored by skilled teacher. By
bringing reallife context and technology to the curriculum through
problemcenteredlearningapproach,studentsareencouragedtobecome
independentworkers,criticalthinkers,andlifelonglearners.Teachercan
communicatewithadministrators,exchangeideaswithotherteachersand
subjectarea experts, and communicate with parents, all the while
breakingdowninvisiblebarrierssuchasisolationoftheclassroom,fear
ofembarkingonanunfamiliarprocess,andlackofassurancesofsuccess.
Learnercenteredlearningapproachisnotjustawayoflearning;itisa
wayofworkingtogether.Ifstudentslearntotakeresponsibilityfortheir
ownlearning,theywillformthebasisforthewaytheywillworkwith
others in their adult lives. Apart from that, project centered learning
promotes the implementation of authentic assessment in evaluating

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learners competencies. Authentic assessment and evaluation allow
teachers to systematically document a learners progress and
development.
PromoteActiveLearningProcess
Learnersnowadaysshouldnolongerberestrictedtolearnjustbydrilling
andmemorizingfactsforthesakeofpassingexams.Learningthatisjust
based on rote memorization as being practiced within traditional
classroom is no longer suitable in developing holistic potential of
dynamic learners. Vincent and Focht (2011) claimed that traditional
curriculumisheavilyemphasizedonlearnersoutcomewheregradesand
scores are the core focus instead of the learning process achieved by
learners. Hence, learners are bound to follow the traditional structure
hencelimitinglearnerspotentialtounderstandthemeaningfulexperience
ingettingknowledge.Hannafin,Hill,LandandLee(2014)statedthat,
the implementation of public examination as a medium to measure
learnersperformanceintheirlearninghassignificantlyaffectingtheway
pedagogical process conducted in classroom. Learners are drilled to
memorize questions and essays for the sake of exam and the utmost
importanceaspectbeingimplantedtostudentsistheneedtoexceland
getflyingcoloursresultinexam.Therefore,learningisnolongerbecome
funandenjoyablewhenteachingisjustchalkandtalk.Karpicke(2012)
argued that stressful learning atmosphere only create tension among
learners,whichresultedindepression.Thus,thisissuehasbecomeavery
serious agendawithinthecurriculumthatemphasizeresultmorethan
processmakingschooljustlikeafactoryinsteadofeducationalhubfor
learners. In tackling this unbecoming issue, it is advisable for policy
makersandeducatorstotryandimplementlearnerscenteredcurriculum
in the current education system. One of the key elements in this
curriculumdesignisstudentsareencouragedtodiscerntheirpotential
thoroughactivediscoverylearning.Bean(2011)definedactivelearning
asaprocesswherebylearnersengagewiththematerial,participateinthe
classroom, and collaborate with each other. One of the prominence

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examples of active learning is cooperative learning whereby learners
worktogetherinachievingdesiredgoalssetbyteachersincompletinga
task in a lesson. Through this style of learning, students are able to
engagewiththesurroundingsandexplorethelearninginaccordanceto
theirlearningpace.Bydoingso,itwillincreaselearnersenthusiasmto
learnwhichisimportanceinenhancinglearningcapabilityoflearning.
Furthermore, active learning process included in the learnercentered
curriculumalsohelptoamplifiedcontentknowledge,criticalthinking
andproblemsolvingabilitieswhicharemostsoughtafterskillsinthe
21st century. According to Lai (2011), criticalthinking skill is very
essentialinmakingsignificantyetappropriatedecisioninlife.Thus,by
inculcatingactivelearningprocess,learnerswilltaughttobecreativeand
criticalthroughmultitudewaysoflearningdesignedbasedonlearners
centeredcurriculum.Apartfromthat,activeprocessalsosignificantin
improving learners attitudes and perceptions towards information
literacy.Arends(2014)claimedthatlearnerswhoareexposedtowide
arrayofliteracyhavehighercognitivecapabilitycomparetoothers.This
isbecause;learnershavetheopportunitytolearnnewthingseveryday
throughvariousmediumoflearningthatenhancestheirinteresttowards
learning. Therefore, it could be said that active learning process
inculcated within learnercentered curriculum offers a lot of benefits,
whichareveryusefulforthedevelopmentof21stcenturylearners.

FlexibleandAuthenticLearningExperience
Learnercentereddesignscurriculumisaccentuatingtheneedsoflearners
ratherthantheneedsoftheinstitutionortheteacher.Thecurriculum
offerslearnersflexibilityonwhat,when,whereandhowtolearn.By
instigating this curriculum design, learners become more vigorous in
pursuingtheirownlearning.AccordingtoHollins(2015),learnerslearn
toconstructknowledgebyinterminglingwithteachersandpeersaround
them.Thus,learnersareabletoconvalescetheircommunicationskillvia
various activities conducted for them. Learnercentered curriculum is

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designedsothatcommunicationisnotrestrictedtoonewayonlywhere
learnersarejustatthereceivingendwithouthavinganyopportunityto
contribute something, which is crucial in developing their
communicationskillaswellastheircognitiveskill.

Intraditionallearningcontinuum,learnersmostlyarepassivereceiverof
knowledgewheretheteachersmostlydothetalking.However,learner
centeredcurriculumdesignsencouragelearnerstoseekforknowledge
through active learning process. They are allowed to explore,
experimentinganddiscovernewknowledgebytheirownlearningpace.
Learnershavetheautonomytodirecttheirlearningtosuittheircognitive
levelwithteachersasfacilitatorstoguidethemtowardsachievingdesired
objectivesandgoalssetupforactivitiesdesignedforhelearners.Inthis
curriculumdesign,learnersareresponsibleforthesuccessofalesson,
whichrelyontheirabilitiesandinteresttoachievelearningobjective
preparedbyteachers(Fraser,2015).Bygivingopportunityforlearnersto
be independent with their study, this will make them feel more
responsiblefortheirlearningthroughthetrialanderror.Theybeganto
acceptfailureandslowlybuildupcouragetofacebiggerchallengein
their learning process. This quality is very important for 21st century
learnersaschallengescomeinmanyformsthatcanonlybeconqueredif
onehasstrongdeterminationtostriveandnevergiveupindealingwith
problems.

Apart from that, learnerscentered curriculum design helps to boost


learnersmotivationbygivinglearnerscontroltotheirlearningprocess.
Learnerswillfeelhighlymotivatedastheyaregivenchancetodecide
whichstyleoflearningsuitsthemthemostandmeaningfulforthemto
endeavor. According to Bean (2011), motivation and confidence are
gainedbylearningwhatlearnersneedtoknowwhicharousetheirinterest
toknowmoreaboutcertaintopicorsubjectbeingtaught.Itcanbesaid
that,thiscurriculumdesignisverybeneficialinpreparinglearnerstobe

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competent problem solvers through their discovery process in their
learningwhichisoneofthevitalskillsneededfor21stcenturyeducation
whereswiftandwittythinkingisneededincompetingwithmultitudeof
challengesthateverchanging.

The active nature of the learnercentered curriculum design inspire


learners to seek any desired knowledge by collaboratively working
together with other peers through activities planned within a lesson.
Throughvariousactivitiesdesignedforlearning,studentsarevigorously
absorbedwiththelessonhenceenablingthemtofocusandindulgemore
tothelessonbeingtaught.Karpicke(2012)claimedthat,activelearning
helps to increase learners memory retention and learning enjoyment
insteadofdrillingstudentstowardsrotememorizationcommonlyusedin
traditionalsubjectcenteredcurriculum.Forexample,studentswillhave
higherprobabilitytoretaininformationlongerwhenworkingtogetheras
twowayinteractionoccurstoexchangeinformationcomparedtolearners
whojustbecomepassivelisteners.ThisissupportedbyHannafinetal.
(2014)astheybelievedthatactivecommunicationcouldhelplearnersto
establishbetterfoundationindecipheringinformation.Hence,itcouldbe
saidthatbyintegratingactivelearningprocessasembeddedinlearners
centeredcurriculum,learnerswillhaveopportunitytodiversifytheway
theylearnthroughactivelearningprocessinsteadofjustlisteningand
memorizingfactsgivenbyteachers.

Promotecollaborativelearning
Anothergreatimpactoflearnercenteredcurriculumdesignislearners
are exposed to collaborative style of learning where learners
communicate and dynamically work together with other learners to
achieve any desired goals. Collaborative learning helps learners to
diversify their cognitive ability in accomplishing any given task in
accordance to the level of difficulty. Learners learn to work
collaborativelywithothersduringthelearningprocessbyhelpingeach

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otherincompletingtask.Barkley,CrossandMajor(2014)claimedthat,
byworkingtogetherwithpeers,learnershavetheopportunitytoexpand
theircontentknowledgethroughformalandinformalsharingsession.For
example,learnersshareanyrelevantinformationtheymightfinduseful
withothersthatcanhelptocompletethetaskgiven.Hence,bypromoting
collaborativelearning,learners withvarious proficiencylevels willbe
able to work with each other effectively hence making the learning
becomesmoreenjoyableandfun.

Apartfromthat,throughlearnercenteredcurriculum,theimplementation
ofcollaborativelearningamonglearnershelptoreducetheiraffective
barrierthathinderthemfromeffectivelycontributingduringlessondue
to shyness and other external factors. Through collaborative learning,
learnerswillhaveopportunitytocommunicateandworktogetherasa
team to complete any specific task, which makes the learning more
enjoyable and fun. Johnson, Johnson and Smith (2014) found that
cooperativelearningproducedgreateracademicachievementcompared
toindividuallearning.Thisisavisionembeddedwithinlearnercentered
curriculum where leaners benefits most from learning process which
subsequentlyhelpinboostingtheiracademicachievementtothehighest
level possible. This style of learning is applicable in 21 st century era
whereinordertosustainbetterachievementinvariousfields,working
together with people from different backgrounds helps to yield better
result as workload is equally shared instead of working alone where
everythingisbeingpointouttoonepersononly.

Ontheotherhand,collaborativelearningendorsedinlearnerscentered
curriculum design promotes merriment of diversity. Learners learn to
work together with different kinds of people. During group
collaborations,theyfindmanychancestoreflectuponandreplytothe
distinctfeedbacksfellowlearnersbringstothequestionsraised.Italso
enableslearnerstoaddtheirviewpointstoanissuebasedontheircultural

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disparities. Laal and Ghodsi (2012) claimed that, this exchange
inexorably helps learners to better comprehend other cultures
perspectives. Moreover, collaborative learning edifies learners to
acknowledge individual disparities. When questions are raised,
distinctivelearnerswillhavevariationofresponses.Eachofthesecan
helplearnerswithintheirowngrouptomakeaproductthatreflectsan
extensive range of perspectives and is thus more farreaching and
comprehensive.Apartfromthat,learnercenteredcurriculumaccentuates
the importance of interpersonal development, which is crucial in
developing exceptional 21st century learners. Through collaborative
learning,learnerslearntocommunicatetotheirpeersandotherlearners
as theyworktogetheringroupestablishments.Thiscanbeespecially
beneficialforlearnerswhohavedifficultywithsocialskillsastheytend
toshyawayfromcrowdsandpublicorfearofrejectionhencemaking
them afraid to talk. By working together, learners can benefit from
structured interaction with others as they learn to communicate and
mingle with others (Laal and Ghodsi , 2012). This will create more
opportunitiesforpersonalfeedbackbecausethereismoreexchangeof
information among learners occurs in groups. Learners receive more
personalfeedbackabouttheirideasandresponsesfromtheirpeersas
well as teacher. This is very useful as it helps to build courage and
develophigherselfesteemamonglearners,whichisneededtoprepare
them to be brave and diligent to withstand the challenges in the 21 st
century.

TeacherasFacilitator
Inthiscurriculumdesign,teachersarenolongerthesoledisseminatorof
knowledgeinclassroom.Leanersaregivenmoreautonomytocontrol
their learning in which they are responsible with their own learning.
Pedagogicalprocessintheoldparadigmwascontemplatedasataskin
whichteacherswereanticipatedasaspecialistandtheywereallegedto
disseminateknowledgetolearners.Howeveratpresent,itisconsidered

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otherwise.Nowteachersarenotsourceofknowledge,butfacilitators.
Thesedays,teachersarealsoconsideredasinspirerswhomaresupposed
toinstigatelearnersbycreatingameaningfullearningatmospherefor
them.Nowasitisbelievedthatknowledgeisconstructedbylearners
fromexperience,theteachersneedtobeaguideontheside,ratherthan
sage on the stage where teachers facilitates learners throughout their
learningprocess.AccordingtoMooney(2013),learnersplayanactive
roleinlearning.Itindicatesthatnowthefocusofteachinghasshifted
from didactic learning atmosphere to a more collaborative learners
centeredlearningatmospherewhereinquiryanddiscoveryareessential
for learning. Teachers role is to assist learners to construct meaning
ratherthanpostulatemeaningtheyfamiliarwithorknow.Inaleaner
centeredcurriculumstyleoflearning,learnersinitiativeandautonomy
are encouraged and accepted. By respecting learners ideas and
encouragingindependentthinking,teachershelplearnerstoattaintheir
own intellectual identity. Instead of become the primary knowledge
disseminator,teachersfacilitatelearningbyaskingopenendedquestions
andallowwaittimeforresponse.Thisencourageshigherlevelthinking
as suggested by Bouchard (2011) and Johnson et al. (2014) in their
findings.Theconstructivistteacherschallengelearnerstoreachbeyonda
simple factual response by encouraging learners to connect and
summarizeconceptsbypredicting,analyzingandjustifyingtheirideas.
Forthis,teachersfacilitatelearnerstoengageindialoguewithteachers
and their peers. Furthermore, by facilitating learners to engage with
higherorderthinkingactivities,teachersprovideampleopportunitiesfor
learnerstotesttheirhypothesesespeciallythroughgroupdiscussionby
using all sorts of data gathered by them to justify their findings or
answers.The constructivist approach used to facilitate leaners is very
useful to help them organize and responsible with their ownlearning
process.Hence,theimplementationoflearnercenteredcurriculumwill
notjustbenefitlearnersbutalsoteachersincreatinganideallearningand
curriculumdesignforlearnersinthe21stcentury.

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Conclusion
In preparing learners to adapt the 21st century style of learning, it is
important to note that changes are not made overnight. Excellent
planningisneededtoensurelearnersareabletoenjoylearningandatthe
sametimeabletoachievegoalsinanylessonoractivitypreparedby
teachers.Teachersneedtodesignsuitableactivitiesthatcatertheneeds
oflearnerswithvariouslearningproficiencyandlinewiththeirlearning
preferences either prone towards visual learning, auditory learning or
others.Theimplementationoflearnercenteredcurriculumisastepping
stoneforpolicymakerstodiversifylearningstrategies inestablishing
strong foundation for learners so that they are ready to ensure any
challengesandobstaclestheymayencounterinthe21stcentury.

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References

Hollins, E. R. (2015). Culture in school learning: Revealing the deep meaning.


Routledge.

Fraser, B. (2015). Classroom learning environments. In Encyclopedia of Science


Education(pp.154157).SpringerNetherlands.

Hannafin,M.J.,Hill,J.R.,Land,S.M.,&Lee,E.(2014).Studentcentered,open
learning environments: Research, theory, and practice. In Handbook of
research on educational communications and technology (pp. 641651).
SpringerNewYork.

Arends,R.(2014).Learningtoteach.McGrawHillHigherEducation.
Barkley, E. F., Cross, K. P., & Major, C. H. (2014). Collaborative learning
techniques:Ahandbookforcollegefaculty.JohnWiley&Sons.

Johnson, D. W., Johnson, R. T., & Smith, K. A. (2014). Cooperative learning:


Improving university instruction by basing practice on validated theory.
JournalonExcellenceinUniversityTeaching,25(4),126.

Luke,A.,Woods,A.,&Weir,K.(2013).Curriculum,syllabusdesign,andequity:A
primerandmodel.Routledge.

Ornstein,A.C.,&Hunkins,Francis.P.(2013).Curriculum:Foundation,principles
andissues,3.

Mooney, C. G. (2013). Theories of Childhood: An Introduction to Dewey,


Montessori, Erikson,Piaget&Vygotsky.RedleafPress.

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Karpicke,J.D.(2012).Retrievalbasedlearningactiveretrievalpromotesmeaningful
learning.CurrentDirectionsinPsychologicalScience,21(3),157163.

Laal,M.,&Ghodsi,S.M.(2012).Benefitsofcollaborativelearning.ProcediaSocial
andBehavioralSciences,31,486490.

Vincent,S.,&Focht,W.(2011).Interdisciplinaryenvironmentaleducation:elements
offieldidentityandcurriculumdesign.JournalofEnvironmentalStudiesand
Sciences,1(1),1435.

Stewart, A. (2011). StudentCentered Learning. Community College


Entrepreneurship.

Bean,J.C.(2011). Engagingideas:Theprofessor'sguidetointegratingwriting,
criticalthinking,andactivelearningintheclassroom.JohnWiley&Sons.

Lai,E.R.(2011).Criticalthinking:Aliteraturereview.Pearson'sResearchReports,
6,4041.

Bouchard,G.J.(2011).Infullbloom:helpingstudentsgrowusingthetaxonomyof
educationalobjectives.TheJournalofPhysicianAssistantEducation,22(4),
4446.

Giles,H.H.(1942).Exploringthecurriculum.Harper&brothers.

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FACULTYOFEDUCATIONANDLANGUAGES
_____________________________________________________________________

HMEF5073
CURRICULUMDEVELOPMENT
SEPTEMBERSEMESTER2016

ASSIGNMENT1(PARTB)

ASSIGNMENTTITLE

10HOURSCOURSE
INTENSIVEREMEDIALTEACHINGPROGRAMFOR
LINUSSTUDENTSINPRIMARYSCHOOLS

MUHAMMADSAUFIFIRDAUSBINSABUDIN
CGS01284106

14
900108085311
0132336314
paradox.jingga@gmail.com

FASILITATOR
MRGHAZALIBINSULAIMAN

LEARNINGCENTRE
LAHADDATULEARNINGCENTRE

CONTENT

Topic Page
Course description 2
Characteristics of target learners 2
Course objectives 3
Courselearningoutcomes 3
Coursecontent 4
OhMyEnglish! 4
GrammarisFun 5
WhereisMyTreasure? 6
Listen,Speak,Listen 7
ReadingCharade 8
WriteLikeaPro 9
ResourcesandMaterials 10
Handhelddevices 10
VarietiesofEnglishliteraturebooks 10
Teachingaids 10
A3sizeSVOtable 10
Stationaries 10

1
Assessmentmethodsandtypes 11
Onlinequiz 11
Grouppresentation 11
Writtentest 11
Teachertraining 12
Evaluationofthecourse 12
Survey 12
Pretestandposttestquestions 12
Interview 12
Closure 13
Appendix 14

1.0 CourseDescription
Lowachieversrefertolearnerswithlowcognitiveabilitytograspsignificance
knowledgeintheconventionaleducationsystem.Learnersofthisgroupusually
struggletocarryonwithstandardlearningprocessandteachershavetoteach
them based on their ability. Currently, the Ministry of Education (MoE) of
Malaysia implements Literacy and Numeracy Screening (LINUS) test to
distinguishtheselearners.Basedonthistest,teacherswilldecidewhetherthe
child'scompetencyinlanguagesspecificallyinEnglishbyusingastandardtest
instrumentconsistof12constructs.Ultimately,learnerswhoareincompetentin
the test will be categorized as LINUS students and treated in a special class,
namely, LINUS Remedial Class. The objective of this program is very clear,
whichistogivethemanappropriatelearningprocess.Thelearningprocessofthis
groupneedstobereinforcedbyspecificlearningtools.Itisessentialtoprovide
themwithlearningassistanceinordertogivethemanattractiveandattentive
learningenvironment.

2.0Characteristicsoftargetlearners
20learnersfromyearthreeareselectedasparticipantsinthiscourse.Thelearners
selectedhaveencounterproblemsofpassingminimalrequirementsduringtheir
LINUSscreeningtestspecificallyinEnglishsubject.Thelearnersaregathered

2
accordingtotheirlevelofachievementrangingfromveryweaktoweaklearners.
Thelearnersaremixgenderofmaleandfemalefromvarioussocioeconomic
backgrounds.TheirlevelofEnglishproficiencyislowtoaveragebasedontheir
English result from previous year final examination paper. Learners with
difficulty in learning usually have one or more of the following difficulties
accordingtoMooney(2013)whicharepoormemoryretention,shortattention
spanandeasilydistractedbyotherthings,relativelypoorcomprehensivepower,
lack of learning motivation, lack of selfconfidence and relatively low self
expectation, weak in problemsolving power, have difficulty in understanding
newandabstractconceptsandlastlyneedmoretimetocompleteassignmentsor
tasks.

3.0 CourseObjectives

3.1 ToinstilllearnersinterestinlearningEnglishgrammarthroughtheintegration
ofvariousteachingaidsaswellasICTinlearninggrammar.
3.2 To establish good understanding on which of the four language skills in
Englishsubjecttheyarelackingoff.

3.3 To provide scaffolding and guidance on how to write correct English sentences
using subject verb object (SVO) table.
3.4 To familiarize learners with varieties of English language literatures and how
to understand the content effectively.

4.0CourseLearningOutcomes

Bytheendofthiscourse,learnersshouldbeableto:

4.1 Utilizetheusagemultimediaelementsandteachingaidsintriggeringtheir
interesttowardslearningEnglishgrammar.
4.2 DistinguishthedifferencesbetweenfourskillsembeddedinEnglishlanguage
andabletomasteralltheskillswithguidancefromteacher.

3
4.2 CreatemeaningfulsimplesentencesusingtheSVOtableandabletowrite
correctlythesentenceswithandwithoutguidancefromteachers.

4.3 Differentiate different types of literature in English language and able to


comprehendthemeaninginthetextusingvariousstrategiessuchasusing
dictionariesorpeerdiscussion.

5.0CourseContent
This10hourscoursehasbeendesigntoimplementthese6topics,whichare
carefullydevelopedfromselectedEnglishlanguagecomponents.Thisistohelp
learnerstofamiliarizewithmultitudeofwaysinlearningEnglishinordertohelp
themfocusandinterestedduringlessons.Thetopicsarepresentedasfollow:

5.1OhMyEnglish!
In this topic, learners are presented with funny dialogue scene from selected
moviessuchasPinkPantherandMr.Bean.Thereasonofthisactivityistomake
learnersfeelcomfortableinlearningEnglishaswellasreducingtheiraffective
filter,whichmighthindertheirinterestinlearningEnglishlanguage.Learners
will try to imitate the dialogue and do simple roleplay, which will be very
excitingandfunforthem.
Teaching LecturingandDiscussion
Method
Rationale Lecturingprovidesbackgroundinformationandideas;basic
conceptsandmethodsthatwillbefurtheremphasizedlaterin
thediscussionactivities.Lecturingisalsoveryeffectiveasa
wayofdemonstratingprocesses,whichareverybeneficialin

4
enhancinglearnersunderstandingtowardsthetopicpresented.
Asfordiscussion,afterteacherorinstructordemonstratethe
learning, leaners will have the opportunity to communicate
withtheteacheraswellastheirpeerstogiveresponseand
feedbackonanyqueriesresultedfromthelecturingsession.
Learning RolePlayingandGroupPresentation
Activities
Rationale Roleplaying and group presentation set the learners into a
learningconditioncloselyresemblingthereallifeatmosphere
in which the anticipated behavior will be exhibited.
Positioningthelearnerin,asauthenticasituationaspossible,
increases onthejob recall, knowledge transfer and
reinforcement of appropriate behaviors. Role playing and
group presentation often intensify learners to participate in
analysis,inwhichtheymustdecipherelementsinthegame
concurringtotheroletheyareplaying;synthesis,inwhich
theymustemployconceptstoanewsetting(theparttheyare
playing in the activity and evaluation, in which they must
continuouslyevaluatewhetheractionstakenwithinthepart
they are playing abets them in achieving the goals of the
activityinthelesson.

5.2Grammarisfun
This topic is selected to give learners positive impression about various
grammaticalcomponentsinEnglishlanguageandlearnhowtodistinguisheach
componentthroughmultimediapresentationandtheusageofmobilegamesand
softwaretoattractlearnersinteresthencemakingthemenjoylearninggrammar.
Thegamesarecarefullyselectedtosuitleanerslevelofproficiency,whichis
importanttoensureleanersareabletolearnaswellasenjoytheinteractiveway
oflearninggrammar.
Teaching LecturingandTutorial
Method
Rationale Lecturingprovidesbackgroundinformationandideas;basic
conceptsandmethodsthatwillbefurtheremphasizedlaterin

5
thediscussionactivities.Lecturingisalsoveryeffectiveasa
wayofdemonstratingprocesses,whichareverybeneficialin
enhancinglearnersunderstandingtowardsthetopicpresented.
Once the lecturing session is over, learners will be
transitioned towards tutorial style of teaching. Tutorial
teachingmethodisafollowupstudyoflectures.Itishighly
individualized remedial teaching, as learners will be given
opportunitytoplaygrammargamesthroughmobileplatform
downloadedfromandroidandIOSappstores.
Learning OnlineGrammarGameandGroupPresentation
Activities
Rationale Onlinegamescanofferexceedinglydetailedstatisticsinreal
time. They amass data every step of the way that offers
perspective for a childs development and explicit learning
habits. This facilitates a deeper understanding of how the
learnersareactuallyinteractingwiththematerial,andallows
teachers to give instantaneous feedback. As for the group
presentation, once the gaming session ended, they need to
presenttheirexperiencetotheirpeers,whicharesignificantto
improve their speaking skill, which is a fundamental skill,
they are lacking off based on their LINUS screening test
result.

5.3WhereisMyTreasure?
In this topic, learners will be exposed to the application of grammatical
componentssuchasnouns,prepositions,verbsandadjectivesthroughasimple
treasurehuntingactivity.Theactivitywillbeconductedwithintheseminarroom
andlearnerswillbecometreasurehuntersandusingthecluesgiven,theyneedto
solvetheriddlesandquestionstodiscoverthehiddentreasurelocatedsomewhere
intheseminarroom.
Teaching LecturingandDiscussion
Method
Rationale Lecturingprovidesbackgroundinformationandideas;basic
conceptsandmethodsthatwillbefurtheremphasizedlaterin

6
thediscussionactivities.Lecturingisalsoveryeffectiveasa
wayofdemonstratingprocesses,whichareverybeneficialin
enhancinglearnersunderstandingtowardsthetopicpresented.
Asfordiscussion,afterteacherorinstructordemonstratethe
learning, leaners will have the opportunity to communicate
withtheteacheraswellastheirpeerstogiveresponseand
feedbackonanyqueriesresultedfromtheirlearning.
Learning RolePlayingandGroupPresentation
Activities
Rationale Roleplaying and group presentation set the learners into a
learningconditioncloselyresemblingthereallifeatmosphere
in which the anticipated behavior will be exhibited.
Positioningthelearnerin,asauthenticasituationaspossible,
increases onthejob recall, knowledge transfer and
reinforcement of appropriate behaviors. Role playing and
group presentation often intensify learners to participate in
analysis,inwhichtheymustdecipherelementsinthegame
concurringtotheroletheyareplaying;synthesis,inwhich
theymustemployconceptstoanewsetting(theparttheyare
playing in the activity and evaluation, in which they must
continuouslyevaluatewhetheractionstakenwithinthepart
they are playing abets them in achieving the goals of the
activityinthelesson.

5.4Listen,Speak,Listen
Inthistopic,leanerswillbeexposedtothefourfundamentalskillsthatbecomethe
foundationofEnglishlanguagenamelylistening,speaking,readingandwriting.In
this section,learnerswillfocusonhowtobeaneffectivelistenerandspeaker
throughvariousfunactivitiespreparedforthemtosharpentheirlanguageskills.
Teaching LecturingandDiscussion
Method
Rationale Lecturingprovidesbackgroundinformationandideas;basic
conceptsandmethodsthatwillbefurtheremphasizedlaterin
thediscussionactivities.Lecturingisalsoveryeffectiveasa

7
wayofdemonstratingprocesses,whichareverybeneficialin
enhancinglearnersunderstandingtowardsthetopicpresented.
Asfordiscussion,afterteacherorinstructordemonstratethe
learning, leaners will have the opportunity to communicate
withtheteacheraswellastheirpeerstogiveresponseand
feedbackonanyqueriesresultedfromthelecturingsession.
Learning RolePlayingandGroupPresentation
Activities
Rationale Roleplaying and group presentation set the learners into a
learningconditioncloselyresemblingthereallifeatmosphere
in which the anticipated behavior will be exhibited.
Positioningthelearnerin,asauthenticasituationaspossible,
increases onthejob recall, knowledge transfer and
reinforcement of appropriate behaviors. Role playing and
group presentation often intensify learners to participate in
analysis,inwhichtheymustdecipherelementsinthegame
concurringtotheroletheyareplaying;synthesis,inwhich
theymustemployconceptstoanewsetting(theparttheyare
playing in the activity and evaluation, in which they must
continuouslyevaluatewhetheractionstakenwithinthepart
they are playing abets them in achieving the goals of the
activityinthelesson.

5.5ReadingCharade
Inthistopic,learnerswillbetaughtonhowtobecomeagoodreaderbyexposing
them to various English literatures text available. Various reading activities
ranging from individual reading to choral reading will be conducted to help
leanersbecominganeffectivereaderandtogivethemexposureonwhatgood
readingactivitiesshouldbelike.
Teaching LecturingandTutorial
Method
Rationale Lecturingprovidesbackgroundinformationandideas;basic
conceptsandmethodsthatwillbefurtheremphasizedlaterin
thediscussionactivities.Lecturingisalsoveryeffectiveasa

8
wayofdemonstratingprocesses,whichareverybeneficialin
enhancinglearnersunderstandingtowardsthetopicpresented.
Once the lecturing session is over, learners will be
transitioned towards tutorial style of teaching. Tutorial
teachingmethodisafollowupstudyoflectures.Itishighly
individualized remedial teaching, as learners will be given
opportunitytoparticipateinreadingactivitieswithguidance
fromtheteacher.
Learning SelfReadingandSmallGroupReading
Activities
Rationale SelfReading and Small Group Reading Enhanced
concentrationanddiscipline. Learnersmayinitiallystruggle
and become preoccupied during story time, but ultimately
theywilllearntofocusforthedurationofthebook.Along
withreadingcomprehensioncomesalongerattentionspan,
stronger selfdiscipline and better memory retention, all of
whichwillassistthemtoprocurenewvocabularieswhichare
very useful forthem especiallywhenthey wantedto write
sentences.

5.6WriteLikeaPro
Inthistopic,learnerswillbetaughtonhowtowritesimplesentencesusingSVO
table, which is interactive and fun to learn. Learners will be guided to write
sentences effectively using the SVO table with guidance from the expert
instructor.Learnerswilllearntocreatetheirownsentenceswillbeveryusefulto
beusedintheirwritingespeciallyfortheirEnglishLINUSWritingtest.
Teaching LecturingandDiscussion
Method
Rationale Lecturingprovidesbackgroundinformationandideas;basic
conceptsandmethodsthatwillbefurtheremphasizedlaterin
thediscussionactivities.Lecturingisalsoveryeffectiveasa
wayofdemonstratingprocesses,whichareverybeneficialin
enhancinglearnersunderstandingtowardsthetopicpresented.
Once the lecturing session is over, learners will be

9
transitioned towards tutorial style of teaching. Tutorial
teachingmethodisafollowupstudyoflectures.Itishighly
individualized remedial teaching, as learners will be given
opportunity to express their authentic style of writing with
guidance.
Learning SentenceWritingandGroupPresentation
Activities
Rationale Toaccentuatelearnerscapabilityofwritingsimplesentences
usingthegivenSVOtable.Bywriting,learnerswillbeableto
improvetheirsentenceconstructionskill,whicharecrucialin
Englishlanguagelearning.Furthermore,learnersneedtodo
grouppresentationwherelearnerswilldiscussandselectthe
bestsentencesamongtheirpeerstobepresentedtoothers.
Thiswillhelplearnerstobemoreconfidentandmotivatedas
theyaregivenautonomyintheirlearningprocess.

6.0Resources/Materials
6.1Handhelddevices(AppleIpad/AndroidTablet)
The purpose of this resource is to enable learners to learn using informative
communicationtechnology(ICT)atmospherewherelearningEnglishlanguage
willtakeplaceintheformofmobilegamesthatcanbeeasilydownloadedfrom
designatedappstore.Theotherpurposeofthisresourceistoattractlearnersto
learnusingmultimediaelementssuchassounds,animationsandtouch,which
helptoenhancetheirinteresttoparticipateinthelearningsession.

6.2VarietiesofEnglishliteraturebooks
The purpose of having varieties of English literature books is to familiarize
learnerswithvarioustypesofwritingpresentedinEnglishlanguage.Thebooks
comprise of short story, encyclopedia, riddles, poems and more are used as
stimulus to give learners exposure on what types of reading they could find
aroundthem.Learnersalsowillusethebookstohelpthemwithmostofthe
activitiesdesignedinthiscoursethatareveryusefulforthemtolearnEnglish.

6.3TeachingAids

10
Theusageofteachingaidsisverycrucialinscaffoldinglearnerslearningprocess
throughoutthiscourse.Thesampleofteachingaidssuchasbigbookforreading
purposes,educationalpostersandotherrelevantteachingaidsareverysignificant
toattractlearnersinlearningEnglish.Itisalsotoavoidlearnersfromthinking
Englishisjustmemorizing,whichhinderthemfromgivingtheirfullattentionto
learn.

6.4A3sizeSVOTable
ThisbigsizeSVOtableisimportantforpracticepurposeswherelearnerswork
togetherwiththeirpeerstocreatesentencescollaborativelyinasmallgroup.This
activity is to prepare learners before they can start to create their sentences
individually.

6.5Stationaries
Enoughstationariessupplyiscrucialaswillensurethecoursetorunsmoothly
andnotimeiswastedjusttoprocureadditionalstationeryinthemiddleofthe
course.
7.0Assessmentmethodandtypes

7.1OnlineQuiz
Learnerswillbegivenonlinequizzedtheyneedtoanswerattheendofeach
topicsthroughoutthecourse.Eachsetofquizcomprisesof20items,designsin
accordancetoeachtopicbeingtaught.Onlinequizisselectedbecauseitcanbea
greattoolthatdoesnothavetocountheavilytowardstudentsgrades.Usingquiz
is fun and interactive way to assess learners prior knowledge and new
informationtheylearn,clearsupanymisconceptions,anddriveshomethepoint
ofhowmuchtheywilllearn.

7.2GroupPresentation
ForselectedtopicsinthiscoursesuchasWhereisMyTreasure?Listen,Speak,
Listen and Reading Charade group presentation is used to evaluate learners
capabilitytoworkcollaborativelywiththeirpeersaswellastheirunderstanding
towards the topic being taught. The presentation is evaluated by two parties
namelytheteacheraswellastheirownfriendsusingaspecifiedrubricsdesigned

11
bytheteacher.Thepurposeistogiveopportunityforlearnerstogivefeedback
and response to the activities being conducted which help to improve their
Englishlanguageacquisition.

7.3WrittenTest
Oncethelearnershavecompletedthe10hourscourse,awrittentestbasedon
modified version of LINUS Writing screening test is being administered
comprisingof12specificconstructs.Thetestisconductedindividuallywithin
specifictimeframe(1hourand30minutes)tochecktheirlearningprogression
eithertheyhavelearnednewthingsthatcanhelpwiththeirlearning.Thepurpose
of using written test is to enable students to demonstrate the extent of their
knowledge, as their answers will reflect their proficiency level in English.
Furthermore, teacher can provide better feedback on answers. A written,
developedanswerallowsformoreopportunityforteacherstoassessthinkingand
articulationoflearnersprogressafterthecourse.

8.0Teachertraining
IndevelopingthefullpotentialofLINUSlearnersinthiscourse,teachersplay
significantroletoattractthemtowardsEnglishlanguagelearning.Teachersneed
toensurethattheyhavecompleteunderstandingofEnglishlanguagecomponents
especiallygrammarcomponent.Inordertoprepareteachersinassistinglearners,
teachermaywanttojoinfreeweekendEnglishInterventionCourseforteachers
conductedatthenearesteducationaldistrictoffice.Thisprogramisbeneficialto
polishteachersknowledgeinEnglishaswellaslearnexposuretonewandlatest
21st century pedagogical approach, which can be implemented in classroom.
TeacherscanalsoenrolltofreeonlinecourseconductedbyBritishCouncilasa
waytoimproveexistenceknowledgeinEnglishtoanotherlevel.Therearemany
coursesteacherscanchooseanditisflexibleaslongasteachershavestrong
Internetconnectiontoavoidstreamingdisruption.Theseareonlysuggestionsfor
teacherownprofessionaldevelopmentandnotcompulsory.

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9.0Evaluationofthecourse
Inordertoknowtowhatextentlearnersengagewiththecourseandeitherithas
increasedtheirpriorknowledgeinEnglish,threemethodsofevaluationwillbe
usedtomeasureandidentifythelengthoftheirengagementandinteresttowards
thiscourse.Thethreeevaluationmethodsareasfollows:

9.1Evaluationtool:Endofcoursesurvey
The purpose of using survey is to measure how learners view and value the
courseanddeterminewhetherlearnerswereengaged,andiftheybelievetheycan
applywhattheylearned.Thesurveywilldeterminetowhatextentparticipants
aresatisfiedwiththetraining,andwhethertheybelievethetrainingiseffectiveor
nottotheirlearning.Usingsurveyalsoagoodwaytoevaluatelearnersreaction
aboutthecoursefromthesurveyformgivenwhichcanbeagoodindicatoreither
theyaresatisfiedwiththecourseprogressionornot.

9.2Evaluationtool:PreTestandPostTestsQuestions
Using PreTest and PostTest Questions is a good way to measure whether
learnersactuallylearnedsomethingfromthecoursegiven.Bygivingthemthe
samesetofquestionstobeansweredbeforethecourseandwhenthecourse
endedwilldeterminetowhatextentthetopicsdeliveredinthecoursehavegiven
significantimpacttowardstheirlearningprogress.Thistypeofevaluationisvery
usefulforthecourseinstructorsaswellasteacherstouseasreferenceforany
improvementthatcanbedoneforfuturecourse.

9.3Evaluationtool:Interviewwithlearners
Interviewisaverypowerfulevaluationtoolwhatcanbeusedtoevaluatelearners
behavior, whether the course has positive effect on learners interest towards
learningornotandusedtoinvestigatecertainquestionsingreatdetails.This
methodisveryusefultodiscoverhowindividualthinkandfeelaboutthiscourse
withoutbeinginfluencedbytheirpeerswhengivingopinion.Interviewsession
givesinstructorsabilitytounderstandindividualpreferencestowardsthecontent
ofthecourse,whichmightbedifferentbetweenlearners.Interviewsallowmore

13
detailedquestionstobeaskedandusuallyachieveahighresponseratefromthe
respondent.

10.Closure
ThiscourseisdesignedwithhighanticipationtohelpLINUSlearnerstoimprove
intheirEnglishlanguagesubject.Thecoursehasreceivedtremendoussupports
fromschooladministrators,teachersaswellasofficersfromeducationdistrict
officeintermoffinancialsupport,logisticsandmoretoensurethecourseisa
success.Thecourseisasteppingstoneforlearnersandteacherstounderstand
Englishisactuallyeasytolearnandfun.Hence,itishopethatthiscoursewill
benefiteveryoneinvolveinempoweringEnglishlanguagetothenextlevel.

Appendix1:Survey

Course :

Day :

Date :

Understanding My Learning Journey


Circle the option that best describe your understanding in this
course

Scale explanation:
1- Strongly disagree
2- Disagree
3- Neutral
4- Agree
5- Strongly agree

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1. I can understand the instructions for activities used in this course. 1 2 3
4 5

2. I can understand the instructors instructions in English. 1 2


3 4 5

3. I can understand the grammar used by the instructors. 1 2


3 4 5

4. I enjoy the activities in this course. 1 2


3 4 5

5. I enjoy the reading session in this course. 1 2


3 4 5

6. I am able to write simple sentences without guidance correctly. 1 2


3 4 5

7. I learn new words that are useful to improve my speaking skill. 1 2


3 4 5

8. I used English often in this course. 1 2


3 4 5

9. I enjoyed group work. 1 2 3 4


5

10. I asked more questions in this course. 1 2 3 4


5

11. I felt confidence to talk in front of people. 1 2 3 4


5

12. Playing games helped me to learn English grammar. 1 2 3 4


5

13. I am no longer afraid to learn English 1 2 3 4


5

14. I am capable of reading simple short stories. 1 2 3 4


5

15. I am capable to write simple sentences using SVO table. 1 2 3 4


5

15