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Energy 36 (2011) 5225e5232

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Energy
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Multi stage ash desalination plant with brineefeed mixing and cooling
Majed M. Alhazmy*
Department of Thermal Engineering and Desalination Technology, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80204, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: Improving the performance of Multi Stage Flash (MSF) desalination plants is a major objective in the
Received 11 November 2010 seawater desalination industry. Fresh water production rates from MSF plants depend on the evaporation
Received in revised form range dened as the difference between the top brine temperature (TBT) and the bottom stage
1 May 2011
temperature. Lowering the temperature of the plant bottom stage elongates the evaporation range and
Accepted 14 June 2011
increases the yield. A modied multi stage ash plant with brine mixing and cooling (MSF-MC) is pre-
Available online 20 July 2011
sented in this paper. Part of the brine leaving the plant is mixed with fresh seawater feed then cooled to
low temperature before it enters the bottom stage feed heater. This MSF-MC features several advantages
Keywords:
MSF plants
such as expanded evaporation range at the conventional TBT levels, reduced feed pumping power,
Brineefeed mixing and cooling moderate levels of chemical treatment requirements and xed fresh water production rates independent
Evaporation range of seasonal seawater conditions. Operating with low feed mass fraction minimizes the cooling load and
Performance enhancement reduces the cooler size. An improvement in the yield by 1.18%e1.4% for every 1  C reduction in the plant
Dual purpose power plant bottom temperature can be achieved with MSF-MC compared to conventional MSF systems.
2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction the plants yield [7]. Practically, MSF plants (both OT and BR),
operates on two different feed temperatures one during summer
Water desalination industry plays an essential role in providing and the other during winter, these are known as summer and
fresh water in Saudi Arabia and Arabian Gulf countries. Once- winter operation modes, respectively. Typical operation tempera-
Through Multi stage Flash desalination (MSF-OT) and Brine Recir- tures for summer and winter modes are 32  C and 25  C, respec-
culation (MSF-BR) are the most popular congurations of MSF tively [4, 7 and 14]. Elmoudier et al. [14] reported that for seawater
systems [1,2]. The MSF-BR technology is used in 88% of the Saudi feed temperatures of 16  C, 24  C, and 27  C the yields are 227 ton/
desalination plants and it is usually installed as a part of a dual h, 250 ton/h and 240 ton/h, respectively, from an MSF-BR plant
purpose plant for water and power cogeneration [1,3]. Improving operating at xed TBT temperature of 90  C. This is equivalent to an
the economics of MSF process attracted the effort of the scientic improvement of 1.4% for each 1  C reduction in the feed tempera-
and industrial communities as well as governmental and legislative ture. Operation at high TBT increases the yield but it also increases
authorities. Various plant modication including design variations the potential for scale formation and accelerates the corrosion rates
[2,4e6], evaporation range expansion [7,8] and hybridization and of metal surfaces [15].
integration with other desalination methods [2,9] were attempted. Researchers in the Sea Water Conversion Corporation (SWCC) in
Nevertheless, studies on optimization of operational and control Saudi Arabia presented a hybrid desalination plant formed by
parameters are continuously performed [10e13]. combining MSF process with Nano-ltration (NF) [9]. This modied
Feed temperature is an important operational parameter that is allow elevating TBT from 120  C to 160  C hence a 46% increases the
imposed on the desalination plants by the seasonal climatic yield is achieved [9]; this is equivalent to 1.15% for every 1  C
conditions. Changes in seawater temperatures affects the yield of increase in the evaporation range.
the MSF desalination plants [4,10,14], fouling formation inside the Alhazmy [8] proposed inserting a feed cooler at the seawater
tubes of the brine heater [12], and therefore the plant overall intake of an MSF-OT system to reduce the feed temperature. This
performance. Feed temperature near Saudi coasts varies from 18  C modication elongates the evaporation range and eliminates the
in winter to 35  C in summer causing more than 10% differences in effect of seasonal temperature variations. An improvement in the
yield by 1.4%e1.84% for every 1  C reduction in the feed tempera-
ture was achievable.
* Tel.: 966 2 695 2883; fax: 966 2 695 2182. El-Dessouky and Ettouny [4,5] presented a novel modication
E-mail address: mhazmy@kau.edu.sa. for MSF plants by replacing the brine recirculation with brine

0360-5442/$ e see front matter 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
doi:10.1016/j.energy.2011.06.024
5226 M.M. Alhazmy / Energy 36 (2011) 5225e5232

Nomenclature R Plant reject, [kg s1]


TBi Brine temperature leaving the stage i, [ C]
B Brine mass ow rate, [kg s1] TBT Top brine temperature, [ C]
COP Coefcient of performance TF Feed temperature, [ C]
Cp Specic heat at constant, [kJ kg1 K1] TM FeedeBrine mixture temperature, [ C]
D Plant yield [kg s1] Tmix FeedeBrine mixture temperature at the cooler outlet
Di Accumulated distillate over the group of stages from 1 [ C]
to i, [kg s1] TN Temperature of the Nth stage, [ C]
di Distillate from the stage i, [kg s1] TTBT Temperature leaving the top brine heater, [ C]
Do Fresh water produced from the plant without a cooling TTD Terminal temperature difference, [ C]
scheme, [kg s1] W Power, [kW]
F Feed mass ow rate, [kg s1] Wc Power consumed for cooling the feedebrine mixture,
h Specic enthalpy, [kJ kg1] [kW]
hB Brine specic enthalpy, [kJ kg1] Wst Power resulting from the expansion of the heating
hfg Latent heat of vaporization (pure water), [kJ kg1] steam in the back pressure turbine, [kW]
hg Specic enthalpy of ashed off vapor, [kJ kg1] y Salt concentration [ppm]
hMN Specic enthalpy of mixture leaving the water cooler, Dhcom Change in enthalpy due to change in composition,
[kJ kg1] [kJ kg1]
hsb Specic enthalpy of heating steam entering the back DTs Temperature drop in each ashing stage, [ C]
pressure turbine, [kJ kg1] d Temperature difference accounting for boiling point
hsc Specic enthalpy of heating steam leaving the back elevation, [ C]
pressure turbine, [kJ kg1]
hTBT Specic enthalpy of brine leaving the top brine heater, subscripts
[kJ kg1] B Brine
hw Specic enthalpy of feed seawater entering the feed F Feed
water cooler, [kJ kg1] fg Vaporization
Loss the heat required to overcome the terminal g Vapor phase
temperature difference between the condensing vapor i Index donating the stage number
and the feed stream and to account for boiling point M Mixture
elevation of the saline water, [kJ kg1] mix Mixture leaving the mixing chamber
M FeedeBrine mixture mass ow rate, [kg s1] o Reference plant
Ms Steam mass ow rate, [kg s1] R Reject
N Number of stages s Steam
PR Performance ratio w Water
Qcooling Cooling load to cool the feedebrine mixture, [kW]

mixing and presented the multi stage ashing with brine mixing, retains the advantages of minimum chemical treatment and low
MSF-M. The main objective of the MSF-M process is to reduce the feed pumping power of the brine circulation in the conventional
energy lost in heat rejection section of the conventional MSF-BR, or MSF-BR.
in the large brine blow downstream, found in MSF-OT. A simplied schematic of an intermediate ashing stage (i) is
This paper presents a modied MSF plant with brine mixing and shown in part (b) of Fig. 1. Part of the brine, Bi-1, ashes into
cooling. This modication is attained by rst mixing part of the vapor as it throttled at the bottom of the stage. The ashed off
brine leaving the plant last stage with fresh seawater then cooling vapor condenses on the tubes of the feed heaters forming
the obtained mixture to a low temperature before it is fed into the distilled water, di, and giving up its latent heat to the re-
plant bottom stage. Cooling elongates the evaporation range and circulating water, M. The temperature of the circulating water
mixing keeps the feed pumping power and chemical treatment increases as it advances up in the plant, however additional heat
requirements within the same levels of conventional MSF-BR provided by steam of the Rankine cycle is needed to elevate the
plants and provides a regeneration possibility that minimizes the temperature of the re-circulating mixture to the levels needed to
desired cooling load. The temperature of the mixture is constrained start ashing.
by a minimum of 15  C in order to maintain moderate vapor specic
volume and reasonable traveling velocity in the bottom stage 2.1. The MSF plant
[16,17], otherwise larger stages might be needed or high salinity
product will be expected. The relation of the distillate to brine mass ow rate and
temperature can be obtained by applying the steady state mass and
2. MSF-MC process model energy balances across every ashing stage. MSF-MC conguration
shares the same advantages of brine recirculation scheme, MSF-BR,
A schematic of the multi stage ashing with brine mixing and regarding reduced feed mass ow rate and minimized chemical
cooling (MSF-MC) is shown part (a) of Fig. 1. The plant consists of treatment in addition to the disadvantage of operating with
a steam generator, a train of ashing stages, a mixing chamber and elevated salt concentrations compared to once-through systems.
a cooling unit. Mixing and cooling section replaces the heat rejec- The mass ow rates of feed, rejected brine and circulating mass
tion part in the conventional MSF-BR. Cooling preserves the determine the salt concentration levels throughout the plant that
advantage of longer evaporation range in the once-through MSF should be maintained everywhere at the suitable allowable levels.
system with feed cooler presented by Alhazmy [8], while mixing An overall mass balance on the plant gives
M.M. Alhazmy / Energy 36 (2011) 5225e5232 5227

Fig. 1. Schematic of a dual purpose plant.

DR F (1) the different streams across the MSF-MC plant. Therefore, the mass
ow rate of rejected brine, distillate and circulating mass needed to
where D, R and F are the distillate, rejected brine and feed seawater,
keep the salt concentration within the allowable limits may be
respectively. Similarly the mass balance for the mixing chamber
given as ratios of the feed mass ow rate as follows
gives
F B  R M (2) R D M B
0:6; 0:4; 4 and 3:6 (3d)
F F F F
where B is the brine leaving the bottom ashing stage and M is the
mass ow rate circulating in the plan. The mass balance for salt on The ratio of feed to the circulated mass, F/M, which is also the
the entire plant gives feed mass fraction in the mixture, should be selected according Eq
(3d) to maintain the salt concentration within the conventional
yD D yR R yF F (3a) limits.
In the following analysis steady state operation is assumed and
where yD , yR and yF are the salt concentration (in ppm) in distillate, negligible enthalpy changed in feedebrine mixture, Dhcom, due to
rejected brine and feed, respectively. Similarly, the mass balance of salt concentration is employed. Feed, brine and distillate are treated
salt entering and leaving the mixing chamber gives as pure water with properties dependent on temperature and
product is always salt free. The characteristics of the steam gener-
yF F yR B  R yM M (3b)
ation section of the plant are xed and no energy loss to the
where yM is the salt concentration of the circulating water as it environment is assumed.
leaves the mixing chamber. Substituting for (B  R) by their
equivalent value from Eq. (2) yields 2.2. Mixing chamber

yF F yR M  F yM M (3c) Applying energy balance on the mixing chamber (Fig. 1 (c))


Conventional salt concentration in the circulating brine entering shows that
the rst stage of MSF-BR plants is 63000 ppm and it should not
Mhmix Fha M  FhBN (4a)
exceed 70000 ppm in the rejected brine [5]. Moreover, the salt
concentration in the Red Sea reaches 42000 ppm [7] and the Where h denotes enthalpy and subscripts mix, a and BN refer to the
distillate is pure fresh water (salt concentration is zero). These mixture, seawater feed and rejected brine, respectively. The
values can be used in Eqs (3a)e(3c) to relate the mass ow rate of enthalpy of the mixture can be obtained by rewriting this relation as
5228 M.M. Alhazmy / Energy 36 (2011) 5225e5232

F TBT  TBN
hmix hBN  h  ha (4b) DTstage (12)
M BN N
Therefore, the temperature of the stream leaving the brineefeed then the brine temperature and hence the enthalpy in each ashing
mixing chamber depends on the feed mass fraction, F/M, and feed stage may be evaluated.
and brine temperatures.
2.4. Brine heater
2.3. Flashing stages
Energy balance on the brine heater gives
Applying the steady state mass conservation equation to the
rst ashing stage yields  
Ms hsb  hsc M hTBT  hM0 Loss (13a)
M B1 d1 (5a)
where Ms is the steam ow rate, hsb and hsc are the enthalpies of the
Similarly, the mass balance on the ith stage gives steam entering and leaving the brine heater, respectively. The last
term, Loss, is used to account for the heat required to overcome the
di Bi1  Bi (5b)
terminal temperature difference (TTD) between the condensing
where d is the distillate, B is the brine and the indices denote the vapor and the feed stream and to include the change in the liquid
stage number. Eqs. (5a) and (5b) can be used to relate the brine ow enthalpy due to the boiling point elevation (d) of the saline water.
rate, B, to the circulating mixture and distillate produced from each The mass of steam needed to heat up mass ow rate M of the
stage as follows circulated mixture from hM0 to hTBT can be written as
 
Bi M  Di (6) Ms hsb  hsc M hTBT  hM0 McP TTD d (13b)
where Di is the distillate accumulated from the stages 1 to i dened or in a form of a ratio of the feed mass ow rate as follow
as
 
Ms hTBT  hM0 cP TTD d
X
i (13c)
Di dj (7) M hsb  hsc
j1 The typical values for TTD and d are 5  C and 1  C, respectively [4,5].
Eq. (6) can now be rewritten as
2.5. BrineeFeed mixture cooler
X
i
Bi M  Di M  dj (8) The heat to be removed from the feedebrine mixture before
j1 entering the bottom feed water heater (last stage) depends on the
The heat balance on the ashing chamber gives desired temperature drop in the feedebrine mixture, and can be
estimated using the rst law of thermodynamics for steady state
Bi1 hBi1 di hgi Bi hBi Dhcom (9a) process as follows

where Dhcom is the change in enthalpy of the mixture due to change  


Qcooling M hmix  hMN McP TTD d (14a)
in salt concentration, and subscripts B and g refer to brine and vapor
at the brine temperature, respectively. Eqs. (5a), (5b) and (8) may be
where hmix and hMN are the enthalpies of the mixture entering and
used along with the assumption of negligible enthalpy change due
leaving the cooler, respectively. A cooling coil maintained by an
to change in salt concentration to reduce Eq. (9a) to
external refrigeration machine, may be installed inside the mixing
   X
i1 chamber or after it, but for sure before the intake of the bottom
hBi1  hBi M hBi1  hBi dj di hfgi (9b) feed heater. Assuming that the refrigeration machine has a xed
j1 coefcient of performance (COP), the power consumed for cooling
of the mixture will be
Therefore the ow rate of distillate ashed off in each stage may
be written as  
Qcooling hmix  hMN cP TTD d
    Pi1 Wcooling M (14b)
hBi1  hBi M  hBi1  hBi COP COP
j 1 dj
di (10)
hfgi This power can be taken from the power generation part of the
plant (the Rankine cycle).
The heat balance on the feed heaters gives

MhMi1 Di hMi MhMi Di1 hBi1 di hgi (11a) 2.6. Plant performance

Now, Eq. (7) can be used to simplify Eq (11a) and enthalpy of the Yield enhancement, DD, and performance ratio improvement,
circulating mixture at the exit of the feed heater will be DPR, are two indicators selected to study the performance of MSF-
MC system. These two indicators are dened as
  Pi1
di hfgi hBi1  hBi j 1 dj D  Do
hMi1 hMi (11b) DD  100 (15a)
M Do
Based on the number of stages, top brine temperature and the
bottom stage temperature the temperature drop in each stage of an PR  PRo
DPR  100 (15b)
MSF plant consisting of N ashing stages can be chosen as PRo
M.M. Alhazmy / Energy 36 (2011) 5225e5232 5229

were D and PR (Performance Ratio) are the yield and performance fraction, F/M, can be used in presenting the obtained results. The
ratio of the MSF-MC plant, respectively, and similarly Do and PRo are performance of the MSF-MC plant is examined for seawater
the yield and performance ratio of the MSF-OT plant, respectively. temperature variations from 18 to 35  C, the winter to summer
The performance ratio of desalination plant is conventionally seawater temperature range near the Saudi coasts [20], different
dened as feed mass fractions and different mixture temperatures. The results
for mixing only (no cooling) mode will be discussed rst then the
D effect of mixing and cooling will be presented along with an
PR (15c)
Ms application on a typical desalination plant consisting of twenty
Calculations procedure starts by determining the temperature seven stages (N 27) and operating with a TBT of 110  C. For all
drop in each stage based on the selected values of the top brine considered cases the reference plant is a conventional MSF-OT, the
temperature, bottom stage temperature and the number of stages heating steam looping in Rankine cycle leaves the back pressure
from Eq. (12). The brine temperature in each ashing stage can turbine at 3.5 bar and 130  C and the cooler is a conventional
then be determined. Computerized tables of thermodynamics refrigeration machine with a coefcient of performance, COP, of 4.5.
properties such as the Engineering Equation Solver, EES [18], can be
used to obtain the enthalpy of the brine (and distillate) in each 4.1. Brineefeed mixing
stage. Eq. (10) can then be used to evaluate the mass ow rate of
distillate, di, from every ashing stage and Eq. (11b) may then be Figs. 3e5 show the effect of feedebrine mixing (in the absence
used to evaluate the enthalpy of the circulating mass, hMi, (and of cooling) on the operation of an MSF plant for feed mass fraction
hence the temperature, TMi) at the exit of every feed heater. Once of 0.25  F/M  1.0 and feed temperatures of 15  C  Ta  45  C.
the top stage is reached the mass ow rate of heating steam needed Mixing feed at temperature, Ta, of 40  C and feed mass fraction, F/M,
to raise the temperature of the circulating mixture to the selected of 0.25 forms a mixture at temperature of 62.5  C. For the same feed
TBT will be estimated using Eq. (13c). Eqs. (14a)e(15c) can then be temperature (40  C), however, the mixture temperature becomes
used to obtain the required performance parameters namely, DD 57.5  C, 45.4  C, 41  C and 40  C with F/M of 0.3, 0.6, 0.9 and 1,
and DPR. respectively. Other feed temperatures show similar behavior, for
example at a feed temperature, Ta, of 20  C the mixture temperature
becomes 44.4  C when feed fraction is 0.25, increasing the fraction
3. Model validation
to 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1 give mixtures at temperatures of 33  C, 26  C,
22  C and 20  C, respectively. On the other hand, keeping the feed
The model developed above is simple and has been developed
fraction constant and increasing the feed temperature increases the
to evaluate the potential of employing brineefeed mixing and
temperature of the mixtures. For a feed fraction of 0.25, for
cooling to MSF plants. In the absence of mixing the feed mass ow
example, the mixture temperature becomes 44.4  C, 50  C, 53.4  C
rate and the rate of circulating mass are the same (F M), hence the
and 57.9  C for feed temperatures, Ta, of 20  C, 25  C, 30  C and
MSF-MC plant becomes identical to the reference MSF-OT. The
35  C, respectively.
yield dependence on the feed temperature of the present model is
High yield, D/M, is associated with high evaporation ranges that
examined against the two models presented by El-Dessouky and
result from low mixture temperature. The latter is obtained, in the
Ettouney [5] and El-Sayed and Silver [19], respectively. Fig. 2 shows
absence of cooling, from high feed fractions and low feed temper-
the yield for (F/M 1) from a twenty seven stages (N 27) once-
atures. As shown in Fig. 4 the yield from the plant having brine
through MSF-OT plant that operate at a TBT of 110  C. The feed
mixing only (no cooling) is less than that from MSF-OT congura-
temperature varies from 15  C to 40  C. The results from the current
tion. This is expected because mixing increases the plant bottom
model are within 7% from that of El-Dessouky and Ettouney [5]
temperature and therefore reduces the evaporation range. A feed
and within 3.8% from the model of El-Sayed and Silver [19].
fraction of 0.25 reduces the yield from 0.1063 (for MSF-OT) to
0.07126 (32% reduction) for feed temperature, Ta, of 40  C. The same
4. Results and discussion feed fraction leads to yield reduction by 31%, 28% and 25.5% for Ta of
35  C, 25  C and 15  C, respectively. The drop in the yield becomes
The circulating mixture, M, produced by mixing the fresh less pronounced as the feed mass fraction increases. Similar trend is
seawater feed, F, with part of the brine, (B  R), therefore, feed mass observed for other feed temperatures. For a feed temperature of

0.16
Present Model
65
El-Sayed & Silver [6] Ta = 40 C
0.15
El-dessouky & Ettouny [10] 60 = 35 C
Yield to Mixture ratio , D/M

Mixture Temperature, T mix [o C]

0.14 55 =30 C
=25 C
50 =20 C
0.13
45
0.12 40

0.11 35
30
0.1
25
0.09 20
15 20 25 30 35 40 45 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
Mixture Temperature, T o
o [ C]
Feed mass fraction, F/M
Fig. 2. Comparison of the results of the present analysis with previous models (For
M F). Fig. 3. Temperature at the mixture chamber outlet.
5230 M.M. Alhazmy / Energy 36 (2011) 5225e5232

0.14 the same feed temperature, the mixture temperature decreases as


the feed mass fraction increases. Alternatively, for the same feed
0.13 mass fraction the mixture temperature decreases as the feed
Yield to Mixture ratio, D/M

temperature decreases. These effects result from increasing the


0.12 mass of cold stream or reducing its temperature. Moreover, when
the mass fraction becomes unity the mixture temperature will be
0.11 the same as the feed temperature and the plant operates identical
to the once-through (MSF-OT) conguration.
0.1
Ta =40 C 4.2. Brineefeed mixing and cooling
0.09 =35 C
=30 C Inserting a cooler after the mixing chamber reduces the plant
0.08 =25 C bottom temperature, expands the evaporation range and increases
=20 C the yield, however, it should not be reduced below 15  C in order to
0.07 avoid operational problem such as increasing the specic volume of
0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 the ashed off vapor, increasing the vapor velocity, increasing the
amount of entrained brine, and increasing the product salinity [4].
Feed mass fraction, F/M Figs. 6,7 show the enhancement in the yield and in the perfor-
Fig. 4. Yield of MSF plant with mixing (no cooling), N 27 Stages and TBT 110  C. mance ratio of the MSF-MC plant, respectively. Cooling the
feedebrine mixture to 15  C increases the yield by 35%, 26%, 18%,
11% and 6% for feed temperatures of 40  C, 35  C, 30  C, 25  C and
20  C, a feed mass fraction of 0.25 reduces the yield from 0.1358 (for 20  C, respectively. These are 1.4%e1.2% improvements for every
MSF-OT) to 0.09961 (26.65% reduction) this reduction descends to 1  C drop in mixture temperature. Moreover, cooling the mixture to
zero as the feed mass fraction approaches unity. 15  C increases the performance ratio by 19.2% when the feed
The performance ratio, PR, is an important parameter in the temperature is 40  C, this increment becomes 14%, 9.8%, 6% and
assessment of plants operation and it is indirectly affected by the 2.8% for Ta of 35  C, 30  C, 25  C and 20  C, respectively. The larger
plant bottom temperature. Fig. 5 shows the change in PR due to the drop in the temperature of the mixture the larger the
mixing (no cooling). Mixing feed at temperature, Ta, of 40  C and improvement will be in both yield and performance ratio. There-
feed mass fraction, F/M, of 0.25 reduces PR from 6.5 (for MSF-OT) fore, installing a cooler after the feedebrine mixing chamber
to 4.9 (24.8% reduction). Moreover, the reduction in PR becomes maintains constant low temperature at the bottom stage, xes the
19%, 7.9%, 3.3% and 0.84% for the same feed temperature operating conditions in the plant, and keeps constant high fresh
(Ta 40  C) and feed fraction ratios of 0.3, 0.5, 0.7 and 0.9, water production rates.
respectively. Similar results are observed for other feed tempera- Although there is no apparent effect for the feed mass fraction
tures. For a feed temperature of 20  C, PR is reduced by 17.4%, on the yield, its consequence is obvious on the cooling load. The
13.3%, 5.5%, 2.3% and 0.58% for feed mass fractions of 0.25, 0.3, cooling load and hence the power required to drive the cooling
0.5,0.7 and 0.9, respectively. The reduction in the performance system depends on the desired mixture temperature, TMN, feed
ratio becomes less pronounced as the feed mass fraction increases, temperature, Ta, and feed mass fraction, F/M. Fig. 8 shows the
and obviously the performance of MSF-OT is attained with unity cooling load, Wcooling/M, for a cooling temperature drop of
feed mass fraction. 10  C DTc (Tmix  TMN)  30  C and feed mass fraction of
Mixing (in the absence of cooling) elevates the plant bottom 0.25  F/M  1.0. Large feed mass fraction at high seawater
temperature; hence it decreases the evaporation range, reduces the temperatures increase the cooling load. The targeted temperature
yield, and reduces the performance ratio. Changing the feed mass drop, feed mass fraction and mixture ow rates determine the size
fraction or feed temperature changes the mixture temperature. For of the needed cooling system. Energy and space availability, in such

8.0 40
Ta= 40 C
7.5 35 = 35 C
= 30 C
Change in the Yield, D %
Performance Ratio, PR

7.0 30 = 25 C
= 20 C
6.5 25
20
6.0 Ta =40 C
=35 C 15
5.5 =30 C
=25 C 10
5.0 =20 C
5
4.5
0
0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30
Feed mass fraction, F/M
Mixture temperature, T o [oC]
Fig. 5. Performance ratio of MSF plant with mixing (no cooling), N 27 Stages and
TBT 110  C. Fig. 6. Change in yield of MSF-MC with mixture temperature.
M.M. Alhazmy / Energy 36 (2011) 5225e5232 5231

20 1

Cooling load in (MSF-MC)/(MSF-OT)


Ta= 40 C
18 = 35 C
Change in Performance Ratio, PR %

0.9
= 30 C
16
= 25 C
0.8
14 = 20 C

12 0.7
10 (TMN-Tmix) =30 C
0.6
=25 C
8
=20 C
6 0.5 =15 C
=10 C
4 0.4
0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
2
Feed mass fraction, F/M
0
Fig. 9. Ratio of Cooling load required for MSF-MC to that required MSF-OT with feed
14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30
cooler [8].
Mixture temperature, T o [oC]

Fig. 7. Change in plant performance ratio of MSF-MC with mixture temperature. the cooling power needed in MSF-MC is 0.88 required by the MSF-
OT feed cooled system this ratio increases to 0.92, 0.95 and 0.98 for,
F/M, of 0.5, 0.7 and 0.9, respectively. This saving in cooling power
systems, are additional practical constrains that should be taken requirements in MSF-MC compared to MSF-OT with feed cooler
into consideration. For a temperature drop, DTc (Tmix  TMN), of gives the designer and operators more alternatives in selecting and
30  C, increasing the feed mass fraction from 0.25 to 1.0 increases controlling the cooling temperature drop and cooling system.
the cooling load from 13.4 kJ/kgm to 28 kJ/kgm, this is more than Absorption cooling machine driven by the waste of the Rankine
double the load. Moreover, the cooling load increases by 92%, 72%, cycle and thermal storage systems during power off peak periods
47% and 13% for temperature drop of 25  C, 20 15  C and 10  C, might be adopted.
respectively. Therefore, low feed mass fraction is appropriate to
keep cooling system size reasonably small.
The ratio of the cooling power needed in MSF-MC to that of 4.3. Application
MSF-OT with feed cooler presented by Alhazmy [8] is shown Fig. 9.
The MSF-OT conditions are attained when the feed mass fraction Fig. 10 shows the measured feed temperatures and the esti-
becomes unity (F/M 1). The effect of mixing in reducing the mated yield of a conventional desalination plant near the east coast
cooling load is easily observable. For the same cooling temperature of Saudi Arabia. The plant characteristics are the same as the
drop, DTc, the cooling power needed in MSF-MC is less than that reference plant used above. The feed temperature varies from 16  C
required by the MSF-OT for all feed mass fractions. For a tempera- in winter to 35  C in summer. The highest yield, D/M, is
ture drop DTc, of 30  C cooling power needed in MSF-MC is 0.48 of 0.1413 kg/kgm that is obtained at the minimum winter seawater
that required by MSF-OT with feed cooler for a feed mass fraction, F/ temperature of 16.2  C, while the lowest yield is 0.1145 kg/kgm and
M, of 0.25. This ratio increases to 0.65, 0.79 and 0.93 as F/M is obtained when the seawater temperature is 34.5  C. Thus the
increases to 0.5, 0.7 and 0.9, respectively. Similarly, for DTc, of 10  C average summer to winter temperature difference of 20  C causes

0.15 40
30 Yield summer- winter modes Temperature
(TMN-Tmix) =30C
Cooling load per mixture mass, W cooling /M

=25 C
25 =20 C 0.14 35
=15 C
Yield to mixture ratio, D/M

=10 C
Mixture Temperature, To [oC]

20 0.13 30

15
0.12 25

10
0.11 20

5
0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 0.1 15
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Feed mass fraction, F/M
Months
Fig. 8. Cooling load required for different feed mass fraction and seawater
temperatures. Fig. 10. Change in the yield of MSF plant with feed temperature.
5232 M.M. Alhazmy / Energy 36 (2011) 5225e5232

18 minimizing feed chemical treatment and pumping power. The


Relative to Summer - winter operation larger the drop in the temperature of the mixture the larger the
16 Relative to daily variation improvement will be in both yield and performance ratio. An
improvement in the yield by 1.184% can be achieved for every 1  C
Change in the yield, % D

14
reduction in plant bottom temperature.
12

10 References

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