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ME - 748

Assignment 1
Ayushi Nagar (13D100025)

Section 1: Mechanism Description


Section 1.1: Picture or Sketch of mechanism

Section 1.2: Description of mechanism in your own words


The Whitworth quick return mechanism converts rotary motion into reciprocating
motion, but unlike the crank and slider, the forward reciprocating motion is at a
slower rate than the backward/return stroke. It is made of a driving crank and of
a driven slider crank. It has crank BC turning about point C. Other end of crank
carries a slider, connected with turning pair. The slide fits inside the slotted lever.
The slider is free to slide inside the slotted lever. At the bottom of the drive arm,
the peg has to move through a few degrees to sweep the arm from left to right,
but it takes the remainder of the revolution to bring the arm back.
Section 1.3: Application of Mechanism
1. Rotary Engines

2. Power Driven Saw Machine

3. Shaping Machine

4. Water Pumping System


Section 2: Context of Use
Section 2.1: History

During his career, Sir Joseph Whitworth moved to London where he found
employment worked for Henry Maudslay, the inventor of the screw-cutting lathe,
alongside such people as James Nasmyth (inventor of the steam hammer)
and Richard Roberts. This was the first instance of the mechanism put to use.
Section 2.2: Evolution of design of mechanisms for a similar purpose
Earliest lathes with machine-guided toolpath for screw-cutting
Not until the late Middle Ages and early modern period did breakthroughs occur
in this area; the earliest which happened in the 15th century incorporates slide
rests and a leadscrew.
In the succeeding three centuries, many other designs followed, especially
among ornamental turners and clockmakers. These included various important
concepts and impressive cleverness, but few were significantly accurate and
practical to use. For example, Woodbury discusses Jacques Besson and others.
They made impressive contributions to turning, but the context in which they
tended to work (turning as a fine art for rich people) did not channel their
contributions toward industrial uses.
Henry Hindley designed and constructed a screw-cutting lathe circa 1739. It
featured a plate guiding the tool and power supplied by a hand-cranked series of
gears. By changing the gears, he could cut screws with different pitch. Removing
a gear permitted him to make left-handed threads.
Modern screw-cutting lathes (late 18th to early 19th centuries)
The first truly modern screw-cutting lathe was likely constructed by Jesse
Ramsden in 1775. His device included a leadscrew, slide rest, and change gear
mechanism. These form the elements of a modern (non-CNC) lathe and are in
use to this day. Ramsden was able to use his first screw-cutting lathe to make
even more accurate lathes. With these, he was able to make an exceptionally
accurate dividing engine and in turn, some of the finest astronomical, surveying,
and navigational instruments of the 18th century.
Others followed. Examples were a French mechanic surnamed Senot, who in
1795 created a screw-cutting lathe capable of industrial-level production,
and David Wilkinson of Vermont, who employed a slide rest in 1798. However,
these inventors were soon overshadowed by Henry Maudslay, who in 1800
created a screw-cutting lathe that is frequently cited as the first.
Present day
Until the early 19th century, the notion of a screw-cutting lathe stood in contrast
to the notion of a regular lathe, which lacked the parts needed to guide the
cutting tool in the precise path needed to produce an accurate thread. Since the
early 19th century, it has been common practice to build these parts into any
general-purpose metalworking lathe; thus, the distinction between "regular
lathe" and "screw-cutting lathe" does not apply to the classification of modern
lathes. Instead, there are other categories, some of which bundle single-point
screw-cutting capability among other capabilities (for example, regular lathes,
toolroom lathes, and CNC lathes), and some of which omit single-point screw-
cutting capability as irrelevant to the machines' intended purposes (for example,
speed lathes and turret lathes).
In the late 19th century Henry Augustus Rowland found a need for very high
precision screws in cutting diffraction gratings, so he developed a technique for
making them.
Today the threads of threaded fasteners (such as machine screws, wood screws,
wallboard screws, and sheetmetal screws) are usually not cut via single-point
screw-cutting; instead most are generated by other, faster processes, such
as thread forming and rolling and cutting with die heads. The latter processes are
the ones employed in modern screw machines. These machines, although they
are lathes specialized for making screws, are not screw-cutting lathes in the
sense of employing single-point screw-cutting.
Section 3: Kinematics
Section 3.1: Kinematic Sketch

Section 3.2: Description of motion transmission


As the crank (O2A) starts rotating about the point O2. It transmits the motion to
the Lever O1AB through the slider. As a result the lever O1AB starts rotating about
the point O1 which in return transfers reciprocating motion to link BO 6 and hence
to slider. The forward reciprocating motion is slower rate than the return stroke.
Hence this mechanism is called quick return mechanism.
Section 3.3: Expected displacement profile of output component
Section 3.4: Expected velocity profile of output component

Section 3.5: Expected acceleration profile of output component


Section 4: Dynamics
Section 4.1: Expected speed of operation
There are many different possibilities for all forces, speeds, lengths,
motions, functions, and vectors in this mechanism. Hence speed will also
change according to these parameters and it does not make sense to
comment on speed limits of Whitworth mechanism in general.
For a given setup to obtain maximum velocity:
Convert circular velocities to linear velocities and use lever ratios to
calculate output velocity.
I will be performing kinematic and dynamic analysis for the speeds less
than 2000 RPM
Section 4.2: Possible problems with extreme speeds
Following problems are written for shaper mechanism.

At higher speeds vibrations are caused due to moving links that are not rigid in
real life and will lead to chatter marks. A chatter mark is an irregular surface flaw
left by a wheel when turning a long piece on a lathe, due to machining
vibrations. Also at high speeds and feeds costs will be high because of frequent
tool replacement.

While at low speeds there will be not enough force available for operation of
mechanism. Built-up-edge (BUE) forms when there is a chemical affinity between
workpiece and the tool. It becomes unstable, breaks up and then forms again.
The process is repeated continuously and is favourable to occur at low speeds.
Also at low speeds and feeds cost will be higher because of the cost of using the
machine and operator for longer machining times.
Chip formation affects the surface finish, cutting forces, temperature, tool life
and dimensional tolerance which occurs at high cutting speed and rake angle but
may form at low speed, low rake angle in castoff soft metals, and characterized
by wider shear zone that causes distortion, poor finish, residual stresses.