Anda di halaman 1dari 569

Power Engineering

Guide
Edition 8.0

siemens.com/power-engineering-guide
Power Engineering Guide
Edition 8.0

1
How to use this
document? 7

Intelligent grid solutions Grid control and grid applications


From generation to consumption

2 8

Power transmission and Communication network solutions for


distribution solutions transmission and distribution grids

3 9

Substations and switchgear Consulting and planning for power


grids

4 10

Devices and components Services and support

5 11

Transformers Glossary

6 12

Protection, substation automation, Abbreviations, trademarks


power quality and measurements

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 2


How to use this document

Main navigation

Go to main content page Go to How to use this document

Chapter navigation
You can navigate directly from the chapter overview You can navigate to the chapter overview
to the related chapter or section

1
1.1 Chapter 17
1.1.1 
Section17
1.1.2 
Section17 2
2.2 Chapter 22
2.2.1 Section  22
3

Further information
You can receive further information

For further information:


siemens.com/xxxxxxxxx
1 Intelligent grid solutions
From generation to consumption

Intelligent grid solutions


From generation to consumption 5
Connecting grids 6
Agility in energy 7
Totally Integrated Power 7
Intelligent grid solutions From generation to consumption

Intelligent grid solutions From generation to consumption


Electrical power is the basis of modern life. It is the main amount of affordable and available energy for their rapidly
resource for industries and infrastructure, it makes growth growing economies. Next-wave electrifier countries first
and progress possible, and it is the energy of the future need to build an infrastructure to provide their economy
that is shaping a more environment-friendly energy system. with sufficient power. To ensure that the power makes its
1 The transformation of the energy system has already begun way in a reliable, safe, and efficient manner in increasingly
and is gaining momentum through the renunciation of complex transmission and distribution environments, they
fossil fuels, market liberalization, and growing environ- need digitally enabled solutions based on a sophisticated
2 mental awareness. At the same time, theres a shift from combination of innovative products, software, and services.
centralized, large-scale power generation to a highly com- These solutions must be socially acceptable due to an
plex distributed generation landscape where the cost-effi- increase in public awareness: for example, resistance to
cient integration of renewables is the main priority. And new overhead lines.
3 our need for energy continues to grow.
Siemens comprehensive portfolio covers the entire value
These developments are creating new and highly chain in all major application fields: power transmission,
4 demanding challenges: Grids must be able to flexibly power distribution, and power supply for industries and
manage bidirectional power flow and intermittency, and facilities. It is helping actively shape the future of energy
the entire system and all its operations must be kept abso- and is a major success story for all stakeholders from the
lutely safe and secure at the same time. Furthermore, new point of grid infeed all the way to the customer. A steady
5 capacities need to be added, existing equipment updated, stream of innovations in power technology for more than
and grid operation optimized to make the entire infrastruc- 160 years has made Siemens a trusted, valued partner to
ture fit for the future. The integration of renewable energy leading energy and industrial companies worldwide. In this
6 into existing grids poses new challenges due to the tradition, Siemens is addressing the new challenges to the
increasing distances between power generation and con- energy system in three areas: Connecting grids, Agility in
sumption, the need for more cost-efficient infeed of power energy, and Totally Integrated Power.
from renewables, and fluctuating demand.
7 We are shaping the energy system of today and
While some countries are advancing the integration of tomorrow with resilient electrification, efficient auto-
renewables, others require a different energy mix. These mation, comprehensive digitalization, seamless integra-
8 energy-hungry countries need to supply a sufficient tion, and long-standing, trusted business partnerships.

10

11

12

Fig. 1-1: Main aspects of energy technology

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 5


Intelligent grid solutions From generation to consumption

Prosumers
Protection Automation Communication Metering

Industrial Industrial Small Onshore District heating Storage Private Prosumer


cogeneration cogeneration power plant wind and cooling photovoltaics applications

1
E-Mobility Combined
heat and power

2
Energy mgmt. Photovoltaics Traction Engine Storage Engine Heat pump Microgrid
and control converter control

3 Transmission Distribution Consumption

4 Transmission
control center
Transmission
substation
HVDC/
grid access
FACTS Distribution
substation
Transformer
substation
Distribution
control center
Residential
area

5 Central Offshore Pumped storage Infrastructure Industry


power plant wind power plant

6
Electrification Automation Digitalization

7
Fig. 1-2: Energy system increasingly distributed and driven by Prosumer

9
Connecting grids

10 Grid operators who are preparing their grids for future Solutions like the offshore transformer module, Siemens
demands need future-proof, flexible solutions that will AC power connection module for near-shore wind power,
ensure maximum investment security, comply with and the DC-based grid connection solution using diode
regional regulations and standards, and are accepted by rectifier units for more remote transmission, help make
11 society. Key areas for grid operators are long-distance renewable energy more competitive.
transmission, grid access, and grid stability.
With the comprehensive and integrated Siemens port-
12 High-voltage direct-current (HVDC) transmission has proven folio, grid operators can make their grid infrastructure
to be the best solution to compensate for increasing dis- fit for the future.
tances between source and load. With about 50 completed
projects worldwide, Siemens is the leading provider of
HVDC technology. The innovative HVDC solution provides
grid-stabilizing functions and makes also possible the safe
transmission of electricity through existing overhead lines.

In the area of AC transmission, the focus is on grid stability


on all voltage levels. New FACTS solutions enable the
lasting stabilization and optimization of existing infrastruc-
tures. Storage solutions and electrolysis systems make it
possible to store excess energy, which can compensate for
the volatile infeed from wind and photovoltaic energy
sources as well as stabilize the grid.

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 6


Intelligent grid solutions From generation to consumption

Agility in energy Totally Integrated Power


As distribution grids become increasingly complex, Siemens Industries, buildings, and facilities all depend on electrical
is focusing on helping its customers improve their reliability power. To ensure that power makes its way in a reliable,
and efficiency so they can stay ahead of the challenges safe, and efficient manner in increasingly complex distribu-
from the control room across the grid to the consumer. All tion environments, automation and digitalization need to
grid products, solutions, and services from Siemens have a work hand-in-hand. Totally Integrated Power (TIP) is
1 common denominator: the digitally enabled convergence Siemens unique approach that enables accurate and indi-
of information technology and operation technology. They vidual solutions that meet these demands for any
facilitate agility in energy through the understanding of industry. TIP offers precisely customized solutions for the
2 technology and market developments, focus on the rele- automotive, chemical, construction, oil and gas, and
vant fields of action, and operate based on consistent, mining industries as well as data centers, harbors, and
end-to-end automation and digitalization. buildings of all sizes. Of course Siemens has the right TIP
solution which fits to the specific demands for other mar-
3 Siemens delivers power system studies, field measure- kets too.
ments, disturbance investigations including post-event
analyses, and also provides professional testimonials and TIP is an integrated portfolio for all power supply applica-
4 expert software tools for power system simulation and tions. The range of products and solutions covers all
analysis. Products, solutions, and services from Siemens voltage levels and is modular and precisely matched. It
significantly improve the reliability and availability of any offers excellent support for every application area and can
power distribution system, and they also contribute to be integrated into any existing system. Siemens powerful
5 highly efficient grid management and operation. Whether software enables transparent planning, analysis, and con-
remote signaling and monitoring, fully automated opera- trol of electrical power distribution in industries, buildings,
tion, or microgrid management: The Siemens portfolio and facilities of every kind. TIP provides everything required
6 provides all the functions that system operators need. to supply power in challenging environments. Smart inter-
Distribution automation significantly improves the reli- faces to industrial and building automation systems are the
ability and availability of power distribution grids. The key to tapping the full potential offered by an integrated
functionality ranges from remote monitoring and control to power supply solution. Whether for a greenfield project or
7 fully automated applications. for an existing, heterogeneous overall system, TIP
embraces all factors and the entire lifecycle from plan-
Consulting and analysis methodology provides comprehen- ning and analysis through implementation and operation to
8 sive support in the development and implementation of maintenance and services. Even for the toughest demands
business strategies and technology for the energy system of supply-critical assets, TIP facilitates the customers busi-
of the future. For managing microgrids, Siemens offers ness in terms of planning and procurement. Its the mod-
comprehensive solutions for planning, monitoring, and ular one-stop-shop solution for all power requirements.
9 control. This allows cost-effective operation, low environ-
mental impact, and the highest efficiency as well as power Only Totally Integrated Power ensures that the power
quality and security of supply. supply for business operations works in the most reli-
10 able, safe, and efficient manner.
The increasingly complex technical framework, as well as
market mechanisms that are sometimes difficult to under-
stand and predict, call for highly adaptive solutions for
11 distribution system operators and utilities. These solutions
need to be optimally customized to the individual compa-
nys situation and strategic agenda.
12
Only Siemens provides the agility to meet all future
challenges in the energy market and to stay ahead of
the changes.

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 7


2 Power transmission and
distribution solutions

2.1 Complete portfolio from a single source 9 2.4 Portable power solutions and E-house 65
2.1.1 Future challenges for transmission 2.5 Microgrids 73
and distribution grids 9 2.5.1 Operation, monitoring, administration,
2.1.2 Consulting and planning 10 planning all under one roof 73
2.1.3 Entire life-cycle capabilities 12 2.5.2 Microgrid market segments 74
2.2 High-voltage solutions 13 2.5.3 Siemens microgrid management systems 76
2.2.1 High-voltage direct current 2.6 Intelligent transformer substations 77
transmission systems (HVDC) 13 2.7 Cyber security 82
2.2.2 Flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) 22 2.7.1 Cyber security in energy management 82
2.2.3 Grid access solutions 26 2.7.2 Cyber security framework 83
2.2.4 Power transmission lines 32 2.7.3 Operational security 86
2.3 Medium-voltage systems 55 2.7.4 Applied cyber security 89
2.3.1 SIESTORAGE energy storage system 55 2.7.5 Cyber security consultancy 92
2.3.2 SIHARBOR/SIPLINK 63 2.7.6 Final remarks 92
Power transmission and distribution solutions 2.1 Complete portfolio from a single source

2.1 Complete portfolio from Integration of large wind and solar power plants with
increasing distance to load centers
a single source Bulk power flows, which are fluctuating and
bi-directional
Feeding the power generated at different locations over Strengthen electricity market and energy trading
long distances into power systems often calls for optimized Decreasing system stability and reliability
power transmission and distribution solutions. Despite the Aging infrastructure
1 challenges it poses, however, interconnecting of different Increasing cost pressure and changing regulatory
regions, countries or even continents remains a viable framework
option for providing these areas with economical access to
2 power. As a solution provider with extensive experience in These challenges do vary from country to country and
every aspect of power transmission and distribution, region to region. Therefore it is important to provide a
Siemens has already implemented a large number of proj- broad range of solutions, which can flexibly be adapted to
ects linking power systems or connecting decentralized the needs arising in the networks and thus help ensuring
3 generating units tothe grid. In each case, conditions were grid resilience in the long term. The combination of these
unique. And because Siemens strives to provide its cus- challenges can be tackled with the help of ideas, intelligent
tomers with the most cost-efficient results, the imple- solutions as well as advanced technologies.
4 mented solutions using different technologies were also
unique. By means of power electronics, they provide features which
are necessary to avoid technical problems in the power
Siemens offers a comprehensive portfolio for public and systems, they increase the transmission capacity and
5 private utilities as well as for power supply for cities, indus- system stability very efficiently and help to prevent cas-
trial plants, buildings and various infrastructure networks. cading disturbances. For example innovative solutions with
Our solutions from low and medium distribution voltage HVDC (High-Voltage Direct-Current Transmission) and
6 levels up to high and ultra-high voltage levels for transmis- FACTS (Flexible AC Transmission Systems) have the poten-
sion networks support the target to develop highly effi- tial to cope with the new challenges.
cient, reliable and safe power supply.
The vision and enhancement strategy for the future elec-
7 tricity networks can be outlined as follows:
2.1.1 Future challenges for transmission Flexible: fulfilling operator needs whilst responding to
and distribution grids the changes and challenges ahead
8 Accessible: granting connection access to all network
The power grid of the future must be reliable, economical users, particularly for Renewable Energy Sources (RES)
efficient, aligned with climate protection and resource and high-efficiency local generation with zero or low
efficiency targets while taking into account the compati- carbon emissions
9 bility with society and public acceptance. Thus the net- Reliable: assuring and improving security and quality of
works of today and tomorrow have to perform higher to supply
answer the upcoming challenges: Economic: providing best value through innovation,
10 Changing energy mix towards high share of Renewable efficient energy management and level playing field
Energy Sources (RES) competition and regulation

North system
11 50 Hz

Power exchange Central system


Asynchronous 60 Hz
Tariff networks
Avoidance of
12 loop flows Clean
P

Clean and energy


low-cost
energy
Bulk power and
Fault-Current
long distance
Limiter
L

Submarine
FC

cable links
P

Industrial
energy supply

Power
exchange
Tariff

South system
60 Hz

Symbols: TPSC/TCSC SVC FSC P B2B as GPFC HVDC PLUS DC transmission


and interconnection Fig.2.1-1: Power transmission and
SVC PLUS
distribution solutions

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 9


Power transmission and distribution solutions 2.1 Complete portfolio from a single source

2.1.2 Consulting and planning


Consulting and planning for power systems

Siemens PTI
For mastering the technical and economical challenges of
todays and future energy systems, Siemens recommends a
1 holistic approach comprising strategic advisory services,
technical consultation, and state-of-the-art grid anaylsis
software. Drawing on more than 60 years of experience
2 and continuous innovation in power system planning,
Siemens experts address the full spectrum of power system
analysis, planning, and optimization studies. Siemens has
developed a PSS(R) power system planning and software
3 suite, which is based on the companys experience in
conducting international studies and adapting to dynamic
industry challenges. Customers can optimize their business
4 value thanks to the expert advice provided by our strategic
consultants in the fields of business transformation, infra-
structure development, as well as market and transaction
advisory services. Siemens regional competence centers
5 around the world, together with our financial strength, Fig.2.1-3: Planning tasks related to a typical project lifecycle
enable us to work closely with customers to develop inno-
vative solutions tailored to their specific needs that will
6 help turn change into opportunities and create sustainable Our services address utility as well as industrial or commer-
value allong the whole lifecycle (fig.2.1-3). cial grids, and cover the complete range of studies: from
steady-state, dynamic, and transient analyses, to protection
Energy Business Advisory and control concepts and power quality aspects. To meet
7 Maximizing the value of enterprises in an increasingly individual customer demands, we offer tailored services in
complex, global, and evolving energy marketplace is the our ongoing partnerships, as well as in our studies and
main aim of the energy business advisory. Siemens con- long-term planning and research projects.
8 sulting service combines technology and market expertise
as well as decades of industry experience in a flexible Software Solutions
methodology toolbox to support its customers across all System planners and operators require applications and
project stages, from strategy development to implementa- solutions that will support their daily simulation and anal-
9 tion. Siemens customers can benefit from our expertise in ysis tasks. The Power System Simulator (PSS) product suite
strategic planning combined with Pace Globals long- provides a full set of integrated and specialized applications
standing experience in the fields of risk management, for the simulation, analysis, and modeling of transmission,
10 market advisory, infrastructure development, and transac- distribution, and industrial power networks, as well as gas,
tion advisory. With our collective resources, power, natural water, heating, and cooling infrastructures. Offering simple
gas, renewable energy generation, and environmental integration into any existing IT environment, these pow-
markets can take advantage of a comprehensive best erful and user-friendly tools feature an intuitive graphical
11 practice perspective. user interface, customizable visualization options, automa-
tion capabilities, and efficient data management. Data
Power System Consulting exchange with other systems (for example, EMS, DMS,
12 Evolving industry challenges and opportunities along with AMS, GIS, and additional planning tools) is provided
the rising complexity of modern power systems call for through industry standards, such as CIM, as well as native
comprehensive and systematic grid planning. Siemens interfaces. Customers can also benefit from Siemens soft-
renowned power system consulting experts leverage expe- ware solutions, which are based on a blend of engineering
rience gained in diverse projects to develop grid concepts and software architecture expertise, customized software
that align with the business strategies of utilities and end development capabilities, award-winning project manage-
customers. To enable our customers to make well-informed ment, and existing product functionality.
decisions that will help them enhance the structure, perfor-
mance, and operation of their systems, we provide insights
based on in-depth power system analysis of both technical
and economic factors, and high-level planning compe-
tence.
For further information:
siemens.com/power-technologies

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 10


Power transmission and distribution solutions 2.1 Complete portfolio from a single source

Consulting and planning for industry and infrastructure


power supply
Experts the Siemens TIP Consultant Support team help
electrical designers in many countries find holistic solutions
for the fields of infrastructure, building and industry even
when it comes to critical power supply, for example, in
hospitals and data centers.
1
All along the various planning phases, planners have
recourse, to efficient software tools, online tender specifi-
2 cation texts, and planning and application manuals.

The innovative SIMARIS planning tools set standards in


terms of planning efficiency. They support the planning Fig.2.1-4: The SIMARIS planning tools easy, fast and safe planning of
3 process when dimensioning electric power distribution
electric power distribution

systems, determining the equipment and systems required,


and preparing tender specification texts. The product
4 portfolio of devices and systems required, ranging from the
medium-voltage switchgear to modular installation devices
in the distribution board, is mapped. This enables to plan
entire power distribution systems from start to finish using
5 the free-of-charge SIMARIS planning tools (fig.2.1-4).

Siemens also provides qualified support for creating tech-


6 nical specification lists in the form of online tender specifi-
cation texts within the framework of Totally Integrated
Power. The fully integrated Siemens portfolio for electric
power distribution can be found there. The clear tree
7 structure in combination with a search function helps users
find texts for the desired products. The text modules that
were selected can be compiled in customized specifications
8 (fig.2.1-5).
Fig.2.1-5: Text modules for tender specifications covering all Siemens
products for electric power distribution
The planning and application manuals will help you famil-
iarize yourself with the technical background when plan-
9 ning power supply systems, and implementing it in product
and systems solutions. In addition to the topical introduc-
tion provided by the planning manuals, the application
10 manuals include solution criteria and approaches for plan-
ning power distribution to industry-specific buildings that
meet our customers needs. Typical configurations and
boundary conditions are presented in the form of exam-
11 ples, which are then turned into feasible concepts for the
relevant building types, using specific products and system
proposals. All manuals can be downloaded from our web-
12 site as PDFs (fig.2.1-6).

Fig.2.1-6: Planning and application manuals impart specialized


andup-to-date knowledge

For further information:


siemens.com/tip-cs
siemens.com/simaris
siemens.com/specifications
siemens.com/tip-cs/planningmanuals

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 11


Power transmission and distribution solutions 2.1 Complete portfolio from a single source

2.1.3 Entire life-cycle capabilities continuously maintains operator systems through regular
inspections including all switchgear and secondary tech-
Managing Entire Projects nology. If a malfunction occurs during operation, Siemens
is immediately on the job; support is available 24 hours a
Project management day, 365 days a year. And with the increased use of state-
Supplying power is more than just combining a number of of-the-art online monitoring and remote diagnosis systems,
individual components. It calls for large-scale projects, such Siemens offers additional possibilities for keeping operating
1 as transmission systems or industrial complexes, especially costs to a minimum.
in countries where the demand for power is growing at an
accelerated pace. The best partner to handle such large Optimization and modernization
2 projects is an expert who can carefully analyze the demand, Technological evolution leads to equipments and systems
take an integrated approach to project planning, and con- which are continuously improving. Siemens offers retrofit
sider all the generalconditions. A qualified project partner and upgrade services for existing schemes. This fast and
is one that can provide high-quality components and ser- economical solution allows customers to invest their capital
3 vices for both power transmission tasks and power system wisely and take full advantage of Siemens experience in
management. Such a partner also can ensure that the adapting older systems tonew technical standards.
systems are installed expertly.
4 Partners throughout the System Life Cycle
Turnkey solutions Siemens is with system operators every step of the way to
Siemens many years of experience allow to offer turnkey help them develop their projects, to create financing solu-
powertransmission solutions that are tailored to individual tions and to provide project management (fig.2.1-7), and
5 requirements. Siemens supplies all components, including supports them beyond engineering, production and con-
power plants, AC or DC transmission systems, and high- struction. This support continues as the system is commis-
voltage interconnected power systems with high, medium sioned, as customers need maintenance services and even
6 and low voltage that finally reach the individual customers. when it is time to modernize. The partnership between
What makes these turnkey solutions so attractive is that Siemens and the system operators does not stop when a
one party is responsible for coordinating the entire project, turnkey job is finished: Siemens accompanies the system
thereby reducing the number of interfaces between system operators throughout the entire life cycle of their systems,
7 operator and supplier to a bare minimum. Turnkey projects offering a wide range of services with products ofthe
also reduce the operators own share in project risks, since highest quality that are always based on the most durable
Siemens is responsible for delivering a system that is ready technologies.
8 for operation.

Engineering, procurement, production and construction Capabilities for project development, implementation and operation
In addition to comprehensive planning and management
9 services, engineering is one of Siemens special strengths. Development phase
Technical advice Financial advice
Feasibility study
Siemens can produce or procure all necessary components 3 years
Performances values:
Economical assessment
F easibility study
Losses
and perform all construction work up to testing, commis- Reliability Flexibility
Rentability
10 sioning and putting an entire system into operation. With Availability
Design transmission Estimates
Siemens as a partner, companies can benefit from Siemens system Bankability

extensive manufacturing expertise and from the work of Financial close

experienced Siemens engineers who have already partici- Implementation phase Overall project management

11
3 years
pated in a wide range of projects worldwide. Working on
Engineering Procurement Construction
this basis, Siemens can provide the best technology for Basic design Manufacturing Erection
projects based on proprietary Siemens components and C onceptual design G lobal sourcing C ommissioning
D etailed design L ocal sourcing T raining
12 additional hardware purchased from reputable vendors. Start of
commercial use
Siemens experts have the important task of determining Operation
which of the various technical options are best suited for 25 years
Maintenance and after-sales services
implementing the project. They consider transmission
capacity, transmission efficiency and the length of the
transmission line, and after the best technical solution has Fig.2.1-7: Siemens services for the entire system life cycle
been determined, they assess its long-term cost e fficiency
for the operator. Only then can the actual implementation
begin for installation and on-time commissioning.

Maintenance
Systems will operate at their best when equipment lasts a
long time and provides continuous trouble-free operation. For further information:
The Siemens maintenance service ensures that all compo- siemens.com/energy/power-transmission-solutions
nents are always running safely and reliably. Siemens

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 12


Power transmission and distribution solutions 2.2 High-voltage solutions

2.2 High-voltage solutions Back-to-back


station
AC AC
2.2.1 High-voltage direct current
transmission systems (HVDC) Submarine cable
transmission AC AC
Siemens HVDC transmission is used when technical and/or
1 economical feasibility of conventional high-voltage
DC cable
ACtransmission technology have reached their limits. The
limits are overcome by the basic operation principle of an
Long-distance
2 HVDC system, which is the conversion of AC into DC and OHL transmission
AC AC
viceversa by means of high power converters.
DC line

Featuring its fast and precise controllability, a Siemens Fig.2.2-1: Overview of main power transmission applications with HVDC
3 HVDC can serve the following purposes:
Transmission of power via very long overhead lines or via
long cables where an AC transmission scheme is not
4 economical or even not possible
Transmission of power between asynchronous systems
Exact control of power flow in either direction
Enhancement of AC system stability
5 Reactive power control and support of the AC voltage
Frequency control
Power oscillation damping.
6
Siemens HVDC technologies
Depending on the converter type used for conversion
between AC and DC, two technologies are available:
7 Line Commutated Converter technology (LCC) based on
thyristor valves
Voltage Sourced Converter technology (VSC) based on Fig.2.2-2: Earthquake-proof and fire-retardant thyristor valves in
500kV long-distance transmission in Guizho-Guangdong,
8 IGBT valves, also known as HVDC PLUS.
China

Both technologies enable Siemens to provide attractive


solutions for most challenging transmission tasks ranging
9 from extra-high-voltage bulk power transmission to the Long-distance transmission
connection of systems in remote locations to main grids; Whenever bulk power is to be transmitted over long dis-
from long-distance overhead line or cable to interconnec- tances, DC transmission is the more economical solution
10 tion of two systems at one location. compared to high-voltage AC.

Main types of HVDC schemes LCC HVDC the classical solution


The main types of HVDC converters are distinguished by After more than 50 years with Siemens constantly contrib-
11 their DC circuit arrangements (fig.2.2-1), as follows: uting to its development, LCC HVDC is the most widely used
DC transmission technology today.
Back-to-back
12 Rectifier and inverter are located in the same station. These Technology
converters are mainly used:
To connect asynchronous high-voltage grids or systems Thyristor valves
with different frequencies The thyristor valves are used to perform the conversion
To stabilize weak AC links from AC into DC, and thus make up the central component
To supply more active power where the AC system of the HVDC converter station. The valves are described by
already is at the limit of its short-circuit capability the following features:
For grid power flow control within synchronous Robust design
ACsystems. Safe with respect to fire prevention due to consequent
use of fire-retardant, self-extinguishing material
Cable transmission Minimum number of electrical connections and
DC cables are the most feasible solution for transmitting components avoiding potential sources of failure
power across the sea to supply islands/offshore platforms Parallel cooling for the valve levels using de-ionized
from the mainland and vice versa. cooling water for maximum utilization of the thyristors
Earthquake-proof design as required (fig. 2.2-2)

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 13


Power transmission and distribution solutions 2.2 High-voltage solutions

D
 irect Light-Triggered Thyristors (LTT) with wafer-
integrated overvoltage protection the standard
solution for DC currents up to 6.25kA.

Filter technology
Filters are used to balance the reactive power of HVDC and
power system and to meet high harmonic performance
1 standards.
Single-tuned, double-tuned and triple-tuned as well as
high-pass passive filters, or any combination thereof, can
2 be installed depending on the specific requirements of a
station.
Wherever possible, identical filters are selected
maintaining a high performance even when one filter is
3 out of service.

Applications
4 The primary application areas for LCC HVDC are:
Economical power transmission over long distances
Interconnection of asynchronous power grids without
increase in short-circuit power
5 Submarine DC cable transmission
Hybrid integration of HVDC into a synchronous
ACsystem for stability improvement
6 Increase in transmission capacity by conversion of
AClines into DC lines.

Power ratings
7 Typical ratings for HVDC schemes include:
Back-to-back: typically up to 600 MW Fig.2.2-3: Two times two 400kV converter systems connected in
Cable transmission: up to 1,000 MW per HVDC cable series form a 800kV UHV DC station

8 Long-distance transmission: up to 10,000 MW.

Ultra-HVDC transmission (UHV DC) bulk power


UHV DC from Siemens is the answer to the increasing
9 demand for bulk power transmission from remote power
generation to large load centers. After having been
awarded the contract in 2007, Siemens has successfully
10 commissioned the worlds first 800kV UHV DC system
with 5,000 MW in China Southern Power Grid in 2010
(fig.2.2-3).

11 Technology
The high DC voltage imposes extreme requirements to the
insulation of the equipment, and leads to huge physical
12 dimensions (fig.2.2-4). The capability to withstand high
electrical and mechanical stresses is thoroughly investi-
gated during the design. All components are extensively
tested to assure that they withstand most severe operating
conditions and meet highest quality standards.

Fig.2.2-4: A 20.8 m long wall bushing is required in order to connect


the 800kV terminal of the indoor thyristor valves to the
outdoor HVDC equipment and overhead line

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 14


Power transmission and distribution solutions 2.2 High-voltage solutions

The thyristor valves are equipped with either 5 or 6 thyris-


tors depending on the transmission rating (fig.2.2-5).

Applications
UHV DC transmission is the solution for bulk power trans-
mission of 5,000MW or higher over some thousand kilo-
meters. Compared to a 500kV LCC HVDC system, the
1 Siemens 800kV UHV DC reduces line losses by approx.
60% an important aspect with respect to CO2 reduction
and operational cost.
2
Special attention has to be paid to the corresponding
ACnetworks that have to supply or absorb the high
amounts of electric power. Fig.2.2-5: UH voltage and power electronics the thyristor valves
3 are designed to operate at 800kV voltage level. Yunnan-
Guangdong, China
Power ratings
The Siemens 800kV HVDC systems are designed to
4 transmit up to 10,000 MW over long distances.

HVDC plus one step ahead


VSC technology offers unique advantages for HVDC trans-
5 mission which become more and more important for appli-
cations like connecting remote renewable energy sources,
oil and gas platforms, or mines to an existing grid.
6
Using the latest modular IGBT (Insulated Gate Bipolar
Transistor) technology in a pioneering Modular Multilevel
Converter (MMC) design, Siemens engineers have devel-
7 oped HVDC PLUS as a landmark product in the evolution of
HVDC transmission.

8 The high power ratings available today make HVDC PLUS


Fig.2.2-6: Converter station of the TransBay Project close to the
increasingly attractive also for projects where LCC HVDC
city center of San Francisco. The worlds first VSC HVDC
could be used from a technical perspective.
transmission scheme in modular multi-level converter
(MMC) topology
9 Features
HVDC PLUS provides important technical and economical
advantages compared to LCC:
10 HVDC technology in the smallest possible space:
An HVDC PLUS station does typically not require any
harmonic filters (fig.2.2-6). The MMC design allows to
realize nearly perfect sinusoidal AC-side converter
11 terminal voltages which are virtually free from
harmonics. Together with a compact design of the MMC,
this makes HVDC PLUS perfectly suitable for offshore
12 platforms or stations with limited space (fig.2.2-7).
Independence from short-circuit capacity:
HVDC PLUS can operate in networks with very low short-
circuit capacity or even in isolated systems with or
without own generation using its black-start capability. Fig.2.2-7: The heart of HVDC PLUS is a modular multilevel converter
Unipolar DC voltage (MMC) which can be scaled according to the voltage or
power requirements. Transbay Cable, USA
The DC voltage polarity is fixed independently from the
direction of power flow. This allows integration into multi-
terminal systems or DC grids. HVDC PLUS can operate with
extruded XLPE or mass-impregnated DC cables. F
 or symmetrical monopolar configurations, standard AC
Economical design and standardization: transformers can be used, whereas LCC transformers
The modularly designed HVDC PLUS converter stations require special design due to additional stresses from DC
can be perfectly adapted to the required power rating. voltage and harmonics.

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 15


Power transmission and distribution solutions 2.2 High-voltage solutions

Applications
HVDC PLUS can be applied in all fields of HVDC transmission Half-bridge type MMC: Uac
Udc
similar to LCC HVDC (section 2.2.1) up to 1,000 MW or
The power capacitor can Udc
higher. The advantages of HVDC PLUS will be most be connected in one Uac
0

apparent in circumstances that require the following polarity to the terminals.


"on" "off"
capabilities:
Black start of AC networks
1 Operation in AC networks with low short-circuit capacity Full-bridge type MMC: Uac
Udc
including islanded systems The power capacitor can Udc Uac
0
Compact design, e.g., for offshore platforms be connected in either -Udc
polarity to the terminals.
2 Operation in DC multi-terminal systems or in a DC grid.

Power ratings Fig.2.2-8: MMC topologies: half and full bridge


The design of HVDC PLUS is optimized for power applica-
3 tions in the range from 30 MW up to 1,000 MW or higher,
depending on the DC voltage. +Ud /2
1

4 Topologies (fig.2.2-8) 2

Different topologies are available in order to fit best for the n


UConv.
project-specific requirements:
UAC
Half-bridge (HB) topology (fig.2.2-9) 0
5 The DC voltage is always controlled in one polarity only.
1
Such a configuration is preferred for DC circuits with
2
pure cable configurations. The risk of DC-side faults are
6 small and typically lead to a permanent shutdown of the n
-Ud /2
link.
Full-bridge (FB) topology (fig.2.2-10)
Fig.2.2-9: Half-bridge MMC: The DC voltage is always higher than the
The DC voltage can be controlled in a wide range AC voltage
7 including both polarities. Such a topology is
predestinated for DC circuits with overhead lines, and
provides the same features as known from HVDC Classic: AC and DC Voltages
8 DC line faults (e.g., due to lightning strikes) are cleared 1 +Ud /2
safely by a short-time reversion of the voltage. 2

Furthermore, operation at reduced DC voltage levels is n UConv.


possible, which is often specified in case of pollution
9 problems of line insulators.
UAC 0

1
2 -Ud /2
10 n

Fig.2.2-10: Full-bridge MMC: The DC voltage is independent from


11 the AC voltage and can be controlled to zero, or even be
entirely reversed maintaining current control on the AC
and DC sides including under short-circuit conditions

12

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 16


Power transmission and distribution solutions 2.2 High-voltage solutions

DC compact switchgear DC CS

Business drivers for the development of DC compact


switchgear
The changing generation and load structure in existing
power grids requires increased transmission capacity.
Longer transmission distances and increased loading tend
1 to reduce the AC grids static and dynamic stability. To
amend this, HVDC systems can be integrated into existing 1
AC systems to provide the required transmission capacity,
4
2 and at the same time increase grid stability.

What is more, the global trend towards decarbonization of


power generation calls for an increased use of renewable
3 energy sources (RES). While RES like offshore wind are
typically found at great distances from the load centers, 5
HVDC provides an effective (and in some cases the only)
4 technical solution for power transmission.

The compact 320kV DC switchgear DCCS is needed for


2
HVDC cable connections to remote offshore wind farms, as
5 well as for onshore HVDC projects. Thanks to its compact
design, the DCCS helps to reduce the HVDC systems space
requirements. Hence it is predestinated for applications 1 Disconnector and
6 where space is limited or expensive, e.g. offshore HVDC earthing switch
platforms for remote windfarms, as well as close to city 2 Surge arrester
centers. 3
3 Voltage and current
7 Using the DCCS outdoors even in rough climates adds to
measurement
4 Interface modules
this effect. In the near future, DC compact switchgear and
transmission solutions will facilitate the realization of multi- 5 Passive modules
8 terminal arrangements or DC grids, backing up the existing
AC networks.
Fig.2.2-11: Standardized modules of the DCCS product line

-Z1
10
= 31C01
= 32C01 -F1
= 41C01

11
= 42C01

-T1

12 -Q51

-Q11

-Q52

-F2

-Z2

Fig.2.2-12: 320kV DC switchyard in/out bay

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 17


Power transmission and distribution solutions 2.2 High-voltage solutions

Modular structure
The 320kV Direct-Current Compact Switchgear (DCCS)
(without circuit-breaker) is developed based on proven
8DQ1 550kV AC GIS design and a new DC insulator fol-
lowing the well-established resin-impregnated-paper
design which has been used in wall bushings for decades.

1 The DCCS is a highly modularized product line, with stan-


dardized and predefined modules (fig.2.2-11, see page
before) which minimize the required interface engineering
2 complexity between the DCCS modules as well as inter-
faces to e.g., control and protection systems. Examples of a
320kV converter pole feeder arrangements are given in
fig.2.2-12 and fig.2.2-13.
3
The range of modules like 0/90 disconnector and earthing
Fig.2.2-13: 320kV DC compact switchgear in the Siemens factory
switch module and 45/90 angle modules grants flexibility
inBerlin
4 to adapt to complex arrangements such as designs with a
single or double busbar.

The module catalog is completed by an RC divider for


5 voltage measurement, the zero flux compensated current
measurement system, surge arrester and compensation
modules required for service access, and both axial and
6 lateral heat dilatation.

Application and special arrangements


DC compact switchgear can be applied at various locations
7 with an HVDC system as displayed in fig.2.2-13. An impor-
tant application option for DCCS is between the converter
transformer and the converter valves. With bipolar arrange-
8 ments where 2 or more converters are arranged in a line
with neutral in between, the section between the sec-
ondary connection of a converter transformer and the
respective converter valves is stressed with a DC voltage
9 offset resulting in a mixed AC/DC voltage stress requiring
Fig.2.2-14: 320kV containerized arrangement

dedicated DC equipment. On the DC terminal, the DC


switchyard, transition stations (enabling compact transition
10 from cable to overhead line) along the line, and finally
future multi-terminal stations can be planned with DCCS
(fig. 2.2-15, see next page).

11 The most important benefit of 320kV DC compact switch-


gear is its inherent size advantage compared to air-insu-
lated DC switchyard equipment.
12
Furthermore, the option for outdoor installation, even under
extreme environmental conditions, is an advantage of DCCS. If
for technical reasons, like temperature below -30 C, a housing
is required, the DCCS fits into prefabricated, containerized
building modules (fig.2.2-14). Containerized arrangements Finally, an underground installation hidden from view and
further have the advantage to pre-assemble and test whole public access is possible thanks to the encapsulation and
switchyard/substation layouts locally at the manufacturers or compact design.
the container builders plant, cutting short remote erection and
commissioning efforts and costs, as well as simplifying the Regarding planned projects in densely populated areas,
interface to civil works. Layouts with identical design which are with critical points which are already occupied by traffic
repetitively used in a HVDC scheme can be planned and exe- junctions and AC overhead lines, as well as by natural
cuted likewise, e.g., cable transition stations. Building and barriers like rivers, huge potential for compact DC transmis-
foundation costs can therefore be greatly reduced. sion solutions is existent.

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 18


Power transmission and distribution solutions 2.2 High-voltage solutions

AC Converter Converter DC Transition station Multi-terminal


switchyard station switchyard cable OHL station

1 ~

4 U U U

t
5 t t
AC AC + DC DC

6
Fig.2.2-15: Application for DC compact switchgear, between transformer and valves, DC switchyard, transition station and multi-terminal station

7
Technical data for switchgear type 320kV DCCS
Rated voltage 320kV

8 Rated current 4,000A


Rated short-circuit current 50kA/1sec
Max. continuous operating voltage 336kV
9 Lightning impulse voltage to earth/ 1175kV
across terminals 1175kV
336kV
Switching impulse voltage to earth/ 950kV
10 across terminals 950kV
336kV
DC withstand voltage 504kV, 60 min

11 Ambient air temperature -30C+50C


Application Indoor/Outdoor

Table2.2-1: Technical data of 320kV DCCS


12

For further information please contact the


Customer Support for Power & Energy:
Tel.: +49 180 524 70 00
E-Mail: support.energy@siemens.com
siemens.com/csc

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 19


Power transmission and distribution solutions 2.2 High-voltage solutions

Siemens HVDC control system: Win-TDC Operator Level SIMATIC WinCC


The control and protection system is an important element Local HMI SCADA Interface
in a HVDC transmission. The Siemens control and protec- Remote HMI
tion system for HVDC has been designed with special focus
RCI
on high flexibility and high dynamic performance, and
benefits from the knowledge gained from over 30 years of
operational experience in HVDC and related fields of other C&P Level
1 industries (fig.2.2-16). SIMATIC TDC PLUSCONTROL
CCS
High reliability is achieved with a redundant and robust
2 design. All control and protection components from the
human-machine interface (HMI), control and protection I/O Level
systems, down to the measuring equipment for DC current I/O Unit I/O Unit

and voltage quantities, have been designed to take advan- Measuring MMS 1 MMS n
3 tage of the latest software and hardware developments.
These control and protection systems are based on stan- Fig.2.2-16: Win-TDC hierarchy More than 30 years of experience
dard products with a product lifecycle of 25years or more. are built into the hierarchical Siemens HVDC control
4 system, which is based on standard components most
The name Win-TDC reflects the combination of the PC- widely used also in other industries
based HMI system SIMATIC WinCC and the high-perfor-
mance industrial control system SIMATIC TDC for Microsoft
5 Windows.

SIMATIC WinCC (Windows Control Center) is used for oper-


6 ator control and monitoring of HVDC systems.

SIMATIC TDC (Technology and Drive Control) is a high-per-


formance automation system which allows the integration
7 of both open-loop and high-speed closed-loop controls
within this single system. It is especially suitable for HVDC
(and other power electronics applications) demanding
8 high-performance closed-loop control. For extremely fast
control functions as required in HVDC PLUS systems,
SIMATIC TDC is complemented by the dedicated PLUSCON-
TROL comprising the fast Current Control System (CCS) and
9 the Module Management System (MMS).
Fig.2.2-17: The control and protection cubicles are intensively tested
in the Siemens laboratories before they are shipped tosite,
SIMATIC WinCC and SIMATIC TDC are used in a wide range assuring fast and smooth commissioning of the HVDC
10 of industrial applications including power generation and system
distribution.

In Siemens LCC HVDC systems, the DC currents and volt-


11 ages are measured with a hybrid electro-optical system:
DC current with a shunt located at HV potential, DC voltage
with a resistive/capacitive voltage divider. Both systems use
12 laser-powered measuring electronics so that only optical
connections are made to the ground level controls this
provides the necessary HV isolation and noise immunity.

For HVDC PLUS, the DC currents are measured with a zero Siemens provides proven hardware and software systems
flux measuring system, which provides the required accu- built around state-of-the-art technologies. Their perfor-
racy and dynamic response for fast control during grid mance and reliability fulfils the most demanding require-
transients. The zero flux cores are located at ground level ments for both new installations and control system
on suitable locations, e.g., converter hall bushings or cable replacement (fig.2.2-17).
sealing ends.

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 20


Power transmission and distribution solutions 2.2 High-voltage solutions

Services
The following set of services completes the Siemens HVDC
portfolio.

Turnkey service
Experienced staff designs, installs and commissions the
HVDC system on a turnkey basis.
1
Project financing
Siemens is ready to assist customers in finding proper
2 project financing.

General services
Extended support is provided to customers of Siemens from
3 the very beginning of HVDC system planning, including:
Feasibility studies
Drafting the specification
4 Project execution
System operation and long-term maintenance
Consultancy on upgrading/replacement of components/
redesign of older schemes, e.g., retrofit of mercury-arc
5 valves or relay-based controls.

Studies during contract execution are conducted on system


6 engineering, power system stability and transients:
Load-flow optimization
HVDC systems basic design
System dynamic response
7 Harmonic analysis and filter design for LCC HVDC
Insulation and protection coordination
Radio and PLC interference
8 Special studies, if any.

10

11

12

For further information:


siemens.com/energy/hvdc
siemens.com/energy/hvdc-plus

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 21


Power transmission and distribution solutions 2.2 High-voltage solutions

2.2.2 Flexible AC transmission systems Parallel compensation


(FACTS) Parallel compensation is defined as any type of reactive
power compensation employing either switched or con-
Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS) have evolved to trolled units that are connected in parallel to the transmis-
a mature technology with high power ratings. The tech- sion system at a power system node.
nology, proven in numerous applications worldwide,
became a first-rate, highly reliable one. FACTS, based on Mechanically Switched Capacitors/Reactors (MSC/MSR)
1 power electronics, have been developed to improve the Mechanically switched devices are the most economical
performance of AC systems and to make long distance AC reactive power compensation devices (fig.2.2-18a).
transmission feasible, and are an essential part of intelli- Mechanically Switched Capacitors (MSC) are a simple but
2 gent grid solutions. low-speed solution for voltage control and network
stabilization under heavy load conditions. They increase
FACTS are available the voltage at the point of connection.
in parallel connection: Mechanically Switched Reactors (MSR) have exactly the
3 Static Var Compensator (SVC) opposite effect and are therefore preferable for
Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM) achieving stabilization under low load conditions or
or, in series connection: installed at the end of long radial lines.
4 Fixed Series Compensation (FSC) An advanced form of mechanically switched capacitor is
Thyristor Controlled/Protected Series Compensation the MSCDN. This device is an MSC with an additional
(TCSC/TPSC). damping circuit for avoidance of system resonances.

Parallel compensation
10
a) MSC (DN)/MSR b) SVC c) STATCOM (SVC PLUS) d) Hybrid SVC
(DN = Damping network)
800 kV 800 kV
11 800 kV
300 MVAr
800 kV
~1200 MVAr
500 MVAr ~1200 MVAr
(and more) individual MVAr

12 5 5 5
1 1 1
3
2 3 2 3
3 3 3
2 8 9
MSC MSR 2 3
2 6 6
3 2
4
MSC DN 7 7 4

1 Switchgear 2 Capacitor 3 Reactor 4 Thyristor valve(s) 5 Transformer 6 IGBT converter 7 DC capacitors 8 Arrester 9 Resistor

Fig.2.2-18a: Mechanically switched capacitors (MSC), mechanically switched reactors (MSR) and mechanically switched capacitors
with damping network (MSC DN)
Fig.2.2-18b: Static var compensator (SVC) with three branches (TCR, TSC, filter) and coupling transformer
Fig.2.2-18c: STATCOM (SVC PLUS) connected to the transmission system
Fig.2.2-18d: Hybrid SVC connected to the transmission system

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 22


Power transmission and distribution solutions 2.2 High-voltage solutions

Static Var Compensator (SVC)


Static var compensators are a fast and reliable means of
controlling voltage on transmission lines and system nodes
(fig.2.2-18b, fig.2.2-19). The reactive power is changed by
switching or controlling reactive power elements con-
nected to the secondary side of the transformer. Each
capacitor bank is switched ON and OFF by thyristor valves
1 (TSC). Reactors can be either switched (TSR) or controlled
(TCR) by thyristor valves.

2 When system voltage is low, the SVC supplies capacitive


reactive power and rises the network voltage. When system
voltage is high, the SVC generates inductive reactive power Fig.2.2-19: Static Var Compensator (SVC) installation
and reduces the system voltage, in a highly dynamic way.
3
Static var compensators perform the following tasks:
Stabilize the voltage level
4 Dynamic reactive power control
Increase in system stability
Damping of power oscillations
Unbalance control.
5
The design and configuration of an SVC, including the size
of the installation, operating conditions and losses, depend
6 on the system conditions (weak or strong), the system
configuration (defined by network studies) and the tasks to
be performed.

7 SVC PLUS new generation of STATCOM Fig.2.2-20: SVC PLUS units in New Zealand
SVC PLUS is an advanced STATCOM which uses Voltage-
Sourced Converter (VSC) technology based on Modular
8 Multilevel Converter (MMC) design.
MMC provides a nearly ideal sinus-shaped waveform on
the AC side. Therefore filtering is normally not required.
MMC allows for low switching frequencies, which
9 reduces system losses.
SVC PLUS uses robust, proven standard components,
such as typical AC power transformers, reactors and
10 standard IGBTs.
Using SVC PLUS solutions with small operating ranges
will result in significant space savings in comparison to a
conventional SVC installation.
11
Applications
SVC PLUS with its superior undervoltage performance Fig.2.2-21: Site view SVC PLUS in Australia

12 fulfills the same task as conventional SVCs. Due to the


advanced technology, SVC PLUS is the preferred solution Portfolio
for grid access solutions (e.g. wind farms). Standardized configurations are available: 25, 35 and
50MVAr as containerized solutions. Up to four of these
Modular system design units can be configured as a fully parallel operating
The modular SVC PLUS is equipped with industrial class system.
IGBT (Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors) power modules Easily expendable and relocatable.
and DC capacitors. Open rack modular system configuration (in a building)
A very high level of system availability, thanks to the allows for operating ranges of 500MVAr and more.
redundancy of power modules. Hybrid SVCs comprise a combination of both, multilevel
Standard SIMATIC TDC control and protection hardware STATCOM and conventional thyristor based SVC
and software are fully proven in practice in a wide range technology. Hybrid SVCs can be flexibly designed for an
of applications worldwide. unsymmetrical control range, are highly dynamic and do
not require any additional filter. This leads to a space
optimized design and reduced system losses.

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 23


Power transmission and distribution solutions 2.2 High-voltage solutions

Series compensation Thyristor-Protected Series Capacitor (TPSC)


Series compensation is defined as insertion of reactive An enhanced configuration of the FSC is the TPSC. In this
power elements into transmission lines. The most common case, high-power thyristors in combination with a current-
application is the fixed series capacitor (FSC). As technically limiting reactor are installed in parallel to the series capaci-
advanced options thyristor-valve controlled systems (TCSC) tors, and substitute the spark gap as well as the MOVs as
and thyristor-valve protected systems (TPSC) may also be protection devices. The protection of the power capacitor is
installed. performed by firing a bypass of the thyristors valves. Due to
1 the very short cooling-down times of the special thyristor
Fixed Series Capacitor (FSC) valves, TPSCs can be quickly returned to service after a line
The simplest and most cost-efficient type of series compen- fault, allowing the transmission lines to be utilized to their
2 sation is provided by FSCs. FSCs comprise the actual capac- maximum capacity. TPSCs are the first choice whenever
itor banks, and for protection purposes, parallel arresters transmission lines must be returned to maximum carrying
(metal-oxide varistors, MOVs), spark gaps, and a bypass capacity as quickly as possible after a failure (fig.2.2-23c).
switch for isolation purposes (fig.2.2-23a).
3
Fixed series capacitor provides the following benefits:
Increase in transmission capacity
4 Reduction in transmission angle
Increase in system stability.

Thyristor-Controlled Series Capacitor (TCSC)


5 Reactive power compensation by means of TCSCs can be
adapted to a wide range of operating conditions. In this
configuration, a TCR is connected in parallel to the capac-
6 itor bank. This allows to tune the overall system impedance
of the TCSC according to the varying stystem operation
conditions during dynamic disturbances.

7 Additional benefits of thyristor-controlled series capacitor:


Damping of power oscillations (POD)
Load flow control
8 Mitigation of sub-synchronous resonances (SSR). Fig.2.2-22: View of a TCSC system

Series compensation
9
a) FSC b) TCSC c) TPSC

10 800 kV
1400 MVAr
800 kV
400 MVAr
800 kV
500 MVAr

2 2 2

11 5 5 3 4
3 4
1
L im
12 6
1
6

1 Spark gap 2 Capacitor 3 Reactor 4 Thyristor valve(s) 5 Arrester 6 Circuit-breaker

Fig.2.2-23a: Fixed series capacitor (FSC) connected to the network


Fig.2.2-23b: Thyristor-controlled series capacitor (TCSC) connected to the network
Fig.2.2-23c: Thyristor-protected series capacitor (TPSC) connected to the network

For further information please contact the


Customer Support for Power & Energy:
Tel.: +49 180 524 70 00
E-Mail: support.energy@siemens.com
siemens.com/csc

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 24


Power transmission and distribution solutions 2.2 High-voltage solutions

Synchronous condenser
Synchronous condenser solutions are being reintroduced
worldwide to support todays transmission system require-
ments. The addition of renewables-based power generation
to the energy mix, phase-out of conventional power plants,
new HVDC systems, and the extension of power grids to
remote areas influence the stability of transmission sys-
1 tems. Hence, the installation of synchronous condenser
solutions has become necessary to provide sufficient sup-
port to the transmission systems.
2
Benefits of synchronous condensers
Provision of short-circuit power and inertia
Steady-stage and dynamic voltage control
3 Reactive power control of dynamic loads.
Fig.2.2-24: Synchronous generator
A synchronous condenser solution generally consists of a
4 synchronous generator connected to the high-voltage
transmission system via a step-up transformer. The syn-
chronous generator is started up and braked with a fre-
quency-controlled electric motor (pony motor) or a starting
5 frequency converter. When the generator has reached
operating synchronous speed depending on the system
frequency, it is automatically synchronized with the trans-
6 mission system, and the machine is operated as a motor
providing reactive and short-circuit power to the transmis-
sion system.

7 The generator is equipped with either a brushless exciter or


with a conventional static exciter with brushes. The two
solutions have different characteristics with respect to
8 dynamic behaviors, and are selected according to the
project requirements. Contrary to power-electronics-based
static var compensators (SVCs), a synchronous condenser Fig.2.2-25: Synchronous condenser in Bjaeverskov, Denmark
features the major advantages of injecting large amounts
9 of short-circuit power and providing inertia due to its
rotating mass.

10 Synchronous condensers offered as tailor-made turnkey


solutions are based on proven, reliable in-house equip-
ment, extensive know-how on transmission system require-
ments, and project execution experience. Siemens supplies
11 a broad range of generators up to 1,300 MVA at nominal
frequency. The generators are based on air-, hydrogen- or
water-cooled technologies.
12
Applications
1. Stabilization of grids with high amounts of wind energy
infeed
The synchronous condenser provides the transmission
system with short-circuit power and reactive power control
to operate the transmission system including an infeed of
large amounts ofwind power.

2. Support of HVDC Classic under weak system conditions


The synchronous condenser can increase the short-circuit
power of weak systems. Furthermore it can improve the
phase angle stability of the AC system by providing an
additional rotating mass (increase in inertia time constant). Fig.2.2-26: Synchronous condenser building of the HVDC Black Sea
Transmission Network, Georgia

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 25


Power transmission and distribution solutions 2.2 High-voltage solutions

2.2.3 Grid access solutions System and design studies, engineering


Siemens is uniquely placed in having a full in-house engi-
Grid access solutions are custom-engineered solutions for neering competence, from the initial system studies work
decentralized generating units and remote loads. They are through to primary and secondary engineering and plat-
an essential part of intelligent grid solutions. Grid access form design/management competence. Siemens utilizes its
solutions involve reconciling contrasting parameters, such in-house capabilities, and complements them with external
as high reliability, low investment costs, and efficient consultants / sub-contractors, where required, to ensure
1 transmission in the best possible solution (fig.2.2-27). For that the end solution is fully integrated, keeping the
example, in the design of high-voltage offshore platforms highest quality and industrial health and safety standards.
for offshore wind farm connections to the grid, optimizing
2 the entire system with the best possible specification of In order to achieve the important steps towards the final
medium- and high-voltage equipment to balance lifecycle design, Siemens establishes an optimized economical
costs, performance and electrical losses, and meeting local network within a system of generating units, integrates this
grid code requirements. system within the grid, defines and configures the grid
3 components, and carries out load flow studies and short-
Turnkey proposition and project execution circuit calculations for the entire system. All of these critical
By offering a turnkey solution, Siemens provides a holistic activities are performed and managed in-house.
4 approach to complex projects involving project manage-
ment; design and engineering services; subcontracting; Moreover, an earthing concept and coordination of the
procurement and expediting of equipment; inspection of insulation for the complete grid connection must also be
equipment prior to delivery; shipment; transportation; defined. The static and dynamic characteristics must be
5 control of schedule and quality; pre-commissioning and checked, and the reactive power compensation defined
completion (fig.2.2-28); performance guarantee testing; (static and dynamic). The resonance phenomenon for all
and training of owners operating and/or maintenance elements should be investigated, from the transmission
6 personnel. system itself to cables, transformers, reactors, wind tur-
bines, and capacitor banks. Compatibility and conformity
For both AC and DC transmission technologies, Siemens with grid code requirements must be established, as well as
offers a broad range of solutions. The technical constraints a control and protection system.
7 associated with generator and load connections with AC or
DC transmission systems are well known and addressed High-voltage offshore platform
accordingly. The engineering expertise of Siemens is all In the offshore wind industry, the word platform reflects
8 inclusive from the conceptual and basic design to digital two construction entities, namely the topside where all the
and real-time simulations, therefore assuming responsi- high-voltage, medium-voltage and operational equipment
bility for presenting the solution to the grid owner which is are installed, and the sub-structure which serves as the
essential in executing such projects. base for the topside (fig.2.2-29). Additionally, the founda-
9 tion (the structure below ground/seabed) is a critical
element that is selected depending on various technical
parameters. Siemens offers optimized designs for both
10 entities by utilizing its experience in the substations, off-
shore and construction industries.

Generally, the topside contains all the equipment needed


11 to ensure that the power can be transmitted to the shore
line efficiently, along with all other services required given
that the topside will be placed at a significant distance from
12 shore.

Within the product portfolio of Siemens, the engineers


have developed solutions tailored to market demands and
suitable for a wide range of projects. Early engagement and
collaborative efforts with system operators means that
Siemens is able to adapt and implement the solutions in
the most efficient manner for their projects.

Fig.2.2-27: A comprehensive overview for both AC and DC offshore


wind farm grid connections

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 26


Power transmission and distribution solutions 2.2 High-voltage solutions

2 Fig.2.2-28: Siemens executes projects as an EPC contractor

3 Offshore substation platform design

Offshore Transformer Module (OTM)


4 Siemens has taken the lead in utilizing its expertise in
power generation and grid access to innovate its portfolio.
This innovation enables Siemens to reduce both capital and
operational expenditure, so that system operators can be
5 assisted to achieve the goal of reducing the levelized cost
of energy to 0.10/kWh by 2020.

6 Using Siemens unique experience, the innovative Offshore


Transformer Module (OTM), is an optimized solution which
reduces complexity and lowers the costs of transmitting
offshore renewable energy to shore. Siemens invested in
7 this distributed substation concept to reduce both weight
and costs, optimize construction schedules, and improve
operation and maintenance.
8
This innovative solution is based on the concept of two
smaller and significantly lighter platform modules to
replace the single large platforms currently deployed. The
9 solution allows for the connection of the same rated power
in total. The transmission capability of an OTM substation is
dependent upon the capacity of the export cable circuit; Fig.2.2-29: Siemens supplies comprehensive offshore grid connection
10 typically, this is in the range of 350 MW per cable circuit. solutions with flexible substation configurations for both
For the majority of installations, this means that two OTM AC and DC applications
modules would be installed instead of a larger complex
single substation.
11 Given this light weight, it is now possible to deploy an OTM
The cable deck utilizes the existing transition piece with a solution along with a turbine on a common sub-structure.
small cantilever providing room to perform cable installa- This has an overall benefit to the project by optimizing the
12 tion work prior to routing into the equipment on the deck number of foundations and ensuring that all foundations
above. Self-contained modular units including high- and across the whole wind farm asset can be more uniform. For
medium-voltage switchgear as well as control and protec- those projects where a system operator does not choose for
tion reduce project execution time and offer the ability for integration, the OTM can be deployed independently on its
unit replacement. Optimized transformers use a fan-less own substructure and foundation.
cooling system and synthetic ester oil minimizing fire risk
and ensuring an environmentally friendly, low-maintenance Ultimately, the utilization of distributed substations signifi-
solution. cantly lowers construction costs, ensures faster commis-
sioning, and enables the owners to secure revenue streams
Through innovation and reducing complexity, the OTM has earlier. The Siemens offshore transformer module is a
an installed weight of less than 700 t for a 250 MW unit major contribution to the reliable and affordable supply of
resulting in substantial cost savings, especially in trans- renewable energy, helping system operators to achieve
portation and installation, by utilizing the existing vessels their goal of reducing costs for offshore wind power to less
already being used in the wind farm construction. than 0.10/kWh by 2020.

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 27


Power transmission and distribution solutions 2.2 High-voltage solutions

References
Fig.2.2-30: The offshore wind farm Lillgrund, consisting of
48 wind turbines, each 2.3 MW, from Siemens, is installed
in Oresund. Its location is on Swedish national waters,
roughly 7km away from the Swedish coast line near to the
City of Malm. The owner is Vattenfall AB, Sweden. The
33/138kV transformer substation with its 120MVA trans-
1 former is mounted on an offshore platform located within
the wind farm area. Power transmission is realized via one
three-phase 138kV XLPE submarine cable towards the
2 existing substation in Bunkeflo (Sweden).

Besides the transformer substation on the platform,


Siemens performed the grid studies as well as the design
3 and performance studies for the entire wind farm and its
grid connection.
Fig.2.2-30: 2007 110 MW Offshore Wind Farm Lillgrund, Sweden
4 In service since late 2007, the Lillgrund Offshore Wind Farm
provides enough energy for approximately 80,000 homes
and reduces the CO2 emissions by 300,000 tons a year.

5 Fig.2.2-31: The offshore wind farms Lynn and Inner


Dowsing, consisting of 54 wind turbines, each 3.6 MW,
from Siemens, are located in the Greater Wash area, on
6 Great Britain national waters. This is roughly 5km away
from the coast line of Skegness, Lincolnshire. The owner is
Centrica Renewable Energy Ltd., U.K.

7 The 33/132kV onshore transformer substation with its two


100MVA transformers is located at Middle Marsh, approxi-
mately 5 km away from the sea wall. Power transmission
8 from the offshore wind farms is realized via six submarine
three-phase 33kV XLPE cables. Further on to the grid, two
132kV cables are used. Besides the transformer substation
and the cable system, Siemens also performed the grid
9 studies as well as the design and performance studies for
the entire wind farm and its grid connection.
Fig.2.2-31: 2008 180 MW Offshore Wind Farm Lynn/
10 The grid connection was energized in January 2008. Both Inner Dowsing,UK
wind farms were in full service in autumn 2008. They
provide enough energy for approximately 130,000 homes,
and reduce the CO2 emissions by 500,000 tons.
11
Fig.2.2-32: The Thanet Offshore Wind Farm, consisting of
100 wind turbines, each 3MW, from Vestas (Denmark), is
12 located in the North Sea. It is roughly 11km away from the
coast line of Kent, Foreness Point. The owner is Thanet
Offshore Wind Ltd., U.K.

The 33/132kV transformer substation with its two


180MVA transformers is mounted on an offshore platform
located within the wind farm area. Power transmission is
realized via two three-phase 132kV XLPE submarine cables.
The point of coupling to the grid is a specific switchgear in
Richborough, Kent.

Fig.2.2-32: 2009 300 MW Offshore Wind Farm Thanet, UK

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 28


Power transmission and distribution solutions 2.2 High-voltage solutions

Apart from the offshore transformer substation, the


onshore substation with its compensation systems (two
SVC PLUS) and harmonic filters, as well as the cable system,
Siemens also performed the grid studies as well as the
design and performance studies for the entire wind farm
and its grid connection.

1 The grid connection was energized in autumn 2009, with


all 100 wind turbines running by autumn 2010. Now the
offshore wind farm provides enough energy for approxi-
2 mately 215,000 homes, and reduces the CO2 emissions by
830,000 tons a year.

Fig.2.2-33: The Greater Gabbard offshore wind farm,


3 planned with 140 wind turbines, each 3.6MW, from
Siemens (Denmark), is located in the North Sea close to the Fig.2.2-33: 2010 500 MW Offshore Greater Gabbard, UK
Thames Estuary. It is roughly 26km (respective 46km)
4 away from the coast line of Suffolk.

The owner is Greater Gabbard Offshore Winds Ltd., U.K.


The 33/132kV transformer substation with its three
5 180MVA transformers is mounted on two offshore plat-
forms (Inner Gabbard and Galloper) located within the
wind farm area. Power transmission is realized via three
6 three-phase 132kV XLPE submarine cables.

The point of coupling to the grid is realized in Sizewell


Village, Suffolk, where Siemens built a reactive power
7 compensation substation to allow the wind farm to meet
the requirements of the GB grid code. SVC PLUS multilevel
technology is used for all of the three export circuits.
8
Here again, Siemens performed the grid studies as well as
the design and performance studies for the entire wind
farm.
9
Now the offshore wind farm provides enough energy for
approximately 350,000 homes and reduces the CO2 emis-
10 sions by 1,350,000 tons a year.

Fig.2.2-34: In September 2009, Siemens was awarded a


contract for the first phase of the offshore grid access
11 solution to the prestigious London Array wind farm.

The grid access project was completed in two phases. In Fig.2.2-34: 2012 630 MW London Array, UK
12 phase one, two offshore substations (each with two
150MVA transformers) will be delivered to collect the
630MW of power generated from 175 wind turbines also Situated 24km from Clacton-on-Sea, Essex, the system will
supplied by Siemens before transferring it to shore via generate 1,000MW of green power, enough to supply the
the main 150kV export cables. electricity needs for nearly 600,000 homes across the
South East of England, and will be the largest offshore wind
Siemens is responsible for the turnkey construction of the farm in the world in 2012.
onshore substation. As for the two offshore substations,
Siemens is responsible for the overall layout design to
ensure that the facility functions as a substation, including
all primary and secondary equipment as well as testing and For further information please contact the
Customer Support for Power & Energy:
commissioning.
Tel.: +49 180 524 70 00
E-Mail: support.energy@siemens.com
siemens.com/csc

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 29


Power transmission and distribution solutions 2.2 High-voltage solutions

BorWin2

800 MW offshore HVDC PLUS link BorWin2, Germany


For the BorWin2 project, Siemens supplied the voltage-
sourced converter (VSC) system using Siemens HVDC
PLUS technology with a rating of 800 MW. The wind
farms Veja Mate and Global Tech 1 are designed to generate
1 800 MW and are connected through Siemens HVDC PLUS
link to shore. The converter is installed on an offshore
platform, where the voltage level is stepped up and then
2 converted to 300kV DC. The platform accommodates all
electrical equipment required for the HVDC converter
station, two transformers, four AC cable compensation
reactors, and high-voltage gas-insulated switchgear (GIS).
3 The Siemens offshore substation is built on a floating,
self-lifting platform. Power is transmitted via subsea and
land cable to Diele close to Papenburg, where an onshore
4 converter station will reconvert the DC back to AC and feed
it into the 380kV AC network.

Fig.2.2-35: BorWin 2, 800 MW HVDC PLUS, North Sea


7

8
HelWin1

576 MW offshore HVDC PLUS link HelWin1, Germany


9 For the project HelWin1, Siemens supplied a voltage-
sourced converter (VSC) system with a rating of 576 MW
using Siemens HVDC PLUS technology. The wind farms
10 Nordsee Ost and Meerwind are designed to generate
576MW and are connected through a Siemens HVDC PLUS
link to shore. The converter is installed on an offshore
platform, where the voltage level is stepped up and then
11 converted to 250kV DC. The platform accommodates all
the electrical high-voltage AC and DC equipment required
for the converter station. Similar to the BorWin2 project,
12 the Siemens offshore substation is also built on a floating,
self-lifting platform. Energy is transmitted via subsea and
land cable to Bttel, northwest of Hamburg, Germany,
where an onshore converter station reconverts the DC back
to AC and transmits it into the high-voltage grid.

Fig.2.2-36: HelWin 1, 576 MW HVDC PLUS, North Sea

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 30


Power transmission and distribution solutions 2.2 High-voltage solutions

SylWin1

864 MW offshore HVDC PLUS link SylWin1, Germany


Siemens supplied the worlds largest voltage-sourced
converter (VSC) offshore system with a rating of 864 MW
for the SylWin1 project. Siemens HVDC PLUS link connects
the Dan Tysk wind farm to the German shore. The con-
1 verter is installed on an offshore platform, where the
voltage level is stepped up and converted to 320kV DC.
The platform accommodates all electrical equipment
2 required for the HVDC converter station: two transformers,
four AC cable compensation reactors, and high-voltage
gas-insulated switchgear (GIS). Similar to the BorWin2 and
HelWin1 projects, the Siemens offshore substation is built
3 on a floating, self-lifting platform. The energy is trans-
mitted via subsea and land cable to Bttel, where an
onshore converter station reconverts the DC to AC and
4 feeds it into the 380kV AC grid.

5 Fig.2.2-37: SylWin 1, 864 MW HVDC PLUS, North Sea

8
HelWin2

690 MW offshore HVDC PLUS link HelWin2, Germany


9 Siemens in consortium with the Italian cable manufacturer
Prysmian erected HelWin 2, the link between the North Sea
offshore windfarm Amrumbank West and the onshore grid.
10 The customer is TenneT TSO GmbH of Bayreuth, Germany.
The grid connection, designed as a high-voltage direct-cur-
rent transmission link, has a rating of 690 MW. Amrumbank
West is built in the North Sea, about 55km from the main-
11 land, 35 km north of Helgoland, and 37 km west of the
North Frisian island of Amrum. The wind farm has a power
capacity between 300 and 400 MW. Together with the
12 Meerwind and North Sea East offshore windfarms, Amrum-
bank West is part of the North Sea cluster HelWin.

Fig.2.2-38: HelWin 2, 690 MW HVDC PLUS, North Sea

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 31


Power transmission and distribution solutions 2.2 High-voltage solutions

2.2.4 Power transmission lines


Gas-insulated transmission lines
Gas-insulated transmission lines (GIL) offer high power
underground solutions in cases where overhead lines are
not suitable. GIL are a compact solution for high power
transmission. They provide the following technical features:
1 High-power ratings (transmission capacity up to
3,700MVA per system)
High overload capability
2 Auto-reclosing functionality without overheating risk
Suitable for long distances (70 km and more without
compensation of reactive power)
High short-circuit withstand capability (even in the
3 theoretical case of internal arc faults)
Possibility of direct connection to gas-insulated
switchgear (GIS) and gas-insulated arresters without Fig.2.2-39: GIL arrangement in the tunnel of the pumped-storage
power plant in Wehr, Southern Germany (4,000 m length;
4 cable entrance fitting
in service since 1975)
Non-flammable; no fire risk in case of failures
Lowest electromagnetic field.
Magnetic flux density B [T]
5 History/Siemens experience
When SF6 was introduced in the 1960s as an insulating and High EM compatibitity 30 Cable
Over-
switching gas, it became the basis for the development of Magnetic fields in head
6 gas-insulated switchgear. On basis of the experience col- microtesla [T] for GIL, 25 line
lected with GIS, Siemens started to develop SF6 gas-insu- overhead transmission
lated lines to transmit electrical energy. The aim was to line and cable (XLPE, 20
create alternatives to air-insulated overhead lines with cross-bonding) for a
7 decisively smaller clearances. In the early 1970s, initial 400 kV double system 15
projects were implemented. More installations in tunnels at 2 1,000 MVA load,
and above ground followed. In the course of product opti- GIL and cable laid at a 10

8 mization, the initially used insulating medium SF6 was depth of 1 m.


replaced by a gas mixture where the majority of the insu- 5
lating gas is nitrogen, a non-toxic natural gas. Only a com- GIL
paratively small portion of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) is still 0
9 needed. Thus, the way was free for environmentally
friendly long transmission projects with GIL. The latest Fig.2.2-40: A comparison of the magnetic fields for different high-
innovation of Siemens GIL is the directly buried laying voltage transmission systems

10 technique, which was a further milestone for compact long


distance transmission with GIL. The first Siemens GIL is t CO2 equivalent 1 GVA (40 a, 1 km)
shown in fig. 2.2-39.
75,258
80,000
11 Challenges now and in the future
70,000
Continuously growing world population and urbanization
lead to a strongly increased demand for bulk power trans- 60,000

12 mission at extra high voltage, right into the heart of cities.


50,000
At the same time, the available space for transmission Manufacture
systems has been restricted more and more, and environ- 40,000 SF6 leaks
28,466
mental requirements such as electromagnetic fields (EMF, 30,000 Electrical losses
see fig. 2.2-40) and fire protection have gained increased
importance. GIL fulfil these requirements perfectly. 20,000
Meawhile power generation is undergoing a conceptual 10,000
change as well. As natural resources are limited, regenera-
0
tive power generation is becoming more important. Off- GIL OHL
shore wind farms and solar power plants are being
installed, providing a huge amount of energy at remote Fig.2.2-41: Overall CO2 impact of different transmission systems (one
places. Consequently, transmission systems are needed system)
which allow to transport this bulk power with utmost
reliability and with the least possible losses.

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 32


Power transmission and distribution solutions 2.2 High-voltage solutions

The transmission systems of the future will be measured by


their overall CO2 balance, asking for the minimum possible
environmental impact from production of the equipment
through operational while in service until its end of service
life. Due to its properties and low losses, the overall CO2
impact of GIL is clearly lower than that of traditional over-
head-lines, proving the GILs environmental friendliness
1 (see fig. 2.2-41).

Reliable technology
2 The gas-insulated transmission line technology is highly
reliable in terms of mechanical and electrical design. Expe-
rience over the course of 35 years shows that after a GIL
system is commissioned and in service, it runs safely
3 without dielectrical or mechanical failures. Consequently,
Siemens GIL in service for decades did not have to Fig.2.2-42: Long-term test setup at IPH, Berlin
undergo their initially planned revision after more than
4 40 years of operation. CIGRE long-time investigations on
gas-insulated systems found that no ageing effect occur.
All of the Siemens GILs installed since 1975 have been in
operation until today. In total, about 100 km phase length.
5
Basic design
In order to meet electrical and mechanical design criteria,
6 gas-insulated lines have considerable cross-sections of
enclosure and conductor, which ensures high-power trans-
mission ratings and low losses. Because of the geometry
and the gaseous insulating medium, the systems create
7 only low capacitive loads, so that compensation of reactive
power is not needed, not even for longer distances. The
typical technical data of the GIL are shown in table 2.2-2.
8
Testing
GIL systems are tested according to the international stan- Fig.2.2-43: Siemens lab sample for dielectric tests
dard IEC62271-204 Rigid high-voltage, gas-insulated
9 transmission lines for voltages of 72.4kV and above.
Technical data short-circuit capacity 63kA
The long-term performance of GIL has been proven by tests Rated voltage Up to 550kV
10 at the independent test laboratory IPH, Berlin, Germany, Rated current up to 5,000A
and the former Berlin power utility BEWAG (now ELIA). The
Transmission capacity up to 3,700MVA
test pattern was set by adopting long-term test procedures
Capacitance 60nF/km
for high-current (fig. 2.2-42) and high-voltage tests (fig.
11 2.2-43). The long-term test procedure consisted of load Length up to 70km
cycles at rated current and doubled voltage rating as well Gas mixture SF6/N2 20%/80% (400 kV),
as frequently repeated high-voltage tests. The results 60%/40% (500 kV)

12 confirmed the meanwhile more than 40years of field Laying Directly buried
experience with GIL installations worldwide. The Siemens In tunnels, sloping galleries, vertical shafts
GIL was the first in the world to have passed these long- Open-air installation, above ground
term tests without any problems. fig.2.2-42 shows the test
setup arranged in a tunnel of 3 m diameter. Table2.2-2: Technical data of GIL

Fault containment
Tests have proven that the arcing behavior of GIL is excel-
lent. It is even further improved by using mixed-gas insula-
tions. Consequently, there would be no external damage or
fire caused by an internal fault.

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 33


Power transmission and distribution solutions 2.2 High-voltage solutions

Electromagnetic compatibility allows flexible route


planning
The construction of the GIL results in much smaller electro-
magnetic fields than with conventional power transmission
systems. A reduction by a factor of 15 to 20 can be
achieved. This makes GIL suitable to follow new routings
through populated areas (e.g., next to hospitals or residen-
1 tial areas, in the vicinity of flight monitoring systems, etc.).
GIL can be laid in combined infrastructure tunnels together
with foreign elements (e.g., close to telecommunication
2 equipment and similar). Thus, GIL provides maximum
flexibility for the planning of transmission systems, in
EMC-sensitive environments where magnetic fields have to
be avoided. Siemens GIL systems can satisfy the most
3 stringent magnetic flux density requirements, for example, Fig.2.2-44: Orbital welding of GIL pipes
the Swiss limit of 1T (fig. 2.2-40).

4 Jointing technique
In order to perfectionize gas tightness and to facilitate
laying of long straight lines, flanges may be avoided as a
jointing technique. Instead, welding the various GIL con-
5 struction units ensures highest quality (fig.2.2-44).
Siemens welding process is highly automated by using
orbital welding machines. This as well contributes to high
6 productivity in the welding process and a short overall
installation time. To ensure quality, the welds are con-
trolled by a new sophisticated ultrasonic testing system
which exceeds even X-ray test standards. Fig.2.2-45: Above ground installation
7
Laying
During the installation process, climatic influences such as
8 rain, dust, seasons of the year, etc. need to be taken into
account. To meet Siemens requirements for cleanness and
quality, thelaying techniques of GIL differ from pipeline
technology. To protect the assembly area against dust,
9 particles, humidity and other environmental factors, a
temporary installation tent is set up for the installation
period. In this way, working conditions are created which
10 meet the standards of modern GIS factories. After the GIL is
installed, these supporting installations are removed com-
pletely, and the entire area is re-naturalized. Thus, GIL are
well suitable for use in environmentally protected areas.
11 Due to the small width of GIL routes, the system is specifi- Fig.2.2-46: GIL tunnel installation, Munich, Germany
cally compatible with the landscape.

12 Above ground installation Tunnel installation


GIL installation above ground is a trouble-free option for Tunnels made up of prefabricated structural elements
use in properties with restricted public access. The open air provide a quick and easy method of GIL installation espe-
technology is proven under all climatic conditions in cially in densely populated areas. The tunnel elements are
numerous installations all over the world. GIL are unaf- assembled in a dig-and-cover trench, which is backfilled
fected by high air ambient temperatures, intensive solar immediately. The GIL is installed once the tunnel has been
radiation, or severe atmospheric pollution (such as dust, completed. Thus, the open trench time is minimized. With
sand or moisture). Due to the use of corrosion-resistant this method of installation, the land above the tunnel can
alloys, corrosion protection can be omitted in most applica- be fully restored to other purpose of use (fig.2.2-46).
tion cases (fig.2.2-45).

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 34


Power transmission and distribution solutions 2.2 High-voltage solutions

Vertical installation
Gas-insulated tubular lines can be installed without prob-
lems at any gradient, even vertically. This makes them a top
solution especially for cavern power plants, where large
amounts of energy have to be transmitted from the bottom
of the cavern (e.g., the machine transformer / switchgear)
to the surface (overhead line). As GIL systems pose no fire
1 risk, they can be integrated without restriction into tunnels
References: Gas-Insulated Transmission Lines, Status Oct 2009*
or shafts that are accessible to man, and can also be used
for ventilation at the same time. Thus, cost for tunnelling
2 works can be reduced clearly.

The use of GIL in hydro power plant projects with the Fig.2.2-47: Directly buried GIL
highest demand on reliability for transporting electricity of
3 3,900 MVA of power safely and efficiently from the dam to
the population centers is becoming of more importance.

4 Direct burying
Especially when used in lesser populated areas, directly
buried GIL are a perfect solution. For that purpose, the
tubes are safeguarded by a passive and active corrosion
5 protection. The passive system comprises a HDPE coating
which ensures at least 40years of protection. The active
system additionally provides cathodic DC protection poten-
6 tial for the aluminum tubes. Magnetic fields measured at
the surface above the line are minimal. The high transmis-
sion power of GIL minimizes the width of trenches. The
land consumption is lower by approx. 1/3related to compa-
7 rable cable installations (fig.2.2-47).

References
8 Siemens has gained experience with gas-insulated transmis-
sion lines at rated voltages of up to 550kV, and with phase Total length, single phase: > 95,000 m
lengths totalling about 100 km (2016). Implemented proj- Above ground installation: > 55,000 m
Tunnel installation: > 35,000 m
ects include GIL in tunnels, sloping galleries, vertical shafts,
9 open-air installations, as well as directly buried. Flanging as
Directly buried installation: > 5,000 m

well as welding has been applied as jointing technique. Fig.2.2-48: References: Gas-insulated transmission lines, status 2016

10 The first GIL stretch built by Siemens was the connection of


the turbine generator pumping motor of the pumped
storage power plant of Wehr in the Black Forest in Southern
Germany with the switchyard. The 420kV GIL is laid in a
11 tunnel through a mountain and has a single-phase length
of ~4,000m (fig.2.2-39). This connection was commis-
sioned in 1975. One of the later installations is the LimbergII
12 pumped-storage power plant in Kaprun, Austria, which was
commissioned in 2010. Here, a GIL system was laid in a
shaft with a gradient of 42. It connects the cavern power
plant with the 380kV overhead line at an altitude of about
1,600m. The GIL tunnel is used for ventilation purposes,
and serves for emergency exit as well. That resulted in Fig.2.2-49: GIL laid in shaft with 42 gradient (Limberg, Kaprun, Austria)
substantial cost reduction by eliminating the need for a
second shaft in this project (fig.2.2-49).

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 35


Power transmission and distribution solutions 2.2 High-voltage solutions

A typical example for a city link is the PALEXPO project in


Geneva, Switzerland. A GIL system in a tunnel substitutes
500m of a former 300kV double circuit overhead line,
which had to move for the raised exhibition centre
building. The line owner based his decision to opt for a GIL
over a cable solution on the GILs much better values with
respect to EMC. Thus, governmental requirements are met,
1 and high sensitive electronic equipment can be exhibited
and operated in the new hall without any danger of inter-
ference from the 300kV connection located below it
2 (fig.2.2-50).

A typical example for a directly buried GIL is the reference Fig.2.2-50: GIL replacing overhead line
project at Frankfurt Airport in Kelsterbach, which was (Palexpo, Geneva, Switzerland)
3 commissioned in April 2011. The GIL solution allows to
continue one phase of the OHL in one phase of GIL, thus
reducing the size of both trench and transition area at the
4 connection points (fig.2.2-47).

Typical examples for vertically installed GIL are the hydro


power plant projects Xiluodu and Jinping in China ener-
5 gized in 2013. Xiluodu (fig.2.2-51) is the longest vertically
installed GIL having an average vertical distance of more
than 460 m from turbines in the power cavern to the
6 overhead transmission lines on top of the dam. In total,
12km of welded GIL were installed divided on 7 GIL systems.

At Jinping (fig.2.2-52), the worlds tallest hydro power


7 plant (HPP) dam, three GIL systems from Siemens span
230m vertical shafts. For this project, Siemens had to
demonstrate its capability of mastering extremely difficult
8 site conditions, and at the same time accelerate the instal-
lation to meet the energization target for the HPP.

Direct current compact transmission lines (DC CTL)


9 The next development step is for high voltage DC gas-insu- Fig.2.2-51: Vertically installed GIL in Xiluodu, China
lated transmission lines. Together with the converter
station, the DC technology offers the full control over the
10 electric power transmission in both directions of power
flow.

The DC CTL is the technical solution from Siemens, which is


11 currently under development. The high power system shall
be designed for 550 kV and up to 5,000 A.

12

For further information please contact the


Customer Support for Power & Energy:
Tel.: +49 180 524 70 00
E-Mail: support.energy@siemens.com
siemens.com/csc
Fig.2.2-52: Jinping, China, the worlds tallest HPP dam

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 36


Power transmission and distribution solutions 2.2 High-voltage solutions

High-voltage power cables


Cables intended for the transmission and distribution of Cu wires &
laminated
electrical energy are mainly used in power plants, in distri- 64/110 kV sheath
bution systems and substations of power supply utilities, 76/132 kV
67/150 kV XLPE AI wires &
and in industry. Standard cables are suitable for most laminated
insulation
applications. They are preferably used where overhead sheath
lines are not suitable. Cables exhibit the following differ-
1 ences to gas-insulated transmission lines (GIL): High-voltage
Cu corrugated
sheath
127/220 kV
For operating voltages up to 220kV, as well as where the cables
160/275 kV
of different
rated design current is below ~2,500 A, the investment 190/330 kV AI corrugated
manufacturers
2 costs for the primary cable equipment are lower than for sheath
other underground transmission systems.
The installation time at site is comparatively short, as Paper
Lead sheath
long cable lengths (e.g., up to 800 m or even higher insulation
3 depending oncable design) can be delivered on one
230/380 kV
290/500 kV
drum, which significantly reduces jointing and Lead sheath &
installation times. copper wires

4 During cable laying, the open-trench-times for earth-


buried systems are comparatively short.
Fig.2.2-53: Overview of main cable types
Cables do not contain any unbound climate-damaging
SF6 gas.
5 The costs of de-installation of a cable plant are
significantly lower; a high level of recycling is possible.
Outdoor
64/110 kV sealing ends
6 Basic design 76/132 kV
There is a variety of high-voltage cables with different 67/150 kV Cable
Transformer
design and voltage levels (fig.2.2-53). sealing
sealing ends
ends
7 Cable joints connect lengths of cables in long transmission High-voltage GIS
routes or at points of repair (example see fig.2.2-55). cables 127/220 kV sealing ends
accessories 160/275 kV

8 Sealing ends form the termination points of a cable, and of different 190/330 kV
manufacturers Straith
serve as a connection to switchgear, transformers and
joints
overhead lines. Fig.2.2-54 shows the different types of
cable accessories, fig.2.2-56 an example of an outdoor Cable
9 sealing end. 230/380 kV
joints

290/500 kV Transition
joints
Siemens offers vendor-neutral consulting and evaluation of
10 cable manufacturers, and procurement of high-voltage
cables and accessories, adapted in case of application. The
factories of the cable manufacturers are audited by Fig.2.2-54: Overview of cable accessories
Siemens chief engineers taking under consideration all rele-
11 vant DIN VDE and IEC standards. In addition, the following
engineering tasks can be performed by specialists from
Siemens.
12
Engineering
For operation, cable and accessories must comply with
electrical requirements, and have to satisfy ambient condi-
tions which can differ significantly depending on location, Fig.2.2-55: Slip-on joint
ground, indoor or outdoor.

For save project planning of cable installations, the cross-


section of the conductor shall be determined such that the
requirement current-carrying capacity lz loading lb is
fulfilled for all operating conditions which can occur. A
distinction is made between the current-carrying capacity
for normal operation
and for short circuit (operation under fault conditions).
Fig.2.2-56: Outdoor sealing end

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 37


Power transmission and distribution solutions 2.2 High-voltage solutions

For high-voltage cables, the current-carrying capacity is to


Free in air In covered channels (air filled)
be examined by means of special calculation tools for each
special case of application. First of all, the laying and instal-
lation conditions have to be taken in consideration.
Fig.2.2-57 shows different laying arrangements.

Laying in ground
1
The depth of laying a high-voltage cable in ground is gener-
ally taken as 1.20 m, which is the distance below the 1 1
T4 = T4 = + TChannel
1 1 1 1
ground surface to the axis of the cable or the center of a + +
2 bunch of cables. To lay cables in the ground, calculations TC TR TC TR

show that theload capacity of the cable decreases as depth Heat dissipation from cable Heat dissipation from cable
increases, assuming the same temperature and thermal by convection and radiation by convection and radiation,
3 resistivity of the soil. On the other hand, the deeper regions from the channel to the
environment by
of the ground are normally moister and remain more con- heat conduction
sistent than the surface layers.
4 Fig.2.2-58: Heat dissipation from cables
Crossing of cable runs can cause difficulties especially when
these are densely packed (hot spot). At such points, the
cables must be laid with a sufficiently wide vertical and
5 horizontal spacing. In addition to this, the heat dissipation
Temperature distribution for 2 parallel 110 kV cable circuits with
different load currents
must be assisted by using the most favorable bedding
Circuit 1 Circuit 2
material (fig.2.2-58). A calculation of conductor heat
6 output and temperature rise is absolutely necessary
0A 0A

515 A 515 A
because the maximum conductor temperature of XLPE
611 A 611 A
cable must not exceed 90 C (fig.2.2-59).
7 Maximum
In case of using different laying arrangements in ground for
conductor
a cable system, the chain principle The weakest link deter- temperature:
mines the strength of the whole chain applies. This means 136 C
8 that the thermally most critical section determines the
current-carrying capacity of the whole cable circuit
(fig.2.2-60).
9
Fig.2.2-59: Temperature distribution for 2 parallel 110kV cable circuits

10
Example: Current rating for cable 2XS(FL)2Y 1 x 630RM/50 64/110 kV
at different laying conditions
11 Free in air In air-filled channel In pipes in ground
Buried cable circuit with thermal critical sections (principle)

Nearby Section with


12 1082 A 970 A 543 A Standard Cables external heat increased
trench in pipes sources laying depth
Direct in ground In ground in thermally In pipes in ground in
stabilized backfill thermally stabilized backfill

600 A 681 A 598 A Chain principle: The weakest link determines the strength of the
whole chain.
Conditions: Cables in trefoil formation, cable screens bonded at both ends,
air temperature 30C, ground temperature 20C, spec. thermally resistivity The thermally most critical section determines the
of natural 1.0/2.5 km/W, spec. thermal resistivity of thermal stabilized current-carrying capacity of the whole cable circuit.
backfill 1.2 km/W, PVC pipes 150 x 5 mm, laying depth 1200 mm,
dimensions of cable channel width x height x cover: 1000 x 600 x 150 mm,
thermally stabilized backfill in ground 600 x 600 mm, thermally stabilized
backfill for pipes 700 x 700 mm

Fig.2.2-57: Laying arrangements Fig.2.2-60: Different laying arrangements in ground

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 38


Power transmission and distribution solutions 2.2 High-voltage solutions

Laying free in air The same applies to laying cables in air-filled channels.
The highest load capacity is given when laying the cables
free in air on cable trenches with an unhindered heat When cables are laid in air, the effects of thermal expan-
dissipation by radiation and convection. sion in normal operating mode and in cases of being sub-
jected to short-circuit currents have to be considered.
When cables are installed directly on a wall or on the
floor, the load capacity has to be reduced by using a According to DIN VDE standards, cables have to be
1 factor of 0.95. installed in such a way that damage, e.g., by pressure
points caused by thermal expansion, are avoided. This can
However, other heat inputs, e.g., solar radiation, must be be achieved by installing the cables in an approximate
2 considered or prevented by use of covers. The air circula- sine-wave form (snaking) and fixing as shown in
tion must be secured, and a calculation of the load capacity fig.2.2-61.
is recommended.

Cable deflection caused by thermal expansion


7
Project:
Plant:

8 Cable type: N2XS(FL)2Y 1x630 RM/50 64/110kV

Input data
Minimum ambient air temperature 0min 0C
9 Maximum ambient air temperature 0max 40C
Maximum conductor temperature Lmax 90C
Minimum deflection amin 100mm
(at minimum ambient air
10 temperature)
Fixing distance in longitudinal lS 3.00m
direction
11 Additional reduction of fixing lS 0.00mm
distance (i.e. expansion gap)
Conductor material Kupfer
Linear expansion coefficient of l 0.0000162K1
12 conductor material

Cable expansion and deflection 115


Initial deflection [mm]

Maximum thermal expansion of l (Lmax) 4.39mm


conductor 110
Deflection at maximum conductor amax (Lmax) 124mm
temperature 105
Deflection at max. cond. amax (Lmax; lS) 124mm
temperature and reduced fixing
distance 100

95
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45
Temperature during installation [C]

Fig.2.2-61: Snaking of cables

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 39


Power transmission and distribution solutions 2.2 High-voltage solutions

Variants of bonding metal sheaths / screens of single cor HV-cables

Bonding at both sides + no induced sheath voltage


+ simple cost saving design
circulating sheath currents
additional sheath losses
reduced current-carrying capacity
1
Bonding at single sides
2 + no circulating currents
+ increased current-carrying capacity
induced voltages at sealing ends
sheath voltage limiters and parallel
3 earth continuity conductor required

Cross bonding
4 + no circulating currents
+ increased current-carrying capacity
induced voltages at joints
sheath voltage limiters and sheath
5 interruption joints required

6 Fig.2.2-62: Different types of earthing

7 Concerning short-circuit currents, DIN VDE stipulates that The losses incurred by both-end bonding means that this is
Single core cables must be safely fixed to withstand the the most disadvantageous earthing system method as far
effects of peak short-circuit currents, which means they as economic issues are concerned. It is therefore mainly
8 must withstand the stresses caused under short circuit, and applied in selected cases and for short distances.
remain in position such that neither the cable or the fixing
element get damaged. Single-end bonding
For single-end bonding, only one end of the cable screen is
9 Earthing connected to earth while the other end is left floating. The
Due to electromagnetic induction, a voltage is induced in voltage is induced linearly along the whole cable length,
the outer conductor and metallic screen, which depends on and at the open end a standing voltage occurs. The open
10 the operating or short-circuit current level. In order to end should be protected with a sheath voltage limiter. This
handle all induced voltages and to guarantee a good earth diminishes the chance of overvoltages occurring inside the
connection during a short circuit, the outer conductor and cable screen, protects the cable system, and ensures that
the metallic sheath must be sufficiently connected to the relevant safety requirements are upheld.
11 external earthing system. Depending on the calculations of
the induced voltage, several different types of earthing can The advantage of single-end bonding is that losses caused
be applied (fig.2.2-62). by circulating currents cannot occur, and the current-car-
12 rying capacity is higher.
The above-mentioned engineering works and calculations
which are necessary for safe operation of cable systems can The disadvantage is the voltage which occurs at one end of
completely carried out by Siemens engineering specialists. the termination.

Both-end bonding Cross bonding


For both-end bonding, both ends of the cable screen are Cross bonding is necessary for long cable segments with
connected to the ground. The advantage of the method is joints. The cross-bonding system consists of three sections,
that no standing voltages occur at the cable ends. each followed by a cyclic sheath crossing. At the termina-
tions, earthing must be solidly bonded to the ground. In an
The disadvantage is that circulating currents may flow ideal cross-bonding system, the three sections are of equal
inside the screen as the loop between the two earthing length.
points is closed through the ground. As these circulating
currents can be as high as the conductor current itself, they
can reduce the cable ampacity significantly.

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 40


Power transmission and distribution solutions 2.2 High-voltage solutions

6 Fig.2.2-63: High-voltage cable references worldwide

7 The advantage of cross bonding is the absence of residual Installation


voltages at the end of the three sections. With no driving The installation of high-voltage cable systems can be car-
voltages, the sheath currents and therefore the losses in ried out by Siemens installation specialists. All site man-
8 the system are zero. In reality, some minor differences agers, supervisors and fitters are certified regarding SCC
between each section and a low current-flow in the sheath and EHS. It can be taken for granted that the fitters are
do actually cause some losses. However, with a good trained on various accessories directly by main manufac-
cross-bonding system, the sheath losses can be kept very turers. The competences are:
9 low. Another advantage of regular cross bonding is that at Surveillance of civil and underground works
the earthed termination ends the voltage is zero. Turnkey installation of high-voltage cable systems, cable
laying and assembly of accessories up to rated voltages
10 The disadvantages of cross bonding are the increased level 500kV
amount of additional equipment needed, and the fact that, Commissioning of high-voltage cable systems
in reality, three sections of equal length cannot always be Supervision of high-voltage tests at site
implemented. After-sales service
11 Fault repair and retrofitting of plants.
Project management
In addition to sales and engineering tasks, Siemens is able References
12 to provide certified project managers for execution of all Siemens looks back on more than 100 years of experience
kind of high-voltage cable projects. The main competences with design and installation of high-voltage cable systems.
are: Its w
orldwide references of oil cable projects reach back to
Elaboration of turnkey proposals, interface clarifications the 1950, and the references concerning XLPE-cable proj-
Support of high-voltage cable projects ects to the1980.
Planning of installation (schedule, material, manpower)
Procurement of high-voltage cable components
Order processing in turnkey projects
Commissioning of high-voltage cable systems according
to national and international standards
Fault locations, inspections, modernization of plants For further information please contact the
Service, maintenance for high-voltage cable systems. Customer Support for Power & Energy:
Tel.: +49 180 524 70 00
E-Mail: support.energy@siemens.com
siemens.com/csc

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 41


Power transmission and distribution solutions 2.2 High-voltage solutions

Overhead lines
Since the very beginning of electric power generation, 2,000
Power per circuit
overhead transmission lines (OHL) have constituted the
MW
most important component for transmission and distribu-

P
tion of electric power. The portion of overhead transmis- 1,000
sion lines within a transmission and distribution system,
depends on the voltage level as well as on local conditions
1 and practice. In densely populated areas like Central 500
700 kV
Europe, underground cables prevail in the distribution
sector, and overhead power lines in the high-voltage trans-
2 mission sector. In other parts of the world, for example, in
North America, overhead lines are often also used for 200
distribution purposes within cities. Siemens has planned, 380 kV
designed and erected overhead power lines for all impor-
3 tant voltage levels in many parts of the world.
100

Selection of line voltage 220 kV


50
4 For the distribution and transmission of electric power,
standardized voltages according to IEC 60038 are used
worldwide. For 3-phase AC applications, three voltage
levels prevail:
5 Low voltage (up to 1kV AC)
20
110 kV
Medium voltage (between 1kV and 36kV AC)
Transmission distance
High voltage (between 52kV and 765kV AC) and higher. 10
6 10 20 50 100 200 km 500
Low-voltage lines serve households and small business l
Limit of operation
consumers. Lines on the medium-voltage level supply small
Natural limit of load
settlements, individual industrial plants and large con-
7 sumers; the transmission capacity is typically less than
10MVA per circuit. The high-voltage circuits up to 145kV Fig.2.2-64: Selection of rated voltage for power transmission
serve for subtransmission of the electric power regionally,
8 and feed the medium-voltage grid. This level is often
chosen to support the medium-voltage level even if the 420kV grid. The thermal capacity of the 420kV circuits
electric power is below 10MVA. Moreover, some of these may reach 2,000MVA, with a surge impedance load of
high-voltage lines also transmit the electric power from approximately 600MVA and a transmission capacity up to
9 medium-sized generating stations, such as hydro plants on 1,200MVA.
small and medium rivers, and supply large-scale con-
sumers, such as sizable industrial plants or steel mills. They Overhead power lines with voltages higher than 420kVAC
10 constitute the connection between the interconnected will be required in the future to economically transmit bulk
high-voltage grid and the local distribution systems. The electric power over long distances, a task typically arising
bandwidth of electrical power transported corresponds to when utilizing hydro, wind and solar energy potentials far
the broad range of utilization, but rarely exceeds 100MVA away from consumer centers. Fig.2.2-64 depicts schemati-
11 per circuit, while the surge impedance load is35MVA cally the range of application for the individual AC voltage
(approximately). levels based on the distance of transmission and the power
rating. The voltage level has to be selected based on the
12 In Central Europe, 245kV lines were used for interconnec- task of the line within the network or on the results of
tion of power supply systems before the 420kV level was network planning. Siemens has carried out such studies for
introduced for this purpose. Long-distance transmission, power supply companies all over the world.
for example, between the hydro power plants in the Alps
and consumers, was done by 245kV lines. Nowadays, the High-voltage direct current
importance of 245kV lines is decreasing due to the exis- However, when considering bulk power transmission over
tence of the 420kV transmission system. The 420kV level long distances, a more economical solution is the high-
represents the highest operation voltage used for AC trans- voltage direct-current (HVDC) technology. Siemens is in the
mission in Central Europe. It typically interconnects the position to offer complete solutions for such interconnec-
power supply systems and transmits the energy over long tions, starting with network studies and followed by the
distances. Some 420kV lines connect the national grids of design, assistance in project development and complete
the individual European countries enabling interconnected turnkey supply and construction of such plants. For DC
network operation (UCTE = Union for the Co-ordination of transmission no standard is currently available. The DC
Transmission of Electricity) throughout Europe. Large voltages vary from the voltage levels recommended in the
power plants such as nuclear stations feed directly into the above-mentioned standardized voltages used for AC.

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 42


Power transmission and distribution solutions 2.2 High-voltage solutions

HVDC transmission is used for bulk power transmission and


for system interconnection. The line voltages applied for
projects worldwide vary between 300kV, 400kV,
100
500kV, 600kV and recently (2007), 800kV. The selec-
tion of the HVDC line voltage is ruled by the following
parameters:
Amount of power to be transferred
1 Length of the overhead power line

Cost per MW and km (%)


Permissible power losses
Economical conductor size. 50

2
The advantages of DC transmission over AC transmission are:
A DC link allows power transfer between AC networks
with different frequencies or networks that cannot be
3 synchronized.
500
Inductive and capacitive parameters do not limit the 4,000
3,500 1,000
transmission capacity or the maximum length of a DC 3,000
2,500
1,500
MW
)
2,000 2,000 er (
4 overhead transmission line. Line
leng 1,500 2,500 d pow
th ( 1,000 itte
The conductor cross-section can be more or less fully km) 500 3,000 n sm
Tra
utilized because there is no skin effect caused by the line
frequency.
5 DC overhead power lines are much more economical to 300 kV 400 kV 500 kV 600 kV 800 kV

built and require less right-of-way.


Fig.2.2-65: Economical application of DC voltages in relation to
6 Economical considerations/evaluation of DC voltages overhead transmission line length and transmitted power
Fig.2.2-65 shows the economical application of DC volt-
ages in relation to overhead transmission line length and
transmitted power. This graph must be seen as a general
7 guideline. Any project should be separately evaluated on a
case-by-case basis. The budgets established for this evalua-
tion are based on 2007 figures.
8
Conclusions:
300kV voltage level: line lengths of 1,000km to 1,500km with transmitted
The range of 750 and 1,000km with a power transfer of power of 1,000 to 2,000MW. However, the 400kV
9 600MW has been evaluated. The line and converter voltage level can also be competitive in this range of
costs have been added, and transferred into a cost factor power and line length.
per MW power and km of transmission line. The result 600kV voltage level:
10 shows that for long-distance HVDC transmission, the The range 1,500, 2,000 and 3,000km with a power
300kV voltage level is not the optimal solution (refer to transfer of2,000 and 3,000MW has been evaluated. The
400kV below). However, this voltage level is useful in line and converter costs have been added, and
short HVDC interconnectors such as the Thailand- transferred into a cost factor per megawatt power and
11 Malaysia Interconnector, which has a line length of kilometer of transmission line length. The result shows
113km. that the 600kV voltage level is a suitable solution for the
400kV voltage level: line lengths of 1,500km to 3,000km with transmitted
12 The range 750, 1,000 and 1,500km with a power power of 2,000MW, and 3,000MW for lines up to
transfer of 600, 1,000 and 2,000MW has been 2,000km. However, the 500kV voltage level can still be
evaluated. The line and converter costs have been competitive in parts of this range.
added, and transferred into a cost factor per megawatt 800kV voltage level:
power and kilometer of transmission line length. The The range 2,000, 3,000 and 4,000km with a power
result shows that the 400kV voltage level is a suitable transfer of 2,000 and 3,000MW has been evaluated. The
solution for line lengths of 750 to 1,000km with line and converter costs have been added, and
transmitted power of 600 to 1,000MW. transferred into a cost factor per megawatt power and
500kV voltage level: kilometer of transmission line. The result shows that the
The range 1,000 and 1,500km with a power transfer of 800kV voltage level is a suitable solution for the line
1,000, 2,000 and 3,000MW has been evaluated. The lengths of 2,000km and above with transmitted power
line and converter costs have been added, and of 2,000 and 3,000MW. However, shorter line lengths of
transferred into a cost factor per megawatt power and 1,500 to 3,000km with power rating of 3,000 to
kilometer of transmission line length. The result shows 7,000MW can be economically covered with an 800kV
that the 500kV voltage level is a suitable solution for the solution.

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 43


Power transmission and distribution solutions 2.2 High-voltage solutions

Selection of conductors and earth wires cross-section is the most important feature affecting the
Conductors represent the most important component of an voltage drop and the energy losses along the line and,
overhead power line because they have to ensure econom- therefore, the transmission costs. The cross-section has to
ical and reliable transmission and contribute considerably be selected so that the permissible temperatures will not be
to the total line costs. For many years, aluminum and its exceeded during normal operation as well as under short-
alloys have been the prevailing conducting materials for circuit condition. With increasing cross-section, the line
power lines due to the favorable price, the low weight and costs increase, while the costs for losses decrease.
1 the necessity of certain minimum cross-sections. However, Depending on the length of the line and the power to be
aluminum is a very corrosive metal. But a dense oxide layer transmitted, a cross-section can be determined that results
is formed that stops further corrosive attacks. Therefore, up in the lowest transmission costs. The heat balance of ohmic
2 to a certain level, aluminum conductors are well-suited for losses and solar radiation against convection and radiation
areas in which corrosion is a problem, for example, a mari- determines the conductor temperature. A current density
time climate. of 0.5 to 1.0A/mm2 based on the aluminum cross-section
has proven to be an economical solution in most cases.
3 For aluminum conductors, there are a number of different
designs in use. All-aluminum conductors (AAC) have the High-voltage results in correspondingly high-voltage gradi-
highest conductivity for a given cross-section; however, ents at the conductors surface, and in corona-related
4 they possess only a low mechanical strength, which limits effects such as visible discharges, radio interference,
their application to short spans and low tensile forces. To audible noise and energy losses. When selecting the con-
increase the mechanical strength, wires made of alu- ductors, the AC voltage gradient has to be limited to values
minum-magnesium-silicon alloys are adopted. Their between 15 and 17kV/cm. Since the sound of the audible
5 strength is approximately twice that of pure aluminum. But noise of DC lines is mainly caused at the positive pole and
single-material conductors like all-aluminum and aluminum this sound differs from those of AC lines, the subjective
alloy conductors have shown susceptibility to eolian vibra- feeling differs as well. Therefore, the maximum surface
6 tions. Compound conductors with a steel core, so-called voltage gradient of DC lines is higher than the gradient for
aluminum conductor, steel-reinforced (ACSR), avoid this AC lines. A maximum value of 25kV/cm is recommended.
disadvantage. The ratio between aluminum and steel The line voltage and the conductor diameter are one of the
ranges from 4.3:1 to 11:1. An aluminum-to-steel ratio of main factors that influence the surface voltage gradient. In
7 6.0 or 7.7 provides an economical solution. Conductors order to keep this gradient below the limit value, the con-
with a ratio of 4.3 should be used for lines installed in ductor can be divided into subconductors. This results in an
regions with heavy wind and ice loads. Conductors with a equivalent conductor diameter that is bigger than the
8 ratio higher than 7.7 provide higher conductivity. But diameter of a single conductor with the same cross-section.
because of lower conductor strength, the sags are bigger, This aspect is important for lines with voltages of 245kV
which requires higher towers. and above. Therefore, so-called bundle conductors are
mainly adopted for extra-high-voltage lines. Table2.2-3
9 Experience has shown that ACSR conductors, just like shows typical conductor configurations for AC lines.
aluminum and aluminum alloy conductors, provide the
most economical solution and offer a life span greater than From a mechanical point of view, the conductors have to
10 40 years. Conductors are selected according to electrical, be designed for everyday conditions and for maximum
thermal, mechanical and economic aspects. The electric loads exerted on the conductor by wind and ice. As a rough
resistance as a result of the conducting material and its figure, an everyday stress of approximately 20% of the

11 Rated voltage [kV] 20 110 220 380 700


Highest system voltage [kV] 24 123 245 420 765
Nominal cross-section [mm2] 50 120 150 300 435 bundle 2x240 bundle 4x240 bundle 2x560 bundle 4x560
12 Conductor diameter [mm] 9.6 15.5 17.1 24.5 28.8 2x21.9 4x21.9 2x32.2 4x32.2
Ampacity (at 80C conductor temperature)[A] 210 410 470 740 900 1,290 2,580 2,080 4,160
Thermal capacity [MVA] 7 14 90 140 340 490 1,700 1,370 5,400
Resistance at 20C [/km] 0.59 0.24 0.19 0.10 0.067 0.059 0.030 0.026 0.013
Reactance at 50Hz [/km] 0.39 0.34 0.41 0.38 0.4 0.32 0.26 0.27 0.28
Effective capacitance [nF/km] 9.7 11.2 9.3 10 9.5 11.5 14.4 13.8 13.1
Capacitance to earth [nF/km] 3.4 3.6 4.0 4.2 4.8 6.3 6.5 6.4 6.1
Charging power [kVA/km] 1.2 1.4 35 38 145 175 650 625 2,320
Earth-fault current [A/km] 0.04 0.04 0.25 0.25 0.58 0.76 1.35 1.32 2.38
Surge impedance [] 360 310 375 350 365 300 240 250 260
Surge impedance load [MVA] 32 35 135 160 600 577 2,170

Table2.2-3: Electric characteristics of AC overhead power lines (data refer to one circuit of a double-circuit line)

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 44


Power transmission and distribution solutions 2.2 High-voltage solutions

conductor rated tensile stress can be adopted, resulting in a


limited risk of conductor damage. The maximum working
tensile stress should be limited to approximately 40% of
the rated tensile stress.

Earth wires, also called shieldwire or earthwire, can protect


a line against direct lightning strikes and improve system
1 behavior in the event of short circuits; therefore, lines with
single-phase voltages of 110kV and above are usually
equipped with earth wires. Earth wires made of ACSR
2 conductors with a sufficiently high aluminum cross-section
satisfy both requirements.

Since the beginning of the 1990s, more and more earth


3 wires for extra-high-voltage overhead power lines have
been executed as optical earth wires (OPGW). This type of
earth wire combines the functions just described for the
4 typical earth wire with the additional facility for large data
transfer capacity via optical fibers that are integrated into
the OPGW. Such data transfer is essential for the communi-
cation between two converter stations within an HVDC
5 interconnection or for remote controlling of power plants.
The OPGW in such a case becomes the major communica-
tion link within the interconnection. OPGW are mainly
6 designed in one or more layers of aluminum alloy and/or
aluminum-clad steel wires. One-layer designs are used in
areas with low keraunic levels (small amount of possible Fig.2.2-66: Cap-and-pin insulator Fig.2.2-67: Long-rod insulator
lightning strikes per year) and small short-circuit levels. (above) with clevis caps
7
Selection of insulators
Overhead line insulators are subject to electrical and 145
Y
8 mechanical stresses, because they have to isolate the con-
ductors form potential to earth and must provide physical
supports. Insulators must be capable of withstanding these marking
66

stresses under all conditions encountered in a specific line.


9 HTV silicone rubber
The electrical stresses result from: Epoxy-resin reinforced with
The steady-state operating power-frequency voltage ECR glass fibers,
4,520

(electrical grade corrosion


10 (highest operation voltage of the system) resistant)
151
Temporary overvoltages at power frequency
Switching and lightning overvoltages.
Y 43
11
66

Z
Insulator types Z
Various insulator designs are in use, depending on the
66

requirements and the experience with certain insulator


12 types:
Cap-and-pin insulators (fig.2.2-66) are made of
155

porcelain or pre-stressed glass. The individual units are


connected by fittings of malleable cast iron or forged
iron. The insulating bodies are not puncture-proof, which
is the reason for a relatively high number of insulator
Fig.2.2-68: Glass fiber reinforced composite insulator with ball and
failures.
socket fittings (lapp insulator)
In Central Europe, long-rod insulators made from
aluminous porcelain (fig.2.2-67) are most frequently
adopted. These insulators are puncture-proof. Failures C
 omposite insulators are the third major type of insulator
under operation are extremely rare. Long-rod insulators for overhead power line applications (fig.2.2-68). This
show superior behavior, especially in polluted areas. insulator type provides superior performance and
Because porcelain is a brittle material, porcelain long-rod reliability, particularly because of improvements over the
insulators should be protected from bending loads by last 20 years, and has been in service for more than
suitable fittings. 30 years.

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 45


Power transmission and distribution solutions 2.2 High-voltage solutions

The composite insulator is made of a glass fiber reinforced Design of creepage distance and air gaps
epoxy rod. The glass fibers applied are ECR glass fibers that The general electrical layout of insulation is ruled by the
are resistant to brittle fracture (ECR = electrical grade voltages to be withstood and the pollution to which the
corrosion resistant glass fibers). In order to avoid brittle insulation is subjected. The standards IEC 60071-1 and
fracture, the glass fiber rod must additionally be sealed very IEC 60071-2 as well as the technical report IEC 60815,
carefully and durably against moisture. This is done by which provides four pollution classes (the new version will
application of silicone rubber. Nowadays, high temperature have five classes), give guidance for the design of the
1 vulcanized (HTV) silicone is used. insulation.

The silicone rubber has two functions within this insulator Because IEC 60815 is applicable to AC lines, it should be
2 type: noted that the creepage distances recommended are based
Sealing the glass fiber rod on the phase-to-phase AC voltage (UL-L). When transfer-
Molding into insulator sheds to establish the required ring these creepage distances recommended by IEC 60815
insulation. to a DC line, it should be noted that the DC voltage is a
3 pole-to-earth value (UL-E). Therefore, these creepage
Metal fittings are compressed onto the glass fiber rod at distances have to be multiplied by the factor 3. Further-
both ends of the insulator, either with a ball socket or clevis more, it should be noted that the AC voltage value refers
4 connection fitting. Since the 1980s, compression fittings to a mean value, while the DC voltage is comparable to a
have been the prevailing type. The sealing of the area peak value, which requires a further multiplication with
between fitting and silicone housing protecting the rod is factor 2.
most important, and is nowadays done with special silicone
5 elastomer, which offers after vulcanization the character- Insulators under DC voltage operation are subjected to a
istic of a sticky solid, similar to a fluid of high viscosity. more unfavorable conditions than they are under AC, due
to a higher collection of surface contamination caused by
6 Advantages of the composite long-rod insulator are: the constant unidirectional electric field. Therefore, a DC
Light weight, less volume and less damages pollution factor has to be applied. Table 2.4-3 shows spe-
Shorter string length compared to cap-and-pin and cific creepage distances for different insulator materials
porcelain long-rod insulator strings under AC and DC application, and is based on industry
7 Up to 765kVAC and 600kVDC, only one unit of experience published by power supply companies in South
insulator (practical length is only limited by the ability of Africa and China. The results shown were confirmed by an
the production line) is required experienced insulator manufacturer in Germany. The cor-
8 High mechanical strength rection factors shown are valid for porcelain insulators
Vandalism resistance only. When taking composite insulators into consideration,
High performance in polluted areas, based on the an additional reduction factor of 0.75 can be applied. The
hydrophobicity (water repellency) of the silicone rubber. values for a DC system must be seen as a guideline only,
9 that must be verified on a case-by-case basis for new HVDC
Advantages of hydrophobicity are: projects.
Silicone rubber offers outstanding hydrophobicity
10 over the long term; most other polymeric housing To handle switching and lightning overvoltages, the insu-
material will loose this property over time lator sets have to be designed with respect to insulation
Silicone rubber is able to recover its hydrophobicity coordination according to IEC 60071-1 and IEC 60071-2.
after a temporary loss of it These design aspects determine the gap between the
11 The silicone rubber insulator is able to make pollution earthed fittings and the live part. However, for HVDC appli-
layers on its surface water-repellent, too (hydrophobicity cation, switching impulse levels are of minor important
transfer) because circuit-breaker operations from AC lines do not
12 Low surface conductivity, even with a polluted surface occur on DC Back-to-back lines. Such lines are controlled via
and very low leakage currents, even under wetted their valve control systems. In order to coordinate the
conditions. insulation in a proper way, it is recommended to apply and
use the same SIL and BIL as is used for the equivalent AC
Insulator string sets insulation (determined by the arcing distance).
Suspension insulator sets carry the conductor weight,
including additional loads such as ice and wind, and are
arranged more or less vertically. There are I-shaped
(fig.2.2-69a) and V-shaped sets in use. Tension insulator
sets (fig.2.2-69b, fig.2.2-69c) terminate the conductors
and are arranged in the direction of the conductors. They
are loaded by the conductor tensile force and have to be
rated accordingly. Multiple single, double, triple or more
sets handle the mechanical loadings and the design
requirements.

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 46


Power transmission and distribution solutions 2.2 High-voltage solutions

IEC 60815 level Porcelain and Composite


Cross arm glass insulators insulators
AC DC AC DC
system system system system
I Light [mm/kV] 16 39 12 29
Cross arm II Medium [mm/kV] 20 47 15 35
III Heavy [mm/kV] 25 59 19 44
1 IV Very Heavy [mm/kV] 31 72 24 54

Table2.2-4: Guideline for specific creepage distances for different


insulator materials
2

Conductor
7

Fig.2.2-69a: I-shaped suspension insulator set for 245kV


8 Cross arm

Conductor

Cross arm

10
Cross arm Conductor

11

12 Cross arm Conductor

Fig.2.2-69b: Double tension insulator set for 245kV (elevation, top)


Fig.2.2-69c: Double tension insulator set for 245kV (plan, bottom)

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 47


Power transmission and distribution solutions 2.2 High-voltage solutions

Selection and design of supports For AC lines comprising more than two circuits, there are
Together with the line voltage, the number of circuits (AC) many possibilities for configuring the supports. In the case
or poles (DC) and type of conductors, the configuration of of circuits with differing voltages, those circuits with the
the circuits poles determines the design of overhead power lower voltage should be arranged in the lowermost position
lines. Additionally, lightning protection by earth wires, the (fig.2.2-71g).
terrain and the available space at the tower sites have to be
considered. In densely populated areas like Central Europe, DC lines are mechanically designed according to the normal
1 the width of right-of-way and the space for the tower sites practice for typical AC lines. The differences from AC Line
are limited. In the case of extra-high-voltages, the con- layout are the:
ductor configuration affects the electrical characteristics, Conductor configuration
2 the electrical and magnetic field and the transmission Electric field requirements
capacity of the line. Very often there are contradicting Insulation design.
requirements, such as a tower height as low as possible
and a narrow right-of-way, which can only be met by For DC lines, two basic outlines (monopole and bipole),
3 compromises. The minimum clearance of the conductors with variations should be considered. Fig.2.2-71il show
depends on the voltage and the conductor sag. In ice-prone examples for HVDC line configurations that are valid for all
areas, conductors should not be arranged vertically, in voltage levels.
4 order to avoid conductor clashing after ice shedding.
The arrangements of insulators depend on the application
For low-voltage and medium-voltage lines, horizontal of a support within the line. Suspension towers support the
conductor configurations prevail; these configurations conductors in straight-line sections and at small angles.
5 feature line post insulators as well as suspension insulators. This tower type offers the lowest costs; special attention
Poles made of wood, concrete or steel are preferred. should therefore be paid to using this tower type as often
Fig.2.2-70 shows some typical line configurations. Earth as possible. Angle towers have to carry the conductor
6 wires are omitted at this voltage level. tensile forces at angle points of the line. The tension insu-
lator sets permanently transfer high forces from the con-
For high-voltage and extra-high-voltage power lines, a ductors to the supports. Finally, dead-end towers are used
large variety of configurations are available that depend on at the terminations of a transmission line. They carry the
7 the number of circuits (AC) or poles (DC) and on local total conductor tensile forces on the line side (even under
conditions. Due to the very limited right-of-way, more or unbalanced load condition, e.g., when conductors of one
less all high-voltage AC lines in Central Europe comprise at tower side are broken) and a reduced tension into the
8 least two circuits. Fig.2.2-71 shows a series of typical substations (slack span).
tower configurations. Arrangement e is called the
Danube configuration and is often adopted. It represents Various loading conditions specified in the respective
a fair compromise with respect to width of right-of-way, national and international standards have to be met when
9 tower height and line costs. designing towers. The climatic conditions, the earthquake
requirements and other local environmental factors are the
next determining factors for the tower design.
10

11

12

Fig.2.2-70: Configurations of medium-voltage supports

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 48


Power transmission and distribution solutions 2.2 High-voltage solutions

10

11

12

Fig.2.2-71: (ah): tower configurations for high-voltage lines (AC); (il): tower configurations for high-voltage lines (DC)

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 49


Power transmission and distribution solutions 2.2 High-voltage solutions

When designing the support, a number of conditions have


to be considered. High wind and ice loads cause the max-
imum forces to act on suspension towers. In ice-prone
areas, unbalanced conductor tensile forces can result in
torsional loading. Additionally, special loading conditions
are adopted for the purpose of failure containment, that is,
to limit the extent of damage. Finally, provisions have to be
1 made for construction and maintenance.

Depending on voltage level and the acting forces of the


2 overhead line, differing designs and materials are adopted.
Poles made of wood, concrete or steel are very often used
for low-voltage and medium-voltage lines. Towers with
lattice steel design, however, prevail at voltage levels of
3 110kV and above (fig.2.2-72). Guyed lattice steel struc-
tures are used in some parts of the world for high-voltage
AC and DC lines. Such design requires a relatively flat
4 topography and a secure environment where there is no
threat from vandalism and theft. Guyed lattice steel struc-
tures offer a substantial amount of cost savings with
respect to tower weight and foundation quantities. How-
5 ever, a wider right-of-way has to be considered.

10

11

12
Fig.2.2-72: Typical Central European AC line design with different
voltage levels

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 50


Power transmission and distribution solutions 2.2 High-voltage solutions

Foundations for the supports


Overhead power line supports are mounted on concrete Pad-and-chimney Auger-bored
foundation
foundations. The foundations have to be designed foundation
according to the national or international standard appli-
cable for the particular project.

The selection of foundation types and the design is deter-


1 mined by the:
Loads resulting from the tower design
Soil conditions on the site
2 Accessibility to the line route Rock anchor Pile foundation
Availability of machinery foundation
Constraints of the particular country and the site.
Concrete blocks or concrete piers are in use for poles that
3 exert bending moments on the foundation. For towers with
four legs, a foundation is provided for each individual leg
(fig.2.2-73). Pad and chimney and concrete block founda-
4 tions require good bearing soil conditions without ground-
water.

Driven or augured piles and piers are adopted for low- Fig.2.2-73: Foundations for four-legged towers
5 bearing soil, for sites with bearing soil at a greater depth
and for high groundwater level. In case of groundwater,
the soil conditions must permit pile driving. Concrete slabs Siemens activities and experience
6 can be used for good bearing soil, when subsoil and Siemens has been active in the overhead power line field
groundwater level prohibit pad and chimney foundations as for more than 100years. The activities comprise design and
well as piles. construction of rural electrification schemes, low-voltage
and medium-voltage distribution lines, high-voltage lines
7 Route selection and tower spotting and extra-high-voltage installations.
Route selection and planning represent increasingly diffi-
cult tasks, because the right-of-way for transmission lines is To give an indication of what has been carried out by
8 limited and many aspects and interests have to be consid- Siemens, approximately 20,000km of high-voltage lines up
ered. to 245kV and 10,000km of extra-high-voltage lines above
245kV have been set up so far. Overhead power lines have
Route selection and approval depend on the statutory been erected by Siemens in Germany and Central Europe as
9 conditions and procedures prevailing in the country of the well as in the Middle East, Africa, the Far East and South
project. Route selection nowadays involves preliminary America.
desktop studies with a variety of route alternatives, envi-
10 ronmental impact studies, community communication Outstanding AC projects have been:
hearings and acceptance approval from the local authorities. The 420kV transmission lines across the Elbe River in
Germany comprising four circuits and requiring 235 m
After the route design stage and approval procedure, the tall towers
11 final line route is confirmed. Following this confirmation The 420kV line across the Bosphorus (Crossing II)
and approval, the longitudinal profile has to be surveyed, in Turkey (1983) with a crossing span of approximately
and all crossings over roads, rivers, railways, buildings and 1,800m (fig.2.4-37).
12 other overhead power lines have to be identified. The The 500kV Suez Crossing (1998);
results are evaluated with a specialized computer program height of suspension tower 220m
developed by Siemens that calculates and plots the line The 420/800kV Bosporus Crossing III in Turkey (1999).
profile. The towers are spotted by means of the same
program, which takes into account the conductor sags Furthermore, Siemens has constructed two HVDC intercon-
under different conditions, the ground clearances, objects nectors as turnkey projects that include HVDC overhead
crossed by the line, technical data of the available tower transmission lines. The two projects are the 300kV HVDC
family, specific cost for towers and foundations and cost for interconnector from Thailand to Malaysia (bipole transmis-
compensation of landowners. sion line, fig.2.2-76) and the 400kV HVDC Basslink project
in Australia (monopole transmission line, fig.2.2-77ac).
The result is an economical design of a line that accounts
for all the technical, financial and environmental condi-
tions. Line planning forms the basis for material acquisition
and line erection. Fig.2.2-74 shows a line profile estab-
lished by computer.

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 51


Power transmission and distribution solutions 2.2 High-voltage solutions

302.50 f40 = 6.15 300.70


fE = 6.60
6.07 3
Arable land Stream
1 0.47
5.74
f40 = 17.46
T+8
DH
292.00 fE = 16.52 Meadow Road
292.00
16.00 Fallow land Forest
284.20
2 10.00 13.00 16.20
f40 = 2.11

282.00 17.30 16.75


279.00 16.38 15.86 Earth wire: ACSR 265/35 * 80.00 N/mm2
1 2 Conductor: ACSR 265/35 * 80.00 N/mm2
3 WA+0 T+0 Equivalent sag: 11.21 m at 40 C
DA DH 7.55
11.38 Equivalent span: 340.44 m
8.44
12.29
4
Bushes, height up to 5 m
263.00
24.20

f40 = 5.56

5 fE = 5.87

6 4
WA+0
DA

7
223.00

8
1.45

9 16.00

255.00 270.00
10 232.50 292.50

175.00 o. D. 286.50 276.50 273.50 280.00 283.00 275.50 270.50 270.00 265.00 263.00 265.50 261.50 260.00 260.00 236.00 223.00 209.00
281.50 273.00 280.50 284.50 275.00 270.50 272.50 267.50 264.00 266.50 264.00 258.50 260.00 247.50 229.00 215.50 207.00
11
0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9
0.0 66.0 132.0 194.0 264.0 302.0 331.0 360.0 405.0 462.0 534.0 586.0 666.0 688.0 776.0 826.0 904.0
12 36.0 106.0 166.0 251.0 291.0 316.0 346.0 386.0 426.0 506.0 544.0 626.0 676.0 744.0 804.0 848.0 910.0

190.00 Left conductor 251.47 m M20 Road to XXX Left conductor 235.45 m 169.00
1710 1526
6.0 60.0m 50 251.0 4.0 425.0 13.9 4.0 234.0 5.8
6.0 20 kV line 4.0 4.0 5.8
Road crossing
190.00 M21
60.0m
at km 10.543 169.00

Fig.2.2-74: Line profile established by computer

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 52


Power transmission and distribution solutions 2.2 High-voltage solutions

Tension tower Suspension tower Suspension tower Tension tower

Conductor: 4x3x1 AACSR/AW 1802/226 mm2 on 420 kV


Upgradeable to 2x3x2 AACSR/A W 1802/226 mm2
on 800 kV
Shieldwire: 2x (ASLH-DBBB 1x22E8/125 - A W 33)

1 64
160
160
64
2

158
3 88 127 153

73

728 1,884 502


5
Dimensions in m

6 Fig.2.2-75: 420/800kV line across the Bosphorus, longitudinal profile

10

11

12

Fig.2.2-76: 300kV HVDC interconnector from Thailand to Malaysia Fig.2.2-77a: 400kV HVDC Basslink project in Australia
(bipole transmission line) (monopole transmission line)

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 53


Power transmission and distribution solutions 2.2 High-voltage solutions

10

11

12

Fig.2.2-77b, c: 400kV HVDC Basslink project in Australia (monopole transmission line)

For further information please contact the


Customer Support for Power & Energy:
Tel.: +49 180 524 70 00
E-Mail: support.energy@siemens.com
siemens.com/csc

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 54


Power transmission and distribution solutions 2.3 Medium-voltage systems

2.3 Medium-voltage systems


2.3.1 SIESTORAGE energy storage
system

1 From production to consumption

Demands of a modern eco-friendly grid


2 The use of renewables on a large scale leads to new chal-
lenges for managing grid stability due to the variability of
power grids and where they are connected, ever more
often to distribution grids designed for unidirectional
3 power flows. The infeed from distributed sources can cause
a reverse load flow that may damage traditional grids
(fig. 2.3-1 and fig. 2.3-2).
4
Modern power grids require balancing elements such as
SIESTORAGE that store electricity during oversuply and feed
it back when needed. This reduces disturbances caused by
5 both variable generation and load, and improves the effi-
ciency of traditional generators.

6 Making grids fit for the future


Grid operators are looking for new answers to the chal-
lenge of delivering a stable electrical power supply.
SIESTORAGE is a modern, eco-friendly way to deal with the Fig.2.3-2: SIESTORAGE offers solutions for distribution grids with a
7 power balancing tasks that come with connecting grids. It
high share of distributed renewable energy sources

helps to increase stability and asset performance, and play


a fundamental role in optimizing the grid by storing and
8 delivering energy all along the power supply chain from
generation to consumption. By ensuring constant energy
on the transmission grid and on the distribution grid,
SIESTORAGE not only contributes to grid relief, but also
9 makes grid extensions unnecessary. Thus, SIESTORAGE is
the cost-efficient answer to the challenge of rising
demands on both the generation and consumption sides of
10 power grids (fig. 2.3-3).

11
fotolia.com StockPhotosArt

12

Key facts
472 kW/360 kWh SIESTORAGE
energy storage system
8 battery racks, 4 three-phase
converters, 1 transformer, and 1 GIS
Main applications: backup power,
voltage regulation, peak shaving
Fully containerized
Turnkey solution

Fig.2.3-1: SIESTORAGE offers solutions for distribution grids with a Fig.2.3-3: Reference: EDP, Evora, Portugal
high share of distributed renewable energy sources

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 55


Power transmission and distribution solutions 2.3 Medium-voltage systems

Sustainable power microgrids and off-grids


Microgrids are aggregations of electrical and thermal
production, storage and load facilities either geographi-
cally delimited as in off-grids, or within an industrial or
infrastructure complex. They exist in both forms with or
without a connection to a larger supply grid. Their main
tasks are self-sustainability and the ability of independent
1

Shuuterstocks
operation.

On the generation side, renewable sources are usually


2 combined with fossil-fuel powered generatos. Used for
Key facts
balancing out the unsteady input from the renewables, 500 kW/600 kWh SIESTORAGE battery
these generators often have to be operated unefficiently, energy storage system, accompanied
generating more costs and emissions. by a microgrid controller to:
3 Control the storage system, increase
renewable energy yield, optimize the
SIESTORAGE enables the diesel generators or gas turbines diesel engine operation for maximum
to be run at optimum efficiency, supplying energy and fuel efficiency and longevity of the
loading the batteries. In low-demand situations, engines, and minimize O&M.
4 Provide grid stabilization by helping
SIESTORAGE takes over the supply duties until the next to balance supply and demand, and
generator run. Furthermore, SIESTORAGE provides stabiliza- reduce the volatility caused by
tion functions such as frequency and voltage regulation, variations in load and unpredictable
5 and emergency functions such as black start in the event of fluctuations in power generated by
decentralized renewable energy
a total grid collapse, thus maximizing grid independence resources.
(fig. 2.3-4).
6 Fig.2.3-4: Reference: ENEL, Island of Ventotene, Italy
Reliable and safe industrial power supply
Electricity costs are an important factor for large con-
sumers. Rates depend on the time of consumption and if
7 predefined demand schedules are met with optional
penalties and remote shutdown by the utility in the case of
overconsumption or in peak hours. With SIESTORAGE, times
8 of higher than usual demand can be bridged, avoiding
penalties, and reducing the demand during peak-priced
times helps to minimize energy costs.

9 In order to ensure reliable power supply, industrial con-


sumers often utilize individual power stabilization facilities.
The combination of active and reactive power makes
10 SIESTORAGE the perfect solution for the stabilization needs

Gettyimages
of large consumers. For the industry, SIESTORAGE raises
availability and efficiency, while keeping costs under con-
trol. With its black start capability, SIESTORAGE helps to
11 furher improve the reliability of electrical supply, thus
Key facts
1080 kWh SIESTORAGE energy
minimizing costly production losses in the case of a power storage system
cut (fig. 2.3-5). Power output: 2.8 MV/1.2 MW
Supply security for the AMEH steel
12 works if the local grid is interrupted
Independency of the power plant by
switching over to a stand-alone grid
Black start of a gas turbine for grid
stabilization
Intelligent load peak management

Fig.2.3-5: Reference: VEO, Vulkan Energiewirtschaft Oderbrcke


GmbH, Germany

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 56


Power transmission and distribution solutions 2.3 Medium-voltage systems

Unmatched versatility
SIESTORAGE provides multiple use cases of energy storage
for a large field of applications.

1
Applications Use cases

2 Electricity supply for stand-alone/off-grids/microgrids Black start

Ramping control

3
Time shifting

Capacity firming
4

Gettyimages
Diesel offset

5 Frequency regulation
(primary control reserve)

Peak load management


6
Electricity supply for industry Black start

7
Critical power

8 Diesel offset
fotolia.com mmmx

Peak load management


9
Integration of renewable energy Ramping control

10
Time shifting

11
Capacity firming

12

T&D upgrade deferral Peak load management

Ramping control

Frequency regulation

Table2.3-1: Typical applications and use cases

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 57


Power transmission and distribution solutions 2.3 Medium-voltage systems

Use cases Description


Black start Black start is the process of restoring the operation of an electric power plant or part of a power grid without
relying on an external grid.
SIESTORAGE is responsible for grid forming through voltage and frequency regulation of the connected grid. It
can also run in combination with other generators, such as diesel generators, with the power division being
controlled by static droop curves.
Generally, power plants or off-grids use small diesel generators to start larger generators, or to provide power
references such as voltage and frequency to allow renewable energy generators to reconnect.
1 Due to the response speed of the power conversion technology, the advanced control, and the lithium-ion
battery technology, SIESTORAGE is a time-saving and more reliable alternative to black start diesel generators.
Furthermore, SIESTORAGE is able to provide the necessary short-circuit power to ensure a given protection
sequence.
2 Ramping control In order to protect grid stability, many grid codes specify a ramp rate or rate of change (in %) over time for
generators connected to the grid. Compliance with ramp rates ensures the grid operator is able to manage
variations in load and generation, and to maintain a proper frequency. Due to its reliance on changing weather
patterns, renewable energy output is susceptible to rapid rates of change. SIESTORAGE can be used to counteract
3 the variability of renewable energy output by using set points to respond. This can be achieved either by
injecting energy into the grid, or by harnessing energy from the plant to ensure compliance with set ramp rates.
Therefore, SIESTORAGE feeds the grid with the required controlling energy to maintain frequency and voltage
stability.
4 Time shifting/ Often, there is a mismatch between the availability of renewable energy and demand. Wind output is normally at
arbitrage its highest during the night, and solar output at midday, for example. Peak demand is however generally in the
mornings or evenings. High demand for electrical power is often reflected by higher purchase prices. In order to
maximize the use of renewable energy generators and speed up return on investment, renewable energy
5 developers and operators can time-shift the plant output to offer it to the market when it is most profitable.
By storing overcapacity when supply exceeds demand, and by injecting energy when demand exceeds supply,
SIESTORAGE provides a means for boosting plant efficiency.
Capacity firming To ensure grid stability, system operators use forecasts to schedule or match generation and load. This activity is
6 normally carried out in 15-minute time blocks throughout the day, one day in advance. Time intervals can
however also be more closely aligned with real time. In order to encourage scheduling accuracy, regulators
impose rules for accuracy of forecast vs. schedule vs. dispatch. Power producers are encouraged to reduce
deviations between what they are contracted or scheduled to deliver and what they actually deliver. Even with
7 modern forecasting tools, the natural variability of renewable energy means that accurate scheduling is far more
difficult compared with conventional generation. SIESTORAGE can be used to balance out the variability of
renewable energy output by either injecting energy into the grid, or by harnessing energy from the plant
according to the schedules.
8 Diesel offset High costs are associated with the purchase, transport and storage of fuel. The insurance needed to run diesel
generators adds to the financial pressure on operators of unreliable grids and off-grids. Furthermore, the
pollution associated with running diesel generators inefficiently when ramping to match demand is a growing
concern, especially in congested cities and areas of natural beauty.
9 SIESTORAGE complements various generation resources by balancing power supply and demand. This enables
diesel engines to be run more efficiently and less often, therefore reducing overall reliance on diesel fuel.
Frequency regulation Grid frequency is an indicator of grid stability, and under ideal conditions will be either 50 or 60Hz depending
on the country. Differences between power generation and power demand cause the grid frequency to fluctuate,
10 and can result in damage to equipment, unwanted tripping, or even a blackout. Grid operators use reserves to
maintain grid stability in the event of an anomaly that has not been previously corrected as a result of grid
inertia. Primary reserves are the fastest services and are first in line to stabilize frequency deviations or to stop
the drift. Thanks to the fast response times of SIESTORAGE technology, it can provide both upward and
11 downward regulation, and can be used as an alternative to the conventional slower responding generators,
therefore reducing costs and increasing supply reliability.
Peak load management Managing variable loads is associated with high costs caused by purchasing peak-load priced-power, high
contract demand charges, infrastructure upgrades for assets used part-time, or even technical losses associated
12 with underused assets. At the same time, the customers expectations for cheap energy puts great pressure on
plant and grid operators to optimize the performance of their assets and ultimately reduce operating costs.
Using SIESTORAGE to utilize lower cost electricity and support load during peak times helps to reduce both
power purchase (OpEx) and infrastructure (CapEx) costs.
Critical power Voltage dips as a result of transient faults in the grid can cause malfunctions in sensitive process equipment such
as variable-speed drives and robots. The nature of transient faults is unpredictable both in magnitude and
duration, and those transients outside the ride-through capabilities of sensible devices can result in damage to
those devices and, consequently, high production losses.
Most dips can be addressed through reactive power compensation such as SVCs and StatComs. However, these
devices respond only after about 20ms. Online active power is therefore required in the form of Dynamic UPS or
DUPS to provide support until the slower backup devices respond. SIESTORAGE and FAST SWITCH provide a cost-
efficient and fast DUPS solution that is able to keep the deviation in the supply voltage under 10% for times
longer than 10ms.

Table2.3-2: Use cases

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 58


Power transmission and distribution solutions 2.3 Medium-voltage systems

System description Configuration


A SIESTORAGE system comprises power converters, the SCU
Battery balancing for grids and the master controller, as well as LV/MV transformers
SIESTORAGE is a modular energy storage system based on and devices for protection, control and switching (fig. 2.3-6).
Li-ion battery technology. It provides a flexible solution for
increased efficiency, greater asset utilization, and improved SIESTORAGE features and advantages
power quality in power generation, transmission and
1 distribution. Flexible configuration covering all Battery Energy
Storage Systems (BESS) applications
With the help of SIESTORAGE technology, active power can Power Converter System (PCS) hardware and software
2 be exchanged between an energy storage medium and a developed specifically for BESS applications
power grid. In addition, it can be used to provide reactive Grid-forming parallel operation with wind, solar and
power to stabilize grid voltage. diesel possible
Black start capability
3 Control and governance High system dynamics: POI voltage regulation within
The SIESTORAGE converter system (fig. 2.3-6) operates <10ms
with one central controller, consisting of a real-time system High short-circuit power (23 rated power)
4 for the fast control of voltage, current, frequency and Choice of different external communication interfaces
power. The renowned, safe and reliable SIMATICS7 pro- (IEC 61850, IEC 60870-5-104, DNP3 and others).
vides governance control.
Worldwide operation
5 The SIMATIC HMI visualizes the current status, warnings and Wide grid voltage range (for LV and MV grids and up to
alarms, and is able to show data trend analysis for several 15% voltage deviation from nominal)
values. All relevant information can be stored for later anal- Wide grid frequency range (4565Hz)
6 ysis. Optional Siemens service is available via remote access. CE-certified and UL/CSA-ready
IEC- and IEEE-compliant
The SIESTORAGE control unit (SCU) is a real-time data Compliant with international grid codes.
acquisition and control system. It measures, records and
7 analyses numerous signals such as AC voltage and power at High quality
the Point of Interconnection (POI) to the grid, status of the Best-in-class overall efficiency
battery units, temperatures, and positions of switching Longevity: design lifetime 20yrs
8 devices. The SCU runs the control algorithms received from High reliability and availability
the SIESTORAGE master controller, which is regulated by IT security (remote access) according to IEC 62443-3-3.
the customers SCADA system or an operator.
Cutting-edge technology
9 State of the art Power Conversion System (PCS) and
battery technology
Modular BESS design with wide capacity range.
10

11 Signals
OVERALL
SIESTORAGE Power
SIESTORAGE 1.0 Product System
12
Master Optional:
Customer
SCU Controller Storage
SCDA
(Control) (S7) Management
System
Battery & System (SMS)
(inc.BMS) HMI
Transformer
Power
Converters
Switchgear Grid

Fig.2.3-6: Configuration system model

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 59


Power transmission and distribution solutions 2.3 Medium-voltage systems

SIESTORAGE components

Efficiency through modularity


All the SIESTORAGE components are mounted in standard-
ized cabinets (fig. 2.3-7) for easy setup. This enables quick
and efficient configuration of scalable systems by simply
adding the required number of each module type. The
1 modules are designed to match one another perfectly in
terms of control, operating power supply, and general
connectivity.
2
Grid connection cabinet A (fig. 2.3-8)
Cable terminations for grid connection
Busbar system
3 MV switchgear
For gas-insulated switchgear, type 8DJH is
recommended Fig.2.3-8: Grid connection Fig.2.3-9: Converter cabinet
4 For air-insulated switchgear, type NXAIR is cabinet
recommended.

Converter cabinet B (fig. 2.3-9)


5 S nominal: 140 kVA or 800 kVA with update
V nominal: 400 V.

6 Control cabinet C (fig. 2.3-10)


HMI (Human-Machine Interface)
SCU (System Control Unit)
Ethernet switch
7 24V DC power distribution
Auxiliary power transformer.

8 Battery cabinet D (fig. 2.3-11)


Use of various battery suppliers
Technical data depending on partner technology and
application specific.
9
Fig.2.3-10: Control cabinet Fig.2.3-11: Battery cabinet

10
CT

11

12
VT on
secondary
side

S7
Aux.
trans- Grid connection
former
Power
conversion system

SCU Control

Battery technology

Fig.2.3-7: Typical arrangement of cabinet modules in the SIESTORAGE system

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 60


Power transmission and distribution solutions 2.3 Medium-voltage systems

Comprehensive portfolio

Quick setup times


The integration of the cabinets into containerized enclo-
sures that are delivered as pre-tested and pre-commis-
sioned systems helps to reduce expensive and time critical
corrections on site. SIESTORAGE modularity provides design
1 flexibility to meet a variety of requirements with regard to
power and energy.

2 Standardized container layout


In general, one container can be divided into a maximum of
five rooms with different climate zones. Usually, containers
are divided for converters and batteries, as well as one for
3 MV and LV components and transformers (fig 2.3-12).

Technology expertise
4 Power electronics and storage system
Low- and medium-voltage switchgear
Transformers SIESTORAGE components
Energy automation and grid integration. Converter cabinet
5
Grid connection cabinet
Implementation expertise
Control cabinet
Experience with grid operators
E-house manufacturing Battery cabinets incl. battery management system
6
Power packaging solution expertise Battery cabinet
One of the leaders in smart systems. Battery rack
LV + MV components
7 SICAM Microgrid Manager
8DJH gas-insulated medium-voltage switchgear
The SICAM Microgrid Manager from Siemens is a fully
SIVACON S8 low-voltage switchboard
developed end-to-end solution to monitor and control 
microgrids a smart, user-friendly and versatile tool for  EAFOL cast-resin rectifier transformer
G
8
energy management needs. It constantly monitors and HVAC, fire fighting and safety equipment
controls the grid, the power generation, the energy storage, HVAC
as well as the consumption, and is capable of representing Fire detection and extinguishing system
9 complex structures in the process (fig. 2.3-13).

With the combination of SICAM Microgrid M anager soft- Fig.2.3-12: Example of a typical containerized comprehensive solution
10 ware and the SIESTORAGE primary technology, Siemens
provides a seamlessly coordinated portfolio of solutions.

11

12

Fig.2.3-13: SICAM Microgrid Manager

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 61


Power transmission and distribution solutions 2.3 Medium-voltage systems

Lifecycle optimization

Taking a close look


Everything begins with an analysis of the grid or site to
determine the adequate business model. A simulation of
potential applications is carried out, including the efficient
use of SIESTORAGE. Siemens offers a complete consulting
1 service that includes power flow calculation and reactive
power analysis, contingency analysis, short-circuit current
calculation, probabilistic reliability analysis, dynamic sta-
2 bility calculation, and protection coordination.

Reducing interfaces
From planning through engineering and project manage-
3 ment up to the complete integration, Siemens guides Fig.2.3-15: Turnkey solution, fully containerized, SIESTORAGE at EDP
system operators through every step and all phases of the in Portugal
project. Reliable and competent local support is provided
4 right from the planning phase to after-sales service
(fig. 2.3-14).

Fully integrated solution


5 Siemens delivers pre-tested and pre-commisssioned sys-
tems wherever needed, either in containerized enclosures
(fig. 2-3.15) or in an existing electrical building (fig 2-3.16).
6
Providing thorough service
Siemens supports local value creation and guarantees
competent personnel in close reach of the system opera-
7 tors. The Siemens experts provide their experience in
project management, financial services, and lifecycle
management to every project. This enables them to help
8 the system operators consider any aspect of safety, logitics, Fig.2.3-16: SIESTORAGE system installed in an existing electrical
and environmental protection. building at the steel mill of the AMEH in Eisenhttenstadt,
Germany

10 For further information please contact the


Customer Support for Power & Energy:
Tel.: +49 180 524 70 00
E-Mail: support.energy@siemens.com
11 siemens.com/csc
siemens.com/siestorage

12

Analysis Development Planning Engineering Construction Commissioning Service


of grid of business of the c omplete and project and integration and installation over the
and user cases project management entire asset
of components in E-houses,
requirements of components and systems existing lifecycle
and system buildings, or
containers

Fig.2.3-14: One-stop solution

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 62


Power transmission and distribution solutions 2.3 Medium-voltage systems

2.3.2 SIHARBOR / SIPLINK system centrally. Thereby, allrelevant messages and data
can be indicated, and all operating and safety functions can
New challenge in ports be selected. Thecontrol unit ensures that only permissible
Shipping is booming continuously, and more and more switching operations according to IEC/ISO/IEEE 80005 are
ships are docking at ports. Of course, this implies problems executed. The personnel who operates the plug-in connec-
for the port operators, because the ship also has to gen- tion on shore and on board is protected by generally double
erate power for onboard equipment, shops and air condi- electrical interlocks. Protection is ensured both by the
1 tioning when berthed. This means that the diesel genera- software and by the hardware, independently of each
tors commonly used on board also have to run permanently other. The whole shore connection system can be remotely
in the port. This process generates large amounts of CO2, controlled from the ship without additional qualified per-
2 NOX and dangerous fine particulate matter. The emissions sonnel.
of a berthed ships can be compared to the environmental
pollution of a medium-sized city. Everything from a single source
On request, SIHARBOR can be designed as a turnkey solu-
3 Comprehensive solution with SIHARBOR tion, from planning through system integration (with all
LVand MV products and switchgear for connection to the
Power supply from the public grid Reliable and clean grid) up to commissioning and service. The system can
4 SIHARBOR enables the ships to get power from the onshore optionally be installed in a container orinalready existing
power grid when berthed, so that it will not be necessary to buildings.
operate the diesel generators commonly used on board.
Thus, SIHARBOR provides numerous benefits not only for Your benefit
5 port operators, but also for ship owners, local residents, For ships: Reduction of maintenance costs and fuel
and the port staff. consumption of the diesel g enerators in the port.
Discounts for ships using theshore connection power
6 Safe and easy operation supply system
A cable management system enables a safe and simple con- For ports: New business opportunities for the port
nection from the electrical building to the ship (fig. 2.3-17). operator by providing power supply for ships
In order to eliminate the residual risk ofarcing in the plug- For local residents and the port staff: Improved quality
7 in connection, the cable connection to the ship is tested of life by reduction of emissions, noise and vibrations
atrated voltage with low power before being connected.
On a higher level, the S
IMATICS7 control unit with oper-
8 ator panel monitors the state of the whole SIHARBOR

10

11

12

Fig.2.3-17: Quick and easy connection to the ship via the cable management system

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 63


Power transmission and distribution solutions 2.3 Medium-voltage systems

The frequency must be converted A comprehensive solution with high efficiency


In international maritime traffic, around 75% of all ships The SIPLINK system is based on the u niversally applicable
are equipped with 60Hz networks. However, only 25% of SINAMICS SM120 CM. The system comprises the control
the countriesoperate their power gridswith this frequency. system and the HMI (Human-Machine Interface) as well as
Therefore, the onshore f requencymust be adjusted to a medium-voltage switchgear NXPLUS C especially
theonboard frequency in 75% of the countries. With the designed for shore connection systems. This switchgear
SIPLINK converter system and the SINAMICS SM120 CM offers a long service life of 10,000 cycles of operation for
1 converters, ships operating at 50Hz and at 60Hz can the functions INTERRUPTING and EARTHING that is even
besupplied. suitable for heavily used shore connections.

2 For all voltages and frequencies The air-insulated MV switchgear type NXAIR is also espe-
With its modular concept, the system is perfectly adapted cially suitable for application on ships due to its compact
to all required power ratings, voltages and frequencies. design, high flexibility, and robustness. Various ship classifi
SIHARBOR uses an isolating transformer to galvanically cations have been granted for NXAIR and the switchgear
3 isolate the ships network from the onshore power grid and has been successfully installed on numerous ship types.
other ship networks.
The perfectly matched components provide an efficient
4 SIPLINK: Siemens Power Link solution for ports and ships.
SIPLINK is a converter system adapted for network applica-
tions. It can connect two or more medium-voltage AC
networks with different voltages, phase angles and fre-
5 quencies. With SIPLINK, the voltage is adjusted by trans-
former tap changing and by modification of the converter
output voltage. Thus, any required transfer voltage to the
6 ship can be implemented (fig. 2.3-18).

For further information please contact the


Customer Support for Power & Energy:
8
Tel.: +49 180 524 70 00
E-Mail: support.energy@siemens.com
siemens.com/csc
siemens.com/siharbor
9

Power/port
ON OFF
10
Ship Status: 0 kW
automation Power/port earthed

11
Shoreside
automation

12

Cable isolation
test Connection
on berth

Fig.2.3-18: SIPLINK converter system for network applications in a SIHARBOR solution

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 64


Power transmission and distribution solutions 2.4 Portable power solutions and E-House

2.4 Portable power solutions


and E-house
Plug-and-play power supply/portable power solution

E-houses, skids and mobile substations from 400V


1 to 420kV
E-houses are pre-fabricated electrical buildings (power
equipment centers) that are fully equipped and pre-tested
2 for a fast and reliable power supply. They accommodate
our comprehensive portfolio of high and medium-voltage
switchgear, low-voltage switchboards, telecommunication
and busbar trunking systems, control, protection, teleco- Fig.2.4-1: E-house Project Nacala (South Africa)
3 mand auxiliary equipment (fig. 2.4-1 fig. 2.4-3)

The E-houses are completely developed, manufactured,


4 assembled and pre-tested at the factory, connected and put
into operation on site (fig. 2.4-4). They are therefore fast
and easy to install and can be used as an interim solution.
They are easy to upgrade, using available space optimally.
5 This makes them a time-efficient and cost-effective alterna-
tive to conventional site-built substations for a broad range
of applications.
6
Benefits of an E-House at a glance
Cost-effective
Fast to install
7 Flexible
One-stop solution. Fig.2.4-2: High Voltage GIS E-house project for transmission
susbstation (France)

10

11

12 Fig.2.4-3: High Voltage GIS E-house project for a mine, New Caledonia

Fig.2.4-4: E-House: Completely developed, manufactured, assembled and pre-tested at factory, shipped as one single unit or in splitting
sections, installed, connected and commissioned on site

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 65


Power transmission and distribution solutions 2.4 Portable power solutions and E-House

Alternative to conventional site-built power substations


E-houses have been a standard solution for power supply in
the oil and gas and mining industry for many years. They
are used ever more frequently for the installation of equip-
ment in other industries and in infrastructure facilities.

A solid building is often too time-consuming for many


1 projects. In other cases, the project schedule or the attrib-
uted restricted space do not allow for site-built construc-
tion, and sometimes building permits for conventional
2 buildings are not available. E-houses are consequently the
most suitable option to install electrical equipment in the
industry, especially in Oil and gas (fig. 2.4-5), Metal
industry, Mining industry (fig. 2.4-6) and Chemical Fig.2.4-6: E-house for mining in Columbia
3 industry.

Utilities (fig. 2.4-7), network operators (fig. 2.4-8) and the


4 infrastructure business (fig. 2.4-9) also require a fast and
reliable solution for critical or temporary power supply, the
extension of transmission and distribution grids, the bal-
ance of plant for fossil and renewable power generation,
5 grid coupling or connection of energy storage systems.
E-houses are thus a fast and flexible solution for infrastruc-
ture (e.g. data centers), utility power plants and substa-
6 tions.

7 Fig.2.4-7: 245kV E-house for Transmission utility in Siberia

10

11
Fig.2.4-8: E-house for the Georgian State Electric System GSE

12

Fig.2.4-5: E-house for Oil&Gas in Qatar Fig.2.4-9: E-house for the Nacala-a-Velha port in Mozambique

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 66


Power transmission and distribution solutions 2.4 Portable power solutions and E-House

Mobile substations on trailers or skids


Skid or trailer mounted substations are pre assembled
modular substations designed to provide maximum flexi-
bility for deployment and relocation. The substation is
composed of one or several modules to be inter-connected
on site: Power transformer, HV/MV/LV switchgears, HV/MV
cables, control, protection, telecommunication, monitoring
1 and auxiliary power systems,etc. The trailer or skid external
dimensions are tailor made to comply with local road
transportation restrictions. Their base-frame is specifically
2 designed to protect switchgear from structural constraints
despite transportation on rough road surface or single lift
handling (see fig. 2.4-10 fig. 2.4-14).
Fig.2.4-12: 36kV/12kV 16 MVA mobile substation
3

7
Fig.2.4-10: 245/60-30 kV 40MVA mobile substation: Fig.2.4-13: 245kV Mobile substations with HV cable connection
Transformer trailer
8

10

11

12 Fig.2.4-11: 245/60-30 kV 40MVA mobile substation: Fig.2.4-14: 145kV 10MVA skid substation
High voltage switchgear trailer

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 67


Power transmission and distribution solutions 2.4 Portable power solutions and E-House

Fig.2.4-15: Layout for a typical 245 kV in/out Bay configuration


3
-F01
-T1

4
P1

-Q0
-Z01 -TT4 30 kV level

-Q1 M

-T4

D
C
B

-Q1 -Q1 -Q1


A
M M M

5
0 07/06/2013 Edition Originale S. Verger
INDICE DATE MODIFICATIONS VISA

-Q6
-Q0 -Q0 -Q0
220 kV GIS TRAILER -T5 -Q8
P1 P1 P1

M M -T1 -T1 -T1

-QZ9 M ENTREPRISE SIEMENS


Site B1, 1 rue de la Nva
BP178, F-38004 Grenoble France
Tl : +33(0)456.58.66.00
Fax : +33(0)456.58.67.85

Transmission & Distribution


AFFAIRE:

-T1 CABINES MOBILES 220/11 KV

6
P1 PLAN DE MASSE
33kV/11kV
P1 Folio
Ech: 1/75 N Entreprise
1/1
Dessin par 0

-Q0 Etabli par


Vrifi par
Approuv par

M
Trailer / E-House -T1

-QZ1
30 / 11 / 0.4 kV P1

M -Q0

7
11 kV level

-Q1 M

-T4

-Q1 M -Q1 M -Q1 M


P1

8
-T2 -Q0 -Q0 -Q0

-Q91 P1 P1 P1

220 / 30 kV 20 MVA -T1 -T1 -T1

TRANSFORMER -TR -R1


-Q92
TRAILER

9
11kV/0.4kV
-T3 P1

P1

-Q0
Low voltage level 400V

10 -Q0 -Q0 -Q0 -Q0

Scada UPS 400/230 V Telecommunication


To trailer / E-House System Battery Distribution System
30 / 11 / 0.4 kV

11 Fig.2.4-16: Single line diagram for a typical 245kV in/out Bay configuration

12 Emergency or grid maintenance backup Cost-effective solution


A mobile substation is the perfect solution to provide a The standardization and the modular design of E-Houses
stand-by emergency grid restoration solution. It can be leads to more flexibility and cost-efficiency. The expected
mobilized and set up in less than 48 hours in the event of a saving potential for typical projects with E-Houses in a
grid failure, hence reducing the technical and financial remote or hazardous area is up to 20% of the total costs of
impact of power outage. ownership, comprising:
Reduced cost in planning (interface management)
Mobile substation can also avoid power disruption during Reduced manpower on-site (pre-fabricated)
grid extension or rehabilitation works. Reduced civil works on-site
Reduced construction risks for a better HSSE*
The various modules of mobile substations can be assem- performance
bled one to the other in different configurations to create Flexible and space saving design
several configuration (e.g. In/out bays or even H type Possible interim solution and relocation (fig. 2.4-17).
substation).
*HSSE: Health, Safety, Security & Environment

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 68


Power transmission and distribution solutions 2.4 Portable power solutions and E-House

Time-efficient solution Cost saving potential up to 20%


Expected cost reduction for typical projects with E-Houses
Reduced lead t
Scenario simula
E-houses are fast and easy to install. Compared to a con-
ventional site-built construction, the overall lead time -50% on planning due to standardization

related to an E-House is reduced up to 50%, thanks to:


Up to -80% on-site work due to pre-fabrication
Additional costs of E-House enclosure
Reduced civil works due to pre-fabrication and pre-test compared to conventional building

Reduced installation time through Plug, commission & 100%


Extra shipping costs

play -10%
1 Reduced construction delays (e.g. due to weather or Civil
35% 80% -20%
Todays lead
time with a
cost conventional
equipment interface management)
5%
solution
-25% 10%
Minimum interference with other on-site activities Planning/
35%
20%
2 Reduced time in planning thanks to modular design Controlling cost Main drivers

Reduced time in planning in case a construction permit is


not required (fig. 2.4-18). Equipment 45% 45% Tomorrows
cost lead time
time with
3 High return on investment an E-House

Based on the above, prefabricated substation investment


Current cost Expected cost
to customer to customer
can be of high value added in energy critical cases such as:
4 Earlier and secured energization of power critical plants, Fig.2.4-17: Cost saving chart from MV E-house
particulary in remote areas
Temporary grid reinforcement further to seasonal load
peaks
5
g potential up to 20%
Improvement
ost reduction for typical projects withof grid resilience by reducing the duration
E-Houses
Reduced lead time up to 50%
Scenario simulation with a conventional solution and an E-House
of power outage
Streamlining of griddue
-50% on planning refurbishement
to standardizationprogram by the use
6 of temporary backup
Up to -80%substation
on-site during
work due maintenance
to pre-fabrication
works.
Additional costs of E-House enclosure
compared to conventional building Semester 1 Semester 2 Semester 3
Flexible and optimized design Extra shipping costs

Commissioning
7 100% The project and application requirements determine the

Installation
type of -10%
an E-House:

Civil work
Planning
80% -20%
Todays lead
One module on pre-cast concrete foundation designed time with a
Civil
35% for single lift handling
cost 8 5% conventional
Modular design (adjacent
-25% 10%or stacked) for split shipments solution
(fig. 2.4-19) 35%
ning/
Mobile modules on wheels or skids for relocation with
20%
9
cost Main drivers Standardi- Factory-built Factory-
own baseframe. zation Less interfaces tested

Transportation constraints are a governing criteria for


ment 45%
design:
45% Tomorrows
10
cost lead time
R
 oad transportation regulations (dimension and weight) time with
where applicable an E-House
Current Transportation and handling methods. Expected cost
cost -50%
11to customer to customer
Design requirements are also dependent on the environ- Fig.2.4-18: Time saving of site work
mental conditions:
12 Weather (temperature, humidity, rain fall, snow and hail,
ice and frost)
Environment (altitude, radiation, wind loads,
atmospheric pollution)
Hazardous environment/substances (chemicals
dangerous gases and vapors, dusts)
Seismic conditions
Corrosion classification.

Fig.2.4-19: Modular design

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 69


Power transmission and distribution solutions 2.4 Portable power solutions and E-House

Optimized design fitted to our HV, MV and LV portfolio


The design of an E-House starts with the overall electrical
layout. The equipment list has to be defined as a first step.
Every variable is taken into account, from the dimensions,
heat dissipation to the weight of the electrical equipment
and all the way to the project requirements like e.g. cable
layout, external interfaces (fig. 2.4-20).
1
Pre assembled design starts from the transportation and
handling restrictions requirement. This will govern the
2 switchgear arrangement and power transformer tailored
design, as well as the number of modules in which the
substation will have to be splited.

3 The structural and mechanical analysis are then performed


on the basis of structural and seismic calculations and Fig.2.4-20: The design of an E-House starts with the overall electrical
simulations in 3D. A special design attention is given to layout
4 mechanical stress sensitive equipment such as gas insu-
lated high voltage switchgears. Combined mechanical
efforts on structure and equipment during transportation
and handling are analysed to generate a safe design for the
5 entire substation (fig. 2.4-21, fig. 2.4-22).

The manufacturing or procurement of wall, roof and floor


6 panels also depends on the project requirements (environ-
ment), on standards and on the weight of the equipment to
be installed. Access doors, explosion proof battery rooms
with separate ventilation, pressure release system, etc...
7 are essential parts of the design process focusing on max-
imum personnel and equipment safety.

9
Fig.2.4-21: Structural mechanical design for E-House:
Static and seismic calculation using FEM method
10

11

12

Fig.2.4-22: Structural mechanical design for mobile substation:


combined trailer & HV GIS Mechanical stress analysis
during transportation

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 70


Power transmission and distribution solutions 2.4 Portable power solutions and E-House

Auxiliary equipment fitted for ambient conditions


Last but not least, there is a wide range of auxiliary equip-
ment that can be selected according to the local, individual
HSSE* requirements, standards and regulations. It includes
lighting and earthing systems, sockets, distribution boards,
cable trays, electrical metallic tubing, and plug accessories.

1 To ensure safe operation, prefabricated substations can be


equipped with, fire and smoke detection systems, fire
fighting systems, emergency exits, and access control. A
2 heating, ventilation and air conditioning system (HVAC) for
smooth operation at high ambient temperatures, can be
installed on the roof, inside or outside of any E-house. Air
filtration systems, gas-detection, pressurization and pres-
3 sure-release systems can be added (e.g. for hazardous
areas).
Fig.2.4-23: Optimized design fitted to our MV and LV portfolio

4 A comprehensive solution
With Siemens prefabricated substations, you benefit from a
single interface competence for the overall electrical
design, the structural mechanical design and for the pro-
5 curement of HV, MV, LV portfolio and the auxiliary equip-
ment (fig. 2.4-23, fig. 2.4-24).

6 Benefits:
High flexibility due to modular design
Space saving design (depending on dimensions, weight
and heat losses of the equipment)
7 Optimized design perfectly-fitting to our HV, MV and LV
Portfolio.

8 *HSSE: Health, Safety, Security & Environment

Fig.2.4-24: world first 420kV mobile substation

10

11

12

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 71


Power transmission and distribution solutions 2.4 Portable power solutions and E-House

One-stop solution One interface through all phases of the project


Siemens is with its customers every step of the way
Comprehensive and consistent portfolio through all phases of the project, from engineering to
With its comprehensive and consistent porftolio, Siemens installation and commissioning. Reliable and competent
contributes to maximizing returns and optimizing energy local support is provided right from planning to after-sales
consumption. Decades of experience and continuous service. Components and auxiliary equipment are globally
innovation are the basis for this know-how. The results are sourced, and integrated in the E-House.
1 integrated solutions with state-of-the-art components Siemensproduction facilities and centers of competence
ranging from: are found around the globe. Siemens supports the local
Low, medium and High voltage switchgear (GIS and AIS) creation of value, and guarantees a competent contact
2 from 400V up to 420 kV person in close reach of every project. Siemens experts
Low and medium voltage motor control centers (MCC) bring their experience in project management, financial
Variable frequency drives (VFD) services, and life cycle management to every project. This
Oil and dry type transformers enables them to consider any aspect of safety, logistics,
3 Control and protection systems, and environmental protection (fig. 2.4-25).
SCADA and energy automation systems
Telecomunication system Benefits
4 Analysers and monitoring systems All equipment from a single source
Busbar trunking systems Reliability and safety thanks to proven Siemens products
Power compensation devices Application expertise
MV and HV power cables on drums including cable Global experience
5 terminations. One contact for the entire project
Financing support.
In addition, prefabricated substations are equipped with
6 batteries, emergency diesel generator, Instrumentation,
uninterruptible power supply (UPS) and a wide range of
auxiliary equipment. With our E-house, skid or mobile
substations, customers benefit from the consistency of
7 Siemens advanced technology competence in power
supply solutions and expertise in implementation. Every-
thing from a single source!
8

9
For further information:
siemens.com/e-house
siemens.com/energy/portable-power-solutions
10

11
Engineering Project Global sourcing Installation and After-sales
Network design management and Integration commissioning services

12

Worldwide centers of competence and global footprint

Consulting Standard PM process Full integration of all EHS and quality Training
Planning (based on CMMI, distribution equipment management Warranty
Expertise PMI, PMBOOK) Worldwide sourcing Construction and Organization of
Integration design Certified project staff Global Siemens site management after-sales service
Regular MPM product range Commission planning
assessments IEC and ANSI and execution
Quality expediting

Fig.2.4-25: Project life cycle management

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 72


Power transmission and distribution solutions 2.5 Microgrids

2.5 Microgrids based on rules or forecasts that draw on a large number of


constantly updated parameters such as weather forecasts,
A microgrid is electricity generation and loads, and in some type of plant or power price. Siemens solutions also help to
cases storage, managed collectively in a network. Besides efficiently incorporate such as cogeneration plants. Intelli-
electricity, microgrids may include other vectors such as gent networking of energy infrastructure using Siemens
heat, gas and water. Microgrids manage energy resources microgrid management systems not only increases the
according to a given set of criteria. They may be operated added value of the power supply, but also protects its
1 in off-grid, on-grid, as well as in dual mode to optimize operation from outages, regardless of whether the
technical (e.g., power quality, frequency) and economic microgrid is connected tothe supply network or not.
aspects (e.g., optimal use of renewable energy). In an Siemens solutions are flexible and expandable today and
2 optional emergency mode, the microgrid provides black- in the future (fig.2.5-2, see next page).
start capabilities.
Intelligently managing microgrids
Siemens microgrid management systems (fig. 2.5-2, see Siemens microgrid management systems are the ideal
3 next page) solution to ensure the most optimized control of fluctu-
optimize use of intermittent generation, and increased ating electricity generators within a microgrid. The tailored
efficiency by combining heat and electricity generation solutions meet the individual challenges of each power
4 increase stability of supply and grid resilience through scenario with a modular structure and flexible scalability.
on- and off-grid functionality This means that our system operators receive a software
optimize energy management for reduced or better solution exactly tailored to their needs. Microgrid adminis-
controlled energy costs and CO2 footprint tration comprises a range of intelligent, versatile and
5 optimize economic performance of energy system user-friendly tools for a wide range of applications. End-to-
through peak load management and limitation of grid end SCADA and numerous functions for forecasting, plan-
extensions. ning and real-time optimization support in:
6 Monitoring and controlling the microgrid components
Monitoring and controlling generation
2.5.1 Operation, monitoring, Monitoring and controlling consumption

7 administration, planning Providing ancillary services


Buying and selling power.
all under one roof
It is flexible, direct and progressive.
8 The Siemens microgrid management system monitors and
controls grids with large and small distributed energy Benefits
generators, renewable assets, storage, and loads. The All equipment from a single source
scalable system helps to automate, display, alarm and Reliability and safety thanks to proven Siemens products
9 control all elements in the grid, thus assuring the needed Application expertise
quality of supply at all times. It generates schedules, auto- Global experience
matically monitors their observance, and readjusts them in One contact for the entire project
10 real time. This is enabled by automatic switching sequences Financing support.

11

12

Fig.2.5-1: Microgrid manager balancing load, generation and storage

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 73


Power transmission and distribution solutions 2.5 Microgrids

Trouble-free engineering 2.5.2 Microgrid market segments


The intuitive design tools are a core element in the
microgrid management system. Even the most complicated According to todays experience and publications, there are
power infrastructures can be represented digitally with just four major microgrid market segments:
a few clicks of the mouse. This saves time and minimizes
the potential for error, thanks to many automatic support Institutional microgrids the challenges of renewable
functions. energy
1 Rising energy prices, as well as reliable and resilient energy,
Benefits of a fully integrated microgrid solution are increasingly becoming concerns to large energy con-
Modular construction, flexible and scalable sumers. Fundamental business changes such as market
2 Reliable microgrid operation deregulation offer new opportunities for corporations,
Intuitive modeling and parameterization governmental organizations, municipalities, and universi-
Intelligent forecasting and planning ties to manage their energy supply optimized for their own
Simple, real-time optimization use. Siemens delivers tailored solutions to meet energy
3 Incorporation of distributed generators, storage units goals, like energy reliability, sustainability, resiliency, or
and loads economic aspects. By adding renewable generation sources
No 24/7 operator required. and storage to the microgrid, the reliability of energy
4 supply increases, and costs are reduced. As multiple gener-
ation sources and energy assets are added to a microgrid,
advanced control functionality is required to ensure the
system is operating as efficiently as possible (fig. 2.5-3, see
5 next page).

8
MICROGRID
Management System
9 Current
Weather Modeling
Forecasting
Operation
10 Energy Trading Forecasting Effectivity

Contract Scheduling Frequency Hz


Optimized
Management Real-time
11 Optimization
Asset Management

Connected External
12 Processes

Grid Distribution Wind Generation and CHP / Backup Storage Buildings


connection Cabinet Load Diesel

Grid, Generation and Load

Fig.2.5-2: Operation, monitoring, administration, planning all under one roof

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 74


Power transmission and distribution solutions 2.5 Microgrids

Critical infrastructures microgrids renewable energies


in critical environments
For operation of critical power grid infrastructures, the
increasingly deregulated energy market and the advances
in renewable energy sources offer both opportunities and
challenges. The use of renewables to supply critical infra-
structure increases the independence from grid supply and
1 lowers operating costs, especially since surplus electricity
can be sold. If storage systems are used, operations can
adopt the form of an electrical island, providing security in
2 case of emergencies such as storms. Fluctuations in elec-
tricity generation in a microgrid demand intelligent control
mechanisms, reliable forecasts, and especially in island Fig.2.5-3: Institutional microgrids the challenges of renewable
mode a balance between available power and power energy
3 consumed (fig. 2.5-4).

Microgrids in remote locations stable power supply for


4 weakgrids
For the operation of power grids in remote locations, the
advances in renewable energy sources offer both opportu-
nities and challenges: By incorporating renewable and
5 storage facilities in the supply systems, operators can cut
their power costs dramatically while increasing grid
availability even in poorly supplied areas. Wherever the
6 transportation of fossil fuels over long distances is costly
and unreliable, the use of wind or solar plants can take a
lasting improvement in terms of both independence and
economic efficiency. Fluctuations of electricity generation
7 in a microgrid demand intelligent control mechanisms as
Fig.2.5-4: Critical infrastructures microgrids renewable energies in
critical environments
well as reliable load and generation forecasts. It is essential
to maintain a balance between energy generated and
8 energy consumed (fig.2.5-5).

Industrial microgrids modern energy challenges


andchances
9 Operators of industrial power grids face two major chal-
lenges: They need to optimize their average production
costs which includes ensuring a secure and reliable power
10 supply to assure production and at the same time reduce
CO2 emissions. The use of renewables to supply industrial
facilities reduces both CO2 emissions and the requirement
for imported electricity. This lowers operating costs, espe-
11 cially since surplus electricity can be sold. If storage sys-
Fig.2.5-5: Critical infrastructures microgrids renewable energies in
tems are used, it allows operations to take the form of an
critical environments
electrical island, ensuring smooth production, regardless of
12 a public power supply that in many locations may be insuf-
ficient. Fluctuations in electricity generation in a microgrid
demand intelligent control mechanisms, reliable forecasts
and especially in island mode a balance between avail-
able power and power consumed (fig. 2.5-6).

Fig.2.5-6: Industrial microgrids modern energy challenges and


chances

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 75


Power transmission and distribution solutions 2.5 Microgrids

2.5.3 Siemens microgrid management For medium- to large-sized microgrids covering electricity
systems and optionally heat, the Microgrid Manager offers
advanced application functionality, market interface, as
To meet decentralized infrastructure development needs well as enhanced consideration of grid constraints, and can
and provide advanced functionality to maximize value, be enriched with applications up to a full distribution
Siemens supplies scalable microgrid management systems management system.
and solutions based on automation equipment in the
1 SICAM series, and software solutions based on the leading Functionality
Spectrum Power platform. These systems provide solu- Grid monitoring and control
tions for microgrids covering energy and optionally heat. Small and large distributed generator control
2 Depending on the case of use, the solution can range from (electricalpower,heat)
field devices for equipment control overdecentralized Storage control
automation to a fully functional microgrid manager. Load control
Generation forecast
3 For small to medium-sized microgrids covering energy and Load forecast
optionally heat, the Microgrid Manager is focused on 24/7 Schedule optimization
autonomous control with minimum operator intervention Online control.
4 (fig. 2.5-7).

Functionality
Grid monitoring and control
5 Small and large distributed generator control
(electricalpower,heat)
Storage control
6 Load control
Generation forecast
Load forecast
Schedule optimization.
7

10

11

12

Fig.2.5-7: Schematic diagram of the layout of a Microgrid Manager

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 76


Power transmission and distribution solutions 2.6 Intelligent transformer substation

2.6 Intelligent transformer supply breakdowns in the classical distribution grid, with
ever increasing downtimes. In order to reduce such down-
substations times notably and to limit the associated blackout costs,
quick adjustments to the changed load conditions must be
The requirements on power distribution and therefore on possible.
medium- and low-voltage grids are increasing continu-
ously. Changing directions of power flow, load and voltage Active distribution grid with intelligent transformer
Hydroelectric
1 fluctuations, which are caused especially by the strongly substations for a smooth infeed of renewable energies
power station

growing number of power supplies from volatile power While the additional load capacity required due to the
sources, e.g., photovoltaic/biogas plants and wind farms, expansion of renewable energies can be provided by means
2 make the distribution grids of today go to their capacity of grid expansion,
Industry the effects resulting from the alternating
limits. direction of power flow, load fluctuations, and voltage
range limitation can only be handled with intelligent solu-
Always well supplied no chance for blackouts tions. The answer is an active distribution grid with intelli-
3 110 kV* originally
Many of todays transformer substations,
Private households
gent transformer substations as key components. These
designed for a merely unidirectional energy flow and
Large power station contribute to an active load management in the distribu-
equipped with conventional transformers, are20 nokV*
longer tion grid, and enabels an automatic and fast fault clearance
4 capable of coping with the effects of volatile power in case of blackouts. In infrastructure
Building this way, system operators are
sources. The consequences are more and more frequent0.4 kV*always well supplied.
Industry

6
Large power
plant
Wind power plant

8
110 kV*

Hydroelectric Building infrastructure

10
power plant
20 kV*
Industry

11
Solar power plant

Biomass
power plant
0.4 kV*
12 Legend
Communication
Power flow to:
Private households High-voltage grid
Medium-voltage grid
Low-voltage grid

E-car
Primary
Battery
transformer
Fuel cell substation
Building infrastructure
Secondary
transformer
substation
* The given voltage values
are exemplary

Fig.2.6-1: Active distribution grid with intelligent transformer substations

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 77


Power transmission and distribution solutions 2.6 Intelligent transformer substation

Benefits of intelligent transformer substations  egulated distribution transformers FITformer REG


R
Monitoring and assurance of power quality Power meter/power quality recorder SICAMP850/855
Controlling of overload situations Medium-voltage switchgear from the 8DJH family
Minimization of loss of power grid revenue by notably Decentralized energy management DEMS
reduced interruption times Control center system for utility c ompanies SICAM230
Optimization of grid expansion Switchgear visualization SICAMSCC
Object monitoring of the transformer substation. Connection to:
1 network control system SINAUT P owerCC
Components for the different tasks Substation automation SICAM PAS/AK3
Electronic meters AMIS
2 Modular design Protection and switching devices from the SENTRON
The following components can be integrated in an intelli- portfolio for protection of the low-voltage power
gent transformer substation: distribution.
Remote terminal units SICAMA8000
3 Uninterruptible power supplies SITOP Solutions out of one hand make the d istribution grids ready
Communication solutions with TCP/IP, GSM, UMTS, LTE, for the challenges created by the growing integration of
WiMAX, BPL, etc., e.g., with SCALANCE or RUGGEDCOM renewable energies. In addition, they allow utilities a more
4 Short-circuit / earth-fault direction indicators SICAMFCM, efficient operation of their infrastructure, thus offering
SICAMFPI important competitive advantages.
Current and voltage sensors.

10

11

12

Fig.2.6-2: Suitable components for an intelligent transformer substation

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 78


Power transmission and distribution solutions 2.6 Intelligent transformer substation

Conceptual design of an intelligent transformer


substation
The above illustration shows the conceptual design of an
intelligent transformer substation
Telecontrol room
1
Medium-voltage switchgear
Equipped with motor operating mechanisms to actuate the
1 switch-disconnectors or circuit-breakers from external
switching points (e.g., network control center), s ensors to

MV switchgear
measure currents and voltages, and intelligent short-circuit/
2 earth-fault direction indicators.

2
Transformer
Standard transformer or regulated distribution transformer.
3
3
Low voltage
Protection with integrated measuring functions, motor
4 operation, and communication for power monitoring and

LV distribution

Transformer
energy management of the individual low-voltage feeders.

4
Telecontrol unit
5 RTU*, communication device, uninterruptible power
supply.

6 * Remote Terminal Unit

7 Fig.2.6-4: Typical room planning of a transformer substation

10

11

12

4 1 2 3

Fig.2.6-3: Intelligent transformer substation

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 79


Power transmission and distribution solutions 2.6 Intelligent transformer substation

The key components in the grid


Planning, design and maintenance of a smart distribution
grid are complex tasks for municipalities and distribution
grid operators. The ability to seamlessly integrate sensors,
actuators, communication, and IT systems into the existing
infrastructure significantly reduces these challenges. Intelli-
gent transformer substations with switchgear, trans-
1 formers, protection devices, as well as telecontrol and auto-
mation solutions allow applications for higher reliability
of supply.
2
Intelligent transformer substations as key components
of the modern distribution grid
In the future, transformer substations will become a key
3 component in the distribution grid.

Intelligent transformer substations allow for:


4 Management of the low-voltage distribution grid for
each outgoing feeder with handling of meter data,
compensation of reactive power and harmonics,
regulation of the d
istribution transformer, as well as the
5 coordination of supply and load.
Supervision and control of the transformer substation on
the medium-voltage side regarding fault location and
6 automatic recovery of supply.
Provision and transmission of measured values and
indications from the medium- and low-voltage system.

10

11

12

Fig.2.6-5: Intelligent transformer substation

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 80


Power transmission and distribution solutions 2.6 Intelligent transformer substation

Three levels of intelligence


In order to conform to the increased requirements also in
the future, three levels of intelligence can be implemented.

In the first level, the focus is on substation monitoring, in


order to increase the availability and to allow for a fast fault
localization.
1
The second level contains, besides monitoring, also the
possibility to telecontrol the switchgear, thus allowing the
2 minimization of downtimes.

In the third level, the effects of decentralized power


supplies are managed via automation. Grid losses can thus
3 be notably reduced.

By installation of intelligent control, measurement and


4 regulation systems, conventional transformer substations
can be upgraded step by step. In this way, they are per-
fectly prepared for their integration into Smart Grids.
Depending on the desired expansion level, the n ecessary
5 components must be c onfigured.

Increase of availability Minimization of downtimes Minimization of losses


(h => min)
8 Fast fault localization Management of decentralized
power supplies

The modular

9 1. Monitoring + 2. Telecontrol
+ 3. Load flow control
= concept for the
Smart Grid
of the future

10 Remote terminal unit with


communication connection
Remote terminal unit with
communication connection
Remote terminal unit with
communication connection
Short-circuit/earth-fault Short-circuit/earth-fault Short-circuit/earth-ault
direction indicators direction indicators direction indicators
C
 urrent sensors Current sensors Current sensors
11 V
 oltage sensors Voltage sensors Voltage sensors
A
 uxiliary switch contacts Auxiliary switch contacts Auxiliary switch contacts
U
 ninterruptible power supply Uninterruptible power supply Uninterruptible power supply
L ow-voltage components with Low-voltage components with Low-voltage components with
12 integrated measuring function integrated measuring function integrated measuring function

 otor operators for low- and


M  otor operators for low- and
M
medium-voltage switch- medium-voltage switch-
disconnectors and circuit-breakers disconnectors and circuit-breakers

Power meter and power quality


recorder
Regulated distribution transformer
Regulation algorithms, software
components for flow control
Regulation algorithms for the
regulated distribution transformer

Fig.2.6-6: The illustration shows the stepwise expansion levels: monitoring, telecontrol and load flow control

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 81


Power transmission and distribution solutions 2.7 Cyber security

2.7 Cyber security As shown in fig. 2.7-1, one key target of a power system
operator is security of supply, i.e. to ensure a stable supply
of power at any time, at competitive costs and while con-
2.7.1 Cyber security in energy sidering regulations. From that perspective cyber threats
management are perceived as risks jeopardizing the security of supply.
Cyber security encompasses all the measures dealing with
Providing a cost-efficient, secure and reliable energy supply mitigating such risks, following industry standards, and
1 is the core business of electric utilities that operate critical where relevant, meeting local regulation related to cyber
infrastructure. The way grids are operated and managed security. To achieve this target, the power system operator:
has changed dramatically due to the integration of renew- Must comply to related cyber regulations which describe
2 able and decentralized energy resources, the need for What must be done
network optimization, the interaction with prosumers and Should conform to related cyber standards that describe
consumers, and the participation of new market entrants. How it needs to be done
With information and communication technology pene- Shall mitigate cyber risks.
3 trating down to the distribution network and even house-
holds, the growing interconnections create more points for Cyber security controls can be implemented in the area of
potential attacks to critical infrastructure. Consequently, people and organization, processes, and products and
4 cyber security is top of mind for power system operators systems. This reflects the so called 3Ps relevant for a
today. holistic cyber security approach.

Siemens products and solutions enable operators to be


5 compliant with cyber regulations. Furthermore, the prod-
ucts adhere to international standards in order to support
interoperability with third-party components. Siemens
6 provides cyber security consultancy services that cover
assessments for regulatory compliance and establishment
of protection concepts for mitigating cyber risks in energy
automation.
7

9 Security of Supply

10
Achieve

11
Power System Operator
12 People & Processes Products &
Organization Systems

Mitigate Comply

Cyber Risks Cyber Regulations & Standards

Fig.2.7-1: Cyber security targets for a power system operator

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 82


Power transmission and distribution solutions 2.7 Cyber security

2.7.2 Cyber security framework The categories of security measures are described here:

The cyber security framework defines the way how cyber 1. Organizational preparedness
security has to be addressed by the various actors in the Establish security measures to develop, integrate and
energy value chain. It is based on the following: maintain secure products and solutions. This impacts the
1. C yber security regulation whole organization in the form of defined roles, clear
Cyber security regulations must be supported by all responsibilities, adequate qualification, policies, processes,
1 actors within the energy value chain. tools, and communication. The information security poli-
2. Cyber security standards cies at Siemens are in accordance with ISO/IEC 27001.
Existing international standards describe cyber security
2 ranging from governance to specific realization options 2. Secure development
in products. The three key standards in energy Secure development is a systematic approach to integrate
automation are ISO/IEC 27001, IEC 62443 and cyber security into the product and solution development
IEC 62351. lifecycle. It is part of the complete process chain, from
3 3. Cyber security guidelines cyber security requirements to cyber security validation. It
Guidelines give recommendations on cyber security also covers the securing of the IT infrastructure that is
implementation. The most common and recognized needed for the development organization.
4 guidelines are: NERC CIP, BDEW whitepaper.
3. Secure integration and service
As part of the guidelines, Siemens defines 14 categories of Cyber security is an integral part of Siemens processes to
security measures, see fig. 2.7-2. Reflecting a holistic deliver solutions to the customer, who receives solutions
5 approach to cyber security, these categories encompass the with design, integration and commissioning executed
so called 3 Ps: according to cyber security best practices, ensuring optimal
People and organizations: those who are running the support for secure operations.
6 company
Processes: those used by the people and organizations to 4. Vulnerability and incident handling
fulfill the business needs Vulnerability and incident handling is the process defining
Products and systems: the underlying infrastructure to how an organization reacts to and handles security vulnera-
7 support the business needs. bilities and incidents, including the related internal and
external communication. The process also interfaces as
Categories of security measures related to organization and required with the regular vulnerability monitoring and
8 processes are indicated in the gray boxes in fig. 2.7-2. patch development process of the product or solution
development.
Security measures related to products and systems are
categorized over the green boxes in fig. 2.7-2.
9

10

11

12
Secure
Organizational Security and Processes Organizational Secure Vulnerability and
Integration
People, Policies, Processes, Governance Preparedness Development Incident Handling
and Service

Secure System System Access Control Security Data Protection


Architecture Hardening and Account Logging and and Integrity
Products and Systems Manage- Monitoring
ment
Common security technologies need
to be implemented and contribute to
the overall secure architecture Security Patch Malware Backup and Secure Remote
Manage- Protection Restore Access Privacy
ment

Fig.2.7-2: Siemens categories of cyber security measures

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 83


Power transmission and distribution solutions 2.7 Cyber security

Siemens has its own in-house Computer Emergency 5. Secure system architecture
Response Team (CERT). The Siemens ProductCERT team is A cyber security architecture must not only support the
mandated with monitoring and analyzing security issues regulatory requirements, but should provide security by
and publishes product related advisories on vulnerabilities design, too. Protecting the power system requires a
and associated mitigation recommendations in conjunction defence-in-depth approach, addressing cyber risks and
with the respective Siemens organizational units. Addition- supporting secure operations through people, processes
ally, with its recognized expertise in penetration testing and technologies.
1 Siemens ProductCERT checks Siemens products and third-
party components used within the Siemens portfolio for Fig. 2.7-3 outlines a typical network architecture. The basis
weak points by means of selective hacker attacks, resulting is a clear segmentation of the network into manageable
2 in recommendations on implementation guidances to the zones equipped with appropriate cyber security measures
respective Siemens organizational units. in order to enable a secure and cost-efficient operation.

4
Control Center

6 Secure Remote Access


Office Network
Other control center
SCADA
7 Firewall

Transfer
Networks
8

Station Firewall Station Firewall


9 Secure Remote Access Secure Remote Access
Substation

10

11

12
devices
Field

Fig.2.7-3: Cyber security architecture

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 84


Power transmission and distribution solutions 2.7 Cyber security

The architecture is the most visible part of a comprehensive 10. Malware protection
cyber security approach. It forms the basis for applying Protection of a product or solution against malware is
further measures in people, processes and products as ensured through the support of appropriate malware
defined covering this cyber security framework. protection solutions (e.g., classical antivirus, application
whitelisting, or software signing) and appropriate proce-
6. System hardening dures to ensure that all systems are protected against latest
Hardening reduces the attack surface of the products and malware. Siemens has malware protection available for key
1 solutions by means of secure configuration. This is reached, components used in the energy automation, offers tech-
e.g., by removal of unnecessary software, unnecessary nical solutions for malware protection and supports cus-
usernames or logins, disabling of unused ports, or OS tomer to establish a secure update process for antivirus
2 hardening. Siemens provides guidelines for products and patterns.
systems on hardening and can support operators in hard-
ening of their infrastructure. 11. Backup and restore
Backup is the process of copying and archiving of software,
3 7. Access control and account management configuration data, and operational data, such that a
Access control is the selective restriction of access to prod- product or solution can be restored, e.g., after a data loss
ucts, solutions, or infrastructure, by authenticating users event. This includes appropriate measures and procedures
4 (and systems) and authorizing them by granting appro- for disaster recovery. Siemens has backup and restore
priate permissions. Account management is the definition concepts available, and supports system operators to assess
of different user accounts with suitable privileges that is and establish respective process.
best performed in a centralized way with unified security
5 policies. Siemens can support system operators in design 12. Secure remote access
and implementation of an access control and account Secure remote access in context of substation automation
management system. Power system operators can inte- systems is the encrypted, authenticated and authorized
6 grate Siemens energy management products seamlessly access to substation assets from remote sites through
into their central user management solutions alongside potentially untrusted networks. Siemens offers a certified
products from other vendors. secure remote access solution optimized to the needs of
power system operators.
7 8. Security logging/monitoring
Security logging/monitoring means to capture and monitor 13. Data protection and integrity
all security related activities performed across the system, Data protection ensures the protection of all sensitive data
8 including user account activities such as login/logout, or across the system both in rest and in transit. Such data
failed login attempts. Alarms are reported for further must be accessible only to authorized persons or processes.
follow-up accordingly. Siemens products and solutions In addition, also the integrity of data and communication
support centralized logging of security events and alarms across the system, and the availability of the data needs to
9 by means of the syslog messaging standard, thereby pro- be ensured through appropriate methods. Siemens compo-
viding the basis for sophisticated Security Information and nents support the required functionality to meet data
Event Management (SIEM) solutions. protection and integrity needs, while processes imple-
10 mented within Siemens ensure that customer data are
9. Security patching managed with due care at all phases of customer projects.
Security patch management includes vulnerability moni-
toring for all software components (own and third-party) 14. Privacy
11 used in a product or solution, classification of the vulnera- This ensures the users ability to control when, how, and to
bilities and available patches, security patch compatibility what extent information about themselves will be col-
tests and, if needed, the development of additional security lected, used, and shared with others. Information privacy is
12 patches to address incompatibilities. For a solution, this a particularly sensitive matter where personally identifiable
includes the delivery and maintenance of a system with information is collected, e.g. such as in Smart Metering
up-to-date security patch level installed. Siemens offers application. The Siemens portfolio helps operators to
comprehensive patch management services to energy comply with the associated regulatory requirements.
automation operators.

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 85


Power transmission and distribution solutions 2.7 Cyber security

2.7.3 Operational security


Vendor
In operational security, the interplay of the 3 Ps becomes Global monitoring of threats
obvious: products and systems, people and organizations Analysis of vulnerabilities
Organizational
Definition of counter-measures
need to work together according to the defined processes. Preparedness
Communication to operator
In operational security, key functionalities include mea- Provisioning or deployment of patches
Vulnerability and
sures such as security patch management, access control Incident Handling
1 and account management, security logging and moni- Operator
Security Patch
toring, and malware protection. These measures are neces- Manage- Analysis of vendor information
sary to establish a protective and detective environment, ment Definition of counter-measures
2 where accountability and traceability of all actions involved Containment of risk and potential impact
in operation of an energy grid become relevant and support Analysis and implementation of counter-
the possibility to take corrective control within the opera- measures, e.g., security patch management
tional environment. Siemens has the target to support
3 operational security by relying on international standards. Fig.2.7-4: Tasks and security measures needed in vulnerability
handling
1. Vulnerability and incident handling
4 Handling vulnerabilities and incidents is one of the manda- Equally, defined requirements for system vendor on
tory requirements to protect the energy network. patch management are defined in standards such as
IEC 62443-2-3 and IEC 62443-2-4:
Vulnerability handling includes the definition of counter- Providing documentation concerning patch management
5 measures, if required, and the communication towards the policies for components and systems
operator in order to inform appropriately about critical Verification of patches concerning compatibility and
vulnerabilities, work-arounds, and available patches, see applicability for own and third-party components
6 fig. 2.7-4. Providing the patch information and patches to the
operator
On the other hand, power system operators need to be able Providing lifecycle information for products and systems
to analyze provided security advisories, and to define and including end-of-life information.
7 apply counter-measures effectively.
Siemens meets these requirements with a comprehensive
Just as vulnerability handling supports to protect the busi- patch management process for products and systems. This
8 ness, incident handling addresses the needs to respond to, includes a regular patch test for own and third-party com-
and recover from, cyber incidents in an effective manner. ponents, and the provision of the test results to customers.
The security measures needed for incident handling are the Hereby, Siemens in-house CERT is used for a comprehen-
same as for vulnerability handling, but require additional sive vulnerability scanning and communication of vulnera-
9 measures in organizational preparedness to be covered, bilities and advisories for all Siemens products, see section
particular in the area of process handling. 2.7.2 item 4. Additionally, as a prerequisite for a patch
management process, Siemens provides back-up and
10 2. Security patch management restore documentation on product and system level.
One of the most crucial activities in cyber security is patch
management. Due to the increased interconnectivity, the
threat that attackers utilize known vulnerabilities has
11 increased tremendously.

Standards such ISO/IEC 27002 and IEC 62443-2-3 give


12 guidance to operators about how to implement adequate
measures for a patch management process. A summary of
the recommended process steps for operators are:
Taking a complete asset inventory
Checking available patches
Checking compatibility
Testing in an environment that reflects the production
environment
Scheduling the patch installation
Installing patches or mitigation measures
Updating the asset database.

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 86


Power transmission and distribution solutions 2.7 Cyber security

A simplified process is shown in fig. 2.7-5, with the initial sioning) of systems and networks. The most crucial phase
activities and the cyclic activities of a complete patch for cyber security is during the daily operations. Typical
management process from the operators point of view. access control scenarios include physical access, HMI
access, IED access, remote access, etc. Additionally, due to
The initial activities includes the migration to a secure safety reasons, emergency access routes are defined in
system (step 0 in fig. 2.7-5), the definition of the assets to order to bypass the regular access control mechanism.
be taken into scope, and prepare the asset data as required
1 in order to be able to perform patch management (steps 1 There are several options to realize access control in the
and 2). power grid with different levels of depth and security. A
typical for a centralized approach is the usage of LDAP or
2 The recurring activities start with the collection of patch RADIUS servers in order to manage identities. Authentica-
information based on the asset inventory (step 3) and a tion and authorization can be established by means of
decision, what, whether and when patches have to be password verification or by using a public key infrastructure
installed (step 4); the patch validation (step 5) and the (PKI) based handling of X.509 certificates. The access rights
3 patch installation (step 6) follows accordingly. Finally, the are defined by the system or device, as these are specific to
asset data needs to be updated (step 7). those devices based on the operational function provided.

4 Siemens offers comprehensive patch management services


for products and systems to meet the regulatory require-
ments derived from ISO/IEC 27001 based on all process
steps.
5
3. User management and access control Access
Requires Control
The basic principle of access control is shown in fig. 2.7-6.
6 Access control ensures that users (and systems) can only
interact with resources as intended. This is only possible if
the user is authenticated, i.e., if it is verified that the user is
who he claims to be, and also authorized, i.e. it is verified
Authentication
7 that the user is permitted to perform the operation he Requires
intends to perform with/on the resources. Identity manage-
ment is the trust base in this pyramid, as it manages the
8 users and credentials to be controlled. For completeness,
Identity Management
access control does not only consider the users, but also
any resources such as devices or applications.

9 Access control is relevant in all lifecycle phases (from


commissioning, operation and renovation to decommis- Fig.2.7-6: Identity and access management the basic principle

10
Initial activities Recurring activities

11
3. Collect patch information and patch
0. Migration to a secure system qual ication from vendors

12 1. Dene Patch scope und patching cycle 4. Patch comparison. What? Whether?
on he basis of the specic asset risks When?

2. Capture the current asset data 5. Patch testing in target environment

6. Patch installation

7. Update asset data

Fig.2.7-5: Simplified patch management process

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 87


Power transmission and distribution solutions 2.7 Cyber security

Fig. 2.7-7 shows a role based access control (RBAC) Siemens supports centralized logging and offers system
example. A user is requesting access to an IED via a device operators centralized logging solutions.
management tool (1). The IED is sending this request to an
Active Directory (AD) domain controller for authentication 5. Malware protection
of the user (2). AD replies with the result of the authentica- Malware protection emphasizes measures and concepts
tion. If the user has been successfully authenticated by the implemented in order to protect systems against malware
IED, it retrieves the role information of the user by AD, iinfection, which is required for all system components. In
1 which indicates the authorization level of the user (3). The other words, systems used in process networks and control
IED then initiates the role-based user session (4). systems shall feature protection concepts against malware
infection. The potential sources of malware infection could
2 Due to the multi-vendor environment of power grids, a be infected portable media ((e.g., USB flash drive, CD, etc),
standardized approach based on IEC 62351 is most crucial network shares or infected PCs (e.g., service PC).
for an effective access control implementation in order to
support interoperability. Different technical solutions against malware are possible.
3 Classical antivirus and application whitelisting for PC-based
It is important to consider transitionary technologies and systems, and software signing for embedded devices.
tools that address the restrictions of the generation-old Antivirus patterns shall be regularly updated without using
4 secondary equipment that will continue to represent the a direct connection to update-servers located in external
majority installed base along the years to come. Centralized networks, e.g., Internet. Possible approaches are realized
access management solutions like the Siemens CrossBow with an internal update server or with a documented
can close the gap by managing the users and rights for secure manual process (e.g., through external secure
5 both, old- and newer generation secondary equipment. devices). In order to ensure compatibility with new anti-
virus patterns, Siemens regularly tests the compatibility of
4. Centralized logging new antivirus patterns against the Siemens application.
6 In order to get visibility of activities and events in the
power grid, monitoring is essential. A basic functionality of In this context, Siemens provides technical solutions for
monitoring is the centralized logging. Centralized logging malware protection and supports customer to establish a
means to collect information about events and activities in secure update process for antivirus patterns.
7 the energy grid on a central spot for further analysis. The
base of centralized logging is the syslog functionality.

8 Centralized logging is defined in standards such as RFC


5424/5/6 (syslog), and the applications thereof in the
energy-sector-covering standards such as IEEE 1686 and
IEC 62351. Furthermore, guidelines like BDEW whitepaper
9 or NERC CIP give guidance on what needs to be monitored.

10
Device Roles Users Role
1 2
Management
Tool
AD User 1 Engineer
11 4 3 User 2 Admin

12

Device-Type-Specific Operation A Operation B Operation C Operation ...


SIEMENS SIEMENS
Run Error SIPROTEC 7SL87 SIPROTEC

Access Rights
Rights Group 1 x x
7
4
8
5
9
6
Ctrl Rights Group 2 x x

1 2 3
Fn 0 .

Fig.2.7-7: Example for role-based access control

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 88


Power transmission and distribution solutions 2.7 Cyber security

2.7.4 Applied cyber security Security-enabled energy automation products are the
foundation of a secure energy automation system. Cyber
An effective cyber security requires addressing cyber secu- security requirements for the products depend on various
rity on various levels. This section will provide best-practice factors, including the intended function (protection, con-
examples in which the methodology and security measures trol, operation or monitoring) and the spatial layout of the
described above have been applied in order to protect products. Security functions in modern energy automation
products and systems. products follow the general goals of cyber security: avail-
1 ability, integrity and confidentiality, and meet the industry
The implementation of cyber security requires to consider specific standards. State-of-the-art protection devices are
the requirements as defined in the cyber security frame- capable of satisfying these needs, see fig. 2.7-8. Secure
2 work (section 2.7.2), and to support operational cyber communication between the engineering software and the
security requirements (section 2.7.3). device is crucial for secure operation. The encrypted con-
nection is only established after mutual authentication. A
1. Product security connection password is used and managed in this process
3 Siemens has taken a holistic approach for the energy auto- that complies with the BDEW whitepaper and NERC CIP
mation portfolio including processes, communication, recommendations. All security-relevant events are logged
employees and technologies. First, cyber security is estab- in a non-erasable security log. The protection device is
4 lished in the organization by defined roles, rules and pro- equipped with a crypto chip that assures the cryptographic
cesses; a governance structure has been implemented functions, including an integrity check of the device firm-
according to ISO/IEC 27001. Second, secure product devel- ware in a protected environment.
opment is part of the product lifecycle management that
5 satisfies the stringent demands on cyber security and
incorporates a secure product architecture.

6 Product development includes the secure design starting For more information on vulnerabilities and
with security requirements, the implementation of soft- updates of products and solutions:
ware, and the execution of systematic cyber security tests. Siemens Internet:
Cyber security of Siemens own infrastructure also plays a siemens.com/cert/advisories
7 major role. Internal design documentation and the source ICS-CERT:
code have to be protected against unauthorized access and https://ics-cert.us-cert.gov/advisories
tampering in order to secure the integrity needs.
8

9
Encraypted communication channel between Secure development
DIGSI 5 and the SIPROTEC 5 device Patch management
Mutual authentication between DIGSI 5 und SIPROTEC 5 Antivirus compatibility
10
Connection password according to
NERC-CIP and BDEW whitepaper

11 Logging of access attempts in a non-volatile,


protected security buffer

12 Confirmation codes for safety-


critical operations
Product hardening
Secure development
Digitally signed firmware
SIPROTEC 5 Separation of process
communication and
management communication
Crypto chip for secure storage
and cryptography

Field level

Fig.2.7-8: Security features of a state-of-the-art protection device

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 89


Power transmission and distribution solutions 2.7 Cyber security

During software production, the firmware is provided with support end-to-site encryption of the process communica-
a digital signature which the device can authenticate in tion to the control centers, see fig. 2.7-9.
order to ascertain that the firmware has not been tampered
on its transit from the production facilities to the device Siemens test security patches and virus patterns on refer-
itself. Furthermore, the device enables a physical separa- ence system in order to verify that regular installations of
tion of process and management communication. Devices operating system do not affect the availability of energy
communicating outside of a physically protected zone have automation functions.
1 to satisfy higher communication security requirements than
devices communicating within a physically protected area. 2. System security digital substation example
As a system integrator, Siemens is responsible for inte-
2 For distribution automation scenarios, where it is not grating products in a secure way. This task, too, requires
always possible to establish adequate physical security dedicated process descriptions, guidelines, and technical
measures to protect automation equipment from process descriptions to ensure secure integration. The system
communication manipulation, Siemens RTU products configuration is subsequently carried out according to the
3 technical descriptions. Security measures are validated
during the Factory Acceptance Test (FAT) and Site Accep-
tance Test (SAT) based on defined test cases.
4
For substation automation systems, the realization of
security functions is subject to a number of constraints like
the requirement of availability, expected 24/7 operation
5 without interruption. A substation is typically a mixture of
https
PC-based and embedded systems from various vendors
with life spans of up to 40 years. Hence, an energy automa-
IPSec-capable router tion system is frequently made up of various components
6
IEC 60870-5-104 from different vendors, different technologies, and dif-
IEC 61850 Encryption ferent technological generations. Many of the established
with IPSec office IT measures prioritize protection goals differently, or
GPRS modem
7 inadequately account for the special boundary conditions.
This calls for the implementation of strategies tailored to
the needs of energy automation.
8 Malware
In fig. 2.7-10, the security measures applied to a digital
substation are shown. All cyber security measures basically
follow at least the security design principles Defense in
9 depth principle, Least privilege principle, and Network
Fig.2.7-9: Example for a secure telecommunication Segmentation.

10 Untrusted network
Cyber security
Control center Remote access
measures
11
Router Trusted Access control and
Station DMZ
zone account management
level
Service
12 PC HMI
Security logging
and monitoring
PC Station controller
System hardening

Switch Security patching,


backup and restore
Trusted zone Switch Switch
Malware protection
Switch Switch Switch Switch Switch
IEDs Data protection, data
Protection and integrity, and system
Field
field devices architecture
level
Secure remote access

Fig.2.7-10: Digital substation

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 90


Power transmission and distribution solutions 2.7 Cyber security

Network segmentation is a powerful protection mecha- Looking into malware protection as one cyber security
nism. The fundamental idea is to group network elements measure example, the implementation offers different
with sensitive communication needs and similar level of options (see also section 2.7.3 part 5).
protection into the same subnet. Firewalls filter inbound
and outbound traffic. These zones also called trusted Blacklisting/antivirus
zones. It is not allowed to bypass the firewalls. The trusted Classical antivirus solutions that compare the content of
zone is not accessible from outside, from untrusted net- the PC file system with patterns of known viruses. In case
1 works. To get access to the trusted zone from outside, of a positive match, the antivirus software alerts the user.
Siemens uses a buffer zone, the Demilitarized Zone(DMZ).
With this approach, the security requirements for trusted Application whitelisting
2 zone internal communication can be often reduced to a An application whitelisting solution works according to a
feasible level for typical industrial components, compared whitelisting mechanism. This is a protection mechanism
to a larger network that does not rely on security zones. that allows only trusted programs and applications to run
on a system. After installation of the system software and
3 The principle of least privilege is the practice of limiting applications, additional whitelisting software is installed on
access to the minimal level that will allow desired function- the virus-free system. After installation is complete, a
ality. Applied to human users, the principle of least privi- whitelist of programs, applications and services will be
4 lege means that the user has the lowest level of user rights generated by the whitelisting solution. All applications/
to be able to execute the desired tasks. The principle is also programs/services on the list will be signed or secured by a
applied to all other members of a system like devices, checksum. This ensures that only approved software will be
software applications, services, and processes. The prin- executed. Downloaded software or viruses that might
5 ciple is designed to limit the potential damage of any potentially have infected the system after activation of the
security breach, whether intended or unintended. whitelisting protection will be prevented from executing.

6 Defense in depth is the coordinated use of multiple security All Windows-based PC systems are equipped with appro-
controls to protect a system. The goal is to provide redun- priate malware protection. The advantage of the applica-
dancy in case one security control fails or vulnerability in tion whitelisting is that it is not necessary to install regular
one security control is exploited. Components of defense in pattern updates for newly developed malware immediately.
7 depth include, for example, the security controls such as
firewalls, account management, malware protection, and The decision on which solution fits best to the system
secure hardening. operators requirements and operational management has
8 to be taken on a project- or system-specific basis.
All security measures are implemented under consider-
ations of the general limitations of substation automation Siemens offers comprehensive services and technology to
systems and the security design guidelines. The cyber support operators in defining protection concepts for
9 security measures are (cf. fig. 2.7-2 and section 2.7.2 on digital substation and migration towards a modern archi-
security categories): tecture and defense-in-depth approach.
Access control and account management
10 Security logging and monitoring
System hardening
Security patching, backup and restore
Malware protection
11 Data protection, data integrity, and system architecture
Secure remote access.

12

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 91


Power transmission and distribution solutions 2.7 Cyber security

2.7.5 Cyber security consultancy 2.7.6 Final remarks


Cyber security in the energy sector is a broad topic where a An effective cyber security requires addressing cyber secu-
lot of domain-specific knowledge and expertise is required in rity holistically. Cyber security requires a continues effort to
order to define appropriate measures. Siemens supports protect against existing and upcoming threats and risks.
operators regarding the verification, definition and imple- This is valid concerning processes, technologies and people
mentation of cyber security in systems, services and processes. such as ongoing competence management to keep the
1 knowledge up-to-date, process improvements following
Siemens cyber security consulting approach is based on the international standards like ISO/IEC 27001 and mainte-
well-proven Smart Grid Compass model, which has been nance for the technology to keep the security level up-to-
2 developed by leading experts at Siemens and has since date. This is valid for all stakeholders in the energy value
then been used to successfully transform a wide variety of chain, the operators, the vendors, system integrators and
system operators worldwide into an utility of the future. consultants.

3 As shown in fig. 2.7-11, cyber security consultancy offered Therefore, Siemens is addressing cyber security systemati-
by Siemens is structured into 4 phases: cally in the complete lifecycle of his products & solutions
Orientation: Comprehensive and objective analysis of based on international standards. Furthermore, Siemens
4 the current cyber security status in the technology, has the policy to work according ISO/IEC 27001.
process and organizational environments.
Destination: Definition of the aspired security levels also With our portfolio and services, and together with the
with regard to the relevant regulatory requirements and Siemens CERT, Siemens is uniquely positioned as a strong
5 standards, and derivation of concrete security measures and trusted partner for his customer.
Routing: Development of holistic cyber security.
implementation roadmap based on derived measures,
6 and including recommendations for implementation.
Navigation: Continuous customer support during the
implementation of security measures.

7 Systems with a high degree of protection against cyber


security attacks are feasible when cyber security methods
and functionality are implemented consequently. Siemens
8 can support power system operators during assessment,
definition and implementation of cyber security.

Siemens recommends and provides consultation while


9 carrying out a risk assessment of an organization or infra-
structure in order to obtain a comprehensive sight into
existing risks, derive appropriate measures, and thus miti-
10 gate the risks identified.

Orientation Destination Routing Navigation


What is the current status? Where do you want to go? How to get there? How to hold course?
11
Tech-
nology
85 km

12 People 1
A B 137 km
Process
2 C C
3
12:31
5
4 55 kmh 50 m 0:16 hrs

Steps Status-Quo Goal

Transparency about the Definition of a clear Definition of a Support by implemen-


current cyber security corporate cyber security comprehensive and tation of security
situation via spider strategy concrete cyber security measures
diagram Overview about necessary roadmap Support certification
Determination which security measures Plan of resources and Long-term protection
initiatives to reach (organizational/processes necessary initiatives, and against cyber attacks
defined goals and technology) concrete activities

Benets Adherence to relevant Right level of sophistica- Preparation of


regulations and tion matching the certification
standards environment

Fig.2.7-11: Cyber security consultancy phases

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 92


3 Substations and switchgear

3.1 High-voltage substations and switchgear 94 3.2.5 High-current and generator switchgear 144
3.1.1 Turnkey substations 94 3.2.6 Industrial load center substation 147
3.1.2 High-voltage switchgear overview 95 3.3 Low-voltage systems 151
3.1.3 Circuit configuration 96 3.3.1 Requirements for electrical
3.1.4 Air-insulated substations 99 power systems in buildings 151
3.1.5 Mixed technology 3.3.2 Dimensioning of power distribution systems 154
(Compact/hybrid solutions) 107 3.3.3 Low-voltage switchboards 157
3.1.6 Gas-insulated switchgear for substations 111 3.3.4 Planning notes for low-voltage switchboards 160
3.2 Medium-voltage substations 3.3.5 Low-voltage switchboard
and switchgear 122 cubicle types and examples 164
3.2.1 Introduction 122 3.3.6 Subdistribution systems 165
3.2.2 Basics of switching devices 123 3.3.7 Busbar trunking systems 166
3.2.3 Requirements of medium-voltage switchgear 127 3.3.8 Benefits and data of the
3.2.4 Medium-voltage switchgear 129 busbar trunking systems 169
Substations and switchgear 3.1 High-voltage substations and switchgear

3.1 High-voltage substations


and switchgear
Major Structural

3.1.1 Turnkey substations


Components Steelwork
e.g., HV/MV Gantries and
switchgear, substructures
1 High-voltage substations are interconnection points within Substation
Control
HV devices,
transformer Civil
the power transmission and distribution grids between Control and Engineering
Buildings,
regions and countries. Different applications of substations monitoring,
measurement, roads,

2 lead to high-voltage substations with and without power protection, etc. foundations
Design
transformers: AC/DC s
Fire
protection
Step up from agenerator-voltage level to ahigh-voltage auxiliari
e
Env
iron
system (MV/HV) ge Ancillary pro menta
3 Sur rters tec
tion l
Power plants (in load centers) div
e equipment
Lig
g
in
Renewable power plants (e.g., windfarms) ht

les
rth m ni

Carrie
a ng

Ve
e

ab
E st

ables
Transform voltage levels within the high-voltage grid

signal c nd
equipm

nti
sy

rc

la

lat
we

r-freq
4 (HV/HV)

Contro

ion
Po
Step down to amedium-voltage level of adistribution

ent
u.
system (HV/MV)
Interconnection in the same voltage level.
5
Scope
Fig.3.1-1: Engineering of high-voltage switchgear
High-voltage substations comprise not only the high-
6 voltage equipment which is relevant for the functionality in
the power grid. Siemens plans and constructs high-voltage
substations comprising high-voltage switchgear, medium-
voltage switchgear, major components such as high-
7 voltage equipment and transformers, as well as all ancillary
equipment such as auxiliaries, control systems, protective
equipment and so on, on aturnkey basis or even as general All planning documentation is produced on modern
8 contractor. The installations supplied worldwide range from CAD/CAE systems; data exchange with other CAD systems
basic substations with asingle busbar to interconnection is possible via interfaces. By virtue of their active involve-
substations with multiple busbars, or abreaker-and-a-half ment in national and international associations and stan-
arrangement for rated voltages up to 800kV, rated cur- dardization bodies, the Siemens engineers are always fully
9 rents up to 8,000A and short-circuit currents up to 100kA. informed of the state of the art, even before anew stan-
The services offered range from system planning to com- dard or specification is published.
missioning and after-sales service, including training of
10 customer personnel. Certification of the integrated quality management
system
Project management At the beginning of the 1980s, adocumented QM system
The process of handling such aturnkey installation starts was already introduced. The basis of the management
11 with preparation of aquotation, and proceeds through system is the documentation of all processes relevant for
clarification of the order, design, manufacture, supply and quality, occupational safety and environmental protection.
cost-accounting until the project is finally billed. Processing
12 such an order hinges on methodical data processing that in The environment protection was implemented on the basis
turn contributes to systematic project handling. of the existing QM system and was certified in accordance
with DIN ISO 14001 in 1996. Occupational safety and
Engineering health have always played an important role for SiemensAG
All these high-voltage installations have in common their and for the respective Business Units. When the BS OHSAS
high standard of engineering which covers all system 18001 standard was introduced, the conditions for acertifi-
aspects such as power systems, steel structures, civil engi- cation analogous to the existing management systems
neering, fire precautions, environmental protection and were created.
control systems (fig.3.1-1). Every aspect of technology and
each work stage is handled by experienced engineers. With Know-how, experience and worldwide presence
the aid of high-performance computer programs, e.g., the A worldwide network of liaisons and sales offices, along
finite element method (FEM), installations can be reliably with the specialist departments in Germany, support and
designed even for extreme stresses, such as those encoun- advise system operators in all matters of high-voltage
tered in earthquake zones. substations technology.

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 94


Substations and switchgear 3.1 High-voltage substations and switchgear

3.1.2 High-voltage switchgear


overview
High-voltage substations comprising high-voltage
switchgear and devices with different insulating systems:
air or gas (SF6). When planning high-voltage substations,
some basic questions have to be answered to define the
1 type of high-voltage switchgear:

What is the function and location within the power grid?


2 What are the climatic and environmental conditions?
Are there specific requirements regarding locations?
Are there space/cost restrictions?

3 Depending on the answers, either AIS or GIS can be the Fig.3.1-2: Air-insulated outdoor switchgear
right choice, or even acompact or hybrid solution.

4 Air-insulated switchgear (AIS)


AIS are favorably priced high-voltage substations for rated
voltages up to 800kV, which are popular wherever space
restrictions and environmental circumstances are not
5 severe. The individual electrical and mechanical compo-
nents of an AIS installation are assembled on site. Air-insu-
lated outdoor substations of open design are not com-
6 pletely safe to touch, and are directly exposed to the effects
of the climate and the environment (fig.3.1-2).

Gas-insulated switchgear (GIS)


7 The compact design and small dimensions of GIS make it
possible to install substations of up to 550kV right in the
middle of load centers of urban or industrial areas. Each
8 switchgear bay is factory-assembled and includes the full
complement of disconnecting switches, earthing switches
(regular or make-proof), instrument transformers, control
and protection equipment, and interlocking and monitoring
9 facilities commonly used for this type of installation. The
earthed metal enclosures of GIS assure not only insensi-
tivity to contamination but also safety from electric shock
10 (fig.3.1-3).

Mixed technology (compact/hybrid solutions)


Beside the two basic (conventional) designs, there are also
11 compact solutions available that can be realized with
air-insulated and/or gas-insulated components.

12

Fig.3.1-3: GIS substations in metropolitan areas

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 95


Substations and switchgear 3.1 High-voltage substations and switchgear

3.1.3 Circuit configuration


High-voltage substations are points in the power grid
where power can be pooled from generating sources,
distributed and transformed, and delivered to the load
points. Substations are interconnected with each other, so
that the power grid becomes ameshed network. This
1 increases reliability of the power supply system by pro-
viding alternate paths for flow of power to take care of any
contingency, so that power delivery to the loads is main-
2 tained and the generators do not face any outage. The
high-voltage substation is acritical component in the
power grid, and the reliability of the power grid depends
upon the substation. Therefore, the circuit configuration of
3 the high-voltage substation has to be selected carefully.

Busbars are the part of the substation where all the power
4 is concentrated from the incoming feeders, and distributed
to the outgoing feeders. That means that the reliability of
any high-voltage substation depends on the reliability of
the busbars present in the power grid. An outage of any
5 busbar can have dramatic effects on the power grid. An
outage of abusbar leads to the outage of the transmission
lines connected to it. As aresult, the power flow shifts to
6 the surviving healthy lines that are now carrying more
power than they are capable of. This leads to tripping of
these lines, and the cascading effect goes on until there is
ablackout or similar situation. The importance of busbar Fig.3.1-4: Special single busbar, H-scheme (1 BB)
7 reliability should be kept in mind when taking alook at the
different busbar systems that are prevalent.

8 Single-busbar scheme (1 BB)


The applications of this simple scheme are distribution and
transformer substations, and feeding industrial areas
(fig.3.1-4). Because it has only one busbar and the min-
9 imum amount of equipment, this scheme is alow-cost
solution that provides only limited availability. In the event
of abusbar failure and during maintenance periods, there
10 will be an outage of the complete substation. To increase
the reliability, asecond busbar has to be added.

Double-busbar scheme (2 BB)


11 The more complex scheme of adouble-busbar system gives
much more flexibility and reliability during operation of the
substation (fig.3.1-5). For this reason, this scheme is used
12 for distribution and transformer substations at the nodes of
the power grid. It is possible to control the power flow by
using the busbars independently, and by switching afeeder
from one busbar to the other. Because the busbar discon-
nectors are not ableto break the rated current of the
feeder, there will be ashort disruption in power flow.

Fig.3.1-5: Double-busbar scheme (2 BB)

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 96


Substations and switchgear 3.1 High-voltage substations and switchgear

Double circuit-breaker scheme (2 CB)


To have aload change without disruption, asecond circuit-
breaker per feeder has to be used. This is the most expen-
sive way to solve this problem. In very important feeders,
the 2CB solution will be used (fig.3.1-6).

One-breaker-and-a-half scheme (1.5 CB)


1 The one-breaker-and-a-half is acompromise between the
2BB and the 2CB scheme. This scheme improves the
reliability and flexibility because, even in case of loss of
2 acomplete busbar, there is no disruption in the power
supply of the feeders (fig.3.1-7).

Fig.3.1-6: Double circuit-breaker scheme (2 CB)


4

10

11

12

Fig.3.1-7: One-breaker-and-a-half scheme (1.5 CB)

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 97


Substations and switchgear 3.1 High-voltage substations and switchgear

Fig.3.1-8: Triple-busbar scheme (3 BB)


10

Triple-busbar scheme (3 BB)


11 For important substations at the nodes of transmission
systems for higher voltage levels, the triple-busbar scheme
is used. It is acommon scheme in Germany, utilized at the
12 380kV level (fig.3.1-8).

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 98


Substations and switchgear 3.1 High-voltage substations and switchgear

3.1.4 Air-insulated substations Variables affecting switchgear installation


The switchyard design is significantly influenced by:
In outdoor installations of open design, all live parts are Minimum clearances (depending on rated voltages)
insulated by air and not covered. Therefore, air-insulated between various active parts and between active parts
substations (AIS) are always set up in afenced area. Only and earth
authorized personnel have access to this operational area. Rated and short-circuit currents
Relevant national and international specifications that Clarity for operating staff
1 apply to outdoor substations and equipment have to be Availability during maintenance work; redundancy
considered. The IEC61936 standard is valid for European Availability of land and topography
countries. Insulation coordination, including minimum Type and arrangement of the busbar disconnectors.
2 phase-to-phase and phase-to-earth clearances, is effected
in accordance with IEC60071. The design of asubstation determines its accessibility,
availability and clarity. It must therefore be coordinated in
Outdoor switchgear is directly exposed to the effects of the close cooperation with the system operator. The following
3 environmental conditions. Therefore, they have to be basic principles apply: Accessibility and availability increase
designed both for electrical and environmental specifica- with the number of busbars. At the same time, however,
tions. There is currently no common international standard clarity decreases. Installations involving single busbars
4 covering the setup of air-insulated outdoor substations of require minimum investment, but they offer only limited
open design. Siemens designs AIS in accordance with flexibility for operation management and maintenance.
IECstandards, in addition to national standards or customer Designs involving one-breaker-and-a-half and double-cir-
specifications. The standard IEC61936-1, Erection of power cuit-breaker arrangements ensure ahigh redundancy, but
5 installations with rated voltages above 1kV, demonstrates they also entail the highest costs.
the typical protective measures and stresses that have to be
taken into consideration for air-insulated switchyards. Systems with auxiliary or bypass busbars have proved to be
6 economical. The circuit-breaker of the coupling feeder for
Protective measures the auxiliary bus allows uninterrupted replacement of each
The protective measures can be categorized as personal feeder circuit-breaker. For busbars and feeder lines, mostly
protection and functional protection of substations (S/S). standard aluminum conductors are used. Bundle conduc-
7 Personal protection tors are required where currents are high. Because of the
Protective measures against direct contact, i.e., additional short-circuit forces between the subconductors
through appropriate covering, obstruction, through (the pinch effect), however, bundle conductors cause
8 sufficient clearance, appropriately positioned higher mechanical stresses at the terminal points. When
protective devices, and minimum height. conductors (particularly standard bundle conductors) are
Protective measures against indirect touching by used, higher short-circuit currents cause arise not only in
means of relevant earthing measures in accordance the aforementioned pinch effect, also in further force
9 with IEC61936/DIN VDE0101 or other required maxima in the event of swinging and dropping of the
standards. conductor bundle (cablepull). This in turn results in higher
Protective measures during work on equipment, i.e., mechanical stresses on the switchyard components. These
10 installation must be planned so that the specifications effects can be calculated in an FEM (finite element method)
of DIN EN50110 (VDE0105) (e.g., five safety rules) simulation (fig.3.1-9).
are observed.
Functional protection
11 Protective measures during operation, e.g., use of
switchgear interlocking equipment Vertical displacement in m
Protective measures against voltage surges and
0.6
12 lightning strikes
Protective measures against fire, water and, if 0.8
applicable, noise 1.0
Stresses 1.2
Electrical stresses, e.g., rated current, short-circuit
1.4
current, adequate creepage distances and clearances
Mechanical stresses (normal stressing), e.g., weight, 1.6
static and dynamic loads, ice, wind 1.8
Mechanical stresses (exceptional stresses), e.g., Horizontal
2.0
weight and constant loads in simultaneous displacement in m
combination with maximum switching forces or short- 2.2
1.4 1.0 0.6 0.2 0 0.2 0.6 1.0 1.4
circuit forces, etc.
Special stresses, e.g., caused by installation altitudes
of more than 1,000m above sea level, or by Fig.3.1-9: FEM calculation of deflection of wire conductors in the
earthquakes. event of short circuit

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 99


Substations and switchgear 3.1 High-voltage substations and switchgear

Computer-aided engineering/design (CAE/CAD)


A variety of items influence the design of air-insulated
substations. In the daily engineering work, database-sup-
Customer
ported CAE tools are used for the primary and secondary Documentation Specification
engineering of the substations. The database speeds up all clarification

the engineering processes by using predefined solutions


and improves the quality (fig.3.1-10).
1 Deriving of 2D primary Database Selection of
drawings and completion predefined typical
Design of air-insulated substations of secondarydrawings
Projects solutions/modules
Solutions
When rated and short-circuit currents are high, aluminum Symbols

2 tubes are increasingly used to replace wire conductors for


busbars and feeder lines. They can handle rated currents up Generating of:
Completion of: Delta engineering
to 8,000A and short-circuit currents up to 80kA without Material lists
Equipment lists 3D-models Adapting to the
difficulty. Other influences on the switchyard design are Terminal diagrams schematic customer
3 the availability of land, the lie of the land, the accessibility Wiring lists
Cable lists
diagrams requirements

and location of incoming and outgoing overhead-lines, and


the number of transformers and voltage levels.A one-line
4 or two-line arrangement, and possibly aU-arrangement, Fig.3.1-10: Database-supported engineering
may be the proper solution. Each outdoor switchgear instal-
lation, especially for step-up substations in connection with
power plants and large transformer substations in the
5 extra-high-voltage transmission system, is therefore
unique, depending on the local conditions. HV/MV trans-
former substations of the distribution system, with repeat-
6 edly used equipment and ascheme of one incoming and
one outgoing line as well as two transformers together
with medium-voltage switchgear and auxiliary equipment,
are usually subject to astandardized design.
7
Preferred designs
Conceivabledesigns include certain preferred versions that
8 are often dependent on the type and arrangement of the
busbar disconnectors.

10

11

12

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 100


Substations and switchgear 3.1 High-voltage substations and switchgear

Fig.3.1-11: H-arrangement 110 kV


10

11 H-arrangement
The H-arrangement is preferred for use in applications for
feeding industrial consumers. Two overhead-lines are
12 connected with two transformers and interlinked by
adouble-bus sectionalizer. Thus, each feeder of the switch-
yard can be maintained without disturbance of the other
feeders (fig.3.1-11, fig.3.1-12).

Fig.3.1-12: H-arrangement, 110kV, Germany

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 101


Substations and switchgear 3.1 High-voltage substations and switchgear

2,800

SECTION A-A

1 BUSBAR 1 BUSBAR 2
9,000

6,300
18,500 12,000 23,800
3 54,300

4
2,000 2,000 2,000 2,000

5
10,000

6 A
20,000
4,500

7
5,500

8 A

10 Fig.3.1-13: In-line arrangement, 110kV

11
In-line longitudinal arrangement (Kiellinie), with
center-break disconnectors, preferably 110 to 220kV
12 The busbar disconnectors are lined up one behind the other
and parallel to the longitudinal axis of the busbar. It is
preferableto have either wire-type or tubular busbars.
Where tubular busbars are used, gantries are required for
the outgoing overhead lines only. The system design
requires only two conductor levels and is therefore clear.
The bay width is quite large (in-line arrangement of discon-
nectors), but the bay length is small (fig.3.1-13, fig.3.1-14).

Fig.3.1-14: Busbar disconnectors in line, 110kV, Germany

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 102


Substations and switchgear 3.1 High-voltage substations and switchgear

SECTION A-A
3,000

1 BUSBAR 1 BUSBAR 2
13,000

2
9,000

7,600 18,000 17,000 17,000 13,500 16,500

3
17,000 5,500 4,000 4,000 3,500

5
16,000

6 A

7
16,000

8 A

10 Fig.3.1-15: Central/center tower arrangement, 220kV

11
Central/center arrangement (classical arrangement)
layout with center-break disconnectors, normally
12 only for 245kV
The busbar disconnectors are arranged side-by-side and
parallel to the longitudinal axis of the feeder. Wire-type
busbars located at the top are commonly used; tubular
busbars are also possible. This arrangement enables the
conductors to be easily jumpered over the circuit-breakers,
and the bay width to be made smaller than that of in-line
designs. With three conductor levels, the system is rela-
tively clear, but the cost of the gantries is high (fig.3.1-15,
fig.3.1-16).

Fig.3.1-16: Central/center tower arrangement, 220kV, Egypt

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 103


Substations and switchgear 3.1 High-voltage substations and switchgear

SECTION A-A
4,000

1
BUSBAR SYSTEM
18,000

3 9,000 32,000 15,000 15,000 21,000 27,000 5,000

4
4,500 4,500 6,000 4,500 4,500 6,000 4,500 4,500

5
4,500 4,500 4,500 4,500

6
A

7
18,000

8 A

Fig.3.1-17: Diagonal arrangement, 380kV


10

11 Diagonal layout with pantograph disconnectors,


preferably 110to 420kV
The pantograph disconnectors are placed diagonally to the
12 axis of the busbars and feeder. This results in avery clear
and most space-saving arrangement. Wire and tubular
conductors are customary. The busbars can be located
above or below the feeder conductors (fig.3.1-17,
fig.3.1-18).

Fig.3.1-18: Busbar disconnectors in diagonal arrangement,


380kV, Germany

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 104


Substations and switchgear 3.1 High-voltage substations and switchgear

1 SECTION A-A
BUSBAR 1 BUSBAR 2
7,000

2
27,000

3 31,000 20,250 19,000 33,000 27,000 32,500 27,000 33,000 29,300 16,700

268,750

4
32,000

5
A A

Fig.3.1-19: One-breaker-and-a-half arrangement, 500kV


10

11 One-breaker-and-a-half layout, preferably up to


220 to 800kV
The one-breaker-and-a-half arrangement ensures high
12 supply reliability; however, the expenditure for equipment
is high as well. The busbar disconnectors are of the panto-
graph, rotary or vertical-break type. Vertical-break discon-
nectors are preferred for the feeders. The busbars located
at the top can be either the wire or tubular type. Two
arrangements are customary:
Internal busbar, feeders in H-arrangement with two
conductor levels
External busbar, feeders in-line with three conductor
levels (fig.3.1-19, fig.3.1-20).

Fig.3.1-20: One-breaker-and-a-half arrangement, 500kV, Pakistan

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 105


Substations and switchgear 3.1 High-voltage substations and switchgear

4
12,000

5
15,000
54,000
15,000

6
12,000

10

11

12

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 106


Substations and switchgear 3.1 High-voltage substations and switchgear

3.1.5 Mixed technology


(Compact/hybrid solutions)
Wherever there is alack of space, system operators have to
rely on space-saving outdoor switchgear, especially in
regions where smaller-scale transformer substations prevail
and in industrial plants. For rated voltages from 72.5 to
1 170kV, Siemens offers two different conventional
switchgear versions for areliableand cost-efficient power
supply:
2 SIMOBREAKER, outdoor switchyard featuring aside-break
disconnector
SIMOVER, outdoor switchyard featuring apivoting
circuit-breaker
3 HIS, highly integrated switchgear
DTC, dead-tank compact.

4 SIMOBREAKER Substation with rotary disconnector


The design principle of SIMOBREAKER provides for the
side-break disconnector blade to be located on the rotating
post insulator, which establishes the connection between
5 the circuit-breaker and the transformer. Because the circuit-
breaker, the disconnector, the earthing switch and the Fig.3.1-23: SIMOBREAKER module
instrument transformer are integrated into SIMOBREAKER,
6 there is no need for acomplex connection with cables and
pipes, or for separate foundations, steel, or earthing termi-
11 m 7.5 m
nals for each individual device. This means that the system
operator gets acost-efficient and standardized overall
7 setup from one source and has no need to provide any
items. Coordination work is substantially reduced, and
interface problems do not even arise.
8m

8
SIMOBREAKER can also be used as indoor switchgear.
Installation inside abuilding ensures protection against the
3m

elements. This can be an enormous advantage, particularly


9 in regions with extreme climates, but it is also relevant in
industrial installations exposed to excessive pollution, e.g.,
in many industrial plants (fig.3.1-23, fig.3.124).
8m

10

11
Fig.3.1-24: SIMOBREAKER (schematic)

12

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 107


Substations and switchgear 3.1 High-voltage substations and switchgear

SIMOVER Switchgear with withdrawablecircuit-


breaker
The compact SIMOVER switchgear, specially conceived for
substations with single busbars, features apivoting circuit-
breaker. It is excellent for use in small transformer substa-
tions such as windfarms or any plants where space is
restricted. It integrates all components of ahigh-voltage
1 bay. There are no busbar and outgoing disconnectors for

8.3 m
the feeders. The cabling is simple, and the switching status
is clear. Drive technology is improved and the drive unit is
2 weatherproofed. Pre-assembled components reduce instal-
lation times. In SIMOVER, all components of ahigh-voltage
outdoor switchgear bay, including the isolating distances,
are integrated in one unit. The instrument transformers
3
31 m
and the local control cubicle are part of this substation
design.

4 The concept behind SIMOVER is based on customary type-


tested standard components. This ensures high reliability.

2m
2m
Thanks to economizing on the disconnectors, and to the

1.7
m
integration of the instrument transformers and the local

1.7
2m

2m
m
5 control cubicle, implementation costs are considerably
reduced. All components needed for the full scope of
functioning of the movablecircuit-breaker can be obtained
25 m

6 from asingle source, so there is no need for customer-pro-


vided items, coordination work is greatly reduced and
interface problems do not even arise (fig.3.1-25,
fig.3.126).
7

9
Fig.3.1-25: SIMOVER H-arrangement (schematic)

10

11

12

Fig.3.1-26: H-arrangement with SIMOVER, 145kV, Czech Republic

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 108


Substations and switchgear 3.1 High-voltage substations and switchgear

Dead-tank compact (DTC)


The dead-tank compact is another compact solution for the
145kV voltage level: adead-tank circuit-breaker together
with GIS modules for disconnectors (fig 3.1-27, fig.3.128).
For more information, please refer to section 4.1.1.

3
Fig 3.1-27: Dead Tank Compact (DTC)

10

11

12

Fig.3.1-28: DTC solution (schematic)

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 109


Substations and switchgear 3.1 High-voltage substations and switchgear

Highly integrated switchgear (HIS)


Highly integrated switchgear (HIS), fig.3.129 and
fig.3.130 combines the advantages of air-insulated instal-
lations with those of gas-insulated switchgear technology.
HIS switchgear is availableup to 550kV. The compact HIS
switchgear is especially suited
for new substations in alimited space
1 where real estate prices are high
where environmental conditions are extreme
where the costs of maintenance are high.
2
HIS arrangements are compact solutions used mainly for
renewal or expansion of air-insulated outdoor and indoor
substations, particularly if the operator wants to carry out
3 modifications while the switchgear is in service. In new
construction projects, high site prices and increasingly com-
plex approval procedures mean that the space requirement
4 is the prime factor in costing. With the HIS solution, the
circuit-breakers, disconnectors, earthing switches and
transformers are accommodated in compressed gastight
enclosures, thus rendering the switchgear extremely
5 compact.

Planning principles
6 For air-insulated outdoor substations of open design, the
following planning principles must be taken into account:
High reliability
Reliablemastering of normal and exceptional stresses
7 Protection against surges and lightning strikes
Protection against surges directly on the equipment
concerned (e.g., transformer, HV cable)
8 Good clarity and accessibility
Clear conductor routing with few conductor levels
Free accessibility to all areas (no equipment located at
inaccessible depth) Fig.3.1-29: H-arrangement HIS
9 Adequate protective clearances for installation,
maintenance and transportation work
Adequately dimensioned transport routes
10 Positive incorporation into surroundings
As few overhead conductors as possible
Tubular instead of wire-type busbars
Unobtrusive steel structures
11 Minimal noise and disturbance level
EMC earthing system for modern control and
protection
12 Fire precautions and environmental protection
33 m
23 m

Adherence to fire protection specifications and use of


flame-retardant and non-flammablematerials
Use of environmentally compatible technology and
products.

16 m
40 m

Space saving > 70 %; AIS 1,300 m HIS 360 m

Fig.3.1-30: HIS for renewal of AIS space relations

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 110


Substations and switchgear 3.1 High-voltage substations and switchgear

3.1.6 Gas-insulated switchgear for More than 50 years experience with gas-insulated switchgear
Start of fundamental studies in research and development
substations 1960
of SF6 technology
1964 Delivery of first SF6 circuit-breaker
1968 Delivery of first GIS
Characteristic features of gas-insulated switchgear
1974 Delivery of first GIL (420 kV)
Since 1968, the concept of Siemens gas-insulated metal-
Introduction of intelligent, bay-integrated control,
enclosed high-voltage switchgear has proved itself in more 1997
monitoring and diagnostic
1 than 34,500 feeders in all regions of the world (table3.1-1). Introduction of newest GIS generation: self-compression
Gas-insulated metal-enclosed high-voltage switchgear (GIS) 1999
interrupter unit and spring-operated mechanism
(fig. 3.1-31) is constantly gaining ground on other types of Introduction of the trendsetting switchgear concept HIS
2 switchgear because it offers the following outstanding 2000 (Highly Integrated Switchgear) for extension, retrofit and
advantages: new compact AIS substations
Minimum space requirements: 2005 First GIS with electrical endurance capability (class E2)
Where the availability of land is low and/or prices are Introduction of 72.5 kV GIS a new dimension in
2007
3 high, e.g., in urban centers, industrial conurbations,
compactness
2009 New generation of 145 kV 40 kA GIS
mountainous regions with narrow valleys, or in
2010 New generation of 420 kV 63 kA GIS
underground power plants, gas-insulated switchgear is
2011 New 170 kV 63 kA GIS
4 replacing conventional switchgear due to its very small
space requirements. 2012 New 420 kV 80 kA GIS
Full protection against contact with live parts: 2013 New 245 kV 80/90 kA GIS
The surrounding metal enclosure ensures maximum 2016 New 72.5 kV vacuum and clean-air GIS
5 safety forpersonnel under all operating and fault
Table.3.1-1: Siemens experience with gas-insulated switchgear
conditions.
Protection against pollution:
6 Its metal enclosure fully protects the switchgear interior
against environmental effects such as salt deposits in
coastal regions, industrial vapors and precipitates, and
sandstorms. The compact switchgear can be installed as
7 an indoor or outdoor solution.
Free choice of installation site:
The small site area required for gas-insulated switchgear
8 saves expensive grading and foundation work, e.g., in
permafrost zones. Another advantage is the rapid on-site
installation and commissioning because of the short
erection time and the use of prefabricated and factory-
9 tested bay units.
Protection of the environment:
The necessity to protect the environment often makes it
10 difficult to install outdoor switchgear that has a
conventional design. Gas-insulated switchgear, however,
can almost always be designed to blend well with the
surroundings. Thanks to its modular design, gas-
11 insulated metal-enclosed switchgear is very flexible, and Fig.3.1-31: 8DN8 GIS for a rated voltage of 110 kV
meets all the requirements for configuration relating to
network design and operating conditions.
12
Each circuit-breaker bay includes the full range of discon-
necting and earthing switches (regular or make-proof),
instrument transformers, control and protection equip-
ment, and interlocking and monitoring facilities commonly
used for this type of installation.

Besides the traditional circuit-breaker bay, other circuits


such assingle busbar, single-busbar arrangement with
bypass busbar, coupler and bay for double and triple busbar
can be supplied.

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 111


Substations and switchgear 3.1 High-voltage substations and switchgear

Switchgear type 8VM1 8DN8 8DN9 8DQ1


1 Rated voltage kV up to 72.5 145/170 245 420 420 550
Rated frequency Hz 50 50/60
Rated short-duration power-
frequency withstand voltage kV up to 140 275/325 460 650 650 740
2 (1 min)
Rated lightning impulse
kV up to 325 650/750 1,050 1,425 1,425 1,550
withstand voltage (1.2/50 s)
Rated switching impulse
3 withstand voltage A up to 1,050 1,050 1,175
(250/2,500 s)
Rated normal current, busbar A up to 3,150/4,000 4,000 6,300 6,300 5,000
Rated normal current, feeder kA up to 1,250 3,150/4,000 4,000 5,000 5,000 5,000
4 Rated short-circuit breaking
kA up to 25 40/63 50 63/80*/90* 80 63
current
Rated peak withstand current kA up to 62,5 108/170 135 170/216*/243* 216 170
5 Rated short-time withstand
current (up to 3 s)
kA up to 40/63 50 63/80* 80 63

Rated short-time withstand


kA up to 25 90*
current (up to 1 s)
6 Leakage rate per year and gas
compartment (type-tested)
% < 0.1
Stored-
Stored-
energy
energy
Driving mechanism of circuit- spring Stored-energy spring
7 breaker
spring
(common or (single pole drive)
(common
single pole
pole drive)
drive)
O-0.3 s-CO-3 min-CO
8 Rated operating sequence
CO-15 s-CO
Insulation medium Clean-air SF6
Interrupter technology Vacuum Self-compression principle

9 Installation Indoor/outdoor Indoor Indoor/outdoor


Standards IEC IEC/IEEE/GOST
Bay width mm 1,200 800/1,000 1,500 2,200 3,600
First major inspection years > 25
10 Expected lifetime years > 50
Other values on request * These values apply to 245 kV rated voltage

11 Table.3.1-2: Product range of GIS

Product range of GIS for substations


12 The Siemens product range covers GIS from 72.5 up to
550kV rated voltage (table3.1-2).

The development of this switchgear has been based on two


overall production targets: to meet the high technical
standards required of high-voltage switchgear, and to
provide maximum customer benefit.

This objective can only be achieved by incorporating all


processes in the quality management system, which has
been introduced and certified in accordance with
EN 29001/DIN EN ISO 9001.

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 112


Substations and switchgear 3.1 High-voltage substations and switchgear

Feasibility studies
Financing support Overall project
and consulting management

After-sales Engineering
1 services and and design
recycling

2 Training
Site facilities
and civil works

3 On-site installation
Production
and commissioning

4
Transport Procurement
Factory testing
5
Fig.3.1-32: GIS for the full value chain

6
Siemens GIS switchgear meets all performance, quality and High reliability:
reliability demands including: The longstanding experience of Siemens in design,
Compact and low-weight design: production and commissioning more than 420,000 bay
7 Small building dimensions and low floor loads, a wide operating years in over 34,500 feeders worldwide is
range of options for the utilization of space, and less testament to the fact that the Siemens products are
space taken up by the switchgear. highly reliable. The mean time between failures (MTBF)
8 Safe encapsulation: is more than 1,000 bay years for major faults. A quality
An outstanding level of safety based on new management system certified in accordance with
manufacturing methods and optimized shape of ISO 9001, which is supported by highly qualified
enclosures. employees, ensures high quality throughout the whole
9 Environmental compatibility: process chain. Our services provide added value through
No restrictions regarding location choice due to constant project-related support and consulting right
minimum space requirements, extremely low noise and from the start and throughout the entire lifecycle of
10 EMC emission, as well as effective gas-sealing system our switchgear right up to disposal and recycling of old
(leakage <0.1% per year per gas compartment). Modern switchgear (fig.3.1-32).
spring mechanisms that are currently availablefor the Smooth and efficient installation and commissioning:
whole GIS 8D product spectrum eliminate the need for Transport units are fully assembled, tested at the factory,
11 hydraulic oil. and filled with SF6 gas at reduced pressure. Coded plug
Economical transport: connectors are used to cut installation time and minimize
Simplified fast transport and reduced costs because of the risk of cabling failures.
12 minimum shipping units. Routine tests:
Low operating costs: All measurements are automatically documented and
The switchgear is virtually maintenance-free, e.g., stored in the electronic information system, which
contacts of circuit-breakers and disconnectors are provides quick access to measured data for years.
designed for extremely long endurance, motor operating
mechanisms are lubricated for life, and the enclosure is
corrosion-free. This means that the first inspection is
only required after 25 years of operation.

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 113


Substations and switchgear 3.1 High-voltage substations and switchgear

Clean-air compact switchgear


(fig.3.1-33)
Based on more than 40 years of experience in producing
medium-voltage vacuum interrupters and more than
3 million delivered units, Siemens introduced this proven
technology to high-voltage power networks in 2010. All
installed vacuum circuit-breakers up to 72.5 kV are under
1 successful operation (see section 4.1.1).

Siemens vacuum circuit-breakers are designed in a well-


2 proven modular platform concept. Operating mechanism,
control system, base frame, kinematic chain, and insulator
designs are based on decades of manufacturing and oper
ating experience.
3
The vacuum high-voltage circuit-breaker offers the same
benefits as the Siemens SF6 circuit-breaker portfolio:
4 Reliable making and breaking capabilities
Excellent interrupting performance at rated nominal
current and rated short-circuit current
High-performance and maintenance-free operating
5 mechanism
Highest availability and long working life.
Fig.3.1-33: 8VM1 switchgear bay up to 72,5 kV
6 Clean-air as insulating medium
Vacuum interrupting technology enables the implementa-
tion of clean-air as insulating medium for 72.5 kV gas-
insulated switchgear (GIS). The clean air is compressed up
7 to the operation pressure into the single switchgear gas
compartment, consisting of vacuum circuit-breaker,
disconnectors and earthing switches.
8
A compact and maintenance-free GIS solution is designed
for offshore wind turbine installations based on proven
component technology.
9
Vacuum interrupters and Siemens clean-air technology
realize the F-gas (fluorinated greenhouse gas)-free insula-
10 tion, and support the demand for fully environmentally
compatible switchgear. Our environmentally friendly port-
folio will be further extended.

11 Main features
Worldwide leading F-gas-free, environmentally friendly,
and CO2-neutral technology
12 Innovative clean-air insulation medium S ame GIS dimensions for all typical switchgear
Proven vacuum interrupter unit technology configurations
Compact GIS solution designed for offshore wind turbine One gas compartment for circuit-breaker, disconnectors
installations and earthing switches
Optimal installation, commissioning, operation and Component design based on well-proven technology
service concept Cable terminals for T-connectors
Completely factory-assembled and tested switchgear Maintenance-free operation
Shipped in single transport unit, ready for cable Safe and easy handling and operation
connection High operational safety.

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 114


Substations and switchgear 3.1 High-voltage substations and switchgear

1 7
3 5

1 4

2 8 2
3
2 9
9

3
4 8

5
10 10
4
1 Integrated local control cubicle 6 Stored-energy spring mechanism with circuit-breaker control unit
2 Current transformer 7 Voltage transformer

5 3
4
Busbar II with disconnector and earthing switch
Interrupter unit of the circuit-breaker
8
9
High-speed earthing switch
Outgoing module with disconnector and earthing switch
5 Busbar I with disconnector and earthing switch 10 Cable sealing end

6 Fig.3.1-34: 8DN8 switchgear bay up to 145 kV

3-phase enclosures are used for SF6-insulated switchgear


7 type 8DN8 up to 170 kV to achieve small and compact
component dimensions. The low bay weight ensures low
floor loading, and helps to reduce the cost of civil works
8 and minimize the footprint. The compact low-weight
design allows installation almost anywhere. Capital cost is
reduced by using smaller buildings or existing ones, e.g.,
when replacing medium-voltage switchyards with the
9 145kV GIS (fig.3.1-35).

The bay is based on a circuit-breaker mounted on a sup-


10 porting frame (fig.3.1-34). A special multifunctional cross-
coupling module combines the functions of the discon-
nector and earthing switch in a 3-position switching device.
It can be used as: Fig.3.1-35: 8DN8 GIS for a rated voltage of 145kV
11 An active busbar with an integrated disconnector and
work-in-progress earthing switch (fig.3.1-34, pos. 3 and 5)
An outgoing feeder module with an integrated
12 disconnector and work-in-progress earthing switch Thanks to their compact design, the completely assembled
(fig.3.1-34, pos. 9) and factory-tested bays can be shipped as a single transport
A busbar sectionalizer with busbar earthing. unit. Fast erection and commissioning on site ensure the
highest possible quality.
Cabletermination modules can be equipped with either
conventional sealing ends or the latest plug-in connectors The feeder control and protection can be installed in a
(fig.3.1-34, pos. 10). Flexible 1-pole modules are used to bay-integrated local control cubicle mounted onto the front
connect overhead lines and transformers with a splitting of each bay (fig.3.1-34, pos. 1). Moreover, state-of-the-art
module that links the 3-phase-enclosed switchgear to the monitoring devices are availableat the system operators
1-pole connections. request, e.g., for partial discharge online monitoring.

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 115


Substations and switchgear 3.1 High-voltage substations and switchgear

2 14 4 6 5 8 3 10 7 12
6

3 M 5 M

M 8
2 1

3 M 9
11

M 7
4
12 10

5 gas-tight bushings
13

gas-permeable bushings 1 11 9 13

1. Circuit-breaker interrupter unit 5. Busbar disconnector II 10. High-speed earthing switch


6 2. Stored-energy spring mechanism 6. Busbar II 11. Current transformer
with circuit-breaker control unit 7. Outgoing disconnector 12. Voltage transformer
3. Busbar disconnector I 8. Earthing switch 13. Cable sealing end
4. Busbar I 9. Earthing switch 14. Integrated local control cubicle
7
Fig.3.1-36: 8DN9 switchgear bay up to 245 kV

8
The clear bay configuration of the lightweight and compact
8DN9 switchgear is evident at first glance. Control and
monitoring facilities are easily accessible despite the
9 switchgears compact design.

The horizontally arranged circuit-breaker forms the basis


10 of every bay configuration. The operating mechanism
is easily accessible from the operator area. The other bay
modules of 1-phase-enclosed switchgear design, for
example the circuit-breaker module are located on top of
11 the circuit-breaker. The 3-phase-enclosed passive busbar is
partitioned off from the active equipment (fig.3.1-36,
fig.3.1-37).
12
Thanks to single-function assemblies (assignment of
just one task to each module) and the versatile modular Fig.3.1-37: 8DN9 switchgear for a rated voltage of 245kV,
structure, even unconventional arrangements can be set up with a 3-phase-enclosed passive busbar
from a pool of only 20 different modules. The modules are
connected to each other with a standard interface that
allows implementation of an extensive range of bay struc-
tures. Switchgear design with standardized modules and
the scope of services ensure that all types of bay structures
can be set up in a small area. The compact design enables
the supply of complete bays that are fully assembled and
tested at the factory, providing smooth and efficient instal-
lation and commissioning.

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 116


Substations and switchgear 3.1 High-voltage substations and switchgear

1 2 3 4 5 7 6 10 11
7
3
13
M 4 M 5

1
M 6

12 8
2 9
9

M 10
3 M 11

14
13 12
4 8
14

5 gas-tight bushings
gas-permeable bushings

1 Integrated local control cubicle 5 Busbar disconnector II 10 Earthing switch

6 2 Stored-energy spring mechanism


with circuit-breaker control unit
6 Earthing switch 11 Outgoing disconnector
7 Busbar II 12 High-speed earthing switch
3 Busbar I 8 Circuit-breaker interrupter unit 13 Voltage transformer
4 Busbar disconnector I 9 Current transformer 14 Cable sealing end
7
Fig.3.1-38: 8DQ1 switchgear bay up to 420kV

8
SF6-insulated switchgear for up to 550kV, type 8DQ1, is a
1-phase-enclosed switchgear system for high-power
switching stations with individual enclosure of all modules.
9
The base unit for the switchgear is a horizontally arranged
circuit-breaker on top of which the housing containing the
10 disconnectors, earthing switches, current transformers,
among others, are mounted. The busbar modules are
partitioned off from the active equipment (fig.3.1-38,
fig.3.1-39, fig.3.1-40).
11
Other features of switchgear include:
Circuit-breakers with single interrupter unit up to Fig.3.1-39: 8DQ1 switchgear for a rated voltage of 550kV
12 operating voltages of 420kV (fig.3.1-31), with two
interrupter units up to operating voltages of 550kV
(fig.3.1-39)
Short-circuit breaking currents up to 63 kA within
2cycles for50Hz/60Hz and 80kA up to 420kV
Horizontal arrangement of the circuit-breakers in the
lower section provides low center of gravity for the
switchgear
Utilization of the circuit-breaker transport frame as a
supporting device for the entire bay
Reduced length of sealing surfaces, thus decreasing the
risk of leakage through use of only a few modules and
equipment combinations in one enclosure.

Fig.3.1-40: 8DQ1 switchgear for a rated voltage of 420 kV

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 117


Substations and switchgear 3.1 High-voltage substations and switchgear

Specification guide for metal-enclosed SF6-insulated All assemblies are designed to allow absorption of thermal
switchgear expansion and contraction caused by varying temperatures.
Note: The points below are not considered exhaustive but Adjustablemetal bellow compensators are installed for this
are a selection of the important specifications. They cover purpose. Density monitors with electrical contacts for at
the technical data applicableto metal-enclosed SF6-insu- least two pressure levels are installed to allow gas moni-
lated switchgear for switching and distributing power in toring in the enclosures. The circuit-breakers can be moni-
cableand/or overhead-line systems and transformers. Key tored with density gauges that are fitted in the circuit-
1 technical data are contained in the data sheet and in the breaker control units.
single-line diagram (SLD) attached to the inquiry.
Siemens ensures that the pressure loss for each individual
2 A general SLD and a sketch showing the general arrange- gas compartment i.e., not just for the complete
ment of the substation will be part of a proposal. Any switchgear will not exceed 0.1% per year. Each gas-filled
switchgear quoted will be complete and will form a func- compartment comes equipped with static filters that are
tional, safe and reliablesystem after installation, even if capableof absorbing any water vapor that penetrates into
3 certain required parts have not been specifically included in the switchgear for a period of at least 25 years. There are
the inquiry. long intervals between required inspections, which keeps
maintenance costs to a minimum. The first minor inspec-
4 Applicable standards tion is due after ten years. The first major inspection is
All equipment is designed, built, tested and installed in usually required after more than 25 years of operation
accordance with the latest guidelines of the unless the permissible number of operations is reached
applicableIEC standards: before that date.
5 IEC62271-1 High-voltage switchgear and controlgear:
Common specifications Arrangement and modules
IEC62271-203 High-voltage switchgear and
6 controlgear: Gas-insulated metal-enclosed switchgear Arrangement
for rated voltages above 52kV The system consists of the enclosed 1-phase or 3-phase
IEC62271-100 High-voltage switchgear and type. The assembly is made up of completely separate
controlgear: Alternating-current circuit-breakers pressurized sections, and is thus designed to minimize any
7 IEC62271-102 High-voltage switchgear and danger to the operating staff and reduce risk of damage to
controlgear: Alternating current disconnectors and adjacent sections, even if problems with the equipment
earthing switches arise. Rupture diaphragms are provided to prevent the
8 IEC60044 Instrument transformers: Current enclosures from bursting in an uncontrolled manner.
transformers Suitabledeflectors provide protection for the operating
National standards available on request. personnel. For maximum operating reliability, internal
relief devices are not installed because these would affect
9 Local conditions adjacent compartments. The modular design, complete
The equipment is tested for indoor and outdoor applica- segregation, arc-proof bushing, and plug-in connections
tions. Allthe buyer has to provide is a flat concrete floor allow speedy removal and replacement of any section with
10 with the cutouts for cableinstallation if required. The only minimal effects on the remaining pressurized
switchgear comes equipped with adjustablesupports switchgear.
(feet). If steel support structures are required for the
switchgear, Siemens can also provide these. For design Busbar module
11 purposes, the indoor temperatures should be between The busbar modules of adjacent bays are connected with
-5C and +40C, and outdoor temperatures should be expansion joints, which absorb constructional tolerances
between -30C and +40C (+50C). For parts to be and temperature-related movements in a longitudinal and
12 installed outdoors (overhead-line connections), the condi- transverse direction to the busbar. Axially guided sliding
tions described in IEC62271-203 must be observed. For the contacts between the conductors compensate tempera-
enclosures, aluminum or aluminum alloys are preferred. ture-related expansions in conductor length (fig. 3.1-41).

A minimum of one-site installation will ensure maximum


reliability. Up to six single or three double switchgear bays,
fully assembled and tested, come as a single transport unit.
Subassembly size is only restricted by transport require-
ments. Siemens can provide the enclosure in a material and
thickness suited to withstand an internal arc and prevent
burn-throughs or punctures within the first stage of protec-
tion, relating to the rated short-circuit current of the given
GIS type.
Fig.3.1-41: All busbars of the enclosed 3-phase or the 1-phase (fig.)
type are connected with plugs from one bay to the next

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 118


Substations and switchgear 3.1 High-voltage substations and switchgear

Circuit-breakers
(see section 4.1.1)
The circuit-breakers operate according to the dynamic
self-compression principle. The number of interrupting
units per phase depends on the circuit-breakers perfor-
mance. The arcing chambers and circuit-breaker contacts
are freely accessible. The circuit-breaker is suitablefor
1 out-of-phase switching and is designed to minimize over-
voltages. The specified arc interruption performance has to
be consistent across the entire operating range, from
2 line-charging currents to full short-circuit currents.

The circuit-breaker is designed to withstand at least


10 operations (depending on the voltage level) at full
3 short-circuit rating. Opening the circuit-breaker for service
or maintenance is not necessary. The maximum tolerance
for phase displacement is 3ms, which is the time between
4 the first and the last poles opening or closing. A standard
station battery required for control and tripping may also Fig.3.1-42: Disconnectors: In the open position, disconnectors assure
be used for recharging the operating mechanism. The drive a dielectrically safe gap between system parts at different
and the energy storage system are provided by a stored- potentials; for example, the busbar disconnector isolates
5 energy spring mechanism that holds sufficient energy for the feeders from the busbar. Cast-resin bushings keep the
all standard IEC close-open duty cycles. The control system contact system in place, and the pressurized gas serves
provides alarm signals and internal interlocks, but inhibits as the high-voltage insulating medium between live parts
and the metal housing. The conductor terminals vary for
6 tripping or closing of the circuit-breaker when the energy
different types of adjacent modules. Up to two earthing
capacity in the energy storage system is insufficient or the switches can be installed simultaneously
SF6 density within the circuit-breaker drops below the
minimum permissible level.
7
Disconnectors
All disconnectors (isolators) are of the single-break type.
8 DC motor operation (110, 125, 220, or 250 V), which is
fully suited to remote operation, and a manual emergency
operating mechanism are provided. Each motor operating
mechanism is self-contained and equipped with auxiliary
9 switches in addition to the mechanical indicators. The
bearings are lubricated for life (fig.3.1-42).

10 Earthing switches
Work-in-progress earthing switches are generally provided
on either side of the circuit-breaker. Additional earthing
switches may be used to earth busbar sections or other
11 groups of the assembly. DC motor operation (110, 125,
220, or 250V) that is fully suited for remote operation, and
a manual emergency operating mechanism are provided.
12 Each motor operating mechanism is self-contained and
equipped with auxiliary position switches in addition to the
mechanical indicators. The bearings are lubricated for life. Fig.3.1-43: Earthing switches: Earthing switches (work-in-progress
Make-proof high-speed earthing switches are generally earthing switches or busbar earthing switches, for
installed at the cableand overhead-line terminals. They are example) are used for properly connecting de-energized
equipped with a rapid closing mechanism to provide short- live parts of the high-voltage system to the earthing
circuit making capacity (fig.3.1-43). system. On the outgoing side of the feeders, a make-
proof version (high-speed) is frequently used to dissipate
inductive and capacitive currents from parallel cables or
overhead lines, or to reduce the risk to the GIS system in
case of faulty connections. In the insulated design, they
are also used for measuring purposes and for testing
protection relays

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 119


Substations and switchgear 3.1 High-voltage substations and switchgear

Instrument transformers
Current transformers (CTs) encompass the dry-type design.
Epoxy resin is not used for insulation purposes. The cores
have the accuracies and burdens that are shown on the
SLD. Voltage transformers are of the inductive type, with
ratings of up to 200VA.

1 Cableterminations
1-phase or 3-phase, SF6-gas-insulated metal-enclosed
cableend housings are provided. The cablemanufacturer
2 has to supply the stress cone and suitablesealings to pre-
vent oil or gas from leaking into the SF6 switchgear.
Siemens will supply a mating connection piece to be fitted
to the cableend. The cableend housing is suitablefor
3 oil-type, gas-pressure-type cables with plastic insulation
(PE, PVC, etc.) as specified on the SLD or the data sheets.
Additionally, devices for safely isolating afeeder cableand
4 connecting a high-voltage test cableto the switchgear or
cablecan be provided (fig.3.1-44).
Fig.3.1-44: Example for 1-phase cabletermination: Cabletermination
modules conforming to IEC are availablefor connecting
Overhead-line terminations the switchgear to high-voltage cables. Thestandardized
5 The terminations for connecting overhead lines come construction of these modules allows connection of
complete with SF6-to-air bushings, but without line clamps various cross-sections and insulation types. Parallel
(fig.3.1-45). cableconnections for higher rated currents are also
possible with the same module
6
Transformer/reactor termination module
These terminations form the direct connection between the
GIS and oil-insulated transformers or reactance coils. Stan-
7 dardized modules provide an economical way of matching
them to various transformer dimensions (fig.3.1-46 next
page).
8
Control and monitoring
An electromechanical or solid-state interlocking control
board is normally supplied for each switchgear bay. This
9 fault-tolerant interlocking system prevents all operating
malfunctions. Mimic diagrams and position indicators
provide the operating personnel with clear operating
10 instructions. Provisions for remote control are included. Gas
compartments are constantly monitored by density moni-
tors that provide alarm and blocking signals via
contacts.
11

12
Fig.3.1-45: Overhead-line terminations: High-voltage bushings are
used for the SF6-to-air transition. The bushings can be
matched to specific requirements with regard to clearance
and creepage distances. They are connected to the
switchgear by means of angular-type modules of variable
design

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 120


Substations and switchgear 3.1 High-voltage substations and switchgear

Required tests

Partial discharge tests


All solid insulators fitted in the switchgear are subjected to
a routine partial discharge test prior to installation. At
1.2 times the line-to-line voltage, no measurabledischarge
is allowed. This test ensures maximum safety in terms of
1 insulator failure, a good long-term performance, and thus a
very high degree of reliability.

2 Pressure tests
Each cast-aluminum enclosure of the switchgear is pres-
sure-tested for at least twice the service pressure.

3 Leakage tests
Leakage tests performed on the subassemblies ensure that
the flanges and cover faces are clean and that the guaran-
4 teed leakage rate is not exceeded.
Fig.3.1-46: Transformer termination
Power frequency tests
Each assembly is subjected to power-frequency withstand
5 tests, including sensitive partial discharge detection, to Transformer feeder:
verify correct installation of the conductors, and to make Siemens supplies the connecting flange at the
sure that the insulator surfaces are clean and the switchgear bay and the connecting bus ducts to the
6 switchgear as a whole is not subject to internal faults. transformer, including any expansion joints. The
SF6-to-oil bushings plus terminal enclosures are part of
Additional technical data the transformer delivery unless otherwise agreed
Siemens will point out any dimensions, weights, or other (fig.3.1-46).
7 switchgear data that may affect local conditions and han- Note: This point always requires close coordination
dling ofthe equipment. Each quotation includes drawings between the switchgear manufacturer and the
showing the switchgear assembly. transformer supplier.
8 Each feeder bay is equipped with earthing pads. The
Instructions local earthing network and the connections to the
Detailed instruction manuals on the installation, operation switchgear are included in the installation contractors
and maintenance of the equipment are supplied, and all scope.
9 equipment is delivered by Siemens. Initial SF6-gas filling for the entire switchgear supplied by
Siemens is included. Siemens will also supply all gas
Scope of supply interconnections from the switchgear bay to the integral
10 Siemens supplies the following items for all GIS types and gas service and monitoring panel.
interfaces as specified: Terminals and circuit protection for auxiliary drives and
The switchgear bay, including circuit-breakers, control power are provided with the equipment. Feeder
disconnectors and earthing switches, instrument circuits and cables, as well as the pertaining installation
11 transformers, and busbar housings, as specified. For the material will be supplied by the installation contractor.
different feeder types, the following limits apply: The local control, monitoring and interlocking panels are
Cablefeeder: supplied for each circuit-breaker bay to form fully
12 According to IEC60859, the termination housing, operational systems. Terminals for remote monitoring
conductor coupling, and connecting plate are part of and control are also provided.
the GIS delivery, while the cablestress cone with the Siemens will supply the above ground mechanical
matching flange is part of the cablesupply (fig.3.1-44). support structures; embedded steel and foundation work
Overhead-line feeder: is part of the installation contractors scope.
The connecting stud at the SF6-to-air bushing is
supplied without the line clamp (fig.3.1-45).

For further information:


8VM1
siemens.com/hv-gis/8vm1
8DN8
siemens.com/energy/gas-insulated-switchgear/8dn8
Gas-insulated switchgear
siemens.com/energy/gas-insulated-switchgear

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 121


Substations and switchgear 3.2 Medium-voltage substations and switchgear

3.2 Medium-voltage
substations and
Low Medium voltage
voltage High voltage
1 kV < U 52 kV

switchgear 0 1 kV 52 kV Alternating voltage

1 3.2.1 Introduction Fig.3.2-2: Voltage definitions

According to international rules, there are only two voltage


2 levels:
Low voltage: up to and including 1kVAC (or 1,500VDC) The electrical transmission and distribution systems not
High voltage: above 1kVAC (or 1,500VDC) only connect power plants and electricity consumers, but
also, with their meshed systems, form asupraregional
3 Most electrical appliances used in household, commercial backbone with reserves for reliablesupply and for the
and industrial applications work with low-voltage. High- compensation of load differences. High operating voltages
voltage is used not only to transmit electrical energy over (and therefore low currents) are preferred for power trans-
4 very large distances, but also for regional distribution to the mission in order to minimize losses. The voltage is not
load centers via fine branches. However, because different transformed to the usual values of the low-voltage system
high-voltage levels are used for transmission and regional until it reaches the load centers close to the consumer.
distribution, and because the tasks and requirements of the
5 switchgear and substations are also very different, the term In public power supplies, the majority of medium-voltage
medium-voltage has come to be used for the voltages systems are operated in the 10kV to 30kV range (oper-
required for regional power distribution that are part of the ating voltage). The values vary greatly from country to
6 high-voltage range from 1kVAC up to and including country, depending on the historical development of tech-
52kVAC (fig.3.2-2). Most operating voltages in medium- nology and the local conditions.
voltage systems are in the 3kVAC to 40.5kVAC range.

10

11

12

1 2 1 3

1 Medium voltage 2 High voltage 3 Low voltage

Fig.3.2-1: Voltage levels from the power plant to the consumer

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 122


Substations and switchgear 3.2 Medium-voltage substations and switchgear

Medium-voltage equipment 3.2.2 Basics of switching devices


Apart from the public supply, there are still other voltages
fulfilling the needs of consumers in industrial plants with What are switching devices?
medium-voltage systems; in most cases, the operating Switching devices are devices used to close (make) or open
voltages of the motors installed are decisive. Operating (break) electrical circuits. The following stress can occur
voltages between 3kV and15kV are frequently found in during making and breaking:
industrial supply systems. No-load switching
1 Breaking of operating currents
In power supply and distribution systems, medium-voltage Breaking of overload currents
equipment is availablein (fig.3.23): Breaking of short-circuit currents.
2 Power plants, for generators and station supply systems
Transformer substations of the primary distribution level What can the different switching devices do?
(public supply systems or systems of large industrial Circuit-breakers: Make and break all currents within the
companies), in which power supplied from the high- scope of their ratings, from small inductive and
3 voltage system is transformed to medium-voltage. capacitive load currents up to the full short-circuit
Local supply, transformer or customer transfer current, and this under all fault conditions in the power
substations for large consumers (secondary distribution supply system, such as earth faults, phase opposition,
4 level), in which the power is transformed from medium and so on.
to low-voltage and distributed to the consumer. Switches: Switch currents up to their rated normal
current and make on existing short-circuits (up to their
rated short-circuit making current).
5 Disconnectors (isolators): Used for no-load closing and
opening operations. Their function is to isolate
downstream devices so they can be worked on.
6 Three-position disconnectors: Combine the functions of
disconnecting and earthing in one device. Three-position
disconnectors are typical for gas-insulated switchgear.
Switch-disconnectors (load-break switches):
7 The combination of aswitch and adisconnector, or
aswitch with isolating distance.
Contactors: Load breaking devices with alimited short-
8 circuit making or breaking capacity. They are used for
high switching rates.
G G Earthing switches: To earth isolated circuits.
Medium voltage Power generation Make-proof earthing switches (earthing switches with
9 making capacity): Are used for the safe earthing of
circuits, even if voltage is present, that is, also in the
event that the circuit to be earthed was accidentally not
10 Power transmission system
isolated.
High voltage
Fuses: Consist of afuse-base and afuse-link. With the
fuse-base, an isolating distance can be established when
Transformer substation the fuse-link is pulled out in de-energized condition (like
11 in adisconnector). The fuse-link is used for one single
Primary breaking of ashort-circuit current.
distribution level Surge arresters: To discharge loads caused by lightning
12 Medium voltage
M strikes (external overvoltages) or switching operations
and earth faults (internal overvoltages). They protect the
Secondary connected equipment against impermissibly high-
distribution level
voltages.

Low voltage

Fig.3.2-3: Medium voltage in the power supply and distribution


system

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 123


Substations and switchgear 3.2 Medium-voltage substations and switchgear

Selection of switching devices R ated normal current:


Switching devices are selected both according to their The current that the main circuit of adevice can
ratings and according to the switching duties to be per- continuously carry under defined conditions. The
formed, which also includes the switching rates. The fol- temperature increase of components especially
lowing tables illustrate these selection criteria: table3.2-1, contacts must not exceed defined values. Permissible
shows the selection according to ratings. Table3.2-2 temperature increases always refer to the ambient air
through table3.2-6, see next page, show the endurance temperature. If adevice is mounted in an enclosure, it
1 classes for the devices. may be advisableto load it below its full rated current,
depending on the quality of heat dissipation.
Selection according to ratings Rated peak withstand current:
2 The system conditions, that is, the properties of the primary The peak value of the major loop of the short-circuit
circuit, determine the required parameters. The most current during acompensation process after the
important of these are: beginning of the current flow, which the device can carry
Rated voltage: in closed state. It is ameasure for the electrodynamic
3 The upper limit of the system voltage the device is designed (mechanical) load of an electrical component. For
for. Because all high-voltage switching devices are zero- devices with full making capacity, this value is not
current interrupters except for some fuses the system relevant (see the next item in this list).
4 voltage is the most important dimensioning criterion. It Rated short-circuit making current:
determines the dielectric stress of the switching device The peak value of the making current in case of short
by means of the transient recovery voltage and the circuit at the terminals of the switching device. This
recovery voltage, especially while switching off. stress is greater than that of the rated peak withstand
5 Rated insulation level: current, because dynamic forces may work against the
The dielectric strength from phase to earth, between contact movement.
phases and across the open contact gap, or across the Rated breaking current:
6 isolating distance. The dielectric strength is the capability The load breaking current in normal operation. For
of an electrical component to withstand all voltages with devices with full breaking capacity and without acritical
aspecific time sequence up to the magnitude of the current range, this value is not relevant (see the previous
corresponding withstand voltages. These can be operating item in this list).
7 voltages or higher-frequency voltages caused by switching Rated short-circuit breaking current:
operations, earth faults (internal overvoltages) or lightning The root-mean-square value of the breaking current in
strikes (external overvoltages). The dielectric strength is case of short circuit at the terminals of the switching
8 verified by alightning impulse withstand voltage test device.
with the standard impulse wave of 1.2/50s and
apower-frequency withstand voltage test (50Hz/1min)

9
Device Withstand capability, rated Switching capacity, rated
insulation voltage normal peak breaking short-circuit short-circuit
10 level current withstand current breaking making
current current current
Circuit-breaker x x x x x x

11 Switch(-disconnector) x x x x x
Disconnector x x x
Earthing switch x x
Make-proof earthing switch x x x
12
Contactor x x x x x x 1) x 1)
Fuse-link x x x
Fuse-base x x
Surge arrester* x 2) x 3) x 4) x 5)
Current limiting reactor x x x
Bushing x x x 6)
Post insulator (insulator) x x 6)
x Selection parameter 4) Rated discharge current for surge arresters
1) Limited short-circuit making and breaking capacity 5) For surge arresters: short-circuit strength in case of overload
2) Applicableas selection parameter in special cases only, e.g., 6) For bushings and insulators:

for exceptional pollution layer Minimum failing loads for tension, bending and torsion
3) For surge arresters with spark gap: rated voltage * See also section 3.3

(Parameters of the secondary equipment for operating mechanisms, control and monitoring are not taken into consideration in this table.)

Table3.2-1: Device selection according to data of the primary circuit

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 124


Substations and switchgear 3.2 Medium-voltage substations and switchgear

Selection according to endurance and switching rates Class Operating Description


cycles
If several devices satisfy the electrical requirements and no
additional criteria have to be taken into account, the M M1 1,000 Mechanical endurance
required switching rate can be used as an additional selec- M2 5,000 Increased mechanical endurance
tion criterion. Table3.2-1 through table3.2-6 show the E E1 10 Iload Test currents: (old)
endurance of the switching devices, providing arecom- 10 Iload
20 0.05 Iload Iload active load-
2 Ima
mendation for their appropriate use. The respective device 10 Icc breaking current I1
1 standards distinguish between classes of mechanical (M) E2 30 Iload 10 0.2 Iloo  closed-loop
breaking current I2a
20 Iload to 0.4 Icc
and electrical (E) endurance, whereby they can also be 3 Ima 10 Ilc Icc cable-charging
breaking current I4a
used together on the same switching device; for example, E3 100 Iload
10 Ief1
Ilc line-charging
10 Ief2
2 aswitching device can have both mechanical class M1 and 20 Iload breaking current I4b
electrical class E3. 5 Ima Isb capacitor bank
breaking current I4c
Switches: C C1 10 Icc Restrikes
Ibb back-to-back capacitor
10 Ilc permitted
Standard IEC62271-103/VDE0671-103 only specifies 10 Isc (number not
bank breaking current I4d
3 classes for the so-called general-purpose switches. There 10 Ibb defined)
Ief1 earth fault
breaking current I6a
are also special switches and switches for limited additionally Ief2 cable- and line-charging
C2 each breaking current under
applications.* 10 0,1
No restrikes earth fault conditions I6b
4 General-purpose switches: Ima short-circuit
0,4 Icc,
General-purpose switches must be ableto break Isb, Ibb
making current Ima

different types of operating currents (load currents,


ring currents, currents of unloaded transformers, Table3.2-2: Classes for switches
5 charging currents of unloaded cables and overhead-
lines), as well as to make on short-circuit currents.
General-purpose switches that are intended for use in Class Operating cycles Description

6 systems with isolated neutral or with earth earth-fault M0 1,000 For general requirements
compensation, must also be ableto switch under M M1 2,000
earth-fault conditions. The versatility is mirrored in the Extended mechanical endurance
M2 10,000
very exact specifications for the E classes.
7 SF6 switches: Table3.2-3: Endurance classes for disconnectors
SF6 switches are appropriate when the switching rate
is not more thanonce amonth. These switches are
usually classified as E3 with regard to their electrical Class Operating cycles Description
8
endurance. No short-
Air-break or hard-gas switches: E0 0 Ima circuit making
capacity For general requirements
Air-break or hard-gas switches are appropriate when E
9 the switching rate is not more than once ayear. These E1 2 Ima Short-circuit
switches are simpler and usually belong to the E1 making Reduced maintenance
E2 5 Ima capacity
class. There are also E2 versions available. required

10 Vacuum switches: Table3.2-4: Endurance classes for earthing switches


The switching capacity of vacuum switches is
significantly higher than that of the M2/E3 classes.
They are used for special tasks mostly in industrial
11 power supply systems or when the switching rate is Class Description
at least once aweek. Not 1
C0 explicitely restrike per
defined interruption
12 24 O per 1040% Ilc, Icc, Ibc 5
24 CO per 1040% Ilc, Icc, Ibc Low cummulated
C1 probability restrikes on
C
ofrestrikes* test duties
BC1 and BC2
Very low
24 O per 1040% Ilc, Icc, Ibc probability No
C2
128 CO per 1040% Ilc, Icc, Ibc of restrikes*
restrikes**
* Class C2 is recommended for capacitor banks

Table3.2-5: Classes for contactors

*D
 isconnectors up to 52kV may only switch negligible currents up to 500mA
(e.g., voltage transformer), or larger currents only when there is an insignifi-
cant voltage difference (e.g., during busbar transfer when the bus coupler is
closed).

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 125


Substations and switchgear 3.2 Medium-voltage substations and switchgear

Circuit-breakers: Class Description


Whereas the number of mechanical operating cycles is M1 2,000 operating cycles
Normal mechanical
specifically stated in the M classes, the circuit-breaker endurance
M Extended mechanical
standard IEC62271-100/VDE0671-100 does not define
M2 10,000 operating cycles endurance, low
the electrical endurance of the E classes by specific maintenance
numbers of operating cycles; the standard remains very Normal electrical
2 C and 3 O with 10%,
vague on this. E1
30%, 60% and 100% Isc
endurance
1 The test duties of the short-circuit type tests provide an (not covered by E2)
Without Extended
orientation as to what is meant by normal electrical 2 C and 3 O with 10%, auto- electrical
endurance and extended electrical endurance. The E 30%, 60% and 100% Isc reclosing endurance
2 number of make and break operations (Close, Open) is duty without
E2 main-
specified in table3.2-6. 26 C 130 O 10% Isc tenance of
With auto-
Modern vacuum circuit-breakers can generally make and 26 C 130 O 30% Isc
reclosing interrupting
4 C 8 O 60% Isc
break the rated normal current up to the number of 4 C 6 O 100% Isc
duty parts of the
3 mechanical operating cycles. main circuit
Low
The switching rate is not adetermining selection C1
24 O per 1040% Ilc, Icc, Ibc
probability
24 CO per 1040% Ilc, Icc, Ibc Restrike-free
criterion, because circuit-breakers are always used where ofrestrikes* breaking
4 short-circuit breaking capacity is required to protect C 24 O per 1040% Ilc, Icc, Very low operations
equipment. C2
Ibc probability at 2 of 3 test
Disconnectors: 128 CO per 1040% Ilc, Icc, of duties
Ibc restrikes**
Disconnectors do not have any switching capacity
5 (switches for limited applications must only control some
S1 Circuit-breaker used in acable system
S Circuit-breaker used in aline system or in acable system
of the switching duties of ageneral-purpose switch). S2
with direct connection (without cable) to overhead lines
Switches for special applications are provided for * C
 lass C1 is recommendable for infrequent switching of transmission lines and

6 switching duties such as switching of single capacitor cables


** C
 lass C2 is recommended for capacitor banks and frequent switching of
banks, paralleling of capacitor banks, switching of ring transmission lines and cables
circuits formed by transformers connected in parallel, or
switching of motors in normal and locked condition. Table3.2-6: Classes for circuit-breakers
7 Therefore, classes are only specified for the number of
mechanical operating cycles.
Earthing switches:
8 With earthing switches, the E classes designate the short-
circuit making capacity (earthing on applied voltage). E0
corresponds to anormal earthing switch; switches of the
E1 and E2 classes are also-called make-proof or high-
9 speed earthing switches.
The standard does not specify how often an earthing
switch can be actuated purely mechanically; there are no
10 M classes for these switches.
Contactors:
The standard has not specified any endurance classes for
contactors yet. Commonly used contactors today have
11 amechanical and electrical endurance in the range of
250,000 to 1,000,000 operating cycles. They are used
wherever switching operations are performed very
12 frequently, e.g., more thanonce per hour.
Regarding capacitor applications IEC62271-106
introduced classes for capacitice current breaking. If
contactors are used for capacitor banks it is
recommended to only install class C2 contactors.

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 126


Substations and switchgear 3.2 Medium-voltage substations and switchgear

3.2.3 Requirements of medium-voltage Rated voltage Neutral earthing

switchgear System parameters




Short-circuit current
Normal current
Cable/overhead line
Overvoltage protection
Load flow Power quality

The major influences and stress values that aswitchgear


assembly is subjected to result from the task and its rank in
Protection functions Redundancy
System protection and measuring Selectivity Tripping times
the distribution system. These influencing factors and Measuring Metering

stresses determine the selection parameters and ratings of


1 the switchgear (fig.3.2-4). Supplies
Public power systems Emergency power
In-plant power generation Redundancy

Influences and stress values


Place of installation Accessibility
Service location Utilities room Buildings

2
Transport Installation

System voltage
Room climate Altitude
The system voltage determines the rated voltage of the Ambient conditions
Temperature Air humidity

switchgear, switching devices and other installed compo-


3 nents. The maximum system voltage at the upper tolerance Sector-specific application
Switching duties
Busbar transfer
Switching rate
Availability
limit is the deciding factor.
Operation Personal protection
Sector-specific operating procedures Working Work instructions

4 Assigned configuration criteria for switchgear Inspection Maintenance

Rated voltage Ur Standards Laws


Rated insulation level Ud; Up
Regulations
Association guidelines Company regulations

Rated primary voltage of voltage transformers Upr.


5
Fig.3.2-4: Influencing factors and stresses on the switchgear
Short-circuit current
The short-circuit current is characterized by the electrical
6 values of peak withstand current Ip (peak value of the initial
Assigned configuration criteria for switchgear
symmetrical short-circuit current) and sustained short-cir-
cuit current Ik. The required short-circuit current level in Rated peak withstand current Ip
Main and earthing circuits
Rated short-time withstand current Ik
the system is predetermined by the dynamic response of
7 the loads and the power quality to be maintained, and Switching devices
Rated short-circuit making current Ima
Rated short-circuit breaking current Isc
determines the making and breaking capacity and the
withstand capability of the switching devices and the Rated peak withstand current Ikdyn
Current transformers
Rated short-time thermal current Ith
8 switchgear (table3.2-7).
Table3.2-7: Configuration criteria for short-circuit current
Important note: The ratio of peak current to sustained
short-circuit current in the system can be significantly
9 larger than the standardized factor Ip/Ik = 2.5 (50Hz) used
for the construction of the switching devices and the
switchgear.A possible cause, for example, are motors that
10 feed power back to the system when ashort circuit occurs,
thus increasing the peak current significantly.

Normal current and load flow


11 The normal current refers to current paths of the incoming Large cable cross-sections or several parallel cables must be
feeders, busbar(s) and outgoing consumer feeders. Because connected for high normal currents; the panel connection
of the spatial arrangement of the panels, the current is also must be designed accordingly.
12 distributed, and therefore there may be different rated
current values next to one another along aconducting Assigned configuration criteria for switchgear
path; different values for busbars and feeders are typical. Rated current of busbar(s) and feeders
Number of cables per phase in the panel (parallel cables)
Reserves must be planned when dimensioning the Current transformer ratings.
switchgear:
In accordance with the ambient air temperature
For planned overloadFor temporary overload during
faults.

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 127


Substations and switchgear 3.2 Medium-voltage substations and switchgear

Category When an accessible compartment in apanel is


opened,
LSC 1 other panels must be shut down, i.e., at least one
more
LSC 2 LSC 2 only the connection compartment is accessible,
while busbar and other panels remain energized
LSC2A any accessible compartment except the busbar
1 can be open while busbar and other panels
remain energized
LSC2B the connection (cable) compartment can remain
energized while any other accessible
2 compartment can be open except busbar and
connections and busbar and other panels
remain energized

Table3.2-8: Loss of service continuity categories


3

Type of Access features Type of construction


4 accessibility to
acompartment
Interlock-controlled Opening for normal Access is controlled by
operation and the construction of the
5 maintenance, e.g., switchgear, i.e.,
fuse replacement integrated interlocks
prevent impermissible
opening.
6 Procedure-based Opening for normal Access control via
operation or asuitableprocedure
maintenance, e.g., (work instruction of the
fuse replacement operator) combined
7 with alocking device
(lock).
Tool-based Opening not for Access only with tool
normal operation for opening; special
8 and maintenance,
e.g., cable testing
access procedure
(instruction of the
operator).
Not accessible Opening not possible or not intended for
9 operator; opening can destroy the compart-
ment. This applies generally to the gas-filled
compartments of gas-insulated switchgear.
Asthe switchgear is maintenance-free and
climate-independent, access is neither re-
10 quired nor possible.

Table3.2-9: Accessibility of compartments

11
The notation IACA FLR contains the abbreviations
for the following values:

12 IAC Internal Arc Classification


A Distance between the indicators 300 mm, i.e., installation in
rooms with access for authorized personnel; closed electrical
service location.
FLR Access from the front (F), from the sides (L = Lateral) and
from the rear (R).
I Test current = Rated short-circuit breaking current (inkA)
t Arc duration (in s)

Table3.2-10: Internal arc classification according to IEC62271-200

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 128


Substations and switchgear 3.2 Medium-voltage substations and switchgear

3.2.4 Medium-voltage switchgear

Distribution Insulation Type Loss Partition Internal Switchgear Busbar Rated voltage (kV) Rated short-time Rated current, Rated current,
level of construction of service continuity class arc classification* type system withstand current (kA) busbar (A) feeder (A)
1s 3s

Primary Gas-insulated Extendable LSC2 PM IACA FLR 31.5kA, 1s NXPLUS C Single 15 31.5 31.5 2,500 2,500
1
24.0 25 25 2,500 2,000

LSC2 PM IACA FLR 25kA, 1s NXPLUS C Double 24 25 25 2,500 1,250

2 LSC2 PM IACA FL 25kA, 1s ** NXPLUS C Wind Single 36 25 20 1,000 800/1,000


IACA FLR 25kA, 1s ***

LSC2 PM IACA FLR 31.5kA, 1s NXPLUS Single 40.5 31.5 31.5 2,500 2,500

3 LSC2 PM IACA FLR 31.5kA, 1s NXPLUS Double 36 31.5 31.5 2,500 2,500

LSC2 PM IACA FLR 40kA, 1s 8DA10 Single 40.5 40 40 5,000 2,500

LSC2 PM IACA FLR 40kA, 1s 8DB10 Double 40.5 40 40 5,000 2,500


4
Air-insulated Extendable LSC2B PM IACA FLR 50kA, 1s NXAIR Single 17.5 50 50 4,000 4,000

Double 17.5 50 50 4,000 4,000

5 IACA FLR 25kA, 1s Single 24 25 25 2,500 2,500

Double 24 25 25 2,500 2,500

LSC2B PM IACA FLR 31.5kA, 1s NXAIR S Single 40.5 31.5 31.5 3,150 2,500
6
LSC2A PM IACA FLR 25kA, 1s 8BT1 Single 24 25 25 2,000 2,000

LSC2B PM IACA FLR 31.5kA, 1s 8BT2 Single 36 31.5 31.5 3,150 3,150

7 Secondary Gas-insulated Non-extendable LSC2 PM IACA FL 21kA, 1s ** 8DJH Compact Single 17.5 25 20 630 200 ****/
IACA FLR 21kA, 1s *** (panel blocks) 250/400/630

24 20 20 630 200 ****/


250/400/630
8
Extendable LSC2 PM IACA FL 21kA, 1s ** 8DJH Single 17.5 25 20 630 200 ****/
IACA FLR 21kA, 1s *** (single panel/ 250/400/630
block type) 24 20 20
9 630 200 ****/
250/400/630

Extendable LSC2 PM IACA FL 20kA, 1s ** 8DJH 36 Single 36 20 20 630 200 ****/ 630
IACA FLR 20kA, 1s ***
10
Air-insulated Extendable LSC2 PM IACA FLR 21kA, 1s SIMOSEC Single 17.5 25 21 1,250 1,250

24 20 20 1,250 1,250
11 * Maximum possible IAC classification ** Wall-standig arrangement *** Free-standig arrangement **** Depending on HV HRC fuse-link

Table 3.2-11: Overview of Siemens medium-voltage switchgear

12

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 129


Substations and switchgear 3.2 Medium-voltage substations and switchgear

NXAIR 17.5kV Rated


Voltage kV 7.2 12 17.5
Frequency Hz 50/60 50/60 50/60
Short-duration power-frequency withstand voltage kV 20* 28* 38
(phase/phase, phase/earth)
Lightning impulse withstand voltage kV 60 75 95
(phase/phase, phase/earth)
1 Short-circuit breaking current max.kA 50 50 50
Short-time withstand current, 3s max.kA 50 50 50
Short-circuit making current max.kA 125/130** 125/130** 125/130**
2
Peak withstand current max.kA 125/130** 125/130** 125/130**
Normal current for busbar max.A 4,000 4,000 4,000

3 Normal current for feeders:


Circuit-breaker panel max.A 4,000 4,000 4,000
Contactor panel max.A 400*** 400***
Disconnecting panel max.A 4,000 4,000 4,000
Bus sectionalizer max.A 4,000 4,000 4,000
4 Busbar connection panel max.A 4,000 4,000 4,000
* 32kV at 7.2kV and 42kV at 12kV optional for GOST standard.
** Values for 50Hz: 125kA; for 60Hz: 130kA.
*** Current values dependent on HV HRC fuses. Lightning impulse withstand voltage across open contact gap of
5 contactor: 40kV at 7.2kV, 60kV at 12kV.

Fig.3.2-5: NXAIR panel Table3.2-12: Technical data of NXAIR

6
Dimensions in mm
WidthW Circuit-breaker panel 1,000A 600*
 1,250/2,500/3,150A 800
7  2,500 A/3,150 A/4,000 A 1,000
Contactor panel 400A 435/600
Disconnecting panel 1,250A 800
 2,500 A/3,150 A/4,000 A 1,000
8 Bus sectionalizer 1,250A 2800
 2,500 A/3,150 A/4,000 A 21,000
Metering panel 800
Busbar connection panel 4,000A 800/1,000
9 HeightH1 With standard low-voltage 2,300
compartment, natural ventilation
HeightH2 With high low-voltage compartment or 2,350
10 additional compartment for busbar
components
HeightH3 With forced ventilation for 4,000 A 2,450
HeightH4 With optional internal arc absorber 2,500
11 DepthD Single busbar, all panel types 31.5kA 1,350
(except contactor panel) 40kA/50 kA 1,500/1,650
W D Contactor panel 31.5kA 1,400
 40 kA/50 kA 1,500/1,650
12 * 31.5kA

Fig.3.2-6: Dimensions of NXAIR

Performance features
The air-insulated, metal-clad switchgear type NXAIR is an  ingle busbar, double busbar (back-to-back, face-to-face)
S
innovation in the switchgear field for the distribution and Withdrawable vacuum circuit-breaker
process level up to 17.5kV, 50kA, 4,000A. Withdrawable vacuum contactor
Type-tested, IEC62271-200, metal-clad, loss of service Platform concept worldwide, local manufacturing
continuity category: LSC2B; partition class: PM; presence
internal arc classification: IACA FLR 50kA 1s Use of standardized devices
Evidence of the making and breaking capacity for the Maximum security of operation by self-explaining
circuit-breakers and the make-proof earthing switches operatinglogic
insidethe panel Maintenance interval 10years.
Insulating medium air is always available

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 130


Substations and switchgear 3.2 Medium-voltage substations and switchgear

NXAIR 24kV Rated

Voltage kV 24

Frequency Hz 50/60

Short-duration power-frequency withstand voltage


kV 50 *
(phase/phase, phase/earth)
Lightning impulse withstand voltage
1 (phase/phase, phase/earth)
kV 125

Short-circuit breaking current max.kA 25

2 Short-time withstand current, 3s max.kA 25

Short-circuit making current max.kA 63/65 **

Peak withstand current max.kA 63/65 **


3
Normal current for busbar max. A 2,500

Normal current for feeders:


Circuit-breaker panel max.A 2,500
4 Disconnecting panel max.A 2,500
Bus sectionalizer max. A 2,500
* 65kV optional for GOST standard ** Values for 50Hz: 63kA; for 60Hz: 65kA.

5 Table3.2-13: Technical data of NXAIR, 24kV


Fig.3.2-7: NXAIR, 24kV panel

6
Dimensions in mm
WidthW Circuit-breaker panel 1,250A 800
 2,500A 1,000
7 Disconnecting panel 1,250A 800
 2,500A 1,000
Bus sectionalizer 1,250A 2800
8  1,600 A/2,000 A/2,500 A 21,000
Metering panel 800

HeightH1 With standard low-voltage 2,510


9 compartment
HeightH2 With high low-voltage compartment 2,550

10 HeightH3 With natural ventilation 2,680

HeightH4 With optional internal arc absorber 2,750

11 HeightH5 With additional compartment for busbar 2,770


components
W D
DepthD Single busbar 1,600
Double busbar (back-to-back) 3,350
12
Fig.3.2-8: Dimensions of NXAIR, 24kV

Performance features
The air-insulated, metal-clad switchgear type NXAIR, 24kV is  ingle busbar, double busbar (back-to-back, face-to-face)
S
the resulting further development of the NXAIR family for Insulating medium air is always available
use in the distribution and process level up to 24kV, 25kA, Withdrawable vacuum circuit-breaker
2,500A. Platform concept worldwide, local manufacturing
Type-tested, IEC62271-200, metal-clad, loss of service presence
continuity category: LSC2B; partition class: PM; Use of standardized devices
internal arc classification: IACA FLR 25 kA 1s Maximum security of operation by self-explaining
Evidence of the making and breaking capacity for the operatinglogic
circuit-breakers and the make-proof earthing switches Maintenance interval 10years.
inside the panel

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 131


Substations and switchgear 3.2 Medium-voltage substations and switchgear

NXAIR S Rated
Voltage kV 40.5
Frequency Hz 50/60
Short-duration power-frequency withstand voltage kV 185
(phase/phase, phase/earth)
Lightning impulse withstand voltage kV 95
(phase/phase, phase/earth)
1 Short-circuit breaking current max.kA 31.5
Short-time withstand current, 4s max.kA 31.5
Short-circuit making current max.kA 80/82
2 Peak withstand current max.kA 80/82
Normal current for busbar max. A 3,150
Normal current for feeders:
3 Circuit-breaker panel max.A 2,500
Disconnecting panel max.A 2,500
Bus sectionalizer max. A 2,500

4 Table3.2-14: Technical data of NXAIR S

5
Fig.3.2-9: NXAIR S panel

6
Performance features
The air-insulated, metal-clad
switchgear type NXAIR S is
7 based on the construction
principles of the NXAIR
family and designed for use
8 in the distribution and pro-
cess level up to 40.5kV,
31.5kA, 3,150A.
Type-tested, IEC62271-200,
H3

9
H2

metal-clad, loss of service


continuity category:
H1

LSC2B; partition class:


10 PM; internal arc
classification: IACAFLR
31.5kA 1s
Insulating medium air is
11 always available W D

Evidence of the making


and breaking capacity for
Dimensions in mm
12 the circuit-breakers and
WidthW Circuit-breaker panel 1,200
the make-proof earthing
switches insidethe panel Disconnecting panel 1,200
Withdrawable vacuum Switch-fuse panel including auxiliary transformer 1,400
circuit-breaker Bus sectionalizer 21,200
Maximum availability due Metering panel 1,200
to modular design HeightH1 With standard low-voltage compartment 2,650
Maximum security of
HeightH2 Standard panel 2,800
operation by self-
explaining operatinglogic HeightH3 Optionally with internal arc absorber 3,010
Maintenance interval DepthD Single busbar 2,650
10years.
Fig.3.2-10: Dimensions of NXAIR S

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 132


Substations and switchgear 3.2 Medium-voltage substations and switchgear

8BT1 Rated
Voltage kV 12 24
Frequency Hz 50 50
Short-duration power-frequency withstand voltage kV 28 50
(phase/phase, phase/earth)
Lightning impulse withstand voltage kV 75 125
(phase/phase, phase/earth)
1 Short-circuit breaking current max.kA 25 25
Short-time withstand current, 3s max.kA 25 25
Short-circuit making current max.kA 63 63

2 Peak withstand current max.kA 63 63


Normal current for busbar max. A 2,000 2,000
Normal current for feeders
with circuit-breaker max.A 2,000 2,000
3 with switch-disconnector max.A 630 630
with switch-disconnector and fuses max. A 200A* 200A*
* Depending on rated current of the HV HRC fuses used.

4 Table3.2-15: Technical data of 8BT1

5
Fig.3.2-11: 8BT1 panel

6
Performance features
The air-insulated, cubicle-
type switchgear type 8BT1 is
7 afactory-assembled, type-
tested indoor switchgear for
H2
H1

lower ratings in the distribu-


8 tion and process level up to
24kV, 25kA, 2,000A.
Type-tested, IEC62271-200,
cubicle-type, loss of
9 service continuity
category: LSC2A; partition W D1
class: PM; internal arc D2

10 classification: IACAFLR
25kA 1s All panel types in mm
Insulating medium air is 7.2/12kV
always available Width W For circuit-breaker max. 1,250A 600
11 Evidence of the making For circuit-breaker 2,000A 800
and breaking capacity for For switch-disconnector 600
the circuit-breakers and Height H1 With standard low-voltage compartment 2,050
the make-proof earthing H2 With pressure relief system 2,300*
12 H2 With lead-off duct 2,350*
switches inside the panel
Single busbar Depth D1 Without low-voltage compartment 1,200
D2 With low-voltage compartment 1,410
Withdrawable vacuum
circuit-breaker 24kV
All switching operations Width W For circuit-breaker max. 1,250A 800
with door closed. For circuit-breaker 2,000A 1,000
For switch-disconnector 800
Height H1 With standard low-voltage compartment 2,050
H2 With pressure relief system 2,300*
H2 With lead-off duct 2,350*
Depth D1 Without low-voltage compartment 1,200
D2 With low-voltage compartment 1,410
*For 1s arc duration.

Fig.3.2-12: Dimensions of 8BT1

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 133


Substations and switchgear 3.2 Medium-voltage substations and switchgear

8BT2 Rated

Voltage kV 36

Frequency Hz 50/60

Short-duration power-frequency withstand voltage kV 70


(phase/phase, phase/earth)

1 Lightning impulse withstand voltage


(phase/phase, phase/earth)
kV 170

Short-circuit breaking current max.kA 31.5

2 Short-time withstand current, 3s max.kA 31.5

Short-circuit making current max.kA 80/82*

Peak withstand current max.kA 80/82*


3
Normal current for busbar max. A 3,150

Normal current for feeders


4 with circuit-breaker max. A 3,150
* Values for 50Hz: 80kA; for 60Hz: 82kA.

Table3.2-16: Technical data of 8BT2


5
Fig.3.2-13: 8BT2 switchgear

6
Dimensions in mm

WidthW 3,150A feeder current 1,200

7 HeightH1 Intermediate panel 2,400

HeightH2 End panel with side baffles 2,750/2,800*

HeightH3 Panel with closed duct 2,900**


8
H3

DepthD Wall-standing, IACA FL 2,450


H2
H1

Free-standing, IACA FLR 2,700


* H2 indicates side baffles for internal arc protection
9 ** Closed duct for IAC-classificationA FLR

10
W D

Fig.3.2-14: Dimensions of 8BT2

11

12

Performance features
The air-insulated, metal-clad switchgear type 8BT2 is afac- Single busbar
tory-assembled, type-tested indoor switchgear for use in the W ithdrawable vacuum circuit-breaker
distribution and process level up to 36kV, 31.5kA, 3,150A. All switching operations with door closed.
Type-tested, IEC62271-200, metal-clad, loss of service
continuity category: LSC2B; partition class: PM; internal
arc classification: IACAFLR 31.5kA 1s
Insulating medium air is always available
Evidence of the making and breaking capacity for the
circuit-breakers and the make-proof earthing switches
inside the panel

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 134


Substations and switchgear 3.2 Medium-voltage substations and switchgear

8DA/8DB Rated
Voltage kV 12 24 36 40.5
Frequency Hz 50/60 50/60 50/60 50/60
Short-duration power-frequency withstand voltage kV 28 50 70 85
Lightning impulse withstand voltage kV 75 125 170 185
Short-circuit breaking current max.kA 40 40 40 40
1 Short-time withstand current, 3s max.kA 40 40 40 40
Short-circuit making current max.kA 100 100 100 100
Peak withstand current max.kA 100 100 100 100
2 Normal current for busbar max. A 5,000 5,000 5,000 5,000
Normal current for feeders max. A 2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500

Table3.2-17: Technical data of 8DA/8DB


3
8DA switchgear
Fig.3.2-15: 8DA switchgear
4 for single-busbar
applications (on the
left), 8DB switchgear
for double-busbar
5 applications (on the
right)
H

6
8DA/8DB are gas-insulated
medium-voltage circuit-
breaker switchgear assem-
7 blies up to 40.5kV with the
advantages of the vacuum
switching technology for W D1
8 ahigh degree of indepen- 8DB switchgear
dence in all applications.
8DA/8DB are suitablefor
primary distribution systems
9 up to 40.5kV, 40kA, up to
5,000A.
H

10 Performance features
Type-tested according to
IEC62271-200
Enclosure with modular
11 standardized housings
made from corrosion-
resistant aluminum alloy W D2
12 Safe-to-touch enclosure
and standardized Dimensions In mm
connections for plug-in
Width (spacing) W 600
cable terminations
Operating mechanisms Height H Standard design 2,350
Design with higher low-voltage compartment 2,700
and transformers are
easily accessible outside Depth D1 Single-busbar switchgear 1,625
D2 Double-busbar switchgear 2,665
the enclosure
Metal-enclosed, partition Fig.3.2-16: Dimensions of 8DA/8DB
class PM
Loss of service continuity Advantages Personal safety
category for switchgear: Independent of Operational reliability
LSC2 environment and climate Environmentally
Internal arc classification: Compact compatible
IACA FLR 40kA 1s. Maintenance-free Cost-efficient.

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 135


Substations and switchgear 3.2 Medium-voltage substations and switchgear

8DJH Compact Rated


Voltage kV 7.2 12 15 17.5 24
Frequency Hz 50/60 50/60 50/60 50/60 50/60
Short-duration power-frequency kV 20 28 36 38 50
withstand voltage
Lightning impulse withstand voltage kV 60 75 95 95 125
Normal current for ring-main feeders A 400 or 630
1 Normal current for busbar max.A 630
Normal current for transformer feeders A 200*
Short-time withstand current, 1s max.kA 25 25 25 25 20
2 Short-time withstand current, 3s max.kA 20 20 20 20 20

50 Hz
Peak withstand current max.kA 63 63 63 63 50
Short-circuit making current
3 for ring-main feeders
for transformer feeders
max.kA
max.kA
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
50
50
Short-time withstand current, 1s max.kA 21 21 21 21 20
Fig.3.2-17: 8DJH Compact Short-time withstand current, 3s max.kA 21 21 21 21 20
4

60 Hz
Peak withstand current max.kA 55 55 55 55 52
Short-circuit making current
for ring-main feeders max.kA 55 55 55 55 52
The gas-insulated medium- for transformer feeders max.kA 55 55 55 55 52
5 voltage switchgear type *Depending on HV HRC fuse-link
8DJH Compact is used for
power distribution in sec- Table3.2-18: Technical data of 8DJH Compact

6 ondary distribution systems


up to 24kV. Ring-main
feeders and transformer
feeders are all part of acom-
7 prehensive product range to
satisfy all requirements with
the highest level of opera-
8 tional reliability also for
extreme ambient conditions.
H

Performance features
9 Type-tested according to
IEC62271-200
Sealed pressure system
10 with SF6 filling for the
entire service life
Safe-to-touch enclosure
and standardized
11 connections for plug-in
W D

cable terminations
3-pole, gas-insulated Dimensions In mm

12 switchgear vessel for Width W Number of feeders (in extracts)


switching devices and 3 feeders (RRT) 620**/700***
4 feeders (RRT-R) 930**/1,010***
busbar 6 feeders (RRT-RRT) 1,240**/1,400***
Panel blocks Height H 1,400/1,700
Switching devices:
Depth D Standard switchgear 775
three-position switch-
**Internal arc classification IACA F, ***Internal arc classification IACA FLR
disconnector (CLOSED
OPEN EARTHED), Fig.3.2-18: Dimensions of 8DJH Compact
switch-fuse combination
for distribution
transformer protection
Earthing function of
switching devices
generally make-proof.

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 136


Substations and switchgear 3.2 Medium-voltage substations and switchgear

8DJH Rated
Voltage kV 7.2 12 15 17.5 24
Frequency Hz 50/60 50/60 50/60 50/60 50/60
Short-duration power-frequency kV 20 28* 36 38 50
withstand voltage
Lightning impulse withstand voltage kV 60 75 95 95 125
Normal current for ring-main feeders A 400 or 630
1 Normal current for busbar max.A 630
Normal current for circuit-breaker feeders A 250 or 630
Normal current for transformer feeders A 200**
2 Short-time withstand current, 1s max.kA 25 25 25 25 20/21
Short-time withstand current, 3s max.kA 20/21 20/21 20/21 20/21 20/21
Peak withstand current max.kA 63 63 63 63 50/52.5

50 Hz
3 Short-circuit making current
for ring-main feeders max.kA 63 63 63 63 50/52.5
for circuit-breaker feeders max.kA 63 63 63 63 50/52.5
Fig.3.2-19: 8DJH block type for transformer feeders max.kA 63 63 63 63 50/52.5
4 Short-time withstand current, 1s max.kA 25 25 25 25 20/21
Short-time withstand current, 3s max.kA 20/21 20/21 20/21 20/21 20/21
Peak withstand current max.kA 65 65 65 65 52/55

60 Hz
The gas-insulated medium-
5 voltage switchgear type 8DJH
Short-circuit making current
for ring-main feeders max.kA 65 65 65 65 52/55
is used for power distribution for circuit-breaker feeders max.kA 65 65 65 65 52/55
in secondary distribution for transformer feeders max.kA 65 65 65 65 52/55

6 systems up to 24kV. Ring- *42kV according to some national requirements **Depending on HV HRC fuse-link
main feeders, circuit-breaker
Table3.2-19: Technical data of 8DJH
feeders and transformer
feeders are all part of acom-
7 prehensive product range to
satisfy all requirements with
the highest level of opera-
8 tional reliability also for
extreme ambient conditions.

Performance features
9 Type-tested according to
H

IEC62271-200
Sealed pressure system
10 with SF6 filling for the
entire service life
Safe-to-touch enclosure
and standardized
11 connections for plug-in W D

cable terminations Dimensions In mm


3-pole, gas-insulated
Width W Number of feeders (in extracts)
12 switchgear vessel for 2 feeders (e.g., RR) 620
switching devices and 3 feeders (e.g., RRT) 1,050
busbar 4 feeders (e.g., 3R + 1T) 1,360
Panel blocks and single Height H Panels without low-voltage compartment 1,200/1,400/1,700
panels available Panels with low-voltage compartment (option) 1,4002,600
Switchgear with pressure absorber (option) 1,8002,600
Switching devices:
Depth D Standard switchgear 775
three-position switch-
Switchgear with pressure absorber (option) 890
disconnector (ONOFF
EARTH), switch-fuse Fig.3.2-20: Dimensions of 8DJH block types
combination for
distribution transformer
protection, vacuum circuit-
breaker with three-position
disconnector, earthing
switch.

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 137


Substations and switchgear 3.2 Medium-voltage substations and switchgear

8DJH

H2

H2

H2

H2
H1

H1

H1

H1
2

3
W W D W W D D

Fig.3.2-21: 8DJH single panel


4 Dimensions In mm
Width W Ring-main feeders 310/500
Transformer feeders 430
E arthing function of Circuit-breaker feeders 430/500
5 switching devices
Bus sectionalizer panels 430/500/620
generally make-proof Busbar metering panels 430/500
Metal-enclosed, partition Billing metering panels 840
6 class PM Height H1 Panels without low-voltage compartment 1,200/1,400/1,700
Loss of service continuity H2 Panels with low-voltage compartment 1,4002,600
category for switchgear: Switchgear with pressure absorber (option) 1,8002,600
LSC2 Depth D Standard switchgear 775
7 Internal arc classification Switchgear with pressure absorber (option) 890
(option):
Fig.3.2-22: Dimensions of 8DJH single panels
IACA FL 21kA, 1s
8 IACA FLR 21kA, 1s

Advantages Typical uses


9 No gas work during 8DJH switchgear is used for
installation power distribution in secon
Compact dary distribution systems,
10 Independent of suchas:
environment and climate Public energy distribution
Maintenance-free Transformer substations
High operating and Customer transfer
11 personal safety substations
Switchgear interlocking High-rise buildings
system with logical Infrastructure facilities
12 mechanical interlocks Airports and ports
Operational reliability and Railway and
security of investment underground railway
Environmentally stations
compatible Water and wastewater
Cost-efficient. treatment
Industrial plants
Automotive industry
Chemical industry
Open-cast mines
Renewable power
generation
Wind power plants
Solar power plants
Biomass power plants.

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 138


Substations and switchgear 3.2 Medium-voltage substations and switchgear

8DJH 36

H2
H1
2

3
W D

Fig.3.2-23: 8DJH 36 block type Dimensions In mm


4 Width W Ring-main feeders 430
Transformer feeders 500
Circuit-breaker feeders 590
The gas-insulated medium RRT block 1,360
5 voltage switchgear type RRL block 1,450
8DJH36 is used for power Billing metering panels 1,100
distribution in secondary Height H1 Panels without low-voltage compartment 1,600
6 distribution systems up to H2 Panels with low-voltage compartment 1,8002,200
36kV. Ring-main feeders, Depth D Standard switchgear 920/980
circuit-breaker feeders and Switchgear with pressure absorber (option) 1,035/1,095
transformer feeders are all
7 part of acomprehensive Fig.3.2-24: Dimensions of 8DJH 36
product range to satisfy all
requirements with the
8 highest level of operational E arthing function of Rated
reliability also for extreme switching devices Voltage kV 36
conditions. generally make-proof Frequency Hz 50/60
Metal-enclosed, partion Short-duration power-frequency kV 70
9 Performance features class PM withstand voltage
Type-tested according to Loss of service continuity Lightning impulse withstand voltage kV 170
IEC62271-200 category for switchgear: Normal current for ring-main feeders A 630
10 Sealed pressure system LSC2 Normal current for busbar max.A 630
with SF6 filling for the Internal arc classifcation
Normal current for circuit-breaker feeders A 630
entire service life (option):
Normal current for transformer feeders A 200*
Safe-to-touch enclosure IACA FL 20kA, 1s
11 and standardized IACA FLR 20kA, 1s. Short-time withstand current, 1s max.kA 20

connections for plug-in Short-time withstand current, 3s max.kA 20


terminations Advantages Peak withstand current max.kA 50
50 Hz

12 3-pole, gas-insulated No gas work during Short-circuit making current


switchgear vessel for installation for ring-main feeders max.kA 50
for circuit-breaker feeders max.kA 50
switching devices and Compact for transformer feeders max.kA 50
busbar Independent of
Short-time withstand current, 1s max.kA 20
Panel blocks and single environment and climate
Short-time withstand current, 3s max.kA 20
panels available Maintenance-free
Peak withstand current max.kA 52
Switching devices: High operating and
60 Hz

three-position switch- personalsafety Short-circuit making current


for ring-main feeders max.kA 52
disconnector (OPEN Switchgear interlocking for circuit-breaker feeders max.kA 52
CLOSEDEARTHED), system with logical for transformer feeders max.kA 52
switch-fuse combination mechanical interlocks *Depending on HV HRC fuse-link
for distribution trans- Operational reliability and
former protection, vacuum security of investment Table3.2-20: Technical data of 8DJH 36
circuit-breaker with three- Enviromentally compatible
position disconnector Cost-efficent.

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 139


Substations and switchgear 3.2 Medium-voltage substations and switchgear

NXPLUS Single Single Single


Rated Busbar system double double double Single
Voltage kV 12 24 36 40.5
Frequency Hz 50/60 50/60 50/60 50/60
Short-duration power-frequency kV 28 50 70 85
withstand voltage
Lightning impulse withstand voltage kV 75 125 170 185
1 Short-circuit breaking current max.kA 31.5 31.5 31.5 31.5
Short-time withstand current, 3s max.kA 31.5 31.5 31.5 31.5
Short-circuit making current max.kA 80 80 80 80
2
Peak withstand current max.kA 80 80 80 80
Normal current for busbar max. A 2,500 2,500 2,500 2,000
Normal current for feeders max. A 2,500 2,500 2,500 2,000
3
Table3.2-21: Technical data of NXPLUS

Fig.3.2-25: NXPLUS switchgear


4 for single-busbar
applications (on
the left), NXPLUS
NXPLUS switchgear with single busbar NXPLUS switchgear with double-busbar
switchgear for double-
5 busbar applications
(on the right)

6
NXPLUS is agas-insulated
medium-voltage circuit-
H1

7
H2
breaker switchgear up to
40.5kV with the advantages
of the vacuum switching
8 technology for ahigh
degree of independence in
all applications. NXPLUS can
W1 D1
be used for primary distribu-
9 tion systems up to 40.5kV, W2 D2
up to 31.5kA, up to 2,000A
(for double-busbar Dimensions In mm
10 switchgear up to 2,500A), Width (spacing) W1 Feeders up to 2,000A 600
(see catalog HA35.51).
W2 Feeders up to 2,300A 900

Performance features W2 Feeders up to 2,500A 1,200


11 Type-tested according to Height H1 Single-busbar switchgear 2,450
IEC62271-200 H2 Double-busbar switchgear 2,600
Sealed pressure system Depth D1 Single-busbar switchgear 1,600
with SF6 filling for the D2 Double-busbar switchgear 1,840
12
entire service life Fig.3.2-26: Dimensions of NXPLUS
Safe-to-touch enclosure
and standardized
connections for plug-in
cable terminations Operating mechanisms Internal arc classification: Advantages
Separate 3-pole gas- and transformers are IACA FLR 31.5kA, 1s Independent of
insulated modules for arranged outside the No gas work during environment and climate
busbar with three-position switchgear vessels and are installation or extension. Compact
disconnector, and for easily accessible Maintenance-free
circuit-breaker Metal-enclosed, partition Personal safety
Interconnection of class PM Operational reliability
modules with 1-pole Loss of service continuity Environmentally
insulated and screened category for switchgear: compatible
module couplings LSC2 Cost-efficient.

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 140


Substations and switchgear 3.2 Medium-voltage substations and switchgear

NXPLUS C Rated
Voltage kV 7.2 12 15 17.5 24
Frequency Hz 50/60 50/60 50/60 50/60 50/60
Short-duration power-frequency kV 20 28* 36 38 50
withstand voltage
Lightning impulse withstand voltage kV 60 75 95 95 125

1 Short-circuit breaking current max.kA 31.5 31.5 31.5 25 25


Short-time withstand current, 3s max.kA 31.5 31.5 31.5 25 25
Short-circuit making current max.kA 80 80 80 63 63

2 Peak withstand current max.kA 80 80 80 63 63


Normal current for busbar max. A 2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500
Normal current for feeders max. A 2,500 2,500 2,500 2,000 2,000

3 *42kV according to some national requirements

Table3.2-22: Technical data of NXPLUS C


Fig.3.2-27: NXPLUS C panel

4
The compact NXPLUS C is the
medium-voltage circuit-
breaker switchgear that made
5 gas insulation with the proven
vacuum switching technology
economical in its class. The
6 NXPLUS C is used for sec-
ondary and primary distribu- H3
H2

tion systems up to 24kV, up


H1

to 31.5kA and up to 2,500A.


7 It can also be supplied as
double-busbar switchgear in
aback-to-back arrangement
8 (see catalogue HA35.41).

Performance features W D
Type-tested according to
9 IEC62271-200
Dimensions In mm

Sealed pressure system Width W 630A/1,000A/1,250A 600


with SF6 filling for the 2,000A/2,500A 900

10 entire service life Height H1 Standard design 2,250 (W = 600);


Safe-to-touch enclosure 2,550 (W = 900)
and standardized H2 With horizontal pressure relief duct 2,640 (W = 600);
2,640 (W = 900)
connections for plug-in H3 With higher low-voltage compartment 2,650
11 cable terminations
Depth D Wall-standing arrangement 1,250
Loss of service continuity Free-standing arrangement 1,250
category for switchgear:
12 Without HV HRC fuses: Fig.3.2-28: Dimensions of NXPLUS C
LSC2
1-pole insulated and With horizontal pressure Certificate of compliance Advantages
screened busbar relief duct issued by Canadian No gas work during
3-pole gas-insulated Extended number of Standard Association (CSA) installation or extension
switchgear vessels with operating cycles (up to Type-approved by LR, Compact
three-position switch and 15 kV, up to 31.5 kV, up to DNV, GL, ABS, RMR Independent of
circuit-breaker 1,250 A) Internal arc environment and climate
Operating mechanisms and DISCONNECTING classification for: Maintenance-free
transformers are located function: 5,000 , Wall-standing Personal safety
outside the switchgear 10,000 arrangement: Operational reliability
vessel and are easily READY-TO-EARTH func- IACA FL 31.5kA, 1s Environmentally
accessible tion: 5,000 , 10,000 Free-standing compatible
Metal-enclosed, partition CIRCUIT-BREAKER arrangement: Cost-efficient.
class PM function: 30,000 IACA FLR 31.5kA, 1s.

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 141


Substations and switchgear 3.2 Medium-voltage substations and switchgear

NXPLUS C Wind Rated


Voltage kV 36
Frequency Hz 50/60
Short-duration power-frequency withstand voltage kV 70
Lightning impulse withstand voltage kV 170
Short-circuit breaking current max.kA 25
1
Short-time withstand current, 1s max.kA 25
Short-time withstand current, 3s max.kA 20

2 Short-circuit making current max.kA 63


Peak withstand current max.kA 63
Normal current for busbar max.A 1,000
3 Normal current for circuit-breaker panel max.A 800
Normal current for disconnector panel max.A 1,000

Table3.2-23: Technical data of NXPLUS C Wind


4

5
Fig.3.2-29: NXPLUS C Wind

6 The compact medium voltage


circuit-breaker switchgear
NXPLUSCWind is especially
designed for wind turbines.
7 Due to the small dimensions
H

it fits into wind turbines


where limited space is avail-
8 able. The NXPLUSCWind is
available for 36kV, up to
25kA and busbar currents up
to 1,000A. NXPLUSCWind
9 offers acircuit-breaker,
adisconnector and aswitch-
disconnector (ring-main) W W D D

10 panel.
Dimensions In mm
Performance features Width W Circuit-breaker panel 600
Type-tested according to Disconnector, switch-disconnector panel 450
11 IEC62271-200 Height H 1,900
Sealed pressure system Depth D 1,000
with SF6 filling for the
12 entire service life Fig.3.2-30: Dimensions of NXPLUS C Wind
Safe-to-touch enclosure
and standardized
connections for plug-in Metal-enclosed, partition Advantages
cable terminations class PM No gas work during
1-pole insulated and Loss of service continuity installation or extension
screened busbar category LSC2B Compact
3-pole gas-insulated Internal arc classification Independent of
switchgear vessels with for: enviroment and climate
three-position switch and Wall-standing Maintenance-free
circuit-breaker arrangement: Personal safety
Operating mechanism and IAC FLA 25kA, 1s Operational reliabilty
transformers are located Free-standing Enviromentally compatible
outside the vessel and are arrangement: Cost efficent.
easily accessible IAC FLRA 25kA, 1s.

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 142


Substations and switchgear 3.2 Medium-voltage substations and switchgear

SIMOSEC Rated
Voltage 7.2 kV 12 kV 15 kV o.r. 17.5 kV 24 kV
Frequency Hz 50/60 50/60 50/60 50/60 50/60
Short-duration power-frequency
kV 20 28* 36 38 50
withstand voltage
Lightning impulse withstand voltage kV 60 75 95 95 125
1 Short-circuit breaking current max.kA 25 25 25 25 20
Short-time withstand current, 1 s max.kA 25 25 25 25 20
Short-time withstand current, 3s max.kA 21 21 21 20
2 Short-circuit making current max.kA 25 25 25 25 20
Peak withstand current max.kA 63 63 63 63 50
Normal current for busbar A 630 or 1,250
3 Normal current for feeders max. A 1,250 1,250 1,250 1,250 1,250
*42kV/75kV, according to some national requirements
Fig.3.2-31: SIMOSEC switchgear

4 Table3.2-24: Technical data of SIMOSEC

The air-insulated medium-


5 voltage switchgear type
SIMOSEC is used for power
distribution in secondary and
6 primary distribution systems
up to 24kV and up to
1,250A. The modular
product range includes
7 individual panels such as
ring-main, transformer and
circuit-breaker panels, or
8 metering panels to fully
satisfy all requirements for
power supply companies and
industrial applications.
9
Performance features
Type-tested according to
10 IEC62271-200
Phases for busbar and D
cable connection are
arranged one behind the
11 other Dimensions In mm

3-pole gas-insulated Width (spacing) W Ring-main feeders, transformer feeders 375 or 500
switchgear vessel with Circuit-breaker feeders, bus sectionalizer 750 or 875

12 three-position Metering panels 500/750/875


disconnector, circuit- Height H1 Panels without low-voltage compartment 1,760
breaker and earthing H2 Panels with low-voltage compartment 2,100 or 2,300
switch as asealed Depth D Standard 1,170 and 1,230
pressure system with SF6
filling for the entire Fig.3.2-32: Dimensions of SIMOSEC
service life
Air-insulated busbar L oss of service continuity Free-standing Advantages
system category for switchgear: arrangement: Compact modular design
Air-insulated cable LSC2 IACA FLR 21kA, 1s High operating and
connection system, for Internal arc classification Can be mounted personal safety
conventional cable sealing for: side-by-side and extended Environmentally
ends Wall-standing as desired. compatible
Metal-enclosed, partition arrangement: Cost-efficient.
class PM IACA FL 21kA, 1s

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 143


Substations and switchgear 3.2 Medium-voltage substations and switchgear

3.2.5 High-current and generator


switchgear
Siemens high-current and generator switchgear with
vacuum switching technology is the result of more than
20years of continuous development, and so it fulfills the
highest technological and quality requirements.
1
Under the high thermal and mechanical stress of generator
switching applications, generator switchgear with vacuum
2 switching technology serves as an important operational
equipment for the protection of transformers and
generators.

3 Also, it offers numerous advantages regardless of the type Fig.3.2-33: HB3 generator switchgear with horizontal busbars
of power plant. Due to the use of tested and durable com-
ponents with a service life of more than 20 years, a high
4 level of operational reliability and availability is achieved
that leads to increased profitability. The use of mainte-
nance-fee vacuum switching technology and components
in the generator switchgear guarantees minimum mainte-
5 nance costs. Generator switchgear ensures a high degree of
personnel safety thanks to its internal arc classification.

6 Customer advantages:
Increases cost-efficiency and service continuity
Stands for optimal personal safety
Preserves the environment
7 Minimizes installation and maintenance costs
Offers tailored solutions according to the customer
requirements.
8 Fig.3.2-34: HB1 generator switchgear for outdoor installation
HB3 single-phase encapsulated
The HB3 generator switchgear is suitable for power plants
up to 400 MW depending on the type of power plant and
9 the operating voltage.
HB1 for indoor and outdoor installation
HB3 is the first generator switchgear worldwide with The HB1 generator switchgear with horizontal busbars is
10 vacuum generator circuit-breakers for ratings up to suitable for power plants up to 170 MW depending on the
12,500A with natural cooling and a switching capacity type of power plant and the operating voltage.
of100 kA type-tested according to the standards
IEEEC37.013 and 62271-37-013. It offers maximum opera- This air-insulated, three-phase encapsulated generator
11 tional reliability and a high degree of personal safety, as switchgear is available for indoor and outdoor installation.
short circuits between phases are excluded due to the In addition, it enables in a wide area of applications thanks
single-phase encapsulation. to its flexible connection concept using bus ducts, cables
12 and solid-insulated busbars. The HB1 is especially suited for
The switchgear is type-tested in accordance with industrial power plants with medium-sized gas and steam
IEC62271-200 (fig. 3.2-33). turbines, as well as for solar power plants (fig.3.2-34).

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 144


Substations and switchgear 3.2 Medium-voltage substations and switchgear

VB1 the highly flexible, modular expandable solution


The VB1 generator switchgear is highly flexible, with a
modularly expandable concept that makes it suitable for a
power range up to 140 MW.

This switchgear features a highly compact and customiz-


able design with space for modular extension. This charac-
1 teristic makes it especially interesting for power plants that
are operated with multiple generators or feeders for auxil-
iary supply, excitation, or brake disconnectors. Because of
2 the high requirements in terms of switching capacity, space
constraints and accessibility, this switchgear is frequently
used in hydro power plants and retrofit projects.

3 As a containerized solution, the VB1 switchgear meets the Fig.3.2-35: VB1 generator switchgear with vertical busbars
highest requirements even under extreme climatic condi-
tions, e.g., in desert regions, or when exposed to corrosive
4 effects like those encountered in the chemical industry.
(fig. 3.2-35)

VB1-D with circuit-breaker truck for 63 kA


5 The VB1-D generator switchgear with vertical busbar and
truck-type design provides a high switchgear availability for
safe and cost-efficient power generation. Installation and
6 maintenance are easy to perform thanks to the uncompli-
cated technology. The switchgear is suitable for power
ratings up to 110 MW.

7 VB1-D offers maximum personal safety through the internal


arc classification IAC A FLR 63 kA, 0.3 s, and maximum
availability through the loss of service continuity category
8 LSC 2B, as well as through the partition class PM. Fig.3.2-36: VB1-D with circuit-breaker truck

The air-insulated, metal-enclosed switchgear is type-tested


according to IEC 62271-200, and is suitable for indoor
9 installation (fig. 3.2-36).

HIGS Highly Integrated Generator Switchgear


10 The HIGS generator switchgear was developed specifically
for Siemens industrial gas turbines SGT-600 to SGT-800 as
well as for steam turbines SST-400 to SST-600 in the power
range up to 65 MW. It can be adapted to the requirements
11 of other types of gas and steam turbines.

This switchgear is connected directly to the generator, thus


12 combining the conventional generator terminal box with
the functionality of a generator switchgear. It is also pos-
sible to implement neutral point connection and an auxil-
iary feeder. Fig.3.2-37: HIGS Highly Integrated Generator Switchgear

Profitability is increased by reduced interfaces and space


requirements.

The HIGS switchgear is suitable for indoor and outdoor


installation (fig. 3.2-37).

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 145


Substations and switchgear 3.2 Medium-voltage substations and switchgear

NXAIR for generator applications


The extendable medium-voltage NXAIR switchgear up to
17.5 kV, 50 kA uses withdrawable technology and is espe-
cially suitable for generator switching applications in small
industrial power plants up to 65 MW.

NXAIR offers maximum personal safety through the internal


1 arc classification IAC A FLR 50 kA, 1 s, maximum availability
through the loss of service continuity category LSC 2B, as
well as maximum reliability through the partition class PM.
2
The NXAIR can also be equipped with generator circuit-
breakers tested in accordance with the standards
IEEEC37.013 and IEEE/IEC 62271-37-013. This enables the
3 generator and auxiliary supply application to be combined Fig.3.2-38: NXAIR for generator applications
in a joint switchgear, which reduces space requirements
and interfaces and increases the profitability fig. 3.2-38).
4

7
Generator switchgear HB3 HB1 VB1 VB1-D HIGS NXAIR

Application area 80 MW400 MW 50 MW170 MW 50 MW140 MW 50 MW 110 MW 25 MW65 MW 10 MW65 MW

Rated voltage up to 24 kV up to 24 kV up to 24 kV up to 17.5 kV up to 15 kV up to 17.5 kV


8
Normal current up to 12,500 A up to 6,700 A up to 5,500 A up to 5,100 A up to 3,700 A up to 4,000 A

Rated short-time up to 100 kA/3s 72 kA/1s up to 72 kA/1s up to 63 kA/3s up to 50 kA/3s up to 50 kA/3s


withstand current/duration
9 Rated peak up to 274 kA up to 180 kA up to 180 kA up to 173 kA up to 125 kA up to 125 kA
withstand current

Internal arc classification up to IAC A FLR up to IAC A FL up to IAC A FLR IAC A FLR 50 kA/1s
63 kA/0.3s 72 kA/0.1s 63 kA/0.3s
10 Protectiob class IP65, IP66 IP 4X, IP54 IP 4X, IP54 IP 4X IP42, IP54 IP 3X D

Lost of service continuity LSC 1 LSC 1 LSC 2 A LSC 2 B LSC 1 LSC 2 B


category LSC 2B
11 Installation Indoor Indoor Indoor Indoor Indoor Indoor
Outdoor Outdoor Outdoor

Type of connection IPB Cable Cable Cable Directly at Cable


Solid-insulated Bus duct Bus duct Solid-insulated generator terminal Bus duct
12 busbars Solid-insulated Solid-insulated busbars
busbars busbars
IPB

Direction of connection:

front/rear

Direction of connection:

top/bottom

Direction of connection:

lateral

Auxiliary feeder
Exciter feeder,

start-up switch

Multiple generator switchgear

Table 3.2-25: Technical data

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 146


Substations and switchgear 3.2 Medium-voltage substations and switchgear

3.2.6 Industrial load center substation Whether in the automobile or food industry, in paint shops
or bottling lines, putting SITRABLOC to work in the right
Introduction place considerably reduces transmission losses. The energy
Industrial power supply systems call for amaximum level of is transformed in the production area itself, as close as
personal safety, operational reliability, economic efficiency, possible to the loads. For installation of the system itself,
and flexibility. And they likewise necessitate an integral no special building or fire-protection measures are
approach that includes before and after sales service, necessary.
1 that can cope with the specific load requirements and,
above all, that is tailored to each individually occurring
situation. With SITRABLOC (fig.3.2-39), such an approach
2 can be easily turned into reality.

General
SITRABLOC is an acronym for Siemens TRAnsformer BLOC-
3 type. SITRABLOC is supplied with power from amedium-
voltage substation via afuse/switch-disconnector combina-
tion and aradial cable. In the load center, where
4 SITRABLOC is installed, several SITRABLOCs are connected
together by means of cables or bars (fig.3.2-40).

Features
5 Due to the fuse/switch-disconnector combination, the
short-circuit current is limited, which means that the
radial cable can be dimensioned according to the size of
6 the transformer.
Fig.3.2-39: SITRABLOC system
In the event of cable faults, only one SITRABLOC fails.
The short-circuit strength is increased due to the
connection of several stations in the load center. The
7 effect of this is that, in the event of afault, large loads
Substation
8DC11/8DH10
are selectively disconnected in avery short time.
The transmission losses are optimized because only short
8 connections to the loads are necessary.
SITRABLOC has, in principle, two transformer outputs:
1,250kVA during AN operation Load-center
substation
(ambient air temperature up to 40C)
9 1,750kVA during AF operation
Utilities
substation
(140% with forced cooling).

10 These features ensure that, if one station fails, for whatever


reason, supply of the loads is maintained without interrup-
tion. LV busways

11 The SITRABLOC components are:


Transformer housing with roof-mounted ventilation for
AN/AF operating mode
12 GEAFOL transformer Fig.3.2-40: Example of aschematic diagram
(Cast-resin insulated) with make-proof earthing switch
AN operating mode: 100% load up to an ambient air
temperature of 40C
LV busway
AF operating mode: 140% load
LV circuit-breaker as per transformer AF load
Tap-off unit with
Automatic power factor correction equipment (tuned/ HRC fuses
detuned)
Control and metering panel as well as central monitoring
interface
Consumer
Universal connection to the LV distribution busway distribution
system (fig.3.2-41). incl. control
SITRABLOC

Fig.3.2-41: Location sketch

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 147


Substations and switchgear 3.2 Medium-voltage substations and switchgear

Availablewith any level of output


SITRABLOC can be supplied with any level of power output,
the latter being controlled and protected by afuse/switch-
disconnector combination.

A high-current busbar system into which up to four trans-


formers can feed power ensures that even large loads can
1 be brought onto load without any loss of energy. Due to
the interconnection of units, it is also ensured that large
loads are switched off selectively in the event of afault.
2
Integrated automatic power factor correction
With SITRABLOC, power factor correction is integrated from
the very beginning. Unavoidableenergy losses e.g., due
3 to magnetization in the case of motors and transformers
are balanced out with power capacitors directly in the
low-voltage network. The advantages are that the level of
4 active power transmitted increases and energy costs are
reduced (fig.3.2-42).

Reliability of supply
5 With the correctly designed transformer output, the n-1
criterion is no longer aproblem. Even if one module fails
(e.g., amedium-voltage switching device or acable or
6 transformer), power continues to be supplied without the
slightest interruption. None of the drives comes to astand-
still, and the whole manufacturing plant continues to run
reliably. With SITRABLOC, the power is where it is needed
7 and it is safe, reliableand economical.

10

11

12
Fig.3.2-42: Capacitor banks

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 148


Substations and switchgear 3.2 Medium-voltage substations and switchgear

n-1 operating mode


How to understand this mode:
n-1 criteria Normal operating mode: 4 x 1,250 kVA
AN operating mode (100 %)
With the respective design of afactory grid on the MV side
n-1 operating mode: 3 x 1,750 kVA
as well as on the LV side, the so-called n-1 criteria is ful- AF operating mode (140 %)
filled. Incase one component fails on the line side of the
transformer (e.g., circuit-breaker or transformer or cable to
1 transformer) no interruption of the supply on the LV side Power distribution

will occur (fig.3.2-43).


Utilities substation

2 Load required 5,000kVA = 41,250kVA. In case one load


center (SITRABLOC) is disconnected from the MV network,
the missing load will be supplied via the remaining three
(n-1) load centers. SITRABLOC is acombination of every-
3
Circuit-breakers and
thing that present-day technology has to offer. The switch-disconnectors
GEAFOL cast-resin transformers are just one example of Substation with HV HRC fuses
this.
4
t < 10 ms
Their output is 100% load without fans plus reserves of up
to 140% with fans. The safety of operational staff is
ensured even in the direct vicinity of the installation.
5 SITRABLOC SITRABLOC SITRABLOC SITRABLOC

Another example is the SENTRON high-current busbar M M M Production M M M


system. It can be laid out in any arrangement, is easy to
Personal safety
6 install, and conducts the current wherever needed with
Reduced costs
almost no losses. The most important thing, however, is Low system losses
the uniformity of SITRABLOC throughout, regardless of the
layout of the modules.
7 Fig.3.2-43: n-1 operating mode

The technology at aglance


(table3.2-26, fig.3.2-45, next page)
8
SITRABLOC can cope with any requirements. Its features
include:
A transformer cubicle with or without fans (AN/AF
9 operation)
GEAFOL cast-resin transformers with make-proof
earthing switch AN operation 1,250kVA, AF operation
10 1,750kVA (fig.3.2-43)
External medium-voltage switchgear with fuse/switch-
disconnectors
Low-voltage circuit-breakers
11 Automatic reactive-power compensation: up to 500kVAr
unrestricted, up to 300kVAr restricted Fig.3.2-44: Transformer and earthing switch, LV bloc
The SENTRON high-current busbar system: connection to
12 high-current busbar systems from all directions
SIMATIC ET200/PROFIBUS interface for central
monitoring system (if required). Rated voltage 12kV and 24kV
Transformer rating AN/AF 1,250kV A/1,750kVA
Transformer operating mode 100% AN up to 40C
140% AF
Power factor correction up to 500kVAr without reactors
up to 300kVAr with reactors
Busway system 1,250A; 1,600A; 2,500A
Degree of protection IP23 for transformer housing
IP43 for LV cubicles
Dimensions (min) (LxHxD) 3,600mm2,560mm1,400mm
Weight approx. 6,000kg

Table3.2-26: Technical data of SITRABLOC

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 149


Substations and switchgear 3.2 Medium-voltage substations and switchgear

Information distribution

1
S7-400 S7-300 S5-155U

2
PROFIBUS DP

4 PG/PC COROS OP

5
PROFIBUS

ET 200B ET 200C Field devices


6
Communications interface

7 SITRABLOC

ET 200M 12/24 kV
8 P P

GEAFOL transformer
with built-in
9 make-proof earthing switch

10
LV installation with circuit-
breakers and automatic
11 reactive-power compensation

0.4 kV

12 LV busbar system
Option

with sliding link


(e.g., SENTRON busways)

Fig.3.2-45: SIMATIC ET 200/PROFIBUS interface for control monitoring system

For further information please contact the


Customer Support for Power & Energy:
Tel.: +49 180 524 70 00
E-Mail: support.energy@siemens.com
siemens.com/csc

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 150


Substations and switchgear 3.3 Low-voltage systems

3.3 Low-voltage systems Compilation of


boundary conditions
Concept finding: Influencing factors
3.3.1 Requirements for electrical power
Analysis of the supply task
Selection of the network Building type / perimeter
systems in buildings
configuration Building use
Selection of the type Building management
of power supply system Power outage reserve
The efficiency of electrical power supply rises and falls with Definition of the technical etc.
1 qualified planning. Especially in the first stage of planning, features

the finding of conceptual solutions, the planner can use his


creativity for an input of new, innovative solutions and Calculation: Lists of power consumers

2 technologies. They serve as abasis for the overall solution Energy balance Forecasts of expansions
Load flow (normal / fault) Temperatures
which has been economically and technically optimized in Short-circuit currents Equipment data
terms of the supply task and related requirements. (uncontrolled / controlled) etc.

3 The following stages of calculating and dimensioning Dimensioning: Equipment data


Electrical data
Selection of equipment,
circuits and equipment are routine tasks which involve transformers, cables,
Dimensions etc.
Selectivity tables
agreat effort. They can be worked out efficiently using protective and switching Selectivity limit tables

4 modern dimensioning tools like SIMARIS design, so that devices, etc. Characteristic curves,
Requirements according to setting data, etc.
there is more freedom left for the creative planning stage selectivity and back-up etc.
of finding conceptual solutions (fig.3.3-1). protection

5 When the focus is limited to power supply for infrastructure Fig.3.3-1: Power system planning tasks
projects, useful possibilities can be narrowed down. The
following aspects should be taken into consideration when Regional America Europe Australia Asia Africa
PAS CENELEC
6 designing electric power distribution systems:
National USA: ANSI D: DIN AUS: SA CN: SAC SA: SABS
Simplification of operational management by VDE
transparent, simple power system structures CA: SCC I: CEI NZ: SNZ IND: BIS
Low costs for power losses, e.g., by medium-voltage BR: COBEI F: UTE J: JISC
7 power transmission to the load centers GB: BS
High reliability of supply and operational safety of the ANSI American National Standards Institute
installations even in the event of individual equipment BIS Bureau of Indian Standards
BS British Standards
8 failures (redundant supply, selectivity of the power CENELEC European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization
system protection, and high availability) (Comit Europen de Normalisation Electrotechnique)
CEI Comitato Ellettrotecnico Italiano Electrotechnical Committee
Easy adaptation to changing load and operational Italy
conditions COBEI Comit Brasileiro de Eletricidade, Eletrnica, Iluminao e
9 Low operating costs thanks to maintenance-friendly Telecomunicaes
DIN VDE Deutsche Industrie Norm, Verband deutscher Elektrotechniker
equipment (German Industry Standard, Association of German Electrical
Sufficient transmission capacity of equipment during Engineers)
JISC Japanese Industrial Standards Committee
10 normal operation and also in the event of afault, taking PAS Pacific Area Standards
future expansions into account SA Standards Australia
SABS South African Bureau of Standards
Good quality of the power supply, i.e., few voltage SAC Standardisation Administration of China
changes due to load fluctuations with sufficient voltage SCC Standards Council of Canada
11 symmetry and few harmonic voltage distortions SNZ Standards New Zealand
UTE Union Technique de lElectricit et de la Communication
Compliance with applicable standards and project-related Technical Association for Electrical Engineering &
stipulations for special installations. Communication

12 Table3.3-1: Representation of national and regional standards in


Standards electrical engineering
To minimize technical risks and/or to protect persons
involved in handling electrotechnical components, essential
planning rules have been compiled in standards. Standards
represent the state of the art; they are the basis for evalua- currently been agreed that initiatives shall be submitted
tions and court decisions. centrally (on the IEClevel) and then be adopted as regional
or national standards. Only if the IECis not interested in
Technical standards are desired conditions stipulated by dealing with the matter, or if there are time constraints,
professional associations which are, however, made binding adraft standard shall be prepared at the regional level.
by legal standards such as safety at work regulations. Further-
more, the compliance with technical standards is crucial for The interrelation of the different standardization levels
any approval of operator granted by authorities or insurance is illustrated in table3.3-1.A complete list of the IEC
coverage. While decades ago standards were mainly drafted members and further links can be obtained at www.iec.ch
at anational level and debated in regional committees, it has > Members & Experts > List of Members (NC).

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 151


Substations and switchgear 3.3 Low-voltage systems

System configurations also be possible. In this case, these power sources will be
Table3.3-2 and table3.3-3 (see next page) illustrate the rated so that two out of three transformers can fail
technical aspects and influencing factors that should be without the continuous supply of all consumers
taken into account when electrical power distribution connected being affected.
systems are planned and network components are dimen- Radial system in an interconnected network
sioned. Individual radial systems, in which the connected
Simple radial system (spur line topology) consumers are centrally supplied by one power source,
1 All consumers are centrally supplied from one power are additionally coupled electrically with other radial
source. Each connecting line has an unambiguous systems by means of coupling connections. All couplings
direction of energy flow. are normally closed.
2 Radial system with changeover connection
as power reserve partial load: Depending on the rating of the power sources in relation to
All consumers are centrally supplied from two to n power the total load connected, the application of the (n1)
sources. They are rated as such that each of them is principle, (n2) principle, etc. can ensure continuous and
3 capable ofsupplying all consumers directly connected to faultless power supply of all consumers by means of addi-
the main power distribution system (stand-alone tional connecting lines.
operation with open couplings). If one power source
4 fails, the remaining sources ofsupply can also supply The direction of energy flow through the coupling connec-
some consumers connected to the other power source. tions may vary depending on the line of supply, which must
In this case, any other consumer must bedisconnected be taken into account for subsequent rating of switching/
(load shedding). protective devices, and above all for making protection
5 Radial system with changeover connection settings.
as power reserve full load:
All consumers are centrally supplied from two to n power R
 adial system with power distribution via busbars
6 sources (stand-alone operation with open couplings). In this special case of radial systems that can be operated
They are rated as such that, if one power source fails, the in an interconnected network, busbar trunking systems
remaining power sources are capable of additionally are used instead of cables.
supplying all those consumers normally supplied by this
7 power source. No consumer must be disconnected. This In the coupling circuits, these busbar trunking systems are
means rating the power sources according to the (n1) either used for power transmission (from radial systemA to
principle. With three parallel power sources or more, radial system B, etc.) or power distribution to the respective
8 other supply principles, e.g., the (n2) principle would consumers.

LV-side system configurations


10 Radial system with changeover Radial system Radial system
Simple radial connection as power reserve inan inter- with power
Quality criterion
system connected distribution via
Partial load Full load network busbars
11 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5

Low cost of investment


12 Low power losses
High reliability of supply
Great voltage stability
Easy operation
Easy and clear system protection
High adaptability
Low fire load
Rating: very good (1) to poor (5) fulfillment of aquality criterion

Table3.3-2: Exemplary quality rating dependent on the power system configuration

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 152


Substations and switchgear 3.3 Low-voltage systems

Power supply systems according to the type of D epending on the power system and nominal system
connection toearth voltage there may be different requirements regarding
the disconnection times to be met (protection of persons
TN-C, TN-C/S, TN-S, IT and TT systems against indirect contact with live parts by means of
The implementation of IT systems may be required by automatic disconnection).
national or international standards. Power systems in which electromagnetic interference
For parts of installations which have to meet particularly plays an important part should preferably be configured
1 high requirements regarding operational and human as TN-S systems immediately downstream of the point of
safety (e.g., in medical rooms, such as the OT, intensive supply. Later, it will mean acomparatively high expense
care or post-anaesthesia care unit). to turn existing TN-C or TN-C/S systems into an EMC-
2 For installations erected and operated outdoors (e.g., in compatible system.
mining, at cranes, garbage transfer stations, and in the
chemical industry). The state of the art for TN systems is an EMC-compatible
design as TN-S system.
3

5 TN-C TN-C/S TN-S IT system TT system


Characteristics
1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3

6 Low cost of investment


Little expense for system extensions
7 Any switchgear/protective technology
can be used
8 Earth-fault detection can be implemented
Fault currents and impedance conditions
in the system can be calculated
9
Stability of the earthing system
10
High degree of operational safety
High degree of protection
11 High degree of shock hazard protection

12
High degree of fire safety
Automatic disconnection for protection
purposes can be implemented
EMC-friendly
Equipment functions maintained in case
of 1st earth or enclosure fault
Fault localization during system
operation
Reduction of system downtimes by
controlled disconnection
1 = true 2 = conditionally true 3 = not true

Table3.3-3: Exemplary quality rating dependent on the power supply system according to its type of connection to earth

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 153


Substations and switchgear 3.3 Low-voltage systems

3.3.2 Dimensioning of used at the beginning or end of aconnecting line, and the
power distribution systems selection of the connecting line itself (cable/line or busbar
connection) after considering the technical features of the
When the basic supply concept for the electricity supply corresponding switching/protective devices. For supply
system has been established, it is necessary to dimension circuits in particular, dimensioning also includes rating the
the electrical power system. Dimensioning means the sizing power sources.
and/orrating of all equipment and components to be used
1 in the power system. The objectives of dimensioning may vary depending on the
circuit type. The dimensioning target of overload and short-
The dimensioning target is to obtain atechnically permis- circuit protection can be attained in correlation to the
2 sible combination of switching/protective devices and mounting location of the protective equipment. Devices
connecting lines for each circuit in the power system. applied at the end of aconnecting line can ensure overload
protection for this line at best, but not short-circuit protection.
Basic rules
3 In principle, circuit dimensioning should be performed in Circuit types
compliance with the technical rulesstandards listed in The basic dimensioning rules and standards listed in
fig.3.3-2. fig.3.3-2 principally apply to all circuit types. In addition,
4 there are specific requirements for these circuit types
Cross-circuit dimensioning (fig.3.3-3) that are explained in detail below.
When selected network components and systems are
matched, an economically efficient overall system can be
5
Connecting line between Load feeders in final
Supply
designed. This cross-circuit matching of network compo- distribution boards circuits

nents may bear any degree of complexity, because subse-


quent modifications to certain components, e.g., Start node

6 aswitching/protective device, may have effects on the


neighboring higher-level or all lower-level network sections Transmission
medium
(high testing expense, high planning risk).
Target node
7 Dimensioning principles
Load

For each circuit, the dimensioning process comprises the


selection of one or more switching/protective devices to be Fig.3.3-3: Schematic representation of the different circuit types

Overload protection IEC 60364-4-43 VDE 0100-430


9

10 Short-circuit protection IEC 60364-4-43/ VDE 0100-430/


IEC 60364-5-54 VDE 0100-540

11
Protection against electric shock IEC 60364-4-41 VDE 0100-410

12

IEC 60364-5-52 VDE 0100-520


Voltage drop
IEC 60038 VDE 0175-1

IEC 60364-7-710 VDE 0100-710


TIP04_13_034_EN

IEC 60364-7-718 VDE 0100-718


Selectivity
IEC 60947-2 VDE 0660-101
IEC 60898-1 VDE 0641-11

Fig.3.3-2: Relevant standards for circuit dimensioning

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 154


Substations and switchgear 3.3 Low-voltage systems

Supply circuits Distribution circuit


Particularly stringent requirements apply to the dimen- Dimensioning of cable routes and devices follows the
sioning of supply circuits. This starts with the rating of the maximum load currents to be expected at this distribution
power sources. level.

Power sources are rated according to the maximum load As arule


current to be expected for the power system, the desired IB max = installed capacity simultaneity factor
1 amount of reserve power, and the degree of supply reli-
ability required in case of afault (overload/short circuit). Switching/protective device and connecting line are to be
matched with regard to overload and short-circuit protec-
2 Load conditions in the entire power system are established tion.
by taking the energy balance (in an energy report).
Reserve power and operational safety in the vicinity of the In order to ensure overload protection, the standardized
supply system are usually established by building up appro conventional (non-)tripping currents referring to the
3 priate redundancies, for example, by doing the following: devices in application have to be observed.A verification
Providing additional power sources (transformer, based merely on the rated device current or the setting
generator, UPS). value Ir would be insufficient.
4 Rating the power sources according to the failure
principle; Basic rules for ensuring overload protection
n- or (n1) principle: Applying the (n1) principle means
that two out of three supply units are principally Rated current rule
5 capableof continually supplying the total load for the Non-adjustableprotective equipment
power system without any trouble if the smallest power IB In Iz
source fails. The rated current In of the selected device must be
6 Rating those power sources that can temporarily be between the calculated maximum load current IB and the
operated under overload (e.g., using vented maximum permissible load current Iz of the selected
transformers). transmission medium (cableor busbar).
Adjustableprotective equipment
7 Independently of the load currents established, dimen- IB Ir Iz
sioning ofany further component in asupply circuit is The rated current Ir of the overload release must be
oriented to the ratings of the power sources, the system between the calculated maximum load current Ib and the
8 operating modes configured, and all the related switching maximum permissible load current Iz of the selected
states in the vicinity of the supply system. transmission medium (cable or busbar).

As arule, switching/protective devices must be selected in Tripping current rule


9 sucha way that the planned power maximum can be I2 1.45Iz
transferred. In addition, the different minimum/maximum
short-circuit current conditions in the vicinity of the supply The maximum permissible load current Iz of the selected
10 system, which are dependent on the switching status, must transmission medium (cableor busbar) must be above the
bedetermined. conventional tripping current I2/1.45 of the selected
device.
When connecting lines are rated (cable or busbar), appro-
11 priate reduction factors must be taken into account; these The test value I2 is standardized and varies according to the
factors depend on the number of systems laid in parallel type and characteristics of the protective equipment
and the installation type. applied.
12
When devices are rated, special attention should be paid to
their rated short-circuit breaking capacity. In addition,
ahigh-quality tripping unit with variable settings is pre-
ferred, because this component is an important foundation
for attaining the best possible selectivity toward all
upstream and downstream devices.

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 155


Substations and switchgear 3.3 Low-voltage systems

Basic rules for ensuring short-circuit protection Because the required maximum current breaking time
varies according to the rated system voltage and the type
Short-circuit energy of load connected (stationary and non-stationary loads),
K 2S 2 I 2t protection requirements regarding minimum breaking
(K = Material coefficient; S = Cross-section) times taperm may be transferred from one load circuit to
other circuits. Alternatively, this protection target may also
The amount of energy that is set free when ashort circuit be achieved by observing amaximum touch voltage.
1 occurs and up to the moment it is cleared automatically
must be less than the energy that the transmission Because final circuits are often characterized by long supply
medium cancarry as amaximum, or there will be irrepa- lines, their dimensioning is often affected by the maximum
2 rabledamage. Asastandard, this basic rule applies in the permissible voltage drop.
time range up to max.5s.
As far as the choice of switching/protective devices is
Below 100ms of short-circuit breaking time, the let- concerned, it is important to bear in mind that long con-
3 through energy of the switching/protective device necting lines are characterized by high impedances, and
(according to the equipment manufacturers specification) thus strong attenuation of the calculated short-circuit
must be taken into account. currents.
4
When devices with atripping unit are used, observance of Depending on the system operating mode (coupling open,
this rule across the entire characteristic device curve must coupling closed) and the medium of supply (transformer or
be verified. generator), the protective equipment and its settings must
5 be configured for the worst-case scenario for short-circuit
A mere verification in the range of the maximum short-cir- currents.
cuit current applied (Ikmax) is not always sufficient, in
6 particular when time-delayed releases are used. In contrast to supply or distribution circuits, where the
choice ofa high-quality tripping unit is considered very
Short-circuit time important, there are no special requirements on the protec-
ta (Ikmin) 5s tive equipment of final circuits regarding the degree of
7 selectivity to be achieved. The use of atripping unit with LI
The resulting current-breaking time of the selected protec- characteristics is normally sufficient.
tive equipment must ensure that the calculated minimum
8 short-circuit current Ikmin at the end of the transmission Summary
line or protected line is automatically cleared within 5s at Basically, the dimensioning process itself is easy to under-
the most. stand and can be performed using simple means.

9 Overload and short-circuit protection need not necessarily Its complexity lies in the procurement of the technical data
be provided by one and the same device. If required, these onthe products and systems required. This data can be
two protection targets may be realized by adevice combi- found invarious technical standards and regulations as well
10 nation. Theuse of separate switching/protective devices as in numerous product catalogs.
could also be considered, i.e., at the start and end of
acable route. As arule, devices applied at the end of An important aspect in this context is the cross-circuit
acable route can ensure overload protection for that line manipulation of dimensioned components owing to their
11 only. technical data. One such aspect is the above mentioned
inheritance of minimum current breaking times of the
Final circuits non-stationary load circuit to other stationary load or
12 The method for coordinating overload and short-circuit distribution circuits.
protection is practically identical for distribution and final
circuits. Besides overload and short-circuit protection, the Another aspect is the mutual impact of dimensioning and
protection of human life is also important for all circuits. network calculation (short circuit), e.g., for the use of
short-circuit current-limiting devices.
Protection against electric shock
ta (Ik1min) taperm In addition, the complexity of the matter increases, when
different national standards or installation practices are to
If a1-phase fault to earth (Ik1min) occurs, the resulting be taken into account for dimensioning.
current breaking time ta for the selected protective equip-
ment must be shorter than the maximum permissible For reasons of risk minimization and time efficiency,
breaking time taperm thatis required for this circuit anumber of engineering companies generally use
according to IEC 60364-4-41 (VDE 0100-410) to ensure the advanced calculation software, such as SIMARIS design, to
protection of persons. perform dimensioning and verification processes in elec-
trical power systems.

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 156


Substations and switchgear 3.3 Low-voltage systems

3.3.3 Low-voltage switchboards mally matched to customer requirements. The prevention


of personal injury and damage to equipment must, how-
When developing apower distribution concept including ever, be the first priority in all cases. When selecting an
dimensioning of the systems and devices, its requirements appropriate switchboard, it must be ensured that it is
and feasibility have to be matched by the end user and the adesign verified assembly (in compliance with IEC61439-2,
manufacturer. When selecting alow-voltage main distribu- resp. EN61439-2, VDE0660-600-2) with extended testing of
tion board (LVMD), the prerequisite for its efficient sizing is behavior in the eventof an accidental arc (IEC/TR61641,
1 knowledge of its use, availability, and future options for VDE0660-500 Addendum2), and that the selection is always
extension. The demands on power distribution are made in light ofthe regulations governing the entire supply
extremely diverse. They start with buildings that do not system (full selectivity, partial selectivity).
2 place such high demands on the power supply, such as
office buildings, and continue through to those with high Overview
demands, for example, data centers, where smooth opera- The SIVACON S8 low-voltage switchboard (fig.3.3-4) is
tion is of prime importance. avariable, multi-purpose and design verified low-voltage
3 switchgear assembly that can be used for the infrastruc-
Because no major switching functions in the LVMD have to ture supply not only in administrative and institutional
beconsidered in the planning of power distribution sys- buildings, but also in industry and commerce. SIVACON S8
4 tems incommercial buildings and no further extensions are consists of standardized, modular components that can be
to be expected, aperformance-optimized technology with flexibly combined to form an economical, overall solution,
high component density can be used. In these cases, depending on the specific requirements. Siemens will
mainly fuse-protected equipment in fixed-mounted design perform the following:
5 is used. When planning apower distribution system for The customer-specific configuration
aproduction plant, however, system availability, extensi- The mechanical and electrical installation
bility, control, and visualization are important functions to The testing, for which design verified function modules
6 keep plant downtimes as short as possible. The use of areused.
circuit-breaker-protected and fuse-protected withdrawable
design is an important principle. Selectivity is also of great The authorized contracting party will use the specified
importance for reliable power supply. Between these two documentation. SIVACON S8 can be used as adesign veri-
7 extremes there is agreat design variety that is to be opti- fied power distribution board system up to 7,000A.

10

11

12

Fig.3.3-4: SIVACON S8 switchboard

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 157


Substations and switchgear 3.3 Low-voltage systems

Standards and regulations


SIVACON S8 is adesign verified low-voltage switchgear
assembly in compliance with IEC 61439-2 (VDE 0660-600-2).
SIVACON S8 is resistant to internal arcs, in compliance with
IEC/TR 61641 (VDE 0660-500 Addendum 2). SIVACON S8 is
availablein several mounting designs (fig.3.3-5).

1 Circuit-breaker design
The cubicles for installation of 3WL and 3V circuit-
breakers are used for the supply of the switchboard and for 1 2 3 4 5 6
2 outgoing feeders and bus couplers (longitudinal and trans-
versal). The rule that only one circuit-breaker is used for
each cubicle applies to the entire circuit-breaker design
(fig.3.3-6).
3
The device mounting space is intended for the following
functions:
4 Incoming/outgoing feeders with 3WL air circuit-breakers
in fixed-mounted and withdrawable design up to 6,300A
Longitudinal and transversal couplers with 3WL air
circuit-breakers in fixed-mounted and withdrawable 1 Circuit-breaker cubicle with 3WL air circuit-breakers up to 6,300 A
5 design up to 6,300A or 3V... molded-case circuit-breakers up to 1,600 A
Incoming/outgoing feeders with 3V... molded-case 2 Cubicle in universal mounting design motor and cable feeders
circuit-breakers in fixed-mounted design up to 1,600A, up to 630 A, withdrawable desing with combination options

6 or 3VA molded-case circuit-breakers up to 630A. with fixed-mounted design (compartment door) and
3NJ6 in-line design (plug-in)
3 3NJ6 in-line design (plug-in) for cable feeders up to 630 A
Universal mounting design
in plug-in design
The cubicles for cable feeders in fixed-mounted and plug-in
7
4 Fixed-mounted cubicle (front panel) for cable feeders up to 630 A
design up to 630A are intended for the installation of the and modular installation devices
following switching devices (fig.3.3-7): 5 3NJ4 fuse-switch-disconnectors, in-line type (fixed-mounted
SIRIUS 3RV or 3VA/3VL circuit-breaker design) for cable feeders up to 630 A

8 3K switch-disconnector 6 Reactive-power compensation up to 600 kvar


3NP fuse-switch-disconnector
3NJ6 fuse-switch-disconnector in plug-in design. Fig.3.3-5: The following mounting designs (1-6) are available

9 The switching devices are mounted on mounting plates and


connected to the vertical current distribution bars on the
supply side. Plug-in 3NJ6 in-line switch-disconnectors can
10 be installed using an adapter. The front is covered by
cubicle doors or compartment doors. The withdrawable
design offers safe and simple handling. Modifications can
therefore be carried out quickly, ensuring ahigh level of
11 system availability. No connection work is required inside
the withdrawable compartments.

12

Fig.3.3-6: Circuit-breaker design Fig.3.3-7: Universal mounting


design

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 158


Substations and switchgear 3.3 Low-voltage systems

Plug-in 3NJ6 in-line fuse-switch-disconnector design


The cubicles for cable feeders in the plug-in design up to
630A are intended for the installation of in-line switch-dis-
connectors. The plug-in contact on the supply side is acost-
efficient alternative to the withdrawable design. The modular
design of the plug-ins enables an easy and quick retrofit or
replacement under operating conditions. The device
1 mounting space is intended for plug-in, in-line switch-discon-
nectors with adistance between pole centers of 185mm.
The vertical plug-on distribution busbar system is arranged at
2 the back of the cubicle and is covered by an optional touch
protection with pick-off openings in the IP20 degree of
protection. This enables the in-line switch-disconnectors to
be replaced without shutting down the switchboard Fig.3.3-8: Plug-in 3NJ6 in-line Fig.3.3-9: Fixed-mounted design
3 (fig.3.3-8). switch-disconnector with front covers
design

Fixed-mounted design with front covers


4 The cubicles for cable feeders in fixed-mounted design up
to630A are intended for the installation of the following
switching devices (fig.3.3-9):
SIRIUS 3RV or 3VL/3VA circuit-breaker
5 3K switch-disconnector
3NP fuse-switch-disconnector
Modular installation devices (assembly kit available).
6
The switching devices are mounted on infinitely adjustable
device holders and connected to the vertical current distribu-
tion bars on the supply side. The front of the cubicle has
7 either covers or additional doors (with or without awindow).
Fig.3.3-10: Fixed-mounted
Fixed-mounted 3NJ4 in-line fuse-switch-disconnector 3NJ4 in-line switch-
design disconnector design
8
The cubicles for cable feeders in fixed-mounted design up to
630A are intended for the installation of 3NJ4 in-line fuse- plant downtimes as short as possible. The use of circuit-
switch-disconnectors. With their compact design and mod- breaker-protected technology in withdrawable design is
9 ular structure, in-line fuse-switch-disconnectors offer optimal essential. Selectivity is also of great importance for reliable
installation conditions with regard to the achievable packing power supply. Between these two extremes there is agreat
density. The busbar system is arranged horizontally at the design variety that should be optimally matched to the
10 back of the cubicle. This busbar system is connected to the customer requirements. The prevention of personal injury
main busbar system via cross members. The in-line fuse- and damage to equipment must, however, always be the first
switch-disconnectors are screwed directly onto the busbar priority. When selecting an appropriate switchboard, it must
system (fig.3.3-10). be ensured that it is adesign verified switchgear assembly (in
11 compliance with IEC61439-2, VDE0660-600-2), with
Low-voltage main distribution extended testing of behavior in the event of an internal
When selecting alow-voltage main distribution system, the arcing (IEC/TR61641, VDE0660-500 Addendum 2).
12 prerequisite for its efficient sizing is knowing about its use,
availability, and future options for extension. The require- Low-voltage main distribution systems should be chosen
ments for power distribution are extremely diverse. among those featuring atotal supply power up to 3MVA.
Upto this rating, the equipment and distribution systems are
Normally, frequent switching operations do not need to be relatively inexpensive due to the maximum short-circuit
considered in the planning of power distribution for commer- currents to be encountered.
cial, institutional and industrial building projects, and exten-
sions would not generally be expected. For these reasons, For rated currents up to 3,200A, power distribution via
aperformance-optimized technology with high component busbars is usually sufficient if the arrangement of the
density can be used. In these cases, Siemens mainly uses incoming/outgoing feeder cubicles and coupler cubicles has
circuit-breaker-protected equipment in fixed-mounted been selected in aperformance-related way. Ambient air tem-
design. When planning apower distribution system for peratures, load on individual feeders, and the maximum
aproduction plant, however, system availability, extensibility, power loss per cubicle have adecisive impact on the devices
control, and the visualization of status information and to be integrated and the number of cubicles required, as well
control functions are important issues related to keeping as on their component density (number of devices per cubicle).

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 159


Substations and switchgear 3.3 Low-voltage systems

3.3.4 Planning notes for low-voltage


switchboards

Installation clearances and gangway widths Minimum


Escape direction
The minimum clearances between switchboard and obstacle maintenance 600 mm
gangway width
as specified by the manufacturer must be observed when
1 installing low-voltage switchboards (fig.3.3-11). The min- 1) 2)
imum dimensions for operating and maintenance gangways
according to IEC60364-7-729 (VDE0100-729) must be taken
2 into account when planning the space required (table3.3-4,
fig.3.3-12, fig.3.3-13).

Caution! If alift truck is used to insert circuit-breakers or


3 withdrawable units, the minimum gangway widths must be 1)
Circuit-breaker in
the completely extracted and isolated position
matched to the lift truck!
2)
Handles (e.g., for controls or equipment)

5 Minimum
maintenance 500 mm Escape direction
100 mm 100 mm 1) (150 mm 2,3)) 100 mm 4) gangway width

6
Switchboard

1) 2)
7 Leave a space of at least 400 mm
above the cubicles!
1)
Back-to-back installation: 200 mm
2)
Only for IP43 (projecting roof plate)
3)
Only for IP43 and back-to-back installation: 300 mm
8 4)
When the switchboard is erected (positioning of the right-hand cubicle),
the projection of the busbar connecting lugs must be paid attention to.
Top busbar position:
90 mm projection -> recommended wall clearance > 150 mm
Rear busbar position:
9 54 mm projection -> recommended wall clearance > 100 mm 1)
Circuit-breaker fully withdrawn
2)
Door in arrest position
Attention: All dimensions refer to the frame dimensions !
(nominal cubicle size)
10
Fig. 3.3-11: Clearances to obstacles

11 Minimum
Escape direction
maintenance 500 mm
gangway width
Unfolded
12 swivel frame
behind the door
2,000 mm 1)

600 mm 600 mm
700 mm 700 mm 700 mm 700 mm Fig.3.3-13: Minimum widths of maintenance gangways in accordance
with IEC60364-7-729 (VDE0100-729)
1) Minimum height of passage under covers or enclosures

Fig.3.3-12: Reduced gangway widths within the area of open doors

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 160


Substations and switchgear 3.3 Low-voltage systems

Cubicle height
Double-front installations
Frame 2,000, 2,200 mm
In the double-front installation, the cubicles are positioned
Base Without, 100, 200 mm
in a row next to and behind one another. The main advan-
Cubicle width
tage of a double-front installation is the economic design
Dependent - Cubicle type
of: - Rated device current through the supply of the branch circuits on both cubicles
- Connecting position and/or cable/busbar entry from one main busbar system.
Cubicle depth
1 Type Main busbar Cubicle depth in mm The double-front unit system structure is required for the
Location Rated Front Rear assignment of certain modules and consists of a minimum
current connection connection
inA Entry from Entry from
of two and a maximum of four cubicles (fig. 3.3-14). The
2 the bottom the top width of the double-front unit is determined by the widest
Single front Top 3,270 500, 800 800 800 cubicle (1) within the double-front unit. This cubicle can be
6,300 1) 800, 1,000 1,200 1,200 placed on the front or rear side of the double-front unit. Up
Rear 4,000 600 600 - to three cubicles (2), (3), (4) can be placed on the opposite
3 7,010 800 800 - side. The sum of the cubicle widths (2) to (4) must be equal
Double front Rear 4,000 1,000 1,000 - to the width of the widest cubicle (1). The cubicle combina-
7,010 1) 1,200 1,200 -
tion within the double-front unit is possible for all technical
1) Frame height 2,200 mm
4 installations with the following exceptions.
Table3.3-4: SIVACON S8 switchboard dimensions
Exceptions
The following cubicles determine the width of the double-
5 front unit as cubicle (1) and should only be combined with
a cubicle for customised solutions without cubicle busbar
system:
6 Circuit-breaker design - longitudinal coupler
Transport units Circuit-breaker design - incoming/outgoing feeder with
Depending on the access routes available in the building, 4,000 A and cubicle width 800 mm, 5,000 A, 6,300 A
one ormore cubicles can be combined into transport
7 units(TU). The max. length of aTU should not exceed Cubicles with a width of 350 mm or 850 mm are not pro-
2,400mm. vided for within double-front systems.

Single-front installations
9
Front
connection
10 With main busbar
position at the top
Rear
connection
11
With main busbar
position at the rear
12
Double-front installations

(1)

With main busbar


position at the rear (2) (3) (4)

Double-front units
Rear panel Door

Fig.3.3-14: Cubicle arrangement for single-front (top) and double-front systems (bottom)

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 161


Substations and switchgear 3.3 Low-voltage systems

Weights A ir conditioning of switchboard rooms (temperature


The cubicle weights as listed in table3.3-5 should be used reduction, relative humidity < 60%, if necessary, use
for the transportation and dimensioning of building struc- pollutant filters)
tures such as cable basements and false floors. Reduction of temperature rise (oversizing of switching
devices or components such as busbars and distribution
Environmental conditions for switchboards bars).
The climate and other external conditions (natural foreign
1 substances, chemically active pollutants, small animals) Power losses
may affect the switchboards to avarying extent. The effect The power losses listed in table3.3-6 are approximate
depends on the heating/air-conditioning systems of the values for acubicle with the main circuit of functional units
2 switchboard room. In case of higher concentrations of for determination of the power loss to be dissipated from
pollutants, pollutant reducing measures are required, for the switchboard room.
example:
Air intake for switchboard room from aless
3 contaminated point
Expose the switchboard room to slight excess pressure
(e.g., injecting uncontaminated air into the switchboard)
4

5 Rated current Minimum cubicle width Approx. weight


in A in mm in kg
6302,000 Size I 400 340

6 Circuit-breaker design with 3WL 2,0003,200 Size II 600 510


(withdrawable unit) 4,000 Size III 800 770
4,0006,300 Size III 1,000 915

7 Universal mounting design cubicle


1,000 400
(incl. withdrawable units, fixed-mounted with front doors)
3NJ4 in-line-type switch-disconnector cubicle (fixed-mounted) 600 360
3NJ6 in-line-type switch-disconnector cubicle (plug-in) 1,000 415
8
Reactive power compensation cubicle 800 860

Table3.3-5: Widths and average weights of the cubicles including busbar (without cable)
9
Approx. Pv in W for % of the rated current of the switching device
Circuit-breaker type
100% 80%
10 Circuit-breaker design 3WL1106 630 A Size I 215 140
with 3WL (withdrawable unit)
3WL1108 800 A Size I 345 215
3WL1110 1,000 A Size I 540 345
11 3WL1112 1,250 A Size I 730 460
3WL1116 1,600 A Size I 1,000 640
3WL1220 2,000 A Size II 1,140 740
12 3WL1225 2,500 A Size II 1,890 1,210
3WL1232 3,200 A Size II 3,680 2,500
3WL1340 4,000 A Size III 4,260 2,720
3WL1350 5,000 A Size III 5,670 3,630
3WL1363 6,300 A Size III 8,150 5,220
Universal mounting design cubicle (incl. withdrawable units, fixed-mounted with front doors) 600 W
3NJ4 in-line-type switch-disconnector cubicle (fixed-mounted)) 600 W
3NJ6 in-line-type switch-disconnector cubicle (plug-in) 1,500 W
Fixed-mounted design cubicle with front covers 600 W
Reactive power compensation cubicle unchoked 1.4 W/kvar
choked 6.0 W/kvar

Table3.3-6: Power loss generated per cubicle (average values)

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 162


Substations and switchgear 3.3 Low-voltage systems

Arc resistance Active protection measures, such as the high-quality insula-


Internal arcs may be caused by wrong rating, decreasing tion oflive parts (e.g., busbars), standardized and simple
insulation, pollution as well as handling mistakes. Their operation, prevent arc faults and associated personal
effects, caused by high pressure and extremely high tem- injuries. Passive protections also increase personal and
peratures, can have fatal consequences for the operator system safety. These include: arc-resistant hinge and lock
and the system which may even extend to the building. systems, the safe operation of withdrawable units and
SIVACON S8 offers evidence of personal safety (fig. 3.3-15) circuit-breakers behind aclosed door, as well as patented
1 through special testing under arcing conditions in accor- swing check valves behind ventilation openings on the
dance with IEC/TR 61641 (VDE0660-500 Addendum2). front, arc fault barriers and arc detection devices combined
with a fast-switching 3WL ACB to clear the fault.
2

5
Level 1 Level 2
Personal safety Personal safety
6 without extensive with limitation of
limitation of the the arc fault
arc fault effects effects to one
inside the cubicle or double-
7 switchboard. front unit.

8
Level 3 Level 4
Personal safety Personal safety
with limitation of with limitation of
the arc fault the arc fault
9 effects to the effects to the
main busbar place of origin.
compartment,
to the device
10 compartment,
or to the cable
compartment in
one cubicle or
11 double-front unit.

Fig.3.3-15: The arc protection levels describe the classification in accordance with the characteristics under arc fault conditions, as well as the
12 limitation of the effects of an arc on the entire switchboard or parts thereof

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 163


Substations and switchgear 3.3 Low-voltage systems

3.3.5 Low-voltage switchboard


cubicle types and examples
Circuit- Universal Plug-in 3NJ6 in-line Fixed-mounted design Fixed 3NJ4 in-line Reactive power
breaker mounting switch-disconnector with front cover switch-discon- compensation
design design design nector design
2,200

1 2,000 A
B A
B
A
1,800 C B
A
D B
A
1,600 E B

2
A
F B
A
1,400 G B
A
H B
A
1,200 J B
A
K B
A
1,000 L

3
B
A
M B
A
800 N B
A
P B
A
600 Q B
A
R B

4
A
400 S B
A
T B
A
200 U B

V
0

5 600
400 1,000 1,000 1,000 600 800
400

200

6 0

4,800
Installation front

7 Fig.3.3-16: SIVACON S8, busbar position at the rear, 2,2004,800600 (HWD inmm)

Cubicle type Circuit-breaker Universal In-line design, Fixed-mounted 3NJ4 in-line Reactive power
design mounting design plug-in design switch- compensation
8 disconnector
design
Mounting design Withdrawable
design
9 Withdrawable
Fixed-mounted Fixed-mounted
design Fixed-mounted Fixed-mounted
design with Plug-in design design
Fixed-mounted design design
compartment with front covers
design
doors
10 Plug-in design
Functions Central
Incoming feeder Cable feeders
compensation of
Outgoing feeder Motor feeders Cable feeder Cable feeder Cable feeder
the reactive
11 Coupler (MCC)
power
Current In Unchoked up
to 600 kvar
Up to 6,300A Up to 630A Up to 630A Up to 630A Up to 630A
Choked up to
12 500 kvar
Connection Front or rear Front or rear Front Front Front Front

Cubicle width 400/600/800/


600/1,000/1,200 1,000/1,200 1,000/1,200 600/800/1,000 800
in mm 1,000/1,400
Forms of internal 1, 2b, 3a, 4b 3b, 4a, 4b,
3b, 4b 1, 2b, 3b, 4a, 4b 1, 2b 1, 2b
separation 4 Type 7 (BS) 4 Type 7 (BS)
Busbar position Top, rear Top, rear Top, rear Top, rear Rear Without, top, rear

Table3.3-7: Various mounting designs according to panel types

For further information:


siemens.com/sivacon-s8

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 164


Substations and switchgear 3.3 Low-voltage systems

3.3.6 Subdistribution systems Protection and installation type


Degree of protection
General Observance of the upper temperature limit
Subdistribution systems, as an essential component for the Protective measures
reliable power supply to all consumers of abuilding, are Installation type (free-standing, floor-mounted
used forthe distributed supply of circuits. From the subdis- distribution board, wall-mounted distribution board)
tribution boards, cables either lead directly or via earth Accessibility, e.g., for installation, maintenance and
1 contact outlets tothe consumer. Protective devices are operation.
located within the subdistribution systems.
Type of construction
2 These are: Number of operating faces
Fuses Space requirements for modular installation devices,
Miniature circuit-breakers busbars and terminals
RCD (residual current devices) Supply conditions.
3 Circuit-breakers
Overvoltage protection. The number of subdistribution boards in abuilding is
determined using the following criteria:
4 They provide protection against personal injury and
protect: Floors
Against excessive heating caused by non-permissible A high-rise building normally has at least one floor distribu-
currents tion board for each floor.A residential building normally
5 Against the effects of short-circuit currents and the has one distribution system for each apartment.
resulting mechanical damage.
Building sections
6 In addition to the protective devices, asubdistribution If abuilding consists of several sections, at least one sub-
system also contains devices for switching, measuring and distribution system is normally provided for each building
monitoring. These are: section.
Disconnectors
7 KNX/EIB components Departments
Outlets In ahospital, separate subdistribution systems are provided
Measuring instruments for the various departments, such as surgery, OP theater, etc.
8 Switching devices
Transformers for extra-low voltages Safety power supplies
Components of the building control systems. Separate distribution boards for the safety power supply
are required for supplying the required safety equipment.
9 Configuration Depending on the type and use of the building or rooms,
The local environmental conditions and all operating data the relevant regulations and guidelines must be observed,
have utmost importance for the configuration of the sub- such as IEC60364-7-710 and -718 (VDE0100-710 and
10 distribution systems. The dimensioning is made using the -718) and the MLAR (Sample Directive on Fireproofing
following criteria: Requirements for Line Systems) in Germany.

Ambient conditions Standards to be observed for dimensioning


11 Dimensions IEC60364-1 (VDE0100-100) Low-voltage electrical
Mechanical stress installations, part 1: Fundamental principles, assessment
Exposure to corrosion of general characteristics, definitions
12 Notes concerning construction measures IEC60364-4-41 (VDE0100-410) Protection against
Wiring spaces electric shock
Environmental conditions. IEC60364-4-43 (VDE0100-430) Protection against
overcurrent
Electrical data IEC60364-5-51 (VDE0100-510) Selection and erection
Rated currents of the busbars ofelectrical equipment; common rules
Rated currents of the supply circuits IEC60364-5-52 (VDE0100-520) Wiring systems
Rated currents of the branches VDE0298-4 Recommended values for the current-
Short-circuit strength of the busbars carrying capacity of sheathed and non-sheathed cables
Rating factor for switchboard assemblies VDE0606-1 Connecting materials up to 690 V, part 1
Heat loss. Installation boxes for accommodation of equipment
and/or connecting terminals
DIN18015-1 Electrical systems in residential buildings,
part 1 planning principles.

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 165


Substations and switchgear 3.3 Low-voltage systems

3.3.7 Busbar trunking systems High availability


Low fire load
General Integration in energy management systems
When aplanning concept for power supply is developed, it Future-proof investment
is not only imperative to observe standards and regula- Flexible adaptation to changes in the building.
tions, it is also important to discuss and clarify economic
and technical interrelations. The rating and selection of Most applications suggest the use of suitable busbar
1 electric equipment, such as distribution boards and trans- trunking systems (BTS) to meet these requirements. For
formers, must be performed in such away that an optimum this reason, engineering companies increasingly prefer
result for the power supply system as awhole is kept in busbar trunking to cable installation for power transmission
2 mind rather than focusing on individual components. and distribution.Siemens offers BTS (fig.3.3-17) ranging
from 40A to 6,300A:
All components must be sufficiently rated to withstand The BD01 system from 40 to 160A for the supply of light
normal operating conditions as well as fault conditions. fixtures as well as workshops with tap-offs up to 63A
3 Further important aspects to be considered for the creation The BD2 system from 160 to 1,250A for supplying
of an energy concept are: medium-size consumers in buildings and industry
Type, use and shape of the building (e.g., high-rise The ventilated LD system from 1,100 to 5,000A for
4 building, low-rise building, multi-storey building) power transmission and power distribution at production
Load centers and possible power transmission routes and sites with ahigh energy demand as well as on ships or in
locations for transformers and main distribution boards wind turbines
Building-related connection values according to specific The LI system in sandwich design from 800 to 6,300 A is
5 area loads that correspond to the buildings type of use adesign verified solution according to IEC61439-1/-6
Statutory provisions and conditions imposed by building (VDE0660-600-1/-6), mainly used for power
authorities transmission irrespective to the mounting position in
6 Requirements of the power distribution network buildings, data centers, or industrial applications with
operator. the requirements of degree of protection up to IP66, low
fire load, and special conductor configurations such as
The result will never be asingle solution. Several options doubleN or insulated PE
7 must be assessed in terms of their technical and economic The encapsulated LR system from 400 to 6,150A for
impacts. The following requirements are the main points of power transmission under extreme environmental
interest: conditions (IP68).
8 Easy and transparent planning
Long service life

10

11

12

Fig.3.3-17: Busbar trunking systems

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 166


Substations and switchgear 3.3 Low-voltage systems

Planning notes Configuration


Considering the complexity of modern building projects, For the configuration of abusbar system, the following
transparency and flexibility of power distribution are indis- points are to be noted:
pensable requirements. In industry, the focus is on contin- Calculation/dimensioning:
uous supply of energy as an essential prerequisite for Electrical parameters, such as rated current, voltage,
multi-shift production. Busbar trunking systems meet all given voltage drop and short-circuit rating at place of
these requirements on efficient power distribution by being installation.
1 easily planned, quickly installed, and providing ahigh Technical parameters of the busbar systems:
degree of flexibility and safety. The advantages of busbar The conductor configuration depends on the mains
trunking systems are: system according to type of earth connection
2 Straightforward network configuration Reduction factors, e.g., for ambient air temperature,
Low space requirements type of installation, busbar position (vertical,
Easy retrofitting in case of changes of locations and horizontal edgewise or flat), and degree of protection
consumer loads Copper is required as conductor material; otherwise,
3 High short-circuit rating and low fire load aluminum has advantages such as weight, price, etc.
Increased planning security. How is the system supply to be carried out: as adesign
verified solution (according to IEC61439-6 /
4 Power transmission VDE0660-600-6) directly from the distribution board
Electrical energy from the transformer to the low-voltage or by means of cables at the end or center of the
switchboard is transmitted by suitable components in the busbar
busbartrunking system. These components are installed Max. cable connection options to infeed and tap-off
5 between transformer and main distribution board, then units
branching to subdistribution systems. Power and size of the tap-off units including
installation conditions
6 Trunking units without tap-off points are used for power Number of tap-off points
transmission. These are available in standard lengths. Use of bus systems possible
Besides the standard lengths, the customer can also choose Influence of amagnetic field (hospitals, broadcasting
aspecific length from various length ranges to suit indi- studios)
7 vidual constructive requirements. Environmental conditions, especially ambient air
temperature (e.g., where there are fire compartments
Power distribution in each floor of avertical shaft).
8 Power distribution is the main area of application for Structural parameters and boundary conditions:
busbar trunking systems. This means that electricity cannot Phase response (changes of direction in the busbar
just be tapped from apermanently fixed point as with routing possible, differences in height, etc.)
acable installation. Tap-off points can be varied and Functional sections (e.g., various environmental
9 changed as desired within the entire power distribution conditions or various uses)
system. Check use in sprinkler-protected building sections
Fire areas (provision of fire barriers > what structural
10 In order to tap electricity, the only thing required is to plug (e.g., type of walls) and fire fighting (local provisions)
a tap-off unit on the busbar at the tap-off point. This way boundary conditions are there?
avariable distribution system is created for linear and/or Fire protection classes (EI90 and EI120 according to
area-wide, distributed power supply. Tap-off points are EN13501-2) of the fire barriers
11 provided on either or just one side on the straight trunking Functional endurance classes (E60, E90, E120) and
units. certifications of the busbar systems (observe relevant
deratings)
12 For each busbar trunking system, awide range of tap-off Fire loads/halogens (prescribed fire loads in certain
units is available for the connection of equipment and functional sections, e.g., fire escape routes, must not
electricity supply. be exceeded).

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 167


Substations and switchgear 3.3 Low-voltage systems

Fixing of the busbar systems to the structure: 140


Maximum clearance from fixings taking into
consideration location, weight of system and additional
120

Ie in %
loads such as tap-off units, lighting, etc.
Agreement on possible means of fixing with structural
analyst Ie =100
Use of tested fixing accessories for busbar systems with
1
Busbar
functional endurance 80
Observe derating for type of installation.
60
 imensions of the distribution board, system supplies and
D Cable
2
tap-off units:
40
Installation clearance from ceiling, wall and parallel 15 10 25 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65
systems for the purpose of heat dissipation and Ambient temperature in C
3 installation options
Crossing with other installations (water, gas pipes, etc.) Fig.3.3-18: Comparison of temperature response and derating
Swing angle for installing and operating the tap-off units
4 Minimum dimensions for changes of direction in the
busbar routing, fire protection compartmentalization,
wall cutouts
Space requirement for distribution connection
5 Cutout planning (sizes and locations of the cutouts)
Linear expansion (expansion units, if applicable).

6 A comparison between busbar and cable solution is


summarized in table 3.3-8 and fig.3.3-18.

7 Characteristic Cable Busbar


Planning, calculation High determination and calculation expense; the Flexible consumer locations; only the total load is
consumer locations must be fixed required for the planning

8 Expansions, changes High expense, interruptions to operation, calculation,


risk of damage to the insulation
Low expense as the tap-off units can be plugged on/
off while energized 1)
Space requirements More space required because of bending radii and the Compact directional changes and fittings
spacing required between parallel cables
9 Temperature responses Limits depend on the laying method and cable Design verified switchgear assembly; limits from
and derating accumulation. The derating factor must be catalog
determined/calculated
Halogen-free PVC cables are not halogen-free; halogen-free cable is Principally halogen-free
10 very expensive
Fire load Fire load with PVC cable is up to 10 times greater, Very low, see planning manual
with PE cable up to 30 times greater than with
busbars
11
Design verified switchgear The operational safety depends on the design Tested system, non-interchangeable assembly
assembly
1) In accordance with EN 50110-1 (VDE 0105-1); national regulations and standards must be observed
12
Table3.3-8: Comparison between busbar and cable

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 168


Substations and switchgear 3.3 Low-voltage systems

3.3.8 Benefits and data of the 1. Trunking unit


busbar trunking systems 4-conductor (L1, L2, L3, N, PE = housing)
Degree of protection: IP50, IP54, IP55
Standard lengths: 2m and 3m
BD01 system 40A 160A Rated current: 40A, 63A, 100A, 125A, 160A
The BD01 system (fig.3.319) is the BTS for power distribu- Spacing of the tap-off points: 0.5m and 1m
tion in trade and industry: Rated operational voltage: 400VAC.
1 High degree of protection up to IP55
Flexible power supply 2. Junction unit
Easy and fast planning Changes of direction in the busbar routing possible:
2 Time-saving installation flexible, length 0.5 m and 1 m.
Reliable mechanical and electrical cables and
connections 3. Feeding unit
High stability, low weight Universal system supply.
3 Small number of basic modules
Modular system reduces stock-keeping 4. Tap-off unit
Variable changes of direction Up to 63A, with fuses or miniature circuit-breaker (MCB)
4 Multi-purpose tap-off units and with fused outlets
Forced opening and closing of the tap-off point. With fittings or for customized assembly
For 3,4, or 8 modular widths
It is designed for applications from 40 to 160A. Five cur- With or without assembly kit.
5 rent ratings are available for only one size, i.e., all other
components can be used for all five rated currents irrespec- 5. Ancillary equipment unit
tive of the power supply. The system is used primarily to For 4 or 8 modular widths
6 supply smaller consumers, e.g., in workshops. With or without assembly unit
With or without outlet installed.

6. Possible supplementary equipment


7 Assembly kits for degree of protection IP55
Fixing and suspension
Coding set
8 Fire barrier kit (fire safety for90 minutes according to
European Standards).

9 2

10

1
11
4 5

12
3

1 Trunking unit
2 Junction unit
4
3 Feeding unit
4 Tap-off unit
5 Ancillary equipment unit
6 Supplementary equipment

Fig.3.3-19: System components for BD01 system

Edition 8.0 Power Engineering Guide 169


Substations and switchgear 3.3 Low-voltage systems

BD2 system 160A 1,250A 1. Trunking unit


The BD2 system (fig.3.320) is used for power distribution 5-conductor (L1, L2, L3, N, PE or with half PE)
in the aggressive industrial environment: Degree of protection: IP52, IP54, IP55
High degree of protection up to IP55 Busbar material: copper or aluminum
Easy and fast planning Rated current:
Time-saving and economic installation 160A, 250A, 400A (68mm167mm)
Safe and reliable operation 630A, 800A, 1,000A, 1,250A (126mm167mm)
1 Flexible, modular system providing simple solutions for Standard lengths: 3.25m, 2.25 m, and 1.25m
every application Lengths available: from 0.5m to 3.24m
Advance power distribution planning without precise Tap-off points:
2 knowledge of device locations without
Ready to use in no time thanks to fast and easy on both sides (0.25 or 0.5mapart)
installation Fire protection: fire safety classes (90 and 120 minutes)
Innovative design: expansion units to compensate for according to European Standards.
3 expansion are eliminated
Tap-off units and tap-off points can be coded at the 2. Junction unit
factory Edgewise or flat position
4 Uniformly sealable. With or without fire protection
Elbow unit with or without user-configurable bracket
The choice of aluminum or copper as busbar material Z-unit
allows for universal use. It has not only been designed to T-unit
5 provide flexible power supply and distribution for Cross unit
consumers in trade and industry, but it can also be used for Flexible changes of direction in the busbar routing
power transmission from one supply point to another. In possible up to 800A.
6 addition, the BD2 system is used as rising power supply
system in multi-storey buildings, and since alarge number 3. Feeding unit
of changes of direction in the busbar routing are possible, it Feeding from one end
can be adapted to the building geometries perfectly. Center feeding
7 Bolt-type terminal
Cable entry from 1,2, or 3 sides
Distribution board feeding.
8
4. Tap-off unit
25A to 530A
With fuse, miniature circuit-breaker (MCB) or fused
9 5
outlet installed.
2
5. Ancillary equipment unit
10 For 8 modular widths
5
2 With or without assembly unit.

6. Possible supplementary equipment


3 5

11 4
End flange
1 Terminal block
For fixing:
12 3 Universal fixing clamp for edgewise or flat position
4 Fixing elements for vertical phases, for fixing to walls
4 or ceilings.

1 Trunking unit
2 Junction unit
3 Feeding unit