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Feb 13, 2017

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Microeconomics

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105 tayangan

Microeconomics

© All Rights Reserved

- Economics 138 Syllabus
- ECON 100A Midterm 2 Review Session
- IB Eonomics Market Structure Notes
- Midterm1 Solution
- Marketing: Pricing Practices
- Business Economics
- Economics Chapter 7 Review
- 2.docx
- Ch16
- Dealing with difficult mergers
- e-business economics.docx
- Mid 1 Review
- ch08
- Market Structure.ppt
- market structure.docx
- 28850cpc-geco-cp4.pdf
- Econ Chapter Three
- Supply Demand2
- Eco Test 2 Study Guide
- Garg Satyam Week6

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Review Session

Hemaxi Desai, Emmanuel Lee, Chen Meng, Aoyi Shan

Student Learning Center Econ Program

Courses offered: Econ 1, 100A, 100B, 136, 140

Weekly Drop-in hours: Mon - Thurs, 10 AM - 2 PM

Pod Tutoring and Review Sessions for Midterms and Finals

Visit and Like us at our Facebook page:

https://www.facebook.com/econatslc/?fref=ts

Topics

1. Hicksian Compensation, Slutsky Compensation, CV, EV

2. Addiction & Uncertainty

3. Production and Cost Curves

4. Firms and Market Supply

5. Welfare -- Tax

T/ F Questions

1. Slutsky compensation is bigger than Hicksian

compensation for both normal and inferior goods.

T/ F Questions

Slutsky compensation is bigger than Hicksian compensation

for both normal and inferior goods.

Answer: True!

Type of good does not matter because you can always end

up on a higher indifference curve than the Slutsky

compensation.

Slutsky Compensation & Hicksian Compensation

Slutsky -- New price,

old bundle

old utility

T/ F Questions

2. The elasticity of compensated demand is negative for a

giffen good.

T/ F Questions

2. The elasticity of compensated demand is negative for a

giffen good.

Answer: True!

Downward sloping demand curve. (Giffen is a type of inferior

good, which is income dependent, not price)

T/ F Questions

3. The elasticity of uncompensated demand is negative for a

giffen good.

T/ F Questions

3. The elasticity of uncompensated demand is negative for a

giffen good.

Answer: False!

T/ F Questions

4.Theta for a giffen good in the Slutsky equation must be

small.

Slutsky Equation

Marshallian = Hicksian + (-)

uncompensated/Marshallian demand

Hicksian is the elasticity of compensated/Hicksian

demand

is the share of budget to that good

is the elasticity of income

T/ F Questions

4.Theta for a giffen good in the slutsky equation must be

small.

negative, and the income elasticity is negative because it is

an inferior good theta must be large in order to have the net

sign (marshallian demand) be positive.

T/ F Questions

5. A risk neutral person has a constant marginal utility.

T/ F Questions

A risk neutral person has a constant marginal utility.

T/ F Questions

6. The expected value of a fair bet for a risk seeking

individual is greater than zero.

T/ F Questions

The expected value of a fair bet for a risk seeking individual is

greater than zero. True or False?

Answer: False!

Explanation: the expected value of a fair bet is zero. When the expected value of a

bet is greater than zero, it is defined as a more than fair bet.

To clarify, the expected value of a bet does not depend on whether an individual

is risk averse, neutral or seeking.

T/ F Questions

7. If wages permanently increase, the isocost becomes

steeper.

T/ F Questions

If wages permanently increase, the isocost becomes steeper.

Answer: True!

T/ F Questions

8. If MC is greater than AC everywhere, then the firm has

decreasing returns to scale.

T/ F Questions

If MC is greater than AC everywhere, then the firm has

decreasing returns to scale.

Answer: True!

T/ F Questions

9. In the short run, a lump-sum tax will change both profits

and the quantity supplied in a competitive market.

T/ F Questions

In the short run, a lump-sum tax will change both profits and

the quantity supplied in a competitive market.

costs. However, it does not affect the marginal cost curves,

which determine the quantity supplied in a competitive

market.

T/F Questions

10. The isoquant represents all combinations of outputs that

are equally profitable.

T/F Questions

The isoquant represents all combinations of outputs that are

equally profitable.

False!

result in the same quantity of output. In order to gauge a

firms profitability, we need to first decide how much quantity

of goods a firm should produce.

T/F Questions

11) If a firm chooses inputs such that w/r = MRTS, then it is

profit maximizing.

T/F Questions

If a firm chooses inputs such that w/r = MRTS, then it is profit

maximizing.

FALSE!

It is the cost minimizing combination of inputs. In order to be

profit maximizing, it has to produce at P = MC.

T/ F Questions

12. A lump-sum tax has no impact on a firms production in

the LR.

T/ F Questions

A lump-sum tax has no impact on a firms production in the

LR.

curve is where MC = AC (i.e the minimum of AC) because in

the LR firms will make normal profits. Hence it affects a firms

production in the LR.

T/ F Questions

13. When welfare is maximized, consumer surplus equals

producer surplus.

T/ F Questions

When welfare is maximized, consumer surplus equals

producer surplus.

FALSE!

When we maximize welfare, we only care about the

aggregate welfare, not the distribution of welfare.

T/ F Questions

14. Tax incidence is the same regardless of which side of the

market is being taxed.

T/ F Questions

Tax incidence is the same regardless of which side of the

market is being taxed.

demand and supply, not which party is taxed.

PART 1: Compensation, Income Elasticity, CV, EV

Compensating Variation & Equivalent Variation

CV: Old Utility, New Price

we have a increase in

price X.

Short Answer

Consider Melissas preference over goods X and Y which can be modeled by the

following utility function: U(X,Y) = X(1+Y). Her income is 11 and the price of X and

Y are $1. What is the Hicksian and Slutsky compensation required to keep Melissa

as well off before the price change as she was after the price change if the price of

X increases to $2?

Short Answer Solutions

Step 1: Use Lagrange or MUx/MUy = Px/Py to find the original optimal bundle.

X = Py(1+ Y)/Px

I = Px*X + Py*Y

Y = (I-Py)/2Py

Plug in I = 11, Px = Py = 1

(6,5)

Short Answer Solutions

Step 2: Hicksian compensation uses the new optimal bundle on the old IC at new

prices (substitution bundle).

MRS = (1 + Y)/X = Px/Py and the original level of utility is U = 6(1+5) = 36.

Solve for the substitution bundle by substituting X=Py(1+Y)/Px into the utility

function to get

U = [Py(1 + Y)/Px](1 + Y)

U = 1/2(1 + Y)2= 36

Y = 7.5, X = 4.2

So this is the income required and subtracting from the original income of 11 we

get 4.90 as the hicksian compensation

Short Answer Solutions

Step 3: Slutsky takes the original bundle and approximates the budget constraint

through the new prices.

Short Answer

If the share of your income spent on beer is 0.25, and the elasticity of Marshallian

and Hicksian demand is -0.5 and -0.75 respectively, what is the income elasticity

of beer? Is this a normal, inferior, or giffen good?

Short Answer Solutions

=0.25, Marshallian = -0.5, Hicksian =

-0.75

Normal Good: + , Inferior Good: -

= -1 inferior good

Luxury good, >1; Necessity <1

Long Answer

James, Pierres twin, consumes coffee and cigarettes, which he regards as imperfect substitutes.

One day he wakes up to the terrible news that the government imposed a 200% tax on cigarettes

and that drought conditions in South America lead to the price of his favorite coffee to double.

a. Draw James initial consumption bundle, and his budget constraint after the price

changes. You may choose the axis.

b. James parents hear about his hardships and decide to increase his stipend so he can

purchase the same bundle he purchased before. Add this budget constraint to your

graph.

c. Given the new prices and his additional stipend, will James consume more or less

coffee than his initial bundle? (HINT: he has to maximize utility)

d. Pierre complains to his parents that the stipend they gave James is too high and claims

that if they gave him a Hicksian compensation they will save money AND James will

also smoke less than he did before the price changes. Is the Hicksian compensation

going to save money to James and Pierres parents? Is James going to smoke less that

he did before the price changes? Explain your answer.

Long Answer Solution

A. Draw James initial consumption bundle, and his budget constraint after the price changes.

You may choose the axis.

Long Answer Solution

B. James parents hear about his hardships and decide to

increase his stipend so he can purchase the same bundle he

purchased before. Add this budget constraint to your graph.

Long Answer Solution

B. James parents hear about his hardships

and decide to increase his stipend so he

can purchase the same bundle he

purchased before. Add this budget

constraint to your graph.

constraint is BC2, which goes through

bundle A because it is a stipend from his

parents to consume his original bundle

before the price increases.

Long Answer Solution

C. Given the new prices and his additional stipend, will James

consume more or less coffee than his initial bundle? (HINT:

he has to maximize utility)

Long Answer Solution

C. Given the new prices and his additional stipend, will James consume more or

less coffee than his initial bundle? (HINT: he has to maximize utility)

Solution: To maximize the utility, he will consume more of the cheaper goods.

Since the relative price of coffee is cheaper after the price change, he will

consume more coffee and less cigarettes

Long Answer Solution

D. Pierre complains to his parents that the stipend they gave James is too high

and claims that if they gave him a Hicksian compensation they will save money

AND James will also smoke less than he did before the price changes. Is the

Hicksian compensation going to save money to James and Pierres parents? Is

James going to smoke less that he did before the price changes? Explain your

answer.

Long Answer Solution

Solution: Hicksian

compensation is point C. Pierre

is right that his parents will save

money if they use this

compensation since Hicksian

compensation is always less

than Slutsky. Relative to the

original bundle, James will

consume less cigarettes and

more coffee.

Part 2: Addiction, Uncertainty

Time consistency vs Time Inconsistency

Time Consistency

Short Answer

Explain the concept of a commitment mechanism and when it

might make a difference in behavior.

Short Answer

Explain the the concept of a commitment mechanism and

when it might make a difference in behavior.

Answer: without commitment mechanisms, making a decision today about what you are going to do in the

future has an uncertain outcome. The decision might seem favorable to you today, but seem less

favorable when you actually have to follow through with it. In that case, putting a commitment mechanism

in place ensures that you act on your initial decision.

This problem occurs frequently with people who are time -inconsistent discounters (and suffer from

present biased preferences), since the impact of a decision is discounted based on when they have to go

through with it -now or later. Eventually, the later becomes the now, and their evaluation of the

decisions impacts will ultimately change.

Short Answer

Annibal has homework to do. Instead She goes out with

friends and gets a D on the homework. Does this imply that

Annibal is time-inconsistent?

Short Answer

Annibal has homework to do. Instead he goes out with friends and gets a D on the

homework. Does this imply that Annibal is time-inconsistent?

Answer: No! The fact that Annibal did not do the homework does not imply time

inconsistency. She may just be very impatient (high discounting ) or may value

hanging out with friends more than the net benefit from going to school.

Long Answer

After her 100A final exam this semester, Sophia must drive from UC Berkeley to

her home near Los Angeles. She has two possible routes for her trip: US 101 or

Interstate 5. Sophia is a compulsive speeder who consistently drives above the

speed limit. Her only concern in choosing her route is the probability that she will

receive a speeding ticket and the amount of the fine on a given route. Prior to the

trip, Sophias wealth is $400. Sophias utility of wealth function is U (w) = w .

There is a 20% probability of receiving a $200 ticket if she travels via US 101 and

a 40% probability of receiving a $100 ticket if she takes I-5.

Long Answer

a. Using the Arrow-Pratt measure of risk aversion, determine if Sophia is a risk

averse, risk neutral or risk seeking individual.

Long Answer

a. Using the Arrow-Pratt measure of risk aversion, determine if Sophia is a risk

averse, risk neutral or risk seeking individual.

Answer:

Since Sophias utility of wealth function is given by U(w) = w0.5, the coefficient of

absolute risk aversion is:

Since wealth is always positive, A(w) = 1 /(2w) > 0 and hence Sophia is a risk

averse individual.

Long Answer

b. What are Sophia's (1) expected fine, (2) expected wealth and (3) expected

utility if she takes the US101 route?

Long Answer

b. What are Sophia's (1) expected fine, (2) expected wealth and (3) expected

utility if she takes the US101 route?

Answer:

Long Answer

c. What are Sophia's (1) expected fine, (2) expected wealth and (3) expected

utility if she takes the I5 route?

Long Answer

c. What are Sophia's (1) expected fine, (2) expected wealth and (3) expected

utility if she takes the I5 route?

Answer:

Long Answer

d. Which route will she take? Illustrate

using a diagram.

expected value of the gamble is the

same so the difference in utility

depends on the smaller variance

involved in taking the I5.

Long Answer

e. What is Sophias risk premium for the route you chose in part (d)? Show this on

your graph. Now if she could eliminate the possibility of getting a ticket, what is the

maximum amount she will pay to do so?

Long Answer

e. What is Sophias risk premium for the route you chose in part (d)? Show this on

your graph. Now if she could eliminate the possibility of getting a ticket, what is the

maximum amount she will pay to do so?

Risk premium is the difference between expected value of a bet and the amount that will yield the

expected utility of the same bet. U(EV - RP) = EU

Full insurance premium is the fair insurance premium (expected loss b/c an insurance premium that is fair

covers dollar for dollar) + risk premium:

(400 - -EV) + $1.66 = $41.66

Long Answer

2. Julio is a farmer and his utility is given by U= I, where I is the income in dollars.

a. Draw a graph for this function.

b. Julios annual income depends on the weather. Weather can either be good

or bad for farming with a probability of 50%. If the weather is good Julio gets

an income of $90,000 and if the weather is bad he only gets an income of

$40,000. What is the expected income and expected utility of Julio? Show the

results using the graph from part a.

c. Compute the value of utility at the expected income. Is Julio risk averse?

d. What certain income can give the same expected utility to Julio? How do you

relate this to the concept of risk aversion? Compute the risk premium? Show

these results in the graph.

Long Answer

a. Draw a graph for this function

Long Answer

2 Julios annual income depends on the weather. Weather can either be good or bad for farming with a

probability of 50%. If the weather is good Julio gets an income of $90,000 and if the weather is bad he

only gets an income of $40,000. What is the expected income and expected utility of Julio? Show the

results using the graph from part a.

Long Answer

2 Julios annual income depends on the weather. Weather can either be good or bad for farming with a

probability of 50%. If the weather is good Julio gets an income of $90,000 and if the weather is bad he

only gets an income of $40,000. What is the expected income and expected utility of Julio? Show the

results using the graph from part a.

Long Answer

3. Compute the value of utility at the expected income. Is Julio risk averse?

Long Answer

3. Compute the value of utility at the expected income. Is Julio risk averse?

Long Answer

4 What certain income can give the same expected utility to Julio? How do you relate this to the concept

of risk aversion? Compute the risk premium? Show these results in the graph.

Long Answer

4 What certain income can give the same expected utility to Julio? How do you relate this to the concept

of risk aversion? Compute the risk premium? Show these results in the graph.

If we want U(Income) = 250, the certain income should be 250^2 = 62,500, which is less than the

expected value 65,000$. Therefore, this individual is risk averse.

RP = 2,500

Long Answer

Consider an individual with self-control problems, named Arnold. Arnold is deciding how much to exercise.

The quantity of exercise is given by e, with e > 0. The utility derived from exercising U(e) = e. In other

words, the benefit from exercising is directly proportional to how much Arnold exercises. This benefit from

exercising is received one period after the exercise. The cost of effort of exercising is given by C(e) = c.

Long Answer

Consider an individual with self-control problems, named Arnold. Arnold is deciding how much to exercise.

The quantity of exercise is given by e, with e > 0. The utility derived from exercising U(e) = e. In other

words, the benefit from exercising is directly proportional to how much Arnold exercises. This benefit from

exercising is received one period after the exercise. The cost of effort of exercising is given by C(e) = c.

a. At the moment when Arnold is deciding whether to exercise or not, what is the discounted utility

function that Arnold is trying to maximise? Explain your answer qualitatively. Hint: recall that the cost of exercising is

in the present (e.g going to the gym, time etc) while the benefit from exercising is in the future.

Long Answer

a. At the moment when Arnold is deciding whether to exercise or not, what is the discounted utility

function that Arnold is trying to maximize? Explain your answer qualitatively. Hint: recall that the cost of exercising is

in the present (e.g going to the gym, time etc) while the benefit from exercising is in the future.

Long Answer

b. Consider the following scenario. In Day 0, Arnold purchases a gym membership to a nearby gym in his

neighborhood thinking that he will go to the gym. However, in Day 1, when he decides whether or not to

go to the gym, he decides not to go to the gym. Explain how this scenario highlights the fact that Arnold is

a Naive consumer who is unaware of his self control problems? If possible, show this mathematically.

Assume that delta = 1 for this problem.

Long Answer

b. Consider the following scenario. In Day 0, Arnold purchases a gym membership to a nearby gym in his

neighborhood thinking that he will go to the gym. However, in Day 1, when he decides whether or not to

go to the gym, he decides not to go to the gym. Explain how this scenario highlights the fact that Arnold is

a Naive consumer who is unaware of his self control problems? If possible, show this mathematically.

Assume that delta = 1 for this problem.

Answer: When Arnold is purchasing the gym membership, both the cost of going to the gym and the

benefit of exercising are both in the future. We assume that e > c since Arnold decides to purchase the

Gym membership. However, just before making the decision of going to the gym in Day 1, Arnold

succumbs to his present biased preferences which discounts the future benefit of exercising. Thus, we

can say that c > be. Since Arnold is unaware of his present biased preferences when purchasing the gym

membership, he fails to develop a commitment device to go to the gym and ends up not going - a sign of

Naivete.

Part 3: Production and Costs

MPL & APL

Cost Minimization

w/r = MPL/MPK

Slope of isocost =

Slope of isoquant

Isoquant and Isocost

Expansion Path

An expansion path is a curve in a

graph with quantities of two inputs,

typically capital and labor, plotted

on the axes. The path connects

optimal input combinations as

the scale of production expands.

It is the line which reflects the least

cost method of producing different

levels of output, when factor prices

remain constant (same isocost

slope).

Returns to Scale

Cost Curves

MC, AVC

LR Costs

Long Answer

Let Q = KL1/3

returns to scale? Show your answer mathematically.

Long Answer

Answer: IRTS

Two approaches:

B. Q(2K, 2L) > 2Q

Long Answer

b) Now let K=4, w=4, r=20. Find total costs in the short-run.

Long Answer

K = 4, w = 4, r = 20

TC = wL + rK

= 4L + (20*4)

Q = KL1/3

= 4L1/3 L = Q3/64

TC = 4(Q3/64) + 80 = Q3/16 + 80

Long Answer

c) Let market price be $9. Find the profit maximizing quantity.

Will the firm produce at this price? Why or why not?

Long Answer

MC = MR TC = P

3Q2/16 = 9

Q* = 48.5 =~ 7

Long Answer

d) Based on the quantity you found in (c), how many units of

labor are hired?

Long Answer

We get Q = 481/2 from part c

= (482/2)481/2/64 = 3(481/2)/4

Long Answer

e) Find the expression for the cost-minimizing quantity of

labor in the LR. Given 4 units of capital and input prices as

above, how much labor should the firm use? Why is this

answer different than the amount in (d)?

Long Answer

w/r = MPL/MPK

Long Answer

A company produces hats using the following production

function: f(L,K) = K.25L.75. Let w = $8, r = $2.

Long Answer

Answer:

MRTS = 3K/L

Long Answer

b) The company currently has 16 machines. Find ATC, AVC,

and MC functions.

Long Answer

1) Q = K.25L.75 = 16.25L.75 = 2L.75 L = (Q/2)4/3

AVC = 3.174(Q)

MC = 4.232(Q)

Long Answer

c) Assume that the firm is a price-taker and the market price

for hats is currently $12. Will the company produce in the

SR? If so, what quantity and profit?

Long Answer

MC = MR = P 4.232(Q) = 12

Q = 23.7

AVC = 3.174(Q) = 3.174(23.7) = 9.022 < 12 produce in

SR

Long Answer

d) A new policy raises the minimum wage to $10. At the same

level of output, what will labor and capital be in the long-run?

What is profit at this allocation of resources?

Long Answer

MRTS = w/r 3K/L = 10/2 L = K

Part 4: Firm and Market Supply

Firm and Market SR Supply Curve

Firm and Market LR Supply Curve

Short Answer Question

State the four conditions for perfect competition.

a. Explain why firms in a perfectly competitive market have

zero profits.

b. Explain why producers in competitive markets bear no tax

incidence in the long-run. Support your explanation with a

graph.

Solution

Four conditions for perfect competition

1) identical products

2) free entry and exit

3) perfect information

4) low transaction costs.

Solution

a. Explain why firms in a perfectly competitive market have

zero profits.

If firms make profit, then other firms will enter the market. If

firms incur losses, they will exit the market. In the long-run the

firms that remain make zero profits.

Solution

b. Explain why producers in competitive markets bear no tax

incidence in the long-run. Support your explanation with a

graph.

the market supply curve is flat, which means that all tax

burden is borne by consumers.

Solution:

Long Answer Question

The market for Indian restaurants in Berkeley is free to entry

and exit, has constant input prices, and identical costs.

single restaurant. On the right-hand side graph the market

supply. Add a demand curve to your market graph

Solution

Solution:

b. The city of Berkeley decides to limit the number of Indian

restaurants. On your market graph add a new supply curve

and mark the new equilibrium. Show on your graph the

change in consumer and producer surplus as well as DWL.

Solution:

(The new supply curve is in orange.)

Change in PS: +B

DWL: - C

Solution:

c. Show the impact of the new equilibrium price on the

individual restaurants quantity and profit.

Solution

Quantity produced by

each firm will increase

and each firm will

make a profit.

Solution:

d. A politician running for office claims that a lump-sum

subsidy would be a more effective way to increase profits

without hurting consumers. Is he right? Explain your answer.

A lump-sum subsidy with free entry and exit will shift the LRS

down, but it will remain flat at minimum AC, so profits will

remain zero he is wrong!

Part 5: Welfare

Short Answer #1

Define the term efficiency. Show graphically and explain why the competitive

equilibrium is efficient.

Efficiency is achieved when when maximize the total welfare (consumer surplus +

producer surplus)

If produce more or less than Q*, there is DWL.

Solution

Short Answer #2

Show the area representing the deadweight loss if the government provides a per

unit subsidy.

Solution

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