Anda di halaman 1dari 4

2/11/2017 AccordingtotheIEC61660OpenElectrical

AccordingtotheIEC61660
FromOpenElectrical

Contents
1Introduction
2CalculatingtheTotalShortCircuitCurrent
3PartialFaultCurrents
3.1FaultCurrentfromBatteries
3.2FaultCurrentfromCapacitors
3.3FaultCurrentfromRectifiers
3.4FaultCurrentfromDCMachines
3.5CorrectionFactors
4References

Introduction

ThescopeofIEC61660istodescribeamethodforcalculatingshortcircuitcurrentsinDCauxiliary
systemsinpowerplantsandsubstations.Suchsystemscanbeequippedwiththefollowingequipment,
actingasshortcircuitcurrentsources:

rectifiersinthreephaseACbridgeconnectionfor50Hz
stationaryleadacidbatteries
smoothingcapacitors
DCmotorswithindependentexcitation.

NOTERectifiersinthreephaseACbridgeconnectionfor60Hzareunderconsideration.Thedataof
otherequipmentmaybegivenbythemanufacturer.

ThisstandardisonlyconcernedwithrectifiersinthreephaseACbridgeconnection.Itisnotconcerned
withothertypesofrectifiers.

Thepurposeofthestandardistoprovideagenerallyapplicablemethodofcalculationwhichproduces
resultsofsufficientaccuracyontheconservativeside.Specialmethods,adjustedtoparticular
circumstances,maybeusediftheygiveatleastthesameprecision.Shortcircuitcurrents,resistances
andinductancesmayalsobeascertainedfromsystemtestsormeasurementsonmodelsystems.In
existingDCsystemsthenecessaryvaluescanbeascertainedfrommeasurementstakenattheassumed
shortcircuitlocation.Theloadcurrentisnottakenintoconsiderationwhencalculatingtheshortcircuit
current.Itisnecessarytodistinguishbetweentwodifferentvaluesofshortcircuitcurrent:

themaximumshortcircuitcurrentwhichdeterminestheratingoftheelectricalequipment
theminimumshortcircuitcurrentwhichcanbetakenasthebasisforfuseandprotectionratings
andsettings.

FormoreinformationpleaserefertothestandarditselfIEC616601
(https://webstore.iec.ch/publication/5700).
Figure1.Equivalentcircuitdiagramforcalculatingthepartialshort
CalculatingtheTotalShortCircuitCurrent circuitcurrents

EachDCsourceduringthefaultshallcontributetothetotalshortcircuitcurrent.Thesuperposition
principleisbeingapplied.Whenonesourceisobservedthentheotheronesarebeingdisconnectedandignored.ThepotentialDCsourcesarebattery,rectifier,capacitorand
machine.

Thepartialshortcircuitcurrentsarecalculatedforeachofthosesourcesasfollows:

for0 t tp:

Wheretpisthetimetopeakofthepartialcurrentand1istherisetimeconstantforthepartialcurrentsource.

fortp t Tk:

WhereTkisthefaultdurationtimeand2thedecaytimeconstantforthepartialcurrentsource.

Andthetotalshortcircuitcurrentisthesumasfollows:

for0 t Tk.AndnDCisthenumberoftheDCsourcescontributingthefaultcurrent,jistheobservedDCsource.

PartialFaultCurrents

FaultCurrentfromBatteries

Thepeakshortcircuitcurrentiscalculatedas:

Thequasisteadystateshortcircuitcurrentiscalculatedasfollows:

Thedecaycomponentiscalculatedas:

Therisetimeconstant(1B)andtimetopeakofshortcircuitcurrentsofbatteriesis
takenfromthediagram(Figure10.inIEC61660:1997).Thetimeconstantofthebattery
TBisassumedtobe30ms.Thedecaytimeconstant(2B)isassumedto100ms.RBBris
Figure2.Timetopeakandrisetimeconstant(Figure10.IEC61660:1997)
thesumofthebatteryinternalresistanceandtheline(path)resistanceuptothefault
location(RBBr=0,9RB+RBr).LBBristhesumofthebatteryinternalinductanceandthe
line(path)inductanceuptothefaultlocation.

http://openelectrical.org/wiki/index.php?title=According_to_the_IEC_61660 1/4
2/11/2017 AccordingtotheIEC61660OpenElectrical
Risetimecurrent,for0ttpB:

Decaytimecurrent,fortpBtTk:

Andthetotalcurrentfromthebatteryis:

FaultCurrentfromCapacitors

Thepeakshortcircuitcurrentiscalculatedusing:

WhereECisthevoltageofthecapacitorterminalbeforethefault,andRCBristhesumof
capacitorandbranchresistance,uptothefaultlocation.ThefactorCdependsonthe
eigenfrequency0andthedecaycoefficient,asfollows:

LCBristheinductanceofthecapacitorandcommonbranchuptothefaultlocation.

a)If>0:
Figure3.Factork1Ctodeterminerisetimeconstant(Figure14.IEC61660:1997)

b)If<0:

c)If=0:

Figure4.Factork2Ctodeterminedecaytimeconstant(Figure15.IEC61660:1997)

WherethetimetopeakistpC.Andtherisetimeconstantis:

Andthedecaytimeconstantis:

Andcoefficientsk1Candk2Caretakenfromthediagrams/tables(definedinFigure14.IEC61660).Thequasisteadystatecurrentofthecapacitorisconsideredtobe0.

Risetimecurrent,for0ttpC:

Decaytimecurrent,fortpCtTk:

Andthetotalcurrentfromthebatteryis:

FaultCurrentfromRectifiers

ThequasisteadystateshortcircuitcurrentIkDofarectifierinthreephaseACbridgeconnectionis:

WhereUnisthenominalsystemvoltageonACsideofrectifier,ZNisthenetworkimpedanceACside,UnTLVandUnTHVaretransformerratedvoltagesoflowandhigh
voltageside,respectively.ThefactorDiscalculatedusing:

Thepeakshortcircuitcurrentiscalculatedusing:

AndthefactorDand iscalculatedusing:
http://openelectrical.org/wiki/index.php?title=According_to_the_IEC_61660 2/4
2/11/2017 AccordingtotheIEC61660OpenElectrical
AndthefactorDand iscalculatedusing:

ThetimetopeakiscalculatedforallvaluesD1,05asfollows:

for itis (ms)

for itis (ms)

Therisetimeconstantforrectifiersis:

ForD>=1.05:

ForD<1.05:

Thesuitableapproximationisgivenas:

Thedecaytimeconstantiscalculatedusing:

FaultCurrentfromDCMachines

Thequasisteadystateshortcircuitcurrentiscalculatedusing:

WhereLFisthefieldinductanceandLOFistheunsaturatedfieldinductanceatnoload.Thisequationisvalidonlyifthemotorspeedremainsconstantduringtheduration
oftheshortcircuitfault.OtherwiseIkM=0.

Figure6.FactorsfordeterminingtpM,1Mfornominalanddecreasingspeed(Figure
Figure5.FactorMfordeterminingthepeakshortcircuitcurrentipM(Figure17.IEC 18.IEC61660:1997) Figure7.tpMfordecresingspeed(Figure19.IEC61660:1997)
61660:1997)

Thearmaturetimeconstantiscalculatedas:

Thetimeconstantofthefieldcircuitiscalculatedas:

Andthemechanicaltimeconstantiscalculatedas:

Theeigenfrequencyiscalculatedas:

Thedecaycoefficientiscalculatedfrom:

Thepeakshortcircuitcurrent:

Thefactorsk1M,k2M,k3Mandk4Maretakenfromthediagrams(Figure18,20,21inIEC61660).ThefactorMistakenfromthediagram(Figure17inIEC61660).

http://openelectrical.org/wiki/index.php?title=According_to_the_IEC_61660 3/4
2/11/2017 AccordingtotheIEC61660OpenElectrical

Figure9.Factork4Mfordeterminingthedecaytimeconstantt2Mfordecreasingspeed
Figure8.Factork3Mfordeterminingtherisetimeconstantt1Mfordecreasingspeed
(Figure21.IEC61660:1997)
(Figure20.IEC61660:1997)

ThetimetopeakincasewhenMec10F:

Andtherisetimeconstant:

Thedecaytimeconstant:

2M=Fwhenn=nn=const.

2M=(k4M)(Mec)(LOF/LF)whenn0

IncasewhenMec<10Fthenthetimetopeakistakenfromthediagram/table(Figure19.IEC61660).

Therisetimeconstantandthedecaytimeconstant1Mand2Marecalculatedusing:

Risetimecurrent,for0ttpM:

Wheretpisthetimetopeakofthepartialcurrentand1istherisetimeconstantfortheobservedvoltagesource.

Decaytimecurrent,fortpMtTk:

AndthetotalcurrentfromtheDCmachineis:

CorrectionFactors

Duetothefactthatallnonobservedsourcesatthetimeareneglectedalongwiththeirbranchesit
issuggestedtousecorrectionfactors,whicharesupposedtoimprovetotalresults.Each
calculatedcorrectionfactorismultipliedwiththepartialfaultcurrentoftheeachsource,as
follows:

WhereIjistheinitialpartialfaultcurrentandjisthecorrectionfactor,bothforthesource"j".

Correctedresistancefortheeachsource

Yreferstothebranch(Br).

References

IEC61660:Shortcircuitcurrentsind.c.auxiliaryinstallationsinpowerplantsandsubstationsPart1:Calculationofshortcircuitcurrents.

FormoreinformationpleaserefertothestandarditselfIEC616601(https://webstore.iec.ch/publication/5700).

Relatedtopics:

ShortCircuitCalculation

accordingtotheANSI/IEEE946

Retrievedfrom"http://openelectrical.org/wiki/index.php?title=According_to_the_IEC_61660"
Categories:Calculations|Protection

Thispagewaslastmodifiedon9May2015,at01:38.

http://openelectrical.org/wiki/index.php?title=According_to_the_IEC_61660 4/4