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SEBM030601

MACHINE MODEL SERIAL NUMBER

PC78MR-6 1001 and up

This shop manual may contain attachments and optional equipment that are not available in your
area. Please consult your local Komatsu distributor for those items you may require. Materials and
specifications are subject to change without notice.
PC78MR-6 mounts the S4D95LE-3-A engine.
For details of the engine, see the 95-3 Series Engine Shop Manual.

2003
All Rights Reserved
Printed in Japan 12-03(02) 00-1
(1)
CONTENTS

No. of page
01 GENERAL ................................................................................................................01-1

10 STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION,


MAINTENANCE STANDARD......................................................................10-1

20 TESTING AND ADJUSTING .......................................................................20-1

30 DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY ..........................................................30-1

90 OTHERS ....................................................................................................................90-1

00-2 PC78MR-6
The affected pages are indicated by the use of the
Mark Indication Action required
following marks. It is requested that necessary
actions be taken to these pages according to the Q Page to be newly added Add
table below.
q Page to be replaced Replace

( ) Page to be deleted Discard

Pages having no marks are those previously revised


or made aditions.

LIST OF REVISED PAGES


Revision Revision Revision Revision Revision
Mark Page Mark Page Mark Page Mark Page Mark Page
number number number number number
q 00-1 (1) 10-6 10-46 10-88 10-125
00-2 10-7 10-47 10-89 10-126
Q 00-2-1 (1) 10-8 10-48 10-90 10-127
Q 00-2-2 (1) 10-9 10-49 10-91 10-128
Q 00-2-3 (1) 10-10 10-50 10-92 q 10-129 (1)
00-3 10-11 10-51 10-93 q 10-130 (1)
00-4 10-12 10-52 10-94 10-131
00-5 10-13 10-53 10-95 Q 10-131-1 (1)
00-6 10-14 10-54 10-96 Q 10-131-2 (1)
00-7 10-15 10-55 10-97 10-132
00-8 10-16 10-56 10-98 10-133
00-9 10-17 10-57 10-99 10-134
00-10 10-18 10-58 10-100 10-135
00-11 q 10-19 (1) 10-59 10-101 10-136
00-12 10-20 10-60 10-102 10-137
00-13 10-21 10-61 10-103 10-138
00-14 10-22 10-62 10-104 10-139
00-15 10-23 10-63 10-105 10-140
00-16 10-24 10-64 10-106 10-141
00-17 10-25 10-65 10-107 10-142
00-18 10-26 10-66 10-108 10-143
00-19 10-27 10-67 10-110 Q 10-143-1 (1)
00-20 10-28 10-68 10-111 q 10-144
00-21 10-29 10-69 10-112 10-145
00-22 10-30 10-70 10-113 10-146
10-31 10-72 10-114 10-147
01-1 10-32 10-73 10-115 q 10-148 (1)
01-2 q 10-34 (1) 10-74 10-116 q 10-149 (1)
01-3 10-35 10-75 10-117 10-150
01-4 Q 10-35-1 (1) 10-76 10-118 10-151
01-5 Q 10-35-2 (1) 10-77 10-119 10-152
01-6 10-36 10-78 10-120 Q 10-152-1 (1)
01-7 10-37 10-79 10-121 10-153
01-8 10-38 10-80 Q 10-121-1 (1) 10-154
01-9 10-39 10-81 Q 10-121-2 (1) 10-155
10-40 10-82 Q 10-121-3 (1) q 10-156 (1)
q 10-1 (1) q 10-41 (1) 10-83 Q 10-121-4 (1) Q 10-156-1 (1)
10-2 10-42 10-84 Q 10-121-5 (1) 10-157
10-3 10-43 10-85 q 10-122 q 10-158 (1)
10-4 10-44 10-86 10-123 q 10-159 (1)
10-5 10-45 10-87 10-124 q 10-160 (1)

PC78MR-6 00-2-1
(1)
Revision Revision Revision Revision Revision
Mark Page number Mark Page number Mark Page number Mark Page number Mark Page number
20-1 20-137 20-250 20-516 20-808
20-2 20-138 20-251 20-517 20-809
20-3 20-139 20-252 20-518 20-810
20-4 20-201 20-253 20-519 20-811
20-5 20-202 20-254 20-520 20-812
20-6 20-203 20-255 20-521 20-813
20-7 20-204 20-256 20-522 20-814
20-8 20-205 q 20-257 (1) q 20-601 (1) 20-815
20-9 20-206 20-258 20-602 20-816
20-10 20-207 20-259 20-604 20-817
20-11 20-208 20-260 20-605 20-818
20-12 20-209 20-301 q 20-606 (1) 20-819
20-13 20-210 20-302 q 20-607 (1) 20-820
20-14 20-211 20-303 q 20-608 (1) 20-821
20-15 20-212 20-304 q 20-609 (1) 20-822
20-101 q 20-214 (1) 20-305 q 20-610 (1) 20-823
20-102 q 20-215 (1) 20-306 20-611 20-824
20-103 q 20-216 (1) 20-307 Q 20-611-1 (1) 20-825
20-104 q 20-217 (1) 20-308 Q 20-611-2 (1) 20-826
20-105 q 20-218 (1) 20-309 20-612 20-827
20-106 20-219 20-310 20-613 20-828
20-107 20-220 20-311 20-614 20-829
20-108 20-221 20-312 20-615 20-830
20-109 20-222 20-313 Q 20-615-1 (1) 20-831
20-110 20-223 20-314 q 20-616 (1) 20-832
20-111 20-224 20-315 q 20-617 (1) 20-833
20-112 20-225 20-316 q 20-618 (1) 20-834
20-113 20-226 20-317 q 20-619 (1) 20-835
20-114 20-227 20-318 q 20-620 (1) 20-836
20-115 20-228 20-319 q 20-621 (1) 20-837
20-116 20-229 20-320 q 20-622 (1) 20-838
20-117 20-230 20-321 q 20-623 (1) 20-839
20-118 20-231 20-322 q 20-624 (1) 20-840
20-119 20-232 20-323 q 20-625 (1) 20-841
20-120 20-233 20-324 q 20-626 (1) 20-842
20-121 20-234 20-401 q 20-627 (1) 20-843
20-122 20-235 20-402 q 20-628 (1) 20-844
20-123 20-236 20-501 20-701 20-845
20-124 20-237 20-502 20-702 20-846
20-125 20-238 20-504 20-703 20-847
20-126 20-239 20-505 20-704 20-848
20-127 20-240 20-506 20-705 20-849
20-128 q 20-241 (1) 20-507 20-706 20-850
20-129 q 20-242 (1) 20-508 20-707 20-851
20-130 20-243 20-509 20-708 20-852
20-131 20-244 20-510 20-801 20-853
20-132 q 20-245 (1) 20-511 20-802 20-854
20-133 20-246 20-512 20-804 20-855
20-134 20-247 20-513 20-805 20-856
20-135 20-248 20-514 20-806 20-857
20-136 20-249 20-515 20-807 20-858

00-2-2 PC78MR-6
(1)
Revision Revision Revision Revision Revision
Mark Page number Mark Page number Mark Page number Mark Page number Mark Page number
20-859 30-19 q 90-1 (1)
20-860 30-20 q 90-3 (1)
20-861 30-21 q 90-5 (1)
20-901 30-22 q 90-7 (1)
20-902 30-23 Q 90-9 (1)
20-903 30-24 Q 90-11 (1)
20-904 30-25 Q 90-13 (1)
20-905 30-26
20-906 30-27
20-907 30-28
20-908 30-29
20-909 30-30
20-910 30-31
20-911 30-32
20-912 30-33
20-913 30-34
20-914 30-35
20-915 30-36
20-916 30-37
20-917 30-38
20-918 30-39
20-919 30-40
20-920 30-41
20-921 30-42
20-922 30-43
20-923 30-44
20-924 30-45
20-925 30-46
20-926 30-47
20-927 30-48
20-928 30-49
20-929 30-50
30-51
30-1 30-52
30-2 30-53
30-3 30-54
30-4 30-55
30-5 30-56
30-6 30-57
30-7 30-58
30-8 30-59
30-9 30-60
30-10 30-61
30-11 30-62
30-12 30-63
30-13 30-64
30-14 30-65
30-15 30-66
30-16 30-67
30-17 30-68
30-18

PC78MR-6 00-2-3
(1)
SAFETY SAFETY NOTICE

SAFETY
SAFETY NOTICE

IMPORTANT SAFETY NOTICE

Proper service and repair is extremely important for safe machine operation. The service and
repair techniques recommended by Komatsu and described in this manual are both effective
and safe. Some of these techniques require the use of tools specially designed by Komatsu for
the specific purpose.

To prevent injury to workers, the symbol is used to mark safety precautions in this manual.
The cautions accompanying these symbols should always be followed carefully. If any danger-
ous situation arises or may possibly arise, first consider safety, and take the necessary actions
to deal with the situation.

GENERAL PRECAUTIONS 6. Decide a place in the repair workshop to keep


tools and removed parts. Always keep the tools
Mistakes in operation are extremely dangerous. and parts in their correct places. Always keep
Read the Operation and Maintenance Manual care- the work area clean and make sure that there is
fully BEFORE operating the machine. no dirt or oil on the floor. Smoke only in the areas
1. Before carrying out any greasing or repairs, read provided for smoking. Never smoke while work-
all the precautions given on the decals which are ing.
fixed to the machine.
2. When carrying out any operation, always PREPARATIONS FOR WORK
wear safety shoes and helmet. Do not wear
loose work clothes, or clothes with buttons 7. Before adding oil or making any repairs, park the
missing. machine on hard, level ground, and block the
Always wear safety glasses when hitting wheels or tracks to prevent the machine from
parts with a hammer. moving.
Always wear safety glasses when grinding 8. Before starting work, lower blade, ripper, bucket
parts with a grinder, etc. or any other work equipment to the ground. If
3. If welding repairs are needed, always have a this is not possible, insert the safety pin or use
trained, experienced welder carry out the work. blocks to prevent the work equipment from fall-
When carrying out welding work, always wear ing. In addition, be sure to lock all the control
welding gloves, apron, hand shield, cap and levers and hang warning signs on them.
other clothes suited for welding work. 9. When disassembling or assembling, support the
4. When carrying out any operation with two or machine with blocks, jacks or stands before
more workers, always agree on the operating starting work.
procedure before starting. Always inform your 10.Remove all mud and oil from the steps or other
fellow workers before starting any step of the places used to get on and off the machine.
operation. Before starting work, hang UNDER Always use the handrails, ladders or steps when
REPAIR signs on the controls in the operator's getting on or off the machine. Never jump on or
compartment. off the machine. If it is impossible to use the
5. Keep all tools in good condition and learn the handrails, ladders or steps, use a stand to pro-
correct way to use them. vide safe footing.

00-3
SAFETY SAFETY NOTICE

PRECAUTIONS DURING WORK 19.Be sure to assemble all parts again in their origi-
nal places.
11. When removing the oil filler cap, drain plug or Replace any damaged parts with new parts.
hydraulic pressure measuring plugs, loosen When installing hoses and wires, be sure
them slowly to prevent the oil from spurting out. that they will not be damaged by contact
Before disconnecting or removing components with other parts when the machine is being
of the oil, water or air circuits, first remove the operated.
pressure completely from the circuit. 20.When installing high pressure hoses, make sure
12.The water and oil in the circuits are hot when the that they are not twisted. Damaged tubes are
engine is stopped, so be careful not to get dangerous, so be extremely careful when install-
burned. ing tubes for high pressure circuits. Also, check
Wait for the oil and water to cool before carry- that connecting parts are correctly installed.
ing out any work on the oil or water circuits. 21.When assembling or installing parts, always use
13.Before starting work, remove the leads from the the specified tightening torques. When installing
battery. Always remove the lead from the nega- protective parts such as guards, or parts which
tive () terminal first. vibrate violently or rotate at high speed, be par-
14.When raising heavy components, use a hoist or ticularly careful to check that they are installed
crane. correctly.
Check that the wire rope, chains and hooks are 22.When aligning two holes, never insert your fin-
free from damage. gers or hand. Be careful not to get your fingers
Always use lifting equipment which has ample caught in a hole.
capacity. 23.When measuring hydraulic pressure, check that
Install the lifting equipment at the correct places. the measuring tool is correctly assembled before
Use a hoist or crane and operate slowly to pre- taking any measurements.
vent the component from hitting any other part.
24.Take care when removing or installing the tracks
Do not work with any part still raised by the hoist
of track-type machines.
or crane.
When removing the track, the track separates
15.When removing covers which are under internal suddenly, so never let anyone stand at either
pressure or under pressure from a spring, end of the track.
always leave two bolts in position on opposite
sides. Slowly release the pressure, then slowly
loosen the bolts to remove.
16.When removing components, be careful not to
break or damage the wiring. Damaged wiring
may cause electrical fires.
17.When removing piping, stop the fuel or oil from
spilling out. If any fuel or oil drips onto the floor,
wipe it up immediately. Fuel or oil on the floor
can cause you to slip, or can even start fires.
18.As a general rule, do not use gasoline to wash
parts. In particular, use only the minimum of
gasoline when washing electrical parts.

00-4
FOREWORD GENERAL

FOREWORD
GENERAL
This shop manual has been prepared as an aid to improve the quality of repairs by giving the serviceman an
accurate understanding of the product and by showing him the correct way to perform repairs and make judge-
ments. Make sure you understand the contents of this manual and use it to full effect at every opportunity.

This shop manual mainly contains the necessary technical information for operations performed in a service
workshop. For ease of understanding, the manual is divided into the following chapters; these chapters are fur-
ther divided into the each main group of components.

STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION


This section explains the structure and function of each component. It serves not only to give an under-
standing of the structure, but also serves as reference material for troubleshooting.
In addition, this section may contain hydraulic circuit diagrams, electric circuit diagrams, and mainte-
nance standards.

TESTING AND ADJUSTING


This section explains checks to be made before and after performing repairs, as well as adjustments to
be made at completion of the checks and repairs.
Troubleshooting charts correlating "Problems" with "Causes" are also included in this section.

DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY


This section explains the procedures for removing, installing, disassembling and assembling each com-
ponent, as well as precautions for them.

MAINTENANCE STANDARD
This section gives the judgment standards for inspection of disassembled parts.
The contents of this section may be described in STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION.

OTHERS
This section mainly gives hydraulic circuit diagrams and electric circuit diagrams.
In addition, this section may give the specifications of attachments and options together.

NOTICE

The specifications contained in this shop manual are subject to change at any time and without any
advance notice. Use the specifications given in the book with the latest date.

00-5
FOREWORD HOW TO READ THE SHOP MANUAL

HOW TO READ THE SHOP MANUAL REVISED EDITION MARK

W h en a m an u a l is r e vis ed , a n e d itio n ma rk
VOLUMES
Shop manuals are issued as a guide to carrying out 123
( ....) is recorded on the bottom of the pages.
repairs. They are divided as follows:

Chassis volume: Issued for every machine model REVISIONS


Engine volume: Issued for each engine series
Revised pages are shown in the LIST OF REVISED

}
Electrical volume: Each issued as one
PAGES next to the CONTENTS page.
Attachments volume: volume to cover all
models
SYMBOLS
These various volumes are designed to avoid dupli-
cating the same information. Therefore, to deal with So that the shop manual can be of ample practical
all repairs for any model , it is necessary that chas- use, important safety and quality portions are
sis, engine, electrical and attachment volumes be marked with the following symbols.
available.

DISTRIBUTION AND UPDATING


Any additions, amendments or other changes will be
sent to KOMATSU distributors. Get the most up-to- Symbol Item Remarks
date information before you start any work.
Safety
Special safety precautions
are necessary when per-
forming the work.
FILING METHOD
1. See the page number on the bottom of the page. Special technical precau-
File the pages in correct order.
2. Following examples show how to read the page s Caution
tions or other precautions
for preserving standards
are necessary when per-

4
number.
forming the work.
Example 1 (Chassis volume):
Weight of parts of sys-
10 - 3 tems. Caution necessary
Weight when selecting hoisting

3
Item number (10. Structure and wire, or when working pos-
Function) ture is important, etc.
Consecutive page number for each
Places that require special

2
item. Tightening
attention for the tightening
torque
torque during assembly.
Example 2 (Engine volume):
Places to be coated with

5
12 - 5 Coat adhesives and lubricants,
etc.
Unit number (1. Engine) Places where oil, water or

6
Item number (2. Testing and Adjust- Oil, water fuel must be added, and
ing) the capacity.
Consecutive page number for each
item. Places where oil or water
Drain m u s t b e d r a i n e d , a nd
quantity to be drained.
3. Additional pages: Additional pages are indicated
by a hyphen (-) and number after the page
number. File as in the example.
Example:
10-4 12-203
10-4-1 12-203-1
Added pages
10-4-2 12-203-2
10-5 12-204

00-6
FOREWORD HOISTING INSTRUCTIONS

HOISTING INSTRUCTIONS

HOISTING

Heavy parts (25 kg or more) must be lifted


Slinging near the edge of the hook may cause
the rope to slip off the hook during hoisting, and

4
with a hoist, etc. In the DISASSEMBLY a serious accident can result. Hooks have max-
AND ASSEMBLY section, every part imum strength at the middle portion.
weighing 25 kg or more is indicated clearly
with the symbol

If a part cannot be smoothly removed from the


machine by hoisting, the following checks
should be made:
1) Check for removal of all bolts fastening the 100% 88% 79% 71% 41%
part to the relative parts. SAD00479
2) Check for existence of another part causing
3) Do not sling a heavy load with one rope alone,
interference with the part to be removed.


but sling with two or more ropes symmetrically
wound onto the load.
WIRE ROPES
Slinging with one rope may cause turning
1) Use adequate ropes depending on the
of the load during hoisting, untwisting of
weight of parts to be hoisted, referring to
the rope, or slipping of the rope from its
the table below:
original winding position on the load, which
can result in a dangerous accident.
Wire ropes
(Standard "Z" or "S" twist ropes
without galvanizing) 4) Do not sling a heavy load with ropes forming a
wide hanging angle from the hook.
When hoisting a load with two or more ropes,
Rope diameter Allowable load the force subjected to each rope will increase
mm kN tons
with the hanging angles. The table below
shows the variation of allowable load kN {kg}
10 9.8 1.0 when hoisting is made with two ropes, each of
11.5 13.7 1.4 which is allowed to sling up to 9.8 kN {1000 kg}
12.5 15.7 1.6 vertically, at various hanging angles.
14 21.6 2.2 When two ropes sling a load vertically, up to
16 27.5 2.8 19.6 kN {2000 kg} of total weight can be sus-
18 35.3 3.6
pended. This weight becomes 9.8 kN {1000 kg}
20 43.1 4.4
22.4 54.9 5.6
when two ropes make a 120 hanging angle.
30 98.1 10.0 On the other hand, two ropes are subjected to
40 176.5 18.0 an excessive force as large as 39.2 kN {4000
50 274.6 28.0 kg} if they sling a 19.6 kN {2000 kg} load at a
60 392.2 40.0 lifting angle of 150.

The allowable load value is estimated to be one-


sixth or one-seventh of the breaking strength of
the rope used.

2) Sling wire ropes from the middle portion of the


hook.

00-7
FOREWORD METHOD OF DISASSEMBLING, CONNECTING PUSH-PULL TYPE COUPLER

METHOD OF DISASSEMBLING, CONNECTING PUSH-PULL TYPE COUPLER

Before carrying out the following work, release


the residual pressure from the hydraulic tank.
Type 1

For details, see TESTING AND ADJUSTING,


Releasing residual pressure from hydraulic

tank.

Even if the residual pressure is released from


the hydraulic tank, some hydraulic oil flows out
when the hose is disconnected. Accordingly,
prepare an oil receiving container.

Disconnection
1) Release the residual pressure from the hydrau-
lic tan k. Fo r d e tails , se e TES TIN G AN D
ADJUSTING, Releasing residual pressure from
hydraulic tank.

2) Hold adapter (1) and push hose joint (2) into


mating adapter (3). (See Fig. 1)
The adapter can be pushed in about 3.5
mm.
Do not hold rubber cap portion (4).

3) After hose joint (2) is pushed into adapter (3),


press rubber cap portion (4) against (3) until it
clicks. (See Fig. 2)

4) Hold hose adapter (1) or hose (5) and pull it out.


(See Fig. 3)
Since some hydraulic oil flows out, prepare
an oil receiving container.

Connection
1) Hold hose adapter (1) or hose (5) and insert it in
mating adapter (3), aligning them with each
other. (See Fig. 4)
Do not hold rubber cap portion (4).

2) After inserting the hose in the mating adapter


perfectly, pull it back to check its connecting
condition. (See Fig. 5)
When the hose is pulled back, the rubber
cap portion moves toward the hose about
3.5 mm. This does not indicate abnormality,
however.

00-8
FOREWORD METHOD OF DISASSEMBLING, CONNECTING PUSH-PULL TYPE COUPLER

Type 2 Type 3
1) Hold the mouthpiece of the tightening portion 1) Hold the mouthpiece of the tightening portion
and push body (2) in straight until sliding pre- and push body (2) in straight until sliding pre-
vention ring (1) contacts contact surface a of vention ring (1) contacts contact surface a of
the hexagonal portion at the male end. the hexagonal portion at the male end.

2) Hold in the condition in Step 1), and turn 2) Hold in the condition in Step 1), and push
lever (4) to the right (clockwise). until cover (3) contacts contact surface a of
the hexagonal portion at the male end.
Disassembly

3) Hold in the condition in Steps 1) and 2), and 3) Hold in the condition in Steps 1) and 2), and
pull out whole body (2) to disconnect it. pull out whole body (2) to disconnect it.

Hold the mouthpiece of the tightening portion Hold the mouthpiece of the tightening portion
and push body (2) in straight until sliding pre- and push body (2) in straight until sliding pre-
vention ring (1) contacts contact surface a of vention ring (1) contacts contact surface a of
the hexagonal portion at the male end to con- the hexagonal portion at the male end to con-
nect it. nect it.
Connection

00-9
FOREWORD COATING MATERIALS

COATING MATERIALS

The recommended coating materials such as adhesives, gasket sealants and greases used for disassembly
and assembly are listed below.
For coating materials not listed below, use the equivalent of products shown in this list.

Category Komatsu code Part No. Q'ty Container Main applications, featuresr

Used to prevent rubber gaskets,


LT-1A 790-129-9030 150 g Tube rubber cushions, and cock plug
from coming out.

Used in places requiring an imme-


diately effective, strong adhesive.
20 g Polyethylene Used for plastics (except polyeth-
LT-1B 790-129-9050
(2 pcs.) container ylene, polyprophylene, tetrafluor-
oet hl ene and vi nyl chl oride),
rubber, metal and non-metal.

Features: Resistance to heat and


LT-2 09940-00030 50 g Polyethylene chemicals
container Used for anti-loosening and seal-
ant purpose for bolts and plugs.

Adhesive: Used as adhesive or sealant for


790-129-9060 metal, glass and plastic.
(Set of 1 kg
Hardenin
LT-3 adhesive and Can
hardening g
agent:
agent)
500 g
Adhesives

Polyethylene Used as sealant for machined


LT-4 790-129-9040 250 g holes.
container

Holtz Used as heat-resisting sealant for


MH 705 790-126-9120 75 g Tube repairing engine.

Quick hardening type adhesive


Three bond Polyethylene Cure time: within 5 sec. to 3 min.
790-129-9140 50 g
1735 container Used mainly for adhesion of met-
als, rubbers, plastics and woods.

Quick hardening type adhesive


Quick cure type (max. strength af-
Aron-alpha Polyethylene
201 790-129-9130 2g container ter 30 minutes)
Used mainly for adhesion of rub-
bers, plastics and metals.

Loctite Polyethylene Resistance to heat, chemicals


79A-129-9110 50 cc Used at joint portions subject to
648-50 container
high temperatures.

Used as adhesive or sealant for


LG-1 790-129-9010 200 g Tube gaskets and packing of power
train case, etc.

Used as sealant for various


threads, pipe joints, flanges.
LG-5 790-129-9070 1 kg Can Used as sealant for tapered
Gasket plugs, elbows, nipples of hydrau-
sealant lic piping.

Features: Silicon based, resist-


ance to heat, cold
Used as sealant for flange sur-
LG-6 790-129-9020 200 g Tube
face, tread.
mab Used as sealant for oil pan,
final drive case, etc.

00-10
FOREWORD COATING MATERIALS

Category Komatsu code Part No. Q'ty Container Main applications, featuresr

Ftures: Silicon based, quick hard-


ening type
LG-7 790-129-9070 1g Tube Used as sealant for flywheel
housing, intake manifold, oil an,
Adhesives thermostat housing, etc.

Three bond Used as heat-resisting sealant for


790-129-9090 100 g Tube repairing engine.
1211

Used as lubricant for sliding por-


LM-G 09940-00051 60 g Can
tion (to prevent from squeaking).
Molybdenum
disulphide Used to prevent seizure or scuf-
lubricant fling of the thread when press fit-
LM-P 09940-00040 200 g Tube ting or shrink fitting.
Used as lubricant for linkage,
bearings, etc.

SYG2-400LI General purpose type


SYG2-350LI
G2-LI SYG2-400LI-A Various Various
SYG2-160LI
SYGA-160CNLI

SYG2-400CA Used for normal temperature,


Grease SYG2-350CA light load bearing at places in con-
G2-CA SYG2-400CA-A Various Various tact with water or steam.
SYG2-160CA
SYGA-160CNCA

Molybdenum 400 g Used for places with heavy load


disulphide SYG2-400M (10 per Belows type
lubricant case)

00-11
FOREWORD STANDARD TIGHTENING TORQUE

STANDARD TIGHTENING TORQUE


STANDARD TIGHTENING TORQUE TABLE (WHEN USING TORQUE WRENCH)
In the case of metric nuts and bolts for which there is no special instruction, tighten to the torque given in
the table below.

Thread diameter Width across


of bolt flats

mm mm Nm kgm

6 10 13.2 0 1.4 1.35 0 0.15


8 13 31 03 3.2 0 0.3
10 17 66 07 6.7 0 0.7
12 19 113 0 10 11.501
14 22 177 0 19 1802
16 24 279 0 30 28.5 0 3
18 27 382 0 39 39 0 4
20 30 549 0 59 56 0 6
22 32 745 0 83 76 0 8.5
24 36 927 0 103 94.5 0 10.5

27 41 1320 0 140 135 0 15


30 46 1720 0 190 175 0 20
33 50 2210 0 240 225 0 25
36 55 2750 0 290 280 0 30
39 60 3290 0 340 335 0 35

Thread diameter Width across


of bolt flats

mm mm Nm kgm

6 10 0
7.85 1.95 0.8 0 0.2
8 13 0
18.6 4.9 1.9 0 0.5
10 14 0
40.2 5.9 4.1 0 0.6
12 27 0
82.35 7.85 8.4 0 0.8

Sealing surface

TABLE OF TIGHTENING TORQUES FOR FLARED NUTS


In the case of flared nuts for which there is no
special instruction, tighten to the torque given in
SAD00483
the table below.
Thread diameter Width across flat Tightening torque

mm mm Nm kgm

14 19 0
24.5 4.9 0
2.5 0.5
18 24 0
49 19.6 5 2 0
22 27 0
78.5 19.6 8 2 0
24 32 0
137.3 29.4 14 3 0
30 36 0
176.5 29.4 18 3 0
33 41 0
196.1 49 20 5 0
36 46 0
245.2 49 25 5 0
42 55 0
294.2 49 30 5 0

00-12
FOREWORD STANDARD TIGHTENING TORQUE

TABLE OF TIGHTENING TORQUES FOR SPLIT FLANGE BOLTS


In the case of split flange bolts for which there is no special instruction, tighten to the torque given in the
table below.

Thread diameter Width across flat Tightening torque

mm mm Nm kgm

10 14 0
65.7 6.8 0
6.7 0.7
12 17 112 9.80 11.5 1 0
16 22 279 290 28.5 3 0

TABLE OF TIGHTENING TORQUES FOR O-RING BOSS PIPING JOINTS


Unless there are special instructions, tighten the O-ring boss piping joints to the torque below.

Thread diameter Width across flat Tightening torque


Norminal No.
mm mm Nm kgm

02 14 0
34.3 4.9 3.5 0 0.5
03, 04 20 Varies depending 0
93.1 9.8 9.5 01
05, 06 24 on type of 0
142.1 19.6 14.5 02
10, 12 33 connector. 0
421.4 58.8 43 06
14 42 0
877.1 132.3 89.5 0 13.5

TABLE OF TIGHTENING TORQUES FOR O-RING BOSS PLUGS


Unless there are special instructions, tighten the O-ring boss plugs to the torque below.

Thread diameter Width across flat Tightening torque


Norminal No.
mm mm Nm kgm

08 08 14 0
7.35 1.47 0.75 0.15 0
10 10 17 0
11.27 1.47 1.15 0.15 0
12 12 19 0
17.64 1.96 1.8 0.2 0
14 14 22 0
22.54 1.96 2.3 0.2 0
16 16 24 0
29.4 4.9 3 0.5 0
18 18 27 0
39.2 4.9 4 0.5 0
20 20 30 0
49 4.9 5 0.5 0
24 24 32 0
68.6 9.8 7 1 0
30 30 32 0
107.8 14.7 11 1.5 0
33 33 n 0
127.4 19.6 13 2 0
36 36 36 0
151.9 24.5 15.5 2.5 0
42 42 n 0
210.7 29.4 21.5 3 0
52 52 n 0
323.4 44.1 33 4.5 0

00-13
FOREWORD STANDARD TIGHTENING TORQUE

TIGHTENING TORQUE FOR 102 ENGINE SERIES


1) BOLT AND NUTS
Use these torques for bolts and nuts (unit: mm) of Cummins Engine.
Thread diameter Tightening torque
mm Nm kgm
6 0
10 2 1.02 0 0.20
8 0
24 4 2.45 0 0.41
10 0
43 6 4.38 0 0.61
12 0
77 12 7.85 0 1.22
2) EYE JOINTS
Use these torques for eye joints (unit: mm) of Cummins Engine.
Thread diameter Tightening torque
mm Nm kgm
6 8 20 0.81 0 0.20
8 0
10 2 1.02 0 0.20
10 0
12 2 1.22 0 0.20
12 0
24 4 2.45 0 0.41
14 0
36 5 3.67 0 0.51
3) TAPERED SCREWS
Use these torques for tapered screws (unit: inch) of Cummins Engine.
Thread diameter Tightening torque
inch Nm kgm
1 / 16 3 10 0.31 0 0.10
1/8 8 20 0.81 0 0.20
1/4 0
12 2 1.22 0 0.20
3/8 0
15 2 1.53 0 0.41
1/2 0
24 4 2.45 0 0.41
3/4 0
36 5 3.67 0 0.51
1 0
60 9 6.12 0 0.92
TIGHTENING TORQUE TABLE FOR HOSES (TAPER SEAL TYPE AND FACE SEAL TYPE)
Tighten the hoses (taper seal type and face seal type) to the following torque, unless otherwise specified.
Apply the following torque when the threads are coated (wet) with engine oil.
Taper seal
Tightening torque (Nm {kgm}) type Face seal type
Nominal size Width across
of hose flats Nominal thread
Range Target Thread size size - Threads per Root diameter
(mm) (mm) (Reference)
inch, Thread series
9
02 19 35 - 63 {3.5 - 6.5} 44 {4.5} 14 - 18UNF 14.3
16
11
22 54 - 93 {5.5 - 9.5} 74 {4.5} - 16UN 17.5
03 16
24 59 - 98 {6.0 - 10.0} 78 {8.0} 18
13
04 27 84 - 132 {8.5 - 13.5} 103 {10.5} 22 - 16UN 20.7
16
05 32 128 - 186 {13.0 - 19.0} 157 {16.0} 24 1 - 14UNS 25.4
3
06 36 177 - 245 {18.0 - 25.0} 216 {22.0} 30 1 - 12UNF 30.3
16
(10) 41 177 - 245 {18.0 - 25.0} 216 {22.0} 33
(12) 46 197 - 294 {20.0 - 30.0} 245 {25.0} 36
(14) 55 246 - 343 {25.0 - 35.0} 294 {30.0} 42

00-14
FOREWORD ELECTRIC WIRE CODE

ELECTRIC WIRE CODE


In the wiring diagrams, various colors and symbols are employed to indicate the thickness of wires.
This wire code table will help you understand WIRING DIAGRAMS.
Example: 5WB indicates a cable having a nominal number 5 and white coating with black stripe.

CLASSIFICATION BY THICKNESS

Copper wire
Norminal Cable O.D. Current
number Dia. of Cross (mm) rating Applicable circuit
Number of strands section (A)
strands
(mm2) (mm 2)

0.85 11 0.32 0.88 2.4 12 Starting, lighting, signal


etc.

2 26 0.32 2.09 3.1 20 Lighting, signal etc.

5 65 0.32 5.23 4.6 37 Charging and signal

15 84 0.45 13.36 7.0 59 Starting (Glow plug)

40 85 0.80 42.73 11.4 135 Starting

60 127 0.80 63.84 13.6 178 Starting

100 217 0.80 109.1 17.6 230 Starting

CLASSIFICATION BY COLOR AND CODE

Circuits
Priori-
ty Classi- Charging Ground Starting Lighting Instrument Signal Other
fication

Code W B B R Y G L
Pri-
1 mary
Color White Black Black Red Yellow Green Blue

Code WR n BW RW YR GW LW
2
Color White & Red n White & Black Red & White Rellow & Red Green & White Blue & White

Code WB n BY RB YB GR LR
3
Color White & Black n Black & Yellow Red & Black Yellow & Black Green & Red Blue & Yellow

Code WL n BR RY YG GY LY
4 Auxi-
liary
Color White & Blue n Black & Red Red & Yellow
Yellow &
Green
Green &
Yellow
Blue & Yellow

Code WG n n RG YL GB LB
5
Color White & Green n n Red & Green Yellow & Blue Green & Black Blue & Black

Code n n n RL YW GL n
6
Color n n n Red & Blue Yellow & White Green & Blue n
00-15
FOREWORD CONVERSION TABLE

CONVERSION TABLE

METHOD OF USING THE CONVERSION TABLE


The Conversion Table in this section is provided to enable simple conversion of figures. For details of the
method of using the Conversion Table, see the example given below.

EXAMPLE
Method of using the Conversion Table to convert from millimeters to inches
1. Convert 55 mm into inches.
A
(1) Locate the number 50 in the vertical column at the left side, take this as , then draw a horizontal line
A
from .
B
(2) Locate the number 5 in the row across the top, take this as , then draw a perpendicular line down
B
from .
C
(3) Take the point where the two lines cross as . This point C gives the value when converting from mil-
limeters to inches. Therefore, 55 mm = 2.165 inches.
2. Convert 550 mm into inches.
(1) The number 550 does not appear in the table, so divide by 10 (move the decimal point one place to the
left) to convert it to 55 mm.
(2) Carry out the same procedure as above to convert 55 mm to 2.165 inches.
(3) The original value (550 mm) was divided by 10, so multiply 2.165 inches by 10 (move the decimal point
one place to the right) to return to the original value. This gives 550 mm = 21.65 inches.

B
Millimeters to inches

1 mm = 0.03937 in

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

0 0 0.039 0.079 0.118 0.157 0.197 0.236 0.276 0.315 0.354


10 0.394 0.433 0.472 0.512 0.551 0.591 0.630 0.669 0.709 0.748
20 0.787 0.827 0.866 0.906 0.945 0.984 1.024 1.063 1.102 1.142
30 1.181 1.220 1.260 1.299 1.339 1.378 1.417 1.457 1.496 1.536

C
40 1.575 1.614 1.654 1.693 1.732 1.772 1.811 1.850 1.890 1.929

A 50
60
1.969
2.362
2.008
2.402
2.047
2.441
2.087
2.480
2.126
2.520
2.165
2.559
2.205
2.598
2.244
2.638
2.283
2.677
2.323
2.717
70 2.756 2.795 2.835 2.874 2.913 2.953 2.992 3.032 3.071 3.110
80 3.150 3.189 3.228 3.268 3.307 3.346 3.386 3.425 3.465 3.504
90 3.543 3.583 3.622 3.661 3.701 3.740 3.780 3.819 3.858 3.898

00-16
FOREWORD CONVERSION TABLE

Millimeters to Inches
1 mm = 0.03937 in

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

0 0 0.039 0.079 0.118 0.157 0.197 0.236 0.276 0.315 0.354


10 0.394 0.433 0.472 0.512 0.551 0.591 0.630 0.669 0.709 0.748
20 0.787 0.827 0.866 0.906 0.945 0.984 1.024 1.063 1.102 1.142
30 1.181 1.220 1.260 1.299 1.339 1.378 1.417 1.457 1.496 1.536
40 1.575 1.614 1.654 1.693 1.732 1.772 1.811 1.850 1.890 1.929

50 1.969 2.008 2.047 2.087 2.126 2.165 2.205 2.244 2.283 2.323
60 2.362 2.402 2.441 2.480 2.520 2.559 2.598 2.638 2.677 2.717
70 2.756 2.795 2.835 2.874 2.913 2.953 2.992 3.032 3.071 3.110
80 3.150 3.189 3.228 3.268 3.307 3.346 3.386 3.425 3.465 3.504
90 3.543 3.583 3.622 3.661 3.701 3.740 3.780 3.819 3.858 3.898

Kilogram to Pound
1 kg = 2.2046 lb

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

0 0 2.20 4.41 6.61 8.82 11.02 13.23 15.43 17.64 19.84


10 22.05 24.25 26.46 28.66 30.86 33.07 35.27 37.48 39.68 41.89
20 44.09 46.30 48.50 50.71 51.91 55.12 57.32 59.53 61.73 63.93
30 66.14 68.34 70.55 72.75 74.96 77.16 79.37 81.57 83.78 85.98
40 88.18 90.39 92.59 94.80 97.00 99.21 101.41 103.62 105.82 108.03

50 110.23 112.44 114.64 116.85 119.05 121.25 123.46 125.66 127.87 130.07
60 132.28 134.48 136.69 138.89 141.10 143.30 145.51 147.71 149.91 152.12
70 154.32 156.53 158.73 160.94 163.14 165.35 167.55 169.76 171.96 174.17
80 176.37 178.57 180.78 182.98 185.19 187.39 189.60 191.80 194.01 196.21
90 198.42 200.62 202.83 205.03 207.24 209.44 211.64 213.85 216.05 218.26

00-17
FOREWORD CONVERSION TABLE

Liter to U.S. Gallon


1l = 0.2642 U.S. Gal

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

0 0 0.264 0.528 0.793 1.057 1.321 1.585 1.849 2.113 2.378


10 2.642 2.906 3.170 3.434 3.698 3.963 4.227 4.491 4.755 5.019
20 5.283 5.548 5.812 6.076 6.340 6.604 6.869 7.133 7.397 7.661
30 7.925 8.189 8.454 8.718 8.982 9.246 9.510 9.774 10.039 10.303
40 10.567 10.831 11.095 11.359 11.624 11.888 12.152 12.416 12.680 12.944

50 13.209 13.473 13.737 14.001 14.265 14.529 14.795 15.058 15.322 15.586
60 15.850 16.115 16.379 16.643 16.907 17.171 17.435 17.700 17.964 18.228
70 18.492 18.756 19.020 19.285 19.549 19.813 20.077 20.341 20.605 20.870
80 21.134 21.398 21.662 21.926 22.190 22.455 22.719 22.983 23.247 23.511
90 23.775 24.040 24.304 24.568 24.832 25.096 25.361 25.625 25.889 26.153

Liter to U.K. Gallon


1l = 0.21997 U.K. Gal

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

0 0 0.220 0.440 0.660 0.880 1.100 1.320 1.540 1.760 1.980


10 2.200 2.420 2.640 2.860 3.080 3.300 3.520 3.740 3.950 4.179
20 4.399 4.619 4.839 5.059 5.279 5.499 5.719 5.939 6.159 6.379
30 6.599 6.819 7.039 7.259 7.479 7.969 7.919 8.139 8.359 8.579
40 8.799 9.019 9.239 9.459 9.679 9.899 10.119 10.339 10.559 10.778

50 10.998 11.281 11.438 11.658 11.878 12.098 12.318 12.528 12.758 12.978
60 13.198 13.418 13.638 13.858 14.078 14.298 14.518 14.738 14.958 15.178
70 15.398 15.618 15.838 16.058 16.278 16.498 16.718 16.938 17.158 17.378
80 17.598 17.818 18.037 18.257 18.477 18.697 18.917 19.137 19.357 19.577
90 19.797 20.017 20.237 20.457 20.677 20.897 21.117 21.337 21.557 21.777

00-18
FOREWORD CONVERSION TABLE

kgm to ft. lb
1 kgm = 7.233 ft. lb

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

0 0 7.2 14.5 21.7 28.9 36.2 43.4 50.6 57.9 65.1


10 72.3 79.6 86.8 94.0 101.3 108.5 115.7 123.0 130.2 137.4
20 144.7 151.9 159.1 166.4 173.6 180.8 188.1 195.3 202.5 209.8
30 217.0 224.2 231.5 238.7 245.9 253.2 260.4 267.6 274.9 282.1
40 289.3 296.6 303.8 311.0 318.3 325.5 332.7 340.0 347.2 354.4

50 361.7 368.9 376.1 383.4 390.6 397.8 405.1 412.3 419.5 426.8
60 434.0 441.2 448.5 455.7 462.9 470.2 477.4 484.6 491.8 499.1
70 506.3 513.5 520.8 528.0 535.2 542.5 549.7 556.9 564.2 571.4
80 578.6 585.9 593.1 600.3 607.6 614.8 622.0 629.3 636.5 643.7
90 651.0 658.2 665.4 672.7 679.9 687.1 694.4 701.6 708.8 716.1

100 723.3 730.5 737.8 745.0 752.2 759.5 766.7 773.9 781.2 788.4
110 795.6 802.9 810.1 817.3 824.6 831.8 839.0 846.3 853.5 860.7
120 868.0 875.2 882.4 889.7 896.9 904.1 911.4 918.6 925.8 933.1
130 940.3 947.5 954.8 962.0 969.2 976.5 983.7 990.9 998.2 1005.4
140 1012.6 1019.9 1027.1 1034.3 1041.5 1048.8 1056.0 1063.2 1070.5 1077.7

150 1084.9 1092.2 1099.4 1106.6 1113.9 1121.1 1128.3 1135.6 1142.8 1150.0
160 1157.3 1164.5 1171.7 1179.0 1186.2 1193.4 1200.7 1207.9 1215.1 1222.4
170 1129.6 1236.8 1244.1 1251.3 1258.5 1265.8 1273.0 1280.1 1287.5 1294.7
180 1301.9 1309.2 1316.4 1323.6 1330.9 1338.1 1345.3 1352.6 1359.8 1367.0
190 1374.3 1381.5 1388.7 1396.0 1403.2 1410.4 1417.7 1424.9 1432.1 1439.4

00-19
FOREWORD CONVERSION TABLE

kg/cm2 to lb/in2
1kg/cm2 = 14.2233 lb/in2

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

0 0 14.2 28.4 42.7 56.9 71.1 85.3 99.6 113.8 128.0


10 142.2 156.5 170.7 184.9 199.1 213.4 227.6 241.8 256.0 270.2
20 284.5 298.7 312.9 327.1 341.4 355.6 369.8 384.0 398.3 412.5
30 426.7 440.9 455.1 469.4 483.6 497.8 512.0 526.3 540.5 554.7
40 568.9 583.2 597.4 611.6 625.8 640.1 654.3 668.5 682.7 696.9

50 711.2 725.4 739.6 753.8 768.1 782.3 796.5 810.7 825.0 839.2
60 853.4 867.6 881.8 896.1 910.3 924.5 938.7 953.0 967.2 981.4
70 995.6 1010 1024 1038 1053 1067 1081 1095 1109 1124
80 1138 1152 1166 1181 1195 1209 1223 1237 1252 1266
90 1280 1294 1309 1323 1337 1351 1365 1380 1394 1408

100 1422 1437 1451 1465 1479 1493 1508 1522 1536 1550
110 1565 1579 1593 1607 1621 1636 1650 1664 1678 1693
120 1707 1721 1735 1749 1764 1778 1792 1806 1821 1835
130 1849 1863 1877 1892 1906 1920 1934 1949 1963 1977
140 1991 2005 2020 2034 2048 2062 2077 2091 2105 2119

150 2134 2148 2162 2176 2190 2205 2219 2233 2247 2262
160 2276 2290 2304 2318 2333 2347 2361 2375 2389 2404
170 2418 2432 2446 2460 2475 2489 2503 2518 2532 2546
180 2560 2574 2589 2603 2617 2631 2646 2660 2674 2688
190 2702 2717 2731 2745 2759 2773 2788 2802 2816 2830

200 2845 2859 2873 2887 2901 2916 2930 2944 2958 2973
210 2987 3001 3015 3030 3044 3058 3072 3086 3101 3115
220 3129 3143 3158 3172 3186 3200 3214 3229 3243 3257
230 3271 3286 3300 3314 3328 3343 3357 3371 3385 3399
240 3414 3428 3442 3456 3470 3485 3499 3513 3527 3542

00-20
FOREWORD CONVERSION TABLE

Temperature
Fahrenheit-Centigrade Conversion ; a simple way to convert a Fahrenheit temperature reading into a Cen-
tigrade temperature reading or vice versa is to enter the accompanying table in the center or boldface col-
umn of figures.
These figures refer to the temperature in either Fahrenheit or Centigrade degrees.
If it is desired to convert from Fahrenheit to Centigrade degrees, consider the center column as a table of
Fahrenheit temperatures and read the corresponding Centigrade temperature in the column at the left.
If it is desired to convert from Centigrade to Fahrenheit degrees, consider the center column as a table of
Centigrade values, and read the corresponding Fahrenheit temperature on the right.
1C = 33.8F

C F C F C F C F

40.4 40 40.0 11.7 11 51.8 7.8 46 114.8 27.2 81 117.8


37.2 35 31.0 11.1 12 53.6 8.3 47 116.6 27.8 82 179.6
34.4 30 22.0 10.6 13 55.4 8.9 48 118.4 28.3 83 181.4
31.7 25 13.0 10.0 14 57.2 9.4 49 120.2 28.9 84 183.2
28.9 20 4.0 9.4 15 59.0 10.0 50 122.0 29.4 85 185.0

28.3 19 2.2 8.9 16 60.8 10.6 51 123.8 30.0 86 186.8


27.8 18 0.4 8.3 17 62.6 11.1 52 125.6 30.6 87 188.6
27.2 17 1.4 7.8 18 64.4 11.7 53 127.4 31.1 88 190.4
26.7 16 3.2 7.2 19 66.2 12.2 54 129.2 31.7 89 192.2
26.1 15 5.0 6.7 20 68.0 12.8 55 131.0 32.2 90 194.0

25.6 14 6.8 6.1 21 69.8 13.3 56 132.8 32.8 91 195.8


25.0 13 8.6 5.6 22 71.6 13.9 57 134.6 33.3 92 197.6
24.4 12 10.4 5.0 23 73.4 14.4 58 136.4 33.9 93 199.4
23.9 11 12.2 4.4 24 75.2 15.0 59 138.2 34.4 94 201.2
23.3 10 14.0 3.9 25 77.0 15.6 0 140.0 35.0 95 203.0

22.8 9 15.8 3.3 26 78.8 16.1 61 141.8 35.6 96 204.8


22.2 8 17.6 2.8 27 80.6 16.7 62 143.6 36.1 97 206.6
21.7 7 19.4 2.2 28 82.4 17.2 63 145.4 36.7 98 208.4
21.1 6 21.2 1.7 29 84.2 17.8 64 147.2 37.2 99 210.2
20.6 5 23.0 1.1 30 86.0 18.3 65 149.0 37.8 100 212.0

20.0 4 24.8 0.6 31 87.8 18.9 66 150.8 40.6 105 221.0


19.4 3 26.6 0 32 89.6 19.4 67 152.6 43.3 110 230.0
18.9 2 28.4 0.6 33 91.4 20.0 68 154.4 46.1 115 239.0
18.3 1 30.2 1.1 34 93.2 20.6 69 156.2 48.9 120 248.0
17.8 0 32.0 1.7 35 95.0 21.1 70 158.0 51.7 125 257.0

17.2 1 33.8 2.2 36 96.8 21.7 71 159.8 54.4 130 266.0


16.7 2 35.6 2.8 37 98.6 22.2 72 161.6 57.2 135 275.0
16.1 3 37.4 3.3 38 100.4 22.8 73 163.4 60.0 140 284.0
15.6 4 39.2 3.9 39 102.2 23.3 74 165.2 62.7 145 293.0
15.0 5 41.0 4.4 40 104.0 23.9 75 167.0 65.6 150 302.0

14.4 6 42.8 5.0 41 105.8 24.4 76 168.8 68.3 155 311.0


13.9 7 44.6 5.6 42 107.6 25.0 77 170.6 71.1 160 320.0
13.3 8 46.4 6.1 43 109.4 25.6 78 172.4 73.9 165 329.0
12.8 9 48.2 6.7 44 111.2 26.1 79 174.2 76.7 170 338.0
12.2 10 50.0 7.2 45 113.0 26.7 80 176.0 79.4 175 347.0

00-21
FOREWORD UNITS

UNITS

In this manual, the measuring units are indicated with Internatinal System of units (SI).
As for reference, conventionally used Gravitational System of units are indicated in parentheses { }.

Example:
N {kg}
Nm {kgm}
MPa {kg/cm2}
kPa {mmH2O}
kPa {mmHg}
kW/rpm {HP/rpm}
g/kWh {g/HPh}

00-22
01 GENERAL

Specifiaction dimensions drawing ...................... 01-2


Working range drawing ....................................... 01-3
Specifications ...................................................... 01-4
Weight table ........................................................ 01-7
List of lubricants and coolant .............................. 01-9

PC78MR-6 01-1
GENERAL SPECIFICATION DIMENSIONS DRAWING

SPECIFICATION DIMENSIONS DRAWING

PC78MR-6
Item Unit
Steel shoe spec. Road liner spec.
Machine weight (with blade) kg 8,270 8,300
Bucket capacity m 0.28
Engine model KOMATSU S4D95LE-3-A Diesel engine
Rated engine output kW {HP}/rpm 40.5 {54.0}/1,850
A Overall length mm 6,200 6,230
B Overall height mm 2,730 2,750
C Overall width mm 2,330
D Shoe width mm 450
E Tail swing radius mm 1,310
F Overall length of track mm 2,840 2,900
G Distance between tumbler centers mm 2,235
Minimum ground clearance mm 360 400
Travel speed (Low/High) km/h 2.8/4.2
Continuous swing speed rpm 10.0

01-2 PC78MR-6
GENERAL WORKING RANGE DRAWING

WORKING RANGE DRAWING

Working range (mm) Steel shoe spec.


A Max. digging reach 6,960
B Max. digging depth 4,160
C Max. digging height 6,570
D Max. vertical wall depth 2,900
E Max. dumping height 4,515
Min. swing radius of work equipment 2,775
F
Min. swing radius at boom swinging 2,125
G Max. reach at ground level 6,750
H Max. blade lifting height 380
I Max. blade lowering depth 245

PC78MR-6 01-3
GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS

SPECIFICATIONS
Machine model PC78MR-6
Serial Number 1001 and up
Bucket capacity m3 0.28
Machine weight kg 8,270 (8,300)
Max. digging depth mm 4,160
Max. vertical wall depth mm 2,900
Max. digging reach mm 6,960
Working range

Max. reach at ground level mm 6,750


Max. digging height mm 6,570
Max. dumping height mm 4,515
Performance

Boom swing (left side/right side) mm 580/930


Max. blade lifting height mm 380
Max. blade lowering depth mm 245
Max. digging force (Bucket) kN {kg} 61.3 {6,250}
Continuous swing speed rpm 10.0
Max. slope angle for swing deg. 16.0
Travel speed (Low/High) km/h 2.8/4.2
Gradeability deg. 35
Ground pressure kPa {kg/cm2} 37.3 {0.38}
Overall length (for transport) mm 6,200
Overall width mm 2,330
Overall height (for transport) mm 2,730 (2,750)
Overall height (for operation) mm 2,710 (2,750)
Ground clearance of counterweight mm 735 (780)
Min. ground clearance mm 360 (400)
Tail swing radius mm 1,310
Dimension

Min. swing radius of work equipment mm 2,125


(at boom swinging)
Height of work equipment at min. swing radius mm 5,210 (5,230)
Overall width of track mm 2,320
Overall length track mm 2,840 (2,900)
Distance between tumbler centers mm 2,235
Track gauge mm 1,870
Machine cab height mm 1,745 (1,795)
Blade width height mm 2,320 470

Figures (steel shoe specification) are common to the all specifications unless otherwise specified.
( ) Figures in ( ): Road liner specification

01-4 PC78MR-6
GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS

Machine model PC78MR-6


Serial Number 1001 and up
Model S4D95LE-3-A
Type 4-cycle, water-cooled, in-line, direct injection
No. of cylinders - bore stroke mm 4-95 115
Total displacement l {cc} 3.26 {3,260}
kW/rpm 40.5/1,850
Rated output {HP/rpm} {54.0/1,850}
Nm/rpm 337/1,500
Performance

Max. torque
Engine

{kgm/rpm} {24.2/1,500}
Max. speed at no load rpm 2,020
Min. speed at no load rpm 1,130

Min. fuel consumption g/kWh 227 {169}


{g/HPh}
Starting motor 24 V, 3.0 kw
Alternator 24 V, 25 A
Battery 12 V, 48 Ah 2 (55D26R)
Type of radiator core CF29-3
Carrier roller 1 on each side
Undercarriage

Track roller 5 on each side


Track shoe (Steel shoe) Assembly-type triple grouser, 39 on each side
(Road liner) Assembly-type road liner, 39 on each side
(Rubber shoe) Unit-type rubber crawler
Variable-capacity piston pump 1
Type No.
Gear pump 2
Hydraulic pump

Discharge l {cc} 802+60+12.7


Set pressures
(Work equipment, travel) MPa 26.5 {270}
(Swing, blade) {kg/cm2} 21.1 {215}
(Control) 3.1 {32}
Hydraulic system

Type No. 9-spool type 1


Control
valve

Control method Hydraulically assisted


Variable-capacity piston motor
Travel motor
Hydraulic

(with brake valve, parking brake) 2


motor

Fixed-capacity piston motor


Swing motor
(with safety valve, pivot shaft brake) 1
Hydraulic tank Box-shaped, open
Hydraulic oil filter Tank return side
Oil cooler Air-cooled

PC78MR-6 01-5
GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS

Machine model PC78MR-6


Serial Number 1001 and up
Type Reciprocating piston
Inside diameter of cylinder mm 115
Boom cylinder

Diameter of piston rod mm 65


Stroke mm 988
Max. distance between pinsmm mm 2,393
Min. distance between pinsmm mm 1,405
Type mm Reciprocating piston
Inside diameter of cylinder mm 100
Arm cylinder

Diameter of piston rod mm 60


Stroke mm 865
Max. distance between pins mm 2,193
Min. distance between pins mm 1,328
Work equipment cylinder

Type mm Reciprocating piston


Hydraulic system

Bucket cylinder

Inside diameter of cylinder mm 90


Diameter of piston rod mm 55
Stroke mm 710
Max. distance between pins mm 1,765
Min. distance between pins mm 1,055
Type mm Reciprocating piston
Boom swing cylinder

Inside diameter of cylinder mm 120


Diameter of piston rod mm 60
Stroke mm 658
Max. distance between pins mm 1,687
Min. distance between pins mm 1,029
Type mm Reciprocating piston
Inside diameter of cylinder mm 130
Blade cylinder

Diameter of piston rod mm 65


Stroke mm 130
Max. distance between pins mm 679
Min. distance between pins mm 549

01-6 PC78MR-6
GENERAL WEIGHT TABLE

WEIGHT TABLE
k This mass list is for reference in handling or transporting these components.
Unit: kg
Machine model PC78MR-6
Serial Number 1001 and up
Engine assembly (without water and oil) 403
Engine (without water and oil) 300
Engine mount 30
PTO 7
Hydraulic pump 66
Cooling assembly (without coolant and oil) 29
Radiator (without coolant) 6.3
Oil cooler (without oil) 5.2
Revolving frame 1,220
Operator's cab 260
Operator's seat 18
Fuel tank (without fuel) 8.3
Hydraulic tank (without hydraulic oil) 70
Control valve 62
Counterweight 950
Additional counterweight 220
Swing motor (Including brake valve) 22
Swing circle 104
Swing machinery 47
Center swivel joint 16
Track frame assembly (without track shoe) 1,067 [1,048]
Track frame 704
Idler assembly 54 x 2
Recoil spring assembly 40 x 2
Carrier roller 3.4 x 2
Track roller 13 x 10
Travel motor (with reduction gears) 81 x 2
Sprocket 19 x 2

Figures (steel shoe specification) are common to the all specifications unless otherwise specified.
[ ] Figures in [ ]: Rubber shoe specification

PC78MR-6 01-7
GENERAL WEIGHT TABLE

Unit: kg
Machine model PC78MR-6
Serial Number 1001 and up
Track shoe assembly
City pad shoe (450 mm) 410 X 2
Road liner (450 mm) 450 X 2
Rubber shoe (450 mm) 385 X 2
Triple grouser (600 m) 495 X 2
Boom assembly 365
Swing bracket 234
Arm assembly 147
Bucket link assembly 56
Bucket assembly (with side cutter) 210
Blade assembly 374
Boom cylinder assembly 95
Arm cylinder assembly 72
Bucket cylinder assembly 51
Boom swing cylinder assembly 65
Blade cylinder assembly 46

Figures are common to the all specifications unless otherwise specified.

01-8 PC78MR-6
GENERAL LIST OF LUBRICANTS AND COOLANT

LIST OF LUBRICANTS AND COOLANT

AMBIENT TEMPERATURE
KIND OF
RESERVOIR FLUID 22 4 14 32 50 68 86 104 122F
30 20 10 0 10 20 30 40 50C

SAE 30

SAE 10W
Engine oil pan

SAE 10W-30

SAE 15W-40
Swing machinery case
Final drive case Engine oil
PTO gear case SAE 30

SAE 10
Hydraulic system
SAE 10W-30

SAE 15W-40

ASTM D975 No. 2


Fuel tank Diesel fuel
*1

Greasing system Diesel fuel NLGI No. 2

Cooling system Water Add antifreeze

*1: ASTM D975 No. 1 Unit: l

PC78MR-6
Reservoir
Specified capacity Refill capacity
Engine oil pan 7.5 7.0
PTO gear case 0.4 0.4
Swing machinery case 2.0 2.0
Final drive case (each) 1.3 1.3
Hydraulic system 120 64
Fuel tank 125
Cooling system 10.5

PC78MR-6 01-9
10 STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD

PTO ........................................................................... 10- 2


Cooling system .......................................................... 10- 3
Power train system .................................................... 10- 4
Swing circle ............................................................... 10- 5
Swing machinery ....................................................... 10- 6
Track frame and idler cushion ................................... 10- 8
Idler ........................................................................... 10-10
Track roller..................................................................10-11
Carrier roller .............................................................. 10-12
Sprocket .................................................................... 10-13
Track shoe................................................................. 10-14
Arrangement of hydraulic components...................... 10-19
Hydraulic tank and oil filter ........................................ 10-20
Center swivel joint ..................................................... 10-21
Travel motor .............................................................. 10-22
Work equipment cylinder ........................................... 10-30
Solenoid valve ........................................................... 10-34
Multi-Control Valve .................................................... 10-40
Accumulator for Brake ............................................... 10-41
Hydraulic pump ......................................................... 10-42
Control valve ............................................................. 10-56
CLSS ......................................................................... 10-68
Swing motor ............................................................ 10-100
Work equipment and swing PPC valve ................... 10-108
Travel PPC valve......................................................10-114
Boom swing PPC valve, blade PPC valve ...............10-118
Boom hydraulic anti-burst valve (For EU spec.) ... 10-121-1
Work equipment ...................................................... 10-122
Dimensions of each part of work equipment ........... 10-124
Air conditioner piping (Optional) .............................. 10-128
Electric control system ............................................ 10-129
System components ................................................ 10-146
Monitor system ........................................................ 10-154
Sensors ................................................................... 10-158

PC78MR-6 10-1
(1)
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD PTO

PTO

1. Drain plug
2. Coupling
3. Flywheel
4. Pump case
5. Cage
6. Level plug
7. Breather/Oil filler plug

10-2 PC78MR-6
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD COOLING SYSTEM

COOLING SYSTEM

1. Fan guard SPECIFICATIONS


2. Radiator inlet hose
Radiator Oil cooler
3. Drain valve
4. Radiator outlet hose Type of core CF29-3 CF40-1
5. Radiator cap
6. Oil cooler Fin pitch (mm) 4.0/2 4.5/2
7. Radiator Total heat dissipation area
16.53 6.15
8. Shroud (m2)
9. Oil cooler inlet Pressure valve cracking 88.314.7
pressure (kPa {kg/cm}) (0.90.15)
10. Reservoir tank
11. Oil cooler outlet 4.9
Vacuum valve cracking
pressure (kPa {kg/cm})
(0.05)

PC78MR-6 10-3
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD POWER TRAIN SYSTEM

POWER TRAIN SYSTEM

1. Idler 10. Boom RAISE stop EPC valve


2. Control valve 11. Arm IN stop EPC valve
3. Center swivel joint 12. Left offset stop EPC vaolve
4. Swing motor 13. Swing holding brake solenoid valve
5. Travel motor 14. 2-stage travel speed selector solenoid valve
6. Control pump (for pilot control) 15. PPC lock solenoid valve
7. Hydraulic pump (for swing and blade) 16. Swing machinery
8. Hydraulic pump 17. Swing circle
(For travel and work equipment)
9. Engine

10-4 PC78MR-6
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD SWING CIRCLE

SWING CIRCLE

Unit: mm
No. Item Criteria Remedy
Standard clearance Allowable clearance
1 Axial clearance of bearing Replace
0.20 0.80 2.0

2. Greasing for swing circle bearing a. Position of inner race soft zone
3. Greasing for swing circle pinion b. Position of outer race soft zone
4. Outer race
5. Inner race Specifications
6. Ball Reduction ratio 80/10=8.0
7. Seal
Grease G2-LI
Quantity of grease ( ) 5.5

PC78MR-6 10-5
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD SWING MACHINERY

SWING MACHINERY

1. Swing pinion (Number of teeth: 10) Specification


2. Swing machinery case (14+58)/14X(14+58)/14 =
3. No. 2 planetary carrier Reduction ratio
26.45
4. Ring gear (Number of teeth: 58)
Swing reduction ratio 26.45X8.0 = 211.59
5. No. 2 sun gear (Number of teeth: 14)
6. No. 1 planetary carrier Swing speed (rpm) 10
7. No. 1 sun gear (Number of teeth: 14)
8. Swing motor
9. Oil filler
10. Level gauge
11. No. 1 planetary gear (Number of teeth: 22)
12. No. 2 planetary gear (Number of teeth: 22)
13. Drain plug

10-6 PC78MR-6
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD SWING MACHINERY

Unit: mm
No. Item Criteria Remedy
Backlash between Standard clearance Allowable clearance
1 swing motor shaft and
No. 1 sun gear 0.03 0.11

Backlash between No.


2 1 sun gear and No. 1 0.10 0.27 0.6
planetary gear
Backlash between No.
3 1 planetary gear and 0.12 0.38 0.6
ring gear
Backlash between No.
4 1 planetary carrier and 0.10 0.26
No. 2 sun gear
Replace
Backlash between No.
5 2 sun gear and No. 2 0.10 0.27 0.6
planetary gear
Backlash between No.
6 2 planetary gear and 0.12 0.38 0.6
ring gear
Backlash between No.
7 2 planetary carrier and 0.07 0.21
swing pinion
Backlash between
8 swing pinion and swing 0.27 0.83 2.0
circle
Wear of sliding surface Basic dimension Allowance Allowable Limit
Plating with hard
9 of swing pinion collar 0
75 74.8 chromium or replace
against oil seal - 0.074

PC78MR-6 10-7
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD TRACK FRAME AND IDLER CUSHION

TRACK FRAME AND IDLER CUSHION

10-8 PC78MR-6
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD TRACK FRAME AND IDLER CUSHION

Unit: mm
No. Item Criteria Remedy
Basic dimension Allowable limit
Overlay
Vertical width of Track frame 74 78
1
idler guide Idler Overlay or
73 69
support replace
Track frame 158 162 Overlay
Lateral width of
2 Overlay or
idler guide Idler support 156 152
replace
Basic dimension Allowable limit
Installed Installed Installed
Free length Free length
length load load
3 Recoil spring Road liner, 47.4 kN 42.2 kN Replace
412 323 402
steel shoe {4,835 kg} {4,305 kg}
69.2 kN 61.6 kN
Rubber shoe 412 283 402
{7,061 kg} {6,284 kg}

4. Idler
5. Track frame
6. Carrier roller
7. Travel motor
8. Sprocket
9. Track roller
10. Track shoe
11. Idler cushion
11a.Support
11b.Yoke
11c.Recoil spring
11d.Cylinder
11e.Collar
11f. Lubricator
12. Idler guard (Road liner specification, steel shoe
specification)
13. Bracket to secure machine body for transporta-
tion (for USA spec. only)

Specification
Grease G2-LI
96 (Steel shoe, road liner)
Quantity of grease (cc)
233 (Rubber shoe)

PC78MR-6 10-9
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD IDLER

IDLER

Unit: mm
No. Item Criteria Remedy
Outside diameter of Basic dimension Allowable limit
1
projected part 460
2 Outside diameter of tread 415 407
3 Depth of tread 22.5 26.5 Overlay or replace
4 Width of projected part 43 37
5 Overall width 100 92
6 Width of tread 28.5 32
Basic Allowance Standard Allowable
Clearance between idler dimension Shaft Hole clearance clearance
7
shaft and bushing -0.250 + 0.062
44 0.250 0.352 1.5
-0.290 0
Basic Allowance Standard Allowable
Replace
Interference between idler dimension Shaft Hole interference interference
8
and bushing +0.117 +0.025
50 0.062 0.117
+0.087 0
Side clearance of idler Standard clearance Allowable clearance
9
(Each side) 0.190 0.395 1.5
Thickness of tread (at cen- Basic dimension Allowable limit
10 Overlay or replace
ter of width of tread) 13.8 9.8
Quantity of oil 60 cc (Engine oil: SAE30CD)

10-10 PC78MR-6
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD TRACK ROLLER

TRACK ROLLER

Unit: mm
No. Item Criteria Remedy
Outside diameter of Basic dimension Allowable limit
1
projected part 149
Overlay or replace
2 Outside diameter of tread 120 113
3 Width of flange 43 36.6
4 Overall width 129
5 Width of tread 43 47.3 Overlay or replace
Basic Allowance Standard Allowable
Clearance between idler dimension Shaft Hole clearance clearance
6
shaft and bushing -0.250 + 0.075
38 0.225 0.345 1.5
-0.270 - 0.025
Basic Allowance Standard Allowable
Replace
Interference between idler dimension Shaft Hole interference interference
7
and bushing +0.117 +0.030
48 0.057 0.117
+0.087 0
Side clearance of track Standard clearance Allowable clearance
8
roller (Each side) 0.38 0.73 1.5
Thickness of tread (at cen- Basic dimension Allowable limit
9 Overlay or replace
ter of width of tread) 36 32.5
Quantity of oil 210 230 cc (Gear oil: G0140)

PC78MR-6 10-11
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD CARRIER ROLLER

CARRIER ROLLER

Unit: mm
No. Item Criteria Remedy
Outside diameter of Basic dimension Allowable limit
1 Overlay or replace
tread 82 72
2 Width of tread 100
Basic Allowance Standard Allowable
Interference between shaft dimension Shaft Hole interference interference
3
and bearing +0.009 0 -0.004
30 Replace
-0.004 - 0.010 0.019
Interference between roller 0 + 0.018 -0.031
4 62
and bearing - 0.013 - 0.012 0.012
Basic dimension Allowable limit
5 Thickness of tread Overlay or replace
10 5
Quantity of oil 47 52 cc (Grease: ALVANIA EP-2)

10-12 PC78MR-6
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD SPROCKET

SPROCKET

Unit: mm
No. Item Criteria Remedy
Basic dimension Allowance Allowable limit
1 Wear of root diameter +1.0
433.004 421
-2.0
2 Wear of tip diameter 483.7 2.0 472
Overlay or
3 Wear of dip width 28 - 23 replace
+0.5
4 Wear of root width 38 33
-2.5
+0.475
5 Thickness of root 84.002 78
-1.150

PC78MR-6 10-13
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD TRACK SHOE

TRACK SHOE
CITY PAD SHOE, ROAD LINER, AND TRIPLE SHOE

*1. City pad shoe


Triple shoe (OPT)
*2. Road liner (OPT)

a Part P is the link on the press fitting side of bushing.

10-14 PC78MR-6
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD TRACK SHOE

Unit: mm
No. Item Criteria Remedy
Basic dimension Allowable limit
1 Link pitch
154.25 157.25 Reverse or replace
2 Outside diameter of bushing 41.2 37.2
3 Height of link 74 70
Thickness of link (Press fit- Repair or replace
4 20 16
ting part of bushing)
5 89
6 Shoe bolt pitch 73 Replace
7 57
Inside
8 45
width
Overall
9 Link 30 Repair or replace
width
Width of
10 26.3
tread
11 Projection of pin 3
Projection of regular bush-
12 3.15
ing
13 Overall length of pin 131
Overall length of bushing Adjust or replace
14 74.6
(Master bushing)
Basic dimension Allowable limit
15 Thickness of bushing
8.4 4.4
16 Thickness of spacer
17 Bushing 19.6 98.1 kN {2 10 ton}
Press fitting Regular
18 49.0 117.7 kN {5 12 ton}
pressure pin
*19 Master pin 39.2 78.5 kN {4 8 ton}

Items marked with * are for the dry track.

PC78MR-6 10-15
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD TRACK SHOE

Unit: mm
No. Item Criteria Remedy
Tightening torque
Retightening angle (deg.)
(Nm {kgm})
City pad 117.7 19.6
a. Regular 90 10
Triple {12 2}
link
60 10
Shoe bolt 117.7 19.6 Retighten
Road liner (Torque after retightening)
20 {12 2}
Min. 343 Nm {35 kgm}
Tightening Retightening
Lower limit torque
b. Master link torque angle (deg.)

Number of shoes
39
(Each side)
Basic dimen- Allowance Standard
Number of shoes sion Shaft Hole interference
21
(Each side) +0.214 +0.062
41 0.112 0.214
+0.174 0
Interference between regular pin +0.150 -0.198
22 24 0.198 0.400
and link 0 -0.250
Basic dimen- Allowance Standard
Clearance between regular pin sion Shaft Hole clearance
23
and bushing +0.150 +0.830
24 0.180 0.830 Adjust or replace
0 +0.330
Basic dimen- Allowance Standard
Interference between master pin sion Shaft Hole interference
*24
and link +0.020 -0.198
24 0.178 0.270
-0.020 -0.250
Basic dimen- Allowance Standard
Clearance between master pin sion Shaft Hole clearance
*25
and bushing -0.150 +0.630
24 0.380 0.880
-0.250 +0.230
Basic dimension Allowable limit
26 Height of grouser Replace
Road liner 42 19

Items marked with * are for the dry track.

10-16 PC78MR-6
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD TRACK SHOE

TRIPLE SHOE AND CITY PAD SHOE

Unit: mm
No. Item Criteria Remedy
Basic dimension Allowable limit
1 Height of grouser
20 12
2 Overall height of shoe 26 18
3 Thickness of plate 6
4 20 Overlay or replace
Length of base of grouser
5 16
6 14
7 Length of upper side of grouser 10
8 12

PC78MR-6 10-17
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD TRACK SHOE

RUBBER SHOE (OPTIONAL)

Unit: mm
No. Item Criteria Remedy
Basic dimension Allowable limit
1 Wear of lug height
30 5
2 Wear of roller guide 42 58 Replace
Wear of meshing part of Basic dimension Allowance Allowable limit
3
sprocket 22.5 0.5 27

10-18 PC78MR-6
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD ARRANGEMENT OF HYDRAULIC COMPONENTS

ARRANGEMENT OF HYDRAULIC COMPONENTS

1. Bucket cylinder 12. Blade PPC valve


2. Arm cylinder 13. Right work equipment PPC valve
3. Boom cylinder 14. Center swivel joint
4. Boom swing cylinder 15. Service PPC valve (Machine to which attach-
5. Hydraulic tank ments can be installed)
6. Control valve 16. Travel PPC valve
7. Swing motor 17. 6-spool solenoid valve
8. Hydraulic pump 18. Boom swing PPC valve
9. Oil cooler 19. Blade cylinder
10. Travel motor 20. Boom hydraulic anti-burst valve (For EU spec.)
11. Left work equipment PPC valve

PC78MR-6 10-19
(1)
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD HYDRAULIC TANK AND OIL FILTER

HYDRAULIC TANK AND OIL FILTER

1. Hydraulic tank Specification


2. Sight gauge Tank capacity ( ) 80
3. Strainer
Quantity of oil in tank ( ) 64
4. Drain plug
5. Filter Bypass valve set 0.15 0.03
6. Bypass valve pressure (kPa {kg/cm}) {1.53 0.3}
7. Oil filler cap Pressure valve cracking 38 15
pressure (kPa {kg/cm}) {0.39 0.15}
Vacuum valve cracking 05
pressure (kPa {kg/cm}) {0 0.05}

10-20 PC78MR-6
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD CENTER SWIVEL JOINT

CENTER SWIVEL JOINT

A1: From right travel control valve A2: To right travel motor
B1: From right travel control valve B2: To right travel motor
C1: From left travel control valve C2: To left travel motor
D1: From left travel control valve D2: To left travel motor
E1: From blade control valve E2: To blade cylinder bottom
F1: From blade control valve F2: To blade cylinder head
G1: From 2-stage travel speed selector solenoid valve G2: To 2-stage travel speed selector solenoid valve
DR1: To tank DR2: From travel motor drain port

1. Cover 3. Slipper seal


2. Rotor 4. Shaft

Unit: mm
No. Item Criteria Remedy
Clearance Basic dimension Standard clearance Allowable clearance
5 between rotor Replace
and shaft 70 0.056 0.105 0.111

PC78MR-6 10-21
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD TRAVEL MOTOR

TRAVEL MOTOR

A. From travel control valve


B. From travel control valve
D. To tank
P. From 2-stage travel speed selector solenoid
valve

10-22 PC78MR-6
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD TRAVEL MOTOR

1. Check valve 14. Shaft


2. Counterbalance valve 15. Drive gear
3. Valve plate 16. Cover
4. Cylinder 17. Crankshaft
5. Brake piston 18. Drain plug
6. Plate 19. Driven gear
7. Disc 20. Pivot
8. Piston 21. Spindle
9. Swash plate 22. Floating seal
10. Regulator piston 23. End cover
11. RV gear 24. Regulator valve
12. RV gear 25. Check valve
13. Case

PC78MR-6 10-23
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD TRAVEL MOTOR

Specification
Model GM09VN-E
Theoretical Hi 24.1
displacement (cm/rev) Lo 36.3
Hi 3,211
Rated speed
Lo 2,154
Brake releasing pressure 0.47
(MPa {kg/cm}) {4.8}
Speed changeover pressure 2.94
(MPa {kg/cm}) {30}
Reduction ratio 66.5

Outline

1. Reduction gears 4. 2-stage travel speed changeover mechanism


The reduction gears consists of spur gear unit The 2-stage travel speed changing mechanism
(1a) and differential gear unit (1b) which uses consists of a changeover valve and a piston,
pericycloid gears and converts the high speed which change the displacement of the hydraulic
revolution of the hydraulic motor into low-speed motor to either of 2 stages.
and high-torque revolution.
5. Parking brake
2. Hydraulic motor The parking brake is a friction plate brake, which
The hydraulic motor is a swash plate-type axial is built as a part of the hydraulic motor.
piston motor, which converts the power of the
hydraulic oil sent from the hydraulic pump into
revolution.

3. Brake valve
The brake valve consists of various valves and
has functions of stopping the hydraulic motor
smoothly, preventing the hydraulic motor from
running away, and preventing generation of
abnormally high pressure when the hydraulic
motor is stopped suddenly.

10-24 PC78MR-6
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD TRAVEL MOTOR

OPERATION
Operation of motor

At low speed (With swash plate angle at maximum)

1. 2-stage travel speed selector solenoid valve Since 2-stage travel speed selector solenoid
2. Regulator valve valve (1) is de-energized, the hydraulic oil from
3. Spring the control pump does not flow into port Pi.
4. Check valve Accordingly, regulator valve (2) is pressed to the
5. End cover left by spring (3).
6. Regulator piston Under this condition, the main hydraulic oil from
7. Swash plate the control valve pushes check valve (4) and
8. Pump merge-divider valve flows into end cover (5) and then is shut off by
9. Travel control valve regulator valve (2).
10. Brake valve The hydraulic oil in control chamber (a) flows
through passage (b) of regulator valve (2) into
the motor case.
As a result, swash plate (7) is pushed toward the
maximum swash plate angle by the main hydrau-
lic oil in chamber (P) of the cylinder and the
motor capacity is increased to the maximum and
the travel speed lowers.

PC78MR-6 10-25
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD TRAVEL MOTOR

At high speed (With swash plate angle at minimum)

1. 2-stage travel speed selector solenoid valve If 2-stage travel speed selector solenoid valve
2. Regulator valve (1) is energized, the pilot pressure from the con-
3. Spring trol pump flows into port Pi and pushes regulator
4. Check valve valve (2) to the right.
5. End cover Accordingly, the main hydraulic oil from the con-
6. Regulator piston trol valve flows through passage (c) of regulator
7. Swash plate valve (2) into control chamber (a) and pushes
8. Pump merge-divider valve regulator piston (6) to the left.
9. Travel control valve As a result, swash plate (7) is pushed toward the
10. Brake valve minimum swash plate angle and the motor
capacity is decreased to the minimum and the
travel speed rises.

10-26 PC78MR-6
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD TRAVEL MOTOR

Operation of brake valve Operation when oil is supplied


The brake valve consists of check valves (1a) If the travel lever is operated, the hydraulic oil
and (1b) and counterbalance valve spool (2) as from the control valve flows in port PA, pushes
shown in the following figure. valve (1a) open, and flows through motor input
port MA to motor outlet port MB.
At the same time, the hydraulic oil also flows
through orifice c of spool (2) to chamber D. If its
pressure becomes higher than the pressure of
spring (3), spool (2) is pushed to the left. As a
result, port MB is connected to port PB and the
motor outlet side opens and the motor starts rev-
olution.
Since port PA is connected to port E, too, the
hydraulic oil operates parking brake piston (4) to
release the parking brake force.

Function
When the machine travels downhill, its speed
may become higher than the motor speed
because of its momentum. If the engine speed is
low at this time, the motor runs idle and the
machine runs away, and this situation is very
dangerous. The brake valve prevents this phe-
nomenon and limits the travel speed according
to the engine speed (pump discharge).

PC78MR-6 10-27
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD TRAVEL MOTOR

Operation when oil is shut off Operation of brake during downhill travel
If the control lever is returned to neutral, the If the machine starts running away while travel-
hydraulic oil from the control valve is shut off and ing downhill, the motor revolves idle and the
spool (2) is returned to the right by the reaction pressure on the motor inlets side lowers, then
force of spring (3). the pressure in chamber D also lowers through
At this time, the oil flows through orifice (c) of orifice (c).
chamber D into port PA and back pressure is If the pressure in chamber D lowers below the
generated by the throttle effect of orifice (c). This pressure of spring (3), spool (2) is pushed back
back pressure controls the speed of spool (2) to the right.
returning to the right. At this time, the oil in chamber G flows through
Even after the hydraulic oil in port PA is shut off, orifice (f) into port PB. The throttle effect of ori-
the motor continues revolution by inertia. fice (f) generates back pressure, and spool (2)
At this time, the returning oil is reduced gradually returns to the right to control the returning speed
according to the changing speed and shape of of spool (2). Port MB on the outlet side is nar-
spool (2) to stop the motor smoothly. rowed.
The motor continues revolution by inertia and As a result, the pressure on the outlet side rises
can cause cavitation. Since valve (1a) is oper- and revolving resistance is generated in the
ated by very slight negative pressure, however, it motor to prevent the machine from running away.
opens ports PA and MA to prevent cavitation. To put it concretely, spool (2) moves to a position
at which the machine weight and the pressure on
the inlet side are balanced with the pressure at
port MB on the outlet side to narrow the outlet
circuit. Consequently, the speed is controlled
according to the pump discharge.

10-28 PC78MR-6
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD TRAVEL MOTOR

Operation of parking brake

When travel lever is operated When travel lever is set to neutral position
If the travel lever is operated, the hydraulic oil If the travel lever is set to the neutral position, the
from the pump moves spool (1) to the left and hydraulic oil from the pump is shut off.
flows through port E into chamber A of brake pis- The hydraulic oil in chamber (a) of brake piston
ton (2), then pushes brake piston (2) to the left. (2) is drained into the case and piston (2) is
As a result, the pressing force of spring (5) given pushed to the right by spring (5).
to plate (3) and disc (4) is lost, then plate (3) and As a result, plate (3) and disc (4) are pressed
disc (4) are separated and the brake force is and the braking force is applied.
released.

PC78MR-6 10-29
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD WORK EQUIPMENT CYLINDER

WORK EQUIPMENT CYLINDER


Boom cylinder

Arm cylinder

Bucket cylinder

10-30 PC78MR-6
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD WORK EQUIPMENT CYLINDER

Boom swing cylinder

Blade cylinder

PC78MR-6 10-31
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD WORK EQUIPMENT CYLINDER

Unit: mm
No. Item Criteria Remedy
Cylinder Basic Allowance Standard Allowable
name dimension Shaft Hole clearance clearance
-0.030 +0.250 0.085
Boom 65 0.654
-0.104 +0.055 0.354
-0.030 +0.163 0.036
Arm 60 0.567
Clearance between -0.104 +0.006 0.267 Replace
1
piston rod and bushing -0.030 +0.163 0.036 bushing
Bucket 55 0.567
-0.104 +0.006 0.267
Boom -0.030 +0.163 0.036
60 0.567
swing -0.104 +0.006 0.267
-0.030 +0.250 0.085
Blade 65 0.654
-0.104 +0.055 0.354
-0.030 +0.174 0.130
Boom 60 1.0
-0.100 +0.100 0.274
-0.030 +0.174 0.130
Arm 60 1.0
-0.100 +0.100 0.274
Clearance between
-0.030 +0.174 0.130
2 piston rod support Bucket 60 1.0
-0.100 +0.100 0.274
shaft and bushing
Boom -0.030 +0.174 0.130
65 1.0
swing -0.100 +0.100 0.274
-0.030 +0.174 0.130
Blade 70 1.0 Replace pin
-0.104 +0.100 0.278
and
-0.030 +0.174 0.130 bushing
Boom 65 1.0
-0.100 +0.100 0.274
-0.030 +0.174 0.130
Arm 55 1.0
-0.100 +0.100 0.274
Clearance between
-0.030 +0.142 0.110
3 cylinder bottom support Bucket 50 1.0
-0.100 +0.080 0.242
shaft and bushing
Boom -0.030 +0.174 0.130
65 1.0
swing -0.076 +0.100 0.250
-0.030 +0.174 0.130
Blade 70 1.0
-0.104 +0.100 0.278
Boom 961 96.1 Nm {98 9.8 kgm}
Arm 785 78.5 Nm {80 8.0 kgm}
Procedure 1) Tighten to 1.18 1.37 kNm {120 140 kgm}.
2) Loosen to 0 Nm {0 kgm}.
Tightening torque Bucket 3) Tighten to 0.39 kNm {40 kgm}.
4
of cylinder head 4) Control tightening of cylinder head by
turning angle (Turning distance: 3.5 4.5 mm).
Boom
981 98.1 Nm {100 10.0 kgm}
swing Retighten
Blade 1.030 103.0 Nm {105 10.5 kgm}
Boom 3.33 0.33 kNm {340 34.0 kgm} (2 Width across flats: 70 mm)
Arm 2.65 0.26 kNm {270 27.0 kgm} (2 Width across flats: 65 mm)
Tightening torque of Bucket 2.16 0.22 kNm {220 22.0 kgm} (2 Width across flats: 60 mm)
5
cylinder piston Boom
2.6 0.26 kNm {265 26.0 kgm} (2 Width across flats: 70 mm)
swing
Blade 3.14 0.31 kNm {320 32.0 kgm} (2 Width across flats: 75 mm)

10-32 PC78MR-6
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD SOLENOID VALVE

SOLENOID VALVE
Serial No.: 1001 1094

10-34 PC78MR-6
(1)
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD SOLENOID VALVE

A: From control pump


A4: Plug
A5: From left work equipment PPC valve "ARM IN"
A6: From right work equipment PPC valve "BOOM RAISE"
B1: To PPC valve
B2: To 2-stage travel speed selection valve
B3: To swing holding brake
B4: Plug
B5: To control valve "ARM IN"
B6: To control valve "BOOM RAISE"
T: To hydraulic tank

1. Left boom swing stop EPC valve


2. Right boom swing stop EPC valve
3. Not used
4. Swing holding brake solenoid valve
5. 2-stage travel speed selector solenoid valve
6. PPC lock solenoid valve

Solenoid valve
7. Coil (ON-OFF type)
8. Push pin
9. Valve spool
10. Return spring
11. Valve body

EPC valve
12. Return spring
13. Guide
14. Valve spool
15. Push pin
16. Coil (Proportional)

Check valve
17. Plug
18. Spring
19. Ball

Control relief valve


20. Adjustment screw
21. Locknut
22. Guide
23. Return spring
24. Valve spool

PC78MR-6 10-35
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD SOLENOID VALVE

Serial No.: 1095 and up

10-35-1 PC78MR-6
(1)
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD SOLENOID VALVE

A: From control pump


A5: From left work equipment PPC valve "ARM IN"
A6: From right work equipment PPC valve "BOOM RAISE"
B1: To PPC valve
B2: To 2-stage travel speed selection valve
B3: To swing holding brake
B4: Plug
B5: To control valve "ARM IN"
B6: To control valve "BOOM RAISE"
T: To hydraulic tank

1. Left boom swing stop EPC valve


2. Right boom swing stop EPC valve
3. Swing holding brake solenoid valve
4. 2-stage travel speed selector solenoid valve
5. PPC lock solenoid valve

Solenoid valve
6. Coil (ON-OFF type)
7. Push pin
8. Valve spool
9. Return spring
10. Valve body

EPC valve
11. Return spring
12. Guide
13. Valve spool
14. Push pin
15. Coil (Proportional)

Check valve
16. Plug
17. Spring
18. Ball

Control relief valve


19. Adjustment screw
20. Locknut
21. Guide
22. Return spring
23. Valve spool

PC78MR-6 10-35-2
(1)
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD SOLENOID VALVE

PPC LOCK SOLENOID VALVE


2-STAGE TRAVEL SPEED SELECTOR SOLENOID VALVE
SWING HOLDING BRAKE SOLENOID VALVE
Operation

When solenoid is de-energized (circuit is broken) When solenoid is energized (circuit is made)
While a signal current does not flow from the If a signal current flows from the PPC hydraulic
PPC hydraulic lock switch or travel speed boost lock switch or travel speed boost pedal to sole-
pedal, solenoid (1) is de-energized. noid (1), solenoid (1) is energized.
Accordingly, spool (2) is pressed up by spring Accordingly, spool (2) is pushed down by push
(3). pin (4).
Under this condition, port A is closed and the Under this condition, the pilot hydraulic oil flows
pilot hydraulic oil does not flow into the actuator. through port A, spool (2), and port B into the
At the same time, the oil from the actuator is actuator.
drained through ports B and T into the tank. At the same time, port T is closed and the oil
does not flow into the tank.

10-36 PC78MR-6
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD SOLENOID VALVE

LEFT BOOM SWING STOP EPC VALVE


RIGHT BOOM SWING STOP EPC VALVE
Operation

When signal current is maximum (When coil is When signal current is reduced (When coil is
energized and circuit pressure is maximum) energized and circuit pressure is low)
If the signal current flows from the controller into If the signal current flowing from the controller
coil (1), coil (1) is energized. into coil (1) is reduced, coil (1) is still energized
At this time, the thrust of coil (1) is maximum. but its thrust is lowered in proportion to the signal
As a result, spool (2) is pushed down by push pin current.
(3). As a result, push pin (3) pushes down spool (2)
Accordingly, all the pressurized oil from the PPC and the pressurized oil from port A flows to port
valve flows through port A, spool (2), and port B B.
to the control valve. If the pressure in port B rises and the force
At this time, port T is closed and any oil does not applied to face "a" of spool (2) becomes larger
flow in the tank. than the thrust of coil (1), spool (2) is pushed up
and port A is disconnected from port B and con-
nected to port T.
Accordingly, spool (2) moves up and down so
that the thrust of coil (1) will be balanced with the
pressure in port B.
As a result, the circuit pressure between the
PPC valve and control valve is controlled in pro-
portion to the signal current.

PC78MR-6 10-37
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD SOLENOID VALVE

When signal current is 0 (When coil is de-ener-


gized and circuit cut out)
If the signal current flowing from the controller
into coil (1) becomes 0, coil (1) is deenergized.
As a result, spool (2) is pressed up by return
spring (4).
Accordingly, port A is closed and the pressurized
oil from the PPC valve does not flow into the
control valve.
At this time, the oil from the control valve is
drained through ports B and T into the tank.

Signal current is 0 o increased o maximum


The valve operates in the order of 3, 2, and 1
explained above.

10-38 PC78MR-6
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD SOLENOID VALVE

Control relief valve

If the pressure of the hydraulic oil from the con-


trol pump rises, the oil in port A pushes spool (1).
The reaction force of spool (1) compresses
spring (2) and moves spool (1) to the right to
open ports A and T to relieve the circuit.
Set pressure: 3.1 MPa {32 kg/cm}

PC78MR-6 10-39
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD MULTI-CONTROL VALVE

MULTI-CONTROL VALVE
(OPTIONAL)

(1) JIS Pattern (2) Backhoe Pattern


* Operation pattern selection drawing (Port names correspond to symbols in drawing)

10-40 PC78MR-6
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD ACCUMULATOR FOR BRAKE

ACCUMULATOR FOR BRAKE


(If equipped)

1. Cap Specification
2. Core Type of gas Nitrogen Gas
3. Guard rubber
Gas volume ( ) 0.48
4. Lid
5. Plug Sealed gas pressure
6. Shell (MPa {kg/cm}) 0.1 {1} (at 80 C)
Max. actuating pressure
(MPa {kg/cm}) 6.86 {70}

PC78MR-6 10-41
(1)
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD HYDRAULIC PUMP

HYDRAULIC PUMP
Model: LPD45 + 45

P1 : Pump discharge PD2 : Pump drain (plug)


P2 : Pump discharge PDA : Air bleeder
P4 : Pilot pump discharge PEN : Control pressure pickup port
PD : Drain PLS : LS pressure input (From control valve)
PM : PC mode changeover pressure pickup port PPT : PTO oil filler
P1T : Travel deviation adjustment orifice PS1 : Main pump suction
P2T : Travel deviation adjustment orifice PEPC : EPC main pressure pickup port
PPLS : Pump pressure input (From control valve)

10-42 PC78MR-6
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD HYDRAULIC PUMP

T : Drain PAV : Pump average pressure


P1 : Pump discharge PD2 : Drain (Plug)
P2 : Pump discharge PDE : EPC drain
P3 : Gear pump pressure input PEN : Control pressure input
P5 : Gear pump pressure pickup port PPT : PTO oil filler
PD : Drain PS1 : Pump suction
PH : Pump shuttle PEPC : EPC main pressure pickup port

PC78MR-6 10-43
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD HYDRAULIC PUMP

1. Shaft
2. Flange
3. Case
4. Rocker cam
5. Shoe
6. Piston
7. Cylinder block
8. Valve plate
9. Servo piston
10. Oil seal

10-44 PC78MR-6
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD HYDRAULIC PUMP

With blade
Model: LPD45 + 45

P1 : Pump discharge PD2 : Pump drain (plug)


P2 : Pump discharge PDA : Air bleeder
P3 : Gear pump discharge PEN : Control pressure pickup port
P4 : Pilot pump discharge PGS : Gear pump suction
P5 : Gear pump pressure pickup port PLS : LS pressure input (From control valve)
PD : Drain PPT : PTO oil filler
PM : PC mode changeover pressure pickup port PS1 : Main pump suction
P1T : Travel deviation adjustment orifice PEPC :EPC main pressure pickup port
P2T : Travel deviation adjustment orifice PPLS :Pump pressure input (From control valve)

PC78MR-6 10-45
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD HYDRAULIC PUMP

T : Drain PD3 :Drain


P1 :Pump discharge PDE :EPC drain
P2 : Pump discharge PEN :Control pressure input
PD :Drain PPT :PTO oil filler
PH :Pump shuttle PS1 :Pump suction
PAV :Pump average pressure PEPC :EPC main pressure pickup port
PD2 :Drain (Plug)

10-46 PC78MR-6
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD HYDRAULIC PUMP

1. Shaft
2. Flange
3. Case
4. Rocker cam
5. Shoe
6. Piston
7. Cylinder block
8. Valve plate
9. Servo piston
10. Oil seal

PC78MR-6 10-47
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD HYDRAULIC PUMP

PDE: EPC drain


1. EPC valve

PC valve LS valve
T: Drain 4. Retainer PE: Control piston pressure 14. Seat
P3: Gear pump pressure input 5. Seat PH: Pump shuttle pressure 15. Spring
PH: Pump shuttle pressure 6. Spool PLS: LS pressure input 16. Seat
PAV: Pump average pressure 7. Sleeve PPL: PC valve output pressure 17. O-ring
PPL: PC valve output pressure 8. Piston PPLS: LS pump pressure input 18. Backup ring
PEPCOUT: EPC output pressure 9. Seal 19. Nut
10. Piston 12. Spool 20. Plug
2. Lever 11. Plug 13. Plug
3. Spring

10-48 PC78MR-6
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD HYDRAULIC PUMP

Function
This pump converts the revolution and torque of The oil in each cylinder of cylinder block (7) can
the engine transmitted to its shaft into hydraulic be drawn and discharged through valve plate (8).
energy and discharges hydraulic oil according to
the load.
The discharge can be changed by changing the
swash plate angle.

Structure
Cylinder block (7) is supported on shaft (1)
through spline a. Shaft (1) is supported on the
front and rear bearings.
The end of piston (6) is a concave sphere, which
holds shoe (5) as a spherical bearing.
Rocker cam (4) has plane A. Shoe (5) is kept
pressed against plane A and slid circularly.
Rocker cam (4) is supported on flange (2) and
ball (12) fixed to the case and slides on the
formed static pressure bearing and high-pres-
sure oil.
Piston (6) moves axially and relatively in each
cylinder of cylinder block (7).
Cylinder block (7) revolves relatively against
valve plate (8), sealing the hydraulic oil. The
hydraulic pressure on the revolving surface of
the cylinder block is balanced properly.

PC78MR-6 10-49
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD HYDRAULIC PUMP

Operation

1. Operation of pump

Shaft (1) and cylinder block (7) revolve together If center line X of rocker cam (4) is in the direc-
and shoe (5) slides on plane A. As rocker cam tion of the axis of cylinder block (7) (Swash plate
(4) slants around ball (12) at this time, angle ( ) angle = 0), the difference between volumes E
between the center line X of rocker cam (4) and and F in cylinder block (7) is 0 and oil is not
axis of cylinder block (7) changes. Angle ( ) is sucked or discharged (The swash plate angle is
called the swash plate angle. not reduced to 0 actually, however).
In short, swash plate angle ( ) is in proportion to
the discharge of the pump.
The number of holes on cylinder block (7) is
even 10 and every second one of them is fitted
to 2 grooves of valve plate (8). The quantity of
the oil equivalent to 5 pistons is discharged to
each of P1 and P2.

If the angle between the center line X of rocker


cam (4) and the axis of cylinder block (7) is a,
plane A works as a cam for shoe (5).
Accordingly, piston (6) slides inside cylinder
block (7) and makes difference between volumes
E and F in cylinder block (7) and the oil is drawn
and discharged by the difference.
In short, if cylinder block (7) revolves and volume
of chamber E is reduced, the oil is discharged.
On the other hand, the volume of chamber F is
increased and the oil is sucked. (The figure
shows the end of suction process of chamber F
and the end of discharge process of chamber E.)

10-50 PC78MR-6
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD HYDRAULIC PUMP

2. Control of discharge LS valve


If swash plate angle ( ) is increased, the differ- Function
ence between volumes E and F, or discharge Q, The LS valve controls the discharge of the pump
is increased. Swash plate angle ( ) is changed according to the stroke of the control lever, or the
with servo piston (11). demand flow for the actuator.
Servo piston (11) is reciprocated linearly by the The LS valve calculates the demand flow for the
signal pressure of PC and LS valves. This linear actuator from differential pressure EPLS
motion is transmitted to rocker cam (4) sup- between inlet pressure PPLS and outlet pres-
ported on flange (2) through ball (12). Then, sure PLS of the control valve, and controls dis-
rocker cam (4) slides in the revolutionary direc- charge Q of the main pump.
tion. (PPLS is called the LS pump pressure, EPLS
the LS pressure, and EPLS the LS differential
pressure.)
That is, the discharge of the pump is controlled
according to the demand flow for the actuator by
the following method; The pressure loss made
when the oil flows through the opening of the
control valve spool (LS differential pressure
EPLS) is sensed and discharge Q of the pump
is so controlled that the pressure loss will be con-
stant.
The LS valve receives main pump discharge
pressure PP, LS pump pressure (PPLS), and LS
pressure PLS. The relationship between the LS
differential pressure (EPLS) and pump dis-
charge Q changes as shown below.

PC78MR-6 10-51
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD HYDRAULIC PUMP

PC valve At this time, ports F and G of the LS valve are


connected to each other. As a result, the pres-
Function sure in port J becomes drain pressure PT and
The PC valve limits the oil flow to a certain level servo piston (6) moves to the left.
(according to the discharge pressure) even if the Consequently, the pump discharge is increased.
stroke of the control valve is increased so that As servo piston (6) moves, lever (1) moves to the
the horsepower absorbed by the pump will not left and spring (2) expands and its spring load is
exceed the engine horsepower, as long as pump decreased. Consequently, spool (3) moves to
discharge pressure PP is high. That is, the PC the left to break the connection of ports C and D,
valve performs constant-horsepower control. and then pump discharge ports B and C are con-
In other words, the PC valve decreases the nected.
pump discharge when the load is increased and As a result, the pressure in port C rises and the
the pump discharge pressure rises and piston pressure is increased and servo piston (6)
increases it when the pump discharge pressure stops moving to the left.
lowers.
This pump has 2 discharge openings and the (3) When pump pressure PAVE is high
average of discharge pressures P1 and P2 at The pressure of spool (4) is increased and spool
those openings is sensed. (3) is a little to the left (Fig. 2 and Fig. 5). At this
The average of P1 and P2 is called the PAVE. time, ports C and B are connected to each other
The relationship between this average and pump and the pressure in the LS valve is pump pres-
discharge (discharge from the 2 discharge open- sure PP.
ings) is shown below. At this time, ports F and G of the LS valve are
connected to each other. As a result, the pres-
sure in port J becomes pump pressure PP and
servo piston (6) moves to the right.
Consequently, the pump discharge is decreased.
As servo piston (6) moves, lever (1) moves to the
right and spring (2) is compressed and its spring
load is increased. Consequently, spool (3)
moves to the right to break the connection of
ports C and B, and then drain pressure ports D
and C are connected.
As a result, the pressure in port C lowers and the
piston pressure is decreased and servo piston
(6) stops moving to the right.
Accordingly, the stopping position (= pump dis-
charge) of servo piston (6) is decided by the
position where the pressure caused by pressure
Operation
PP applied to spool (4) is balanced with the force
1. With blade
of spring (2) applied through spool (3) (Fig. 3 and
Fig. 6).
(1) Function of spring
The spring load of spring (2) at the PC valve is
(4) When swing gear pump pressure rises/low-
decided by the position of the swash plate.
ers
If servo piston (6) moves to the right, spring (2) is
The pressure of spool (4) changes and the pump
compressed through lever (1) and its spring load
discharge changes similarly to the case where
changes. The spring constant of this spring
the PAVE rises/lowers.
changes to 2 levels.
The PC-EPC valve changes the output pressure
according to the input current from the controller,
(2) When pump pressure PAVE is low
then the pressure of spool (5) changes and the
The pressure of spool (4) is decreased and spool
pump discharge changes similarly to the case
(3) is a little to the right (Fig. 1 and Fig. 4). At this
where the PAVE rises/lowers.
time, ports C and D are connected to each other
and the pressure in the LS valve is drain pres-
sure PT.

10-52 PC78MR-6
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD HYDRAULIC PUMP

When load is light

When load is heavy

PC78MR-6 10-53
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD HYDRAULIC PUMP

When balanced

2. Without blade
Although the swing gear pump is not mounted, the theory of operation of this model is the same as that of
the machine equipped with the swing gear pump.
When load is light

10-54 PC78MR-6
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD HYDRAULIC PUMP

When load is heavy

When balanced

PC78MR-6 10-55
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD CONTROL VALVE

CONTROL VALVE
Outline
(1) Outside view

A1: To blade cylinder head


A2: To swing motor
A3: To left travel motor
A4: To right travel motor
A5: To boom swing cylinder head
A6: To boom cylinder bottom
A7: To arm cylinder head
A8: To bucket cylinder head
A9: To attachment
B1: To blade cylinder bottom
B2: To swing motor
B3: To left travel motor
B4: To right travel motor
B5: To boom swing cylinder bottom
B6: To boom cylinder head
B7: To arm cylinder bottom
B8: To bucket cylinder bottom
B9: To attachment
BP: From boom RAISE PPC valve
LS: To pump LS valve (LS pressure input)
P1: From main pump
P2: From main pump
P3: From gear pump
PP: To pump LS valve (Pump pressure input)
PT: To travel pressure switch
TB: To tank
TC: To oil cooler
TS: To tank
PA1: From blade raise PPC valve
PA2: From swing right PPC valve
PA3: From left travel reverse PPC valve
PA4: From right travel reverse PPC valve
PA5: From boom swing right PPC valve
PA6: From boom raise PPC valve
PA7: From arm out PPC valve
PA8: From bucket dump PPC valve
PA9: From attachment PPC valve
PB1: From blade lower PPC valve
PB2: From swing left PPC valve
PB3: From left travel forward PPC valve
PB4: From right travel forward PPC valve
PB5: From boom swing left PPC valve
PB6: From boom lower PPC valve
PB7: From arm in PPC valve
PB8: From bucket curl PPC valve
PB9: From attachment PPC valve
TSW: To swing motor

10-56 PC78MR-6
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD CONTROL VALVE

PC78MR-6 10-57
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD CONTROL VALVE

(2) Sectional view

1. Safety-suction valve (Blade head) 18. Gear pump relief valve


2. Suction valve (Left travel) 19. Safety valve
3. Suction valve (Right travel) 20. Cooler bypass valve
4. Suction valve (Boom swing head) 21. Spool (Boom raise merge)
5. Suction valve (Boom bottom) 22. Spool (Blade)
6. Suction valve (Arm head) 23. Spool (Swing)
7. Suction valve (Bucket head) 24. Spool (Left travel)
8. Suction valve (Attachment) 25. Spool (Right travel)
9. Suction valve (Attachment) 26. Spool (Boom swing)
10. Suction valve (Bucket bottom) 27. Spool (Boom)
11. Suction valve (Arm bottom) 28. Spool (Arm)
12. Suction valve (Boom head) 29. Spool (Bucket)
13. Suction valve (Boom swing bottom) 30. Spool (Attachment)
14. Suction valve (Right travel) 31 Unload valve (P1)
15. Suction valve (Left travel) 32. Unload valve (P2)
16. Suction valve (Blade bottom) 33. LS pressure pickup plug (LS1)
17. Main relief valve 34. LS pressure pickup plug (LS2)

10-58 PC78MR-6
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD CONTROL VALVE

Unit: mm
No. Item Criteria Remedy
Basic dimensions Allowable limit
Free length x
Installed Installed Installed
Cooler bypass valve Outside diam- Free length
35 length load load
spring eter
73.5 N 58.8 N
34.5 X 17.7 25
{7.5 kg} {6.0 kg}
Spool return spring 34.3 N 27.4 N
36 41.1 X 19.3 40.5
(Work equipment) {3.5 kg} {2.8 kg}
Spool return spring 103.9 N 83.2 N
37 42.3 X 19.2 38.9
(Arm out) {10.6 kg} {8.48 kg}
Spool return spring 180.5 N 14.5 N
38 29.0 X 17.5 25.0
(Trave) {18.02 kg} {14.74 kg}
129 N 103 N If damaged or
39 Unload valve spring 40.9 X 15.1 33.5
{13.2 kg} {10.6 kg} deformed,
Boom RAISE merge 287.3 N 230 N replace spring.
40 42.4 X 19.0 13
valve spring {29.3 kg} {23.44 kg}
Spool return spring 89.5 N 71.6 N
41 29.01 X 18.3 27.5
(Blade) {9.1 kg} {7.28 kg}
Spool return spring 136.4 N 109 N
42 41.13 X 19.3 38.5
(Boom raise) {13.91 kg} {11.13 kg}
Spool return spring
135.53 N 108 N
43 (Bucket curl, 41.47 X 19.3 38.5
{13.82 kg} {11.06 kg}
Boom lower)
Spool return spring 162.54 N 130 N
44 29.20 X 17.5 25.0
(Boom swing) {16.57 kg} {13.26 kg}
Spool return spring 173.2 N 139 N
45 29.03 X 18.4 26.0
(Swing) {17.66 kg} {14.13 kg}

PC78MR-6 10-59
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD CONTROL VALVE

1. Spool (Pump merge-divider valve) 16. Pump pressure pickup plug (P2)
2. Pressure compensation valve F (Left travel) 17. LS pressure pickup plug (LS3)
3. Pressure compensation valve F (Right travel) 18. LS bypass plug (LS2)
4. Pressure compensation valve F (Boom swing) 19. LS bleed valve
5. Pressure compensation valve F (Boom) 20. Travel junction valve, LS bleed valve
6. Pressure compensation valve F (Arm) 21. Logic valve
7. Pressure compensation valve F (Bucket) 22. Boom hydraulic drift prevention valve
8. Pressure compensation valve F (Attachment) 23. Check valve (Blade)
9. Pressure compensation valve R (Attachment) 24. Check valve (Swing)
10. Pressure compensation valve R (Bucket) 25. Check valve (Boom bottom)
11. Pressure compensation valve R (Arm) 26. Check valve (Arm)
12. Pressure compensation valve R (Boom) 27. Check valve (Bucket)
13. Pressure compensation valve R (Boom swing) 28. Check valve (Attachment)
14. Pressure compensation valve R (Right travel)
15. Pressure compensation valve R (Left travel) F: Flow control valve
R: Pressure reducing valve

10-60 PC78MR-6
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD CONTROL VALVE

Unit: mm
No. Item Criteria Remedy
Basic dimensions Allowable limit
Free length x
Installed Installed Installed
Pressure compensation Outside diam- Free length
29 length load load
valve spring eter
13.7 N 11.0 N
28.0 X 14.4 14.5
{1.4 kg} {1.12 kg}
Pressure compensation 55.9 N 44.7 N
30 33.4 X 14.4 21.5
valve spring {5.7 kg} {4.56 kg}
Pressure compensation 9.8 N 7.85 N
31 30.9 X 5.2 27
valve spring {1.0 kg} {0.8 kg}
Pressure compensation 6.86 N 5.49 N
32 20.0 X 8.4 12
valve spring {0.7 kg} {0.56 kg} If damaged or
Pump merge-divider deformed,
49.0 N 39.2 N replace spring.
33 valve spool 33.2 X 14.2 22.5
{5.0 kg} {4.0 kg}
return spring
3.92 N 3.14 N
34 Check valve spring 27.2 X 6.9 22
{0.4 kg} {0.32 kg}
3.92 N 3.14 N
35 Check valve spring 12.3 X 11.4 10.5
{0.4 kg} {0.32 kg}
1.96 N 1.57 N
36 Check valve spring 21.9 X 5.0 15.8
{0.2 kg} {0.16 kg}
1.96 N 1.57 N
37 Check valve spring 13.0 X 6.5 9.5
{0.2 kg} {0.16 kg}
Pressure compensation 13.72 N 11.0 N
38 28.0 X 14.4 14.5
valve spring {1.4 kg} {1.12 kg}

PC78MR-6 10-61
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD CONTROL VALVE

10-62 PC78MR-6
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD CONTROL VALVE

Unit: mm
No. Item Criteria Remedy
Basic dimensions Allowable limit
Free length x
Installed Installed Installed
Outside diam- Free length
1 Check valve spring length load load If damaged or
eter
deformed,
1.96 N 1.57 N replace spring.
21.9 X 5.0 15.8
{0.2 kg} {0.16 kg}
Travel junction valve 15.7 N 12.6 N
2 19.3 X 7.5 14
spring {1.6 kg} {1.28 kg}

PC78MR-6 10-63
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD CONTROL VALVE

10-64 PC78MR-6
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD CONTROL VALVE

1. Pump pressure pickup plug (P1)


2. LS bypass plug (LS1)
3. Check valve (P1)
4. Check valve (P2)

Unit: mm
No. Item Criteria Remedy
Basic dimensions Allowable limit
Free length x
Installed Installed Installed
Outside diam- Free length
5 Check valve spring length load load
eter
If damaged or
1.96 N 1.57 N
13.0 X 6.5 9.5 deformed,
{0.2 kg} {0.16 kg}
replace spring.
Hydraulic drift preven- 11.2 N 8.96 N
6 16.6 X 13.0 13
tion valve spring {1.14 kg} {0.91 kg}
Hydraulic drift preven- 10.8 N 8.64 N
7 13.0 X 8.8 7.5
tion valve spring {1.1 kg} {0.88 kg}

PC78MR-6 10-65
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD CONTROL VALVE

10-66 PC78MR-6
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD CONTROL VALVE

1. Pump pressure pickup plug (P2)


2. Check valve (Boom head)
3. Pressure release plug

Unit: mm
No. Item Criteria Remedy
Basic dimensions Allowable limit
Free length x
Installed Installed Installed If damaged or
Outside diam- Free length
4 Logic valve spring length load load deformed,
eter
replace spring.
5.5 N 4.4 N
11.0 X 6.2 9.5
{0.56 kg} {0.45 kg}

PC78MR-6 10-67
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD CLSS

CLSS
OUTLINE OF CLSS
Features Structure
CLSS stands for Closed center Load Sensing Sys- The CLSS consists of a variable capacity single
tem, and has the following featues. piston pump, control valve, and actuators.
Fine control not influenced by load The pump body consists of the main pump, PC
Control enabling digging even with fine control valve and LS valve.
Ease of compound operation ensured by flow
divider function using area of opening of spoll
during compund operations
Energy saving using variable pump control

10-68 PC78MR-6
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD CLSS

BASIC PRINCIPLE
1. Control of pump swash plate angle
The pump swash plate angle (pump discharge
amount) is controlled so that LS differential pres-
sure EPLS (the difference between pump (dis-
charge) pressure PP and control valve outlet port
LS pressure PLS) load pressure of actuator) is
constant.
(LS pressure EPLS=Pump discharge pressure
PP-LS pressure PLS)

If LS differential pressure EPLS becomes lower


than the set pressure of the LS valve (when the
actuator load pressure is high), the pump swash
plate moves towards the maximum position; if
the set pressure becomes higher than the set
pressure of the LS valve (when the actuator load
pressure is low), the pump swash plate moves
towards the minimum position.
a For details of the operation, see HYDRAULIC
PUMP.

PC78MR-6 10-69
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD CLSS

2. Pressure compensation control


A pressure compensation valve is installed to the stream (outlet port) the same, regardless of the
inlet port side of the control valve spool to bal- size of the load (pressure). In this way, the flow
ance the load. of oil from the pump is divided (compensated) in
When to actuators are operated together, this proportion to the area of openings S1 and S2 of
valve acts to make pressure difference EP each valve when it is operated.
between the upstream (inlet port) and down-

10-70 PC78MR-6
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD CLSS

OPERATION FOR EACH FUNCTION AND VALVE


Hydraulic circuit diagram and name of valves

10-72 PC78MR-6
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD CLSS

1. Unload valve (P1)


Set pressure: LS pressure + 2.45 MPa
{25 kg/cm2}
2. Unload valve (P2)
Set pressure: LS pressure + 2.45 MPa
{25 kg/cm2}
3. Main relief valve
Set pressure: 26.5 MPa {270 kg/cm2}
4. Gear pump relief valve
Set pressure: 21.1 MPa {215 kg/cm2}
5. Cooler bypass valve
6. Suction valve
7. Safety-suction valve
Set pressure: 9.8 MPa {100 kg/cm2}
8. Safety valve
Set pressure: 27.9 MPa {285 kg/cm2}
9. Pressure compensation valve
10. LS bypass plug (P1)
11. LS bypass plug (P2)
12. Boom raise merge valve
13. LS bleed valve
14. Travel junction valve, LS bleed valve
15. Logic valve
16. Boom hydraulic drift prevention valve

PC78MR-6 10-73
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD CLSS

Unload valve

1. When control valve is at HOLD

Function When the control valve is at HOLD, LS pres-


When the control valve is at HOLD, pump dis- sures PLS1 and PLS2 are not generated, so only
charge amount Q discharged by the minimum pump discharge pressures PP1 and PP2 act,
swash plate angle is released to the tank circuit. and PP1 and PP2 are set by only the load of
At this time, pump discharge pressure PP1/PP2 spring (2).
is set at 2.45 MPa {25.0 kg/cm2} by spring (2) in As pump discharge pressure PP1/PP2 rises and
the valve. (LS pressure PLS1/PLS2: 0 MPa {0 reaches the load of spring (2) (2.45 MPa {25.0
kg/cm2}) kg/cm2}), spool (1) is moved to the right. Pump
Since the pump merge-divider valve is at the discharge pressures PP1 and PP2 are con-
merge position, pump discharge pressures PP1 nected to tank circuit T through the cut of spool
and PP2 are merged. LS pressures PLS1, (1)
PLS2, and PLS3 are also merged. As a result, pump discharge pressure PP1/PP2
is set to 2.45 MPa {25.0 kg/cm2}.
Operation
Pump discharge pressures PP1 and PP2 are
acting on the left end of unload spool (1) and LS
pressures PLS1 and PLS2 are acting on the right
end. (PP1 = PP2, PLS1 = PLS2)

10-74 PC78MR-6
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD CLSS

2. During fine control of work equipment valve


Work equipment valve: Boom, arm, bucket,
boom swing, or attachment.

Function Operation
During fine control of the work equipment valve, When fine control is carried out on the work
when the demand flow for the actuator is within equipment valve, LS pressures PLS1 and PLS2
the amount discharged by the minimum swash are generated and act on the right end of spool
plate angle of the pump, pump discharge pres- (1) (PP1 = PP2, PLS1 = PLS2). When this hap-
sure PP1/PP2 is set to LS pressure PLS1/PLS2 pens, the area of the opening of the work equip-
+ 2.45 MPa {25.0 kg/cm2}. When the difference ment valve spool is small, so LS pressures PLS1
between pump discharge pressure PP1/PP2 and and PLS2 are very different from pump dis-
LS pressure PLS1/PLS2 reaches the load of charge pressures PP1 and PP2.
spring (2) (2.45 MPa {25.0 kg/cm 2 }), unload When the difference between pump discharge
spool (1) opens, so LS differential pressure pressure PP1/PP2 and LS pressure PLS1/PLS2
EPLS becomes 2.45 MPa {25 kg/cm2}. reaches the load of spring (2) (2.45 MPa {25.0
Since the pump merge-divider valve is at the kg/cm2}), spool (1) moves to the right, and pump
merge position, pump discharge pressures PP1 discharge pressures PP1 and PP2 are con-
and PP2 are merged. LS pressures PLS1, PLS2, nected to tank circuit T.
and PLS3 are also merged. In other words, pump discharge pressure PP1/
PP2 is set to the spring force (2.45 MPa {25.0
kg/cm2}) + LS pressure PLS1/PLS2, and LS dif-
ferential pressure DPLS becomes 2.45 MPa
{25.0 kg/cm2}.

PC78MR-6 10-75
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD CLSS

3. When work equipment valve is operated


Work equipment valve: Boom, arm, bucket,
boom swing, or attachment

Function Operation
When any work equipment valve is operated if When any work equipment valve is operated for
the demand flow for the actuator becomes a long stroke, LS pressures PLS1 and PLS2 are
greater than the pump discharge from the mini- generated and act on the right end of unload
mum swash plate angle, the oil flow to tank cir- spool (1) (PP1 = PP2, PLS1 = PLS2). When this
cuit T is cut off, and all pump discharge amount happens, the area of the opening of the work
Q flows to the actuator circuit. equipment valve spool is large, so LS pressures
Since the pump merge-divider valve is at the PLS1 and PLS2 are not so different from pump
merge position, pump discharge pressures PP1 discharge pressures PP1 and PP2.
and PP2 are merged. LS pressures PLS1,
PLS2, and PLS3 are also merged. For this reason, the difference between pump
discharge pressure PP1/PP2 and LS pressure
PLS1/PLS2 does not reach the load of spring (2)
(2.45 MPa {25.0 kg/cm2}), so spool (1) is pushed
to the left by spring (2).
As a result, pump discharge pressures PP1 and
PP2 and tank circuit T are shut off, and all pump
discharge amount Q flows to the actuator circuit.

10-76 PC78MR-6
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD CLSS

4. During fine control of both travel valves

Function Operation
During fine control of both travel valves, when When fine control is carried out on both travel
the demand flow is below the maximum pump valves, LS pressures PLS1 and PLS2 are gener-
discharge amount, pump discharge pressure ated and act on the right end of spool (1) (PP1,
PP1/PP2 is set to LS pressure PLS1/PLS2 + PP2, PLS1, and PLS2 are separated).
2.45 MPa {25.0 kg/cm2}. When this happens, the area of the opening of
When the difference between pump discharge both travel valve spools is small, so LS pres-
pressure PP1/PP2 and LS pressure PLS1/PLS2 sures PLS1 and PLS2 are very different from
reaches the load of spring (2) (2.45 MPa {25.0 pump discharge pressures PP1 and PP2.
kg/cm2}), unload spool (1) opens, so excessive When the difference between pump discharge
oil (maximum pump discharge mount - demand pressure PP1/PP2 and LS pressure PLS1/PLS2
flow) flows into the tank circuit. reaches the load of spring (2) (2.45 MPa {25.0
Since the pump merge-divider valve is at the kg/cm2}), spool (1) moves to the right, and pump
separate position, pump discharge pressures discharge pressures PP1 and PP2 are con-
PP1 and PP2 are separated. LS pressures PLS1 nected to tank circuit T and the excessive oil
and PLS2 are also separated. (maximum pump discharge mount demand
The swash plate angle of the pump becomes flow) flows.
maximum, so the pump discharge amount In other words, the excessive oil (maximum
becomes maximum. (For details, see the sec- pump discharge mount demand flow) above
tions on the pump merge-divider valve and logic the strokes of both travel valves flows into tank
valve.) circuit T.

PC78MR-6 10-77
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD CLSS

5. When both travel valves are operated

Function Operation
During operation of both travel valves, when the When both travel valves are operated to the
demand flow becomes maximum, the oil flow to stroke ends, LS pressures PLS1 and PLS2 are
tank circuit T is cut off, and all pump discharge generated and act on the right end of unload
amount Q flows to both travel circuits. spool (1) (PP1, PP2, PLS1, and PLS2 are sepa-
Since the pump merge-divider valve is at the rated).
separate position, pump discharge pressures When this happens, the area of the openings of
PP1 and PP2 are separated. LS pressures PLS1 both travel valve spools is large, so LS pressures
and PLS2 are also separated. PLS1 and PLS2 are not so different from pump
The swash plate angle of the pump becomes discharge pressures PP1 and PP2.
maximum, so the pump discharge amount For this reason, the difference between pump
becomes maximum. (For details, see the sec- discharge pressure PP1/PP2 and LS pressure
tions on the pump merge-divider valve and logic PLS1/PLS2 does not reach the load of spring (2)
valve.) (2.45 MPa {25.0 kg/cm2}), so spool (1) is pushed
to the left by spring (2).
As a result, pump discharge pressures PP1 and
PP2 and tank circuit T are shut off, and all pump
discharge amount Q flows to the actuator circuit.

10-78 PC78MR-6
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD CLSS

6. When either travel valve is operated

Function When this happens, the area of the openings of


The demand flow decided by the valve stroke is both travel valve spools is large, so LS pressures
sent to the travel circuit on the operated travel PLS1 is not so different from pump discharge
valve side and the all pump discharge amount is pressures PP1.
sent to the tank circuit on the non-operated travel For this reason, the difference between pump
valve side. discharge pressure PP1 and LS pressure PLS1
Since the pump merge-divider valve is at the does not reach the load of spring (2) (2.45 MPa
separate position, pump discharge pressures {25.0 kg/cm2}), so spool (1) is pushed to the left
PP1 and PP2 are separated. LS pressures by spring (2).
PLS1 and PLS2 are also separated. As a result, pump discharge pressures PP1 and
The swash plate angle of the pump becomes tank circuit T are shut off, and all pump dis-
maximum, so the pump discharge amount charge amount QP1 on the P1 side flows to the
becomes maximum. (For details, see the sec- left travel circuit.
tions on the pump merge-divider valve and logic Since the right travel valve is at HOLD, LS pres-
valve.) sure PLS2 is not generated, so only pump dis-
charge pressure PP2 acts.
Operation When pump discharge pressure PP2 reaches
When left travel valve is operated to stroke end and the load of spring (4) (2.45 MPa {25.0 kg cm2}),
right one is at HOLD. spool (3) moves to the right, and all pump dis-
When the left travel valve is operated to the charge amount QP2 on the P2 side flows into
stroke end, LS pressure PLS1 is generated and tank circuit T.
acts on the right end of unload spool (1).

PC78MR-6 10-79
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD CLSS

Pump merge-divider valve and logic valve


1. When control valve is at HOLD

Function
Pump merge-divider valve spool (3) merges
pump discharge pressures PP1 and PP2 and LS
pressures PLS1, PLS2, and PLS3 respectively.

Operation
When the control valve is at HOLD, changeover
pressure is not generated on logic spool (1), so
spring (2) pushes spool (1) to the left.
Since both travel valves are at HOLD,
changeover pressure is not generated on the
pump merge-divider spool.
When the control valve is at HOLD, changeover
pressure is not generated on the pump merge-
divider spool, so spring (4) pushes spool (3) to
the right.
Pump discharge pressures PP1 and PP2 and LS
pressures PLS1, PLS2, and PLS3 are merged
respectively (PP1 = PP2, PLS1 = PLS2 = PLS3).

10-80 PC78MR-6
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD CLSS

2. When work equipment valve is operated


(including compound operation of work
equipment + travel).
Work equipment valve: Boom, arm, bucket,
boom swing, or attachment.

Function When the work equipment valve is operated,


Pump merge-divider valve spool (3) merges changeover pressure for spool (3) is not gener-
pump discharge pressures PP1 and PP2 and LS ated, so spring (4) pushes spool (3) to the right.
pressures PLS1, PLS2, and PLS3 respectively. Pump discharge pressures PP1 and PP2 are
As the LS pressure, PLS1, PLS2, and PLS3 are merged. LS pressures PLS1, PLS2, and PLS3
output. are also merged (PP1 = PP2, PLS1 = PLS2 =
PLS3).
Operation
When any work equipment valve is operated, the
work equipment PPC pressure or the swing hold-
ing brake release pressure is introduced in the
left chamber of logic spool (1) to change over
spool (1).
When the load of spring (2) reaches 0.6 MPa {6
kg/cm2}, spool (1) moves to the right.
As a result, the right chamber of spool (3) is con-
nected to tank circuit T and changeover pressure
for spool (3) is not generated.

PC78MR-6 10-81
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD CLSS

3. When either or both travel valves are oper-


ated

Function Furthermore, PP1 and PLS1 are separated for


Pump merge-divider valve spool (3) separates the left travel circuit and PP2 and PLS2 are sep-
pump discharge pressures PP1 and PP2 and LS arated for the right travel circuit.
pressures PLS1, PLS2, and PLS3 respectively. The higher pressure of pump discharge pres-
As the LS pressure, higher pressure of PP1 and sures PP1 and PP2 is output as the LS pressure
PP2 is output. and the swash plate angle of the pump becomes
maximum, so the pump discharge amount
Operation becomes maximum.
Since the all work equipment valves are at
HOLD, changeover pressure for logic spool (1) is
not generated, spring (2) pushes spool (1) to the
left.
When both travel valves are operated, travel
PPC pressure is introduced as changeover pres-
sure for spool (3) through spool (1) into the right
chamber of spool (3).
When the load of spring (4) reaches 0.49 MPa {5
kg/cm2}, spool (3) is pushed to the left.
As a result, pump discharge pressures PP1 and
PP2 and LS pressures PLS1 and PLS2 are sep-
arated respectively.

10-82 PC78MR-6
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD CLSS

Introduction of LS pressure
1. Work equipment valve: Boom, arm, bucket,
boom swing, or attachment

Function When this happens, LS circuit PLS is connected


The LS pressure is the actuator load pressure at to tank circuit T from LS bypass plug (4) (See the
the outlet port end of the control valve. section on the LS bypass plug).
Actually, pump discharge pressure PP is The areas at both ends of reducing valve (3) are
reduced by reducing valve (3) of the pressure the same (SA = SLS), and actuator circuit pres-
compensation valve to the same pressure as sure PA acts on the SA end. The reduced pump
actuator circuit pressure A and sent to LS circuit discharge pressure PP acts on SLS at the other
PLS. end.
In the travel valve, actuator circuit pressure A is As a result, reducing valve (3) is balanced at a
directly introduced to LS circuit PLS. position where actuator circuit pressure PA and
the pressure of spring chamber PLSS are the
Operation same. Pump discharge pressure PP reduced at
When spool (1) is operated, pump discharge notch (c) becomes actuator pressure A and is
pressure PP flows from flow control valve (2) introduced into LS circuit PLS.
through notch (a) in the spool and bridge pas-
sage (b) to actuator circuit A.
At the same time, reducing valve (3) also moves
to the right, so pump discharge pressure PP is
reduced by the pressure loss at notch (c). It goes
to LS circuit PLS, and then goes to spring cham-
ber PLSS.

PC78MR-6 10-83
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD CLSS

2. Travel valve

Operation
When spool (1) is operated, pump discharge
pressure PP flows from flow control valve (2)
through notch (a) in the spool and bridge pas-
sage (b) to actuator circuit A.
At the same time, reducing valve (3) is moved to
the right by actuator circuit pressure PA, and
notch (c) and notch (d) are interconnected
respectively with travel junction circuit (e) and LS
circuit PLS.
As a result, actuator circuit pressure PA (= A) is
introduced from notch (c) through the internal
check valve and notch (d) into LS circuit PLS.

a The travel circuit is different from the work equip-


ment circuit: actuator circuit pressure PA is
directly introduced into LS circuit PLS.

10-84 PC78MR-6
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD CLSS

LS bypass plug
When work equipment valve is operated

When both travel valves are operated

Function (a) of LS bypass plug (2) through orifice (b)


The LS bypass plug releases the residual pres- to tank circuit T.
sure of LS pressure PLS. 2. When either or both travel valves are operated
This lowers the rising speed of LS pressure PLS. Since pump merge-divider spool (1) is at the
In addition, the discarded throttled flow causes a separate position, LS circuits PLS1, PLS2,
pressure loss in the throttled flow in the reducing and PLS3 are separated.
valve, and that lowers the effective LS differential The hydraulic oil PLS1 flows from tip filter (a)
pressure to improve the stability. of LS bypass plug (3) on the P1 side through
orifice (b) to tank circuit T.
Operation The hydraulic oil PLS2 flows from tip filter (a)
1. When work equipment valve is operated (includ- of LS bypass plug (2) on the P2 side through
ing compound operation of work equipment + orifice (b) to tank circuit T.
travel)
Since pump merge-divider spool (1) is at the
merge position, the hydraulic oil in LS circuits
PLS1, PLS2, and PLS3 flows from tip filter

PC78MR-6 10-85
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD CLSS

Boom raise merge valve


During normal operation

When machine swings and boom is raised simultaneously

Function 2. When machine swings and boom is raised simul-


When the machine swings and the boom is taneously
raised simultaneously, this valve merges dis- When the machine swings and boom is
charge amount of the gear pump into that of raised simultaneously, the signal pressure of
main pump to heighten the boom raising speed. the boom RAISE PPC circuit is applied to
pilot port BP.
Operation When pilot pressure BP acts on spool (1)
1. During normal operation and increases above the force of spring (2),
When the boom is not raised, the pilot pres- spool is pushed to the right. Then, check
sure is not applied to pilot port BP. valve (3) in spool (1) is pushed open and oil
Under this condition, gear pump circuit P3 in gear pump circuit P3 is merged into that in
and main pump circuit PP are shut off by main pump circuit PP to heighten the boom
spool (1), so oil in gear circuit P3 is not raising speed.
merged into that of main pump circuit PP.

10-86 PC78MR-6
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD CLSS

Area ratio of pressure compensation valve

Function Area ratio (S1:S2) and compensation character-


The pressure compensation valve determines istics
the compensation characteristics by carrying out When ratio is 1.00: [Pump discharge pressure
fine adjustment of the area r atio ( S2/S1) PP - spool notch upstream
between (left) area S1 of flow control valve (2) pressure PPB] = [LS circuit
and (right) area S2 of reducing valve (1) to match pressure PLS - actuator cir-
the characteristics of each actuator. cuit pressure PA (= A)] and
oil flow is divided in propor-
S1: Area of flow control valve (2) area of piston (3) tion to area of opening of
S2: Area of reducing valve (1) area of piston (3) spool.
When ratio is more than 1.00:PP PPB > PLS
PA ( = A ) a nd oi l fl o w i s
divided in a proportion less
tha n ar ea of ope ning of
spool.
When ratio is less than 1.00:PP PPB < PLS
PA ( = A ) a nd oi l fl o w i s
divided in a proportion more
tha n ar ea of ope ning of
spool.

PC78MR-6 10-87
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD CLSS

Pressure compensation valve

Function Flow control valve (2) throttles the area of open-


During compound operations, if the load pres- ing between pump circuit PP and spool upstream
sure on either actuator becomes lower than the PPA to cause a pressure loss between PP and
other actuator and the oil flow is about to PPA.
increase, compensation is made. [When this Flow control valve (2) and reducing valve (1) are
happens, the other actuator being used for com- balanced in a position where the difference
pound operation (right side) is at a high load than between PLS and PA acting on both ends of
the actuator on this side (left side).] reducing valve (1) and the pressure loss made
between PP and PPA on the sides of flow control
Operation valve (2) will be the same.
When the load pressure on the other actuator In this way, the pressure difference between
(right side) becomes higher during compound upstream pressure PPA and downstream pres-
operations, the oil flow in actuator circuit A on sure PA of both spools used during compound
this side (left side) starts increasing. operations is the same, so the pump flow is
When this happens, the LS pressure PLS on the divided in proportion to the area of opening of
other actuator acts on spring chamber PLSS, notch (a) of each spool.
and reducing valve (1) and flow control valve (2)
are pushed to the left.

10-88 PC78MR-6
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD CLSS

Boom hydraulic drift prevention valve

Function
This valve prevents the oil in the boom cylinder
bottom from leaking through spool (1) to cause
hydraulic drift of the boom while the boom con-
trol lever is not operated.

1. When boom is raised

Operation
When the boom is "raised", the main pressure
from the control valve pushes up puppet (2). As
a result, the hydraulic oil from the control valve
flows through the valve into the boom cylinder
bottom.

PC78MR-6 10-89
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD CLSS

2. When boom is held

When the boom control lever is returned to the


neutral position after the boom is raised, the
holding pressure on the boom cylinder bottom
side is closed by puppet (2) and the hydraulic oil
that flowed through orifices (a1) and (a2) is
closed by pilot spool (3). Accordingly, the boom
is held.

10-90 PC78MR-6
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD CLSS

3. When boom is lowered

When the boom is lowered, pilot pressure P1


from the PPC valve pushes pilot spool (3) and
the hydraulic oil in chamber (b) in the puppet is
drained.
The pressure in port (Ab) is heightened by the
hydraulic oil from the boom cylinder bottom, but
the pressure in chamber (b) is lowered by ori-
fices (a1) and (a2).
When the pressure in chamber b lowers below
that in port (Ab), puppet (2) opens and the
hydraulic oil from port (Ab) flows through port
(Aa) into the control valve.

PC78MR-6 10-91
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD CLSS

Boom regeneration circuit

1. When boom is lowered by its weight.

Function When this happens, a part of the return oil on the


While the boom is being lowered by its weight, if bottom side flows through regeneration pas-
bottom pressure A of cylinder (1) is higher than sages (a) of bottom spool (2), pushes check
head pressure B, this circuit sends the return oil valve (3) open, and flows into the head side.
on the bottom side to the head side to increase As a result, the boom lowering speed is height-
the cylinder speed by that amount. ened.

Operation
While the boom is being lowered by its weight,
pressure A on the bottom side of boom cylinder
(1) is higher than pressure B on the head side.

10-92 PC78MR-6
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD CLSS

2. When boom is lowered under a load.

Function
While the boom is being lowered under a load, if
head pressure B of cylinder (1) is higher than
bottom pressure A, check valve (3) is closed to
shut off the head side and bottom side from each
other.

Operation
While the boom is being lowered under a load,
pressure B on the head side of boom cylinder (1)
is higher than pressure A on the bottom side.
When this happens, check valve (3) is closed by
pressure B on the head side and spring (4) to
shut off the head side and bottom side from each
other.

PC78MR-6 10-93
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD CLSS

Travel junction valve


(L.H., R.H. travel junction circuit)

1. When traveling in a straight line

10-94 PC78MR-6
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD CLSS

2. When steered during travel

PC78MR-6 10-95
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD CLSS

Function
To compensate for any difference in the oil flow
in the left and right travel circuits while machine
travels in a straight line, the junction circuit
opens when the left and right travel spools are
operated.
In this way, the flow rates of oil to the left and
right travel motors are almost the same when the
machine travels in a straight line, so the machine
deviates less.
When the machine is steered, the junction circuit
opens. Since opening (b) of travel junction valve
spool (3) is small, however, the junction circuit
does not affect the steering performance.

Operation
1. When traveling in a straight line
Since only both travel valves are operated
and any work equipment valve is not oper-
ated, pump discharge circuits PP1 and PP2
and LS circuits PLS1 and PLS2 are sepa-
rated by the pump merge-divider spool.
(See the section on the LS bypass plug).
When both travel spools (1) are operated,
the oil from the pump flows from pump dis-
charge circuits PP1 and PP2 through actua-
tor circuit PB to B.
When the machine travels in straight line,
both reducing valves (2) are pushed to the
right and notch (a) and travel junction circuit
are opened.
The right end of travel junction spool (3) is
the work equipment PPC pressure circuit.
Since the work equipment valve is not oper-
ated at this time, however, any pressure is
not generated.
In this way, both travel actuator circuits are
interconnected by the travel junction circuit.
If any difference occurs in the flow of oil to
both travel motors, the difference is compen-
sated to reduce travel deviation.
2. When steered during travel
Since only both travel valves are operated
and any work equipment valve is not oper-
ated, pump discharge circuits PP1 and PP2
and LS circuits PLS1 and PLS2 are sepa-
rated by the pump merge-divider spool.
(See the section on the LS bypass plug).
The machine is steered by supplying the
demand flow to the actuator circuit according
to the strokes of both travel spools. (See the
section on the unload valve.)
While the machine is traveling in a straight
line, if the right travel spool (right 1) is
returned to the neutral position and the
machine is steered, a difference (left B >
right B) is made between the load pressures
in both travel actuator circuits PB.

10-96 PC78MR-6
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD CLSS

Travel LS bleed circuit and travel junction valve

1. During normal operation

PC78MR-6 10-97
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD CLSS

2. When travel actuator and another actuator


are operated

10-98 PC78MR-6
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD CLSS

Function For this reason, LS circuit pressure PLS,


When the travel actuator and another actuator which is the same pressure as boom circuit
are operated at the same time, the amount of oil pressure A, flows to travel circuit B to reduce
discarded through the throttle in LS circuit PLS the pressure.
increases and the pressure compensation preci-
sion of the travel circuit is lowered to reduce the
drop of the travel speed.
When the travel actuator or any other actuator is
operated singly, the LS bleed circuit is closed.
Travel junction valve spool (5) is set to open (b)
(small) or open (c) (large) by the boom PPC
pressure so that the difference between the flow
rates in both travel circuits can be corrected eas-
ily.

Operation
1. During normal operation
When boom spool (1) is operated, LS circuit
PLS becomes the same pressure as boom
circuit pressure A.
Since the work equipment valve is operated,
pump discharge pressures PP1 and PP2 are
merged by the pump merge-divider valve
spool. LS pressures PLS1, PLS2, and PLS3
are also merged. (See the sections on the
pump merge-divider valve and logic valve.)
At the same time, LS pressure PLS also
goes to spring chamber PLSS of reducing
valve (2) of the travel valve.
Since the travel valve spool is not operated,
notch (a) of reducing valve (2) is closed, and
check valves (3) and (4) of the bleed circuit
are also closed.
As a result, when the boom is operated sin-
gly, the travel LS bypass circuit is closed.
2. When travel actuator and another actuator are
operated
When boom spool (1) is operated, LS circuit
PLS becomes the same pressure as boom
circuit pressure A.
Since the work equipment valve is operated,
pump discharge pressures PP1 and PP2 are
merged by the pump merge-divider valve
spool. LS pressures PLS1, PLS2, and PLS3
are also merged. (See the sections on the
pump merge-divider valve and logic valve.)
As for the actuator circuit pressure, the boom
RAISE pressure is normally higher than the
travel pressure (A > B), so the pressure in
spring chamber PLSS inside reducing valve
(2) of the travel valve is higher than travel cir-
cuit pressure PB.
As a result, reducing valve (2) moves to the
left and LS pressure PLS flows through
check valves (3) and (4) and notch (a) of
reducing valve (2) to travel circuit PB.

PC78MR-6 10-99
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD SWING MOTOR

SWING MOTOR
Model: LMF30AEL

B: From swing brake solenoid valve Specifications


S: From tank Model: LMF30AEL
T: To tank Capacity: 31 cm3/rev
MA: From control valve Set pressure of safety valve: 21 MPa {210 kg/cm2}
MB: From control valve Cracking pressure of check valve: Max. 0.03 MPa
{0.30 kg/cm2}
1. Reverse prevention valve

10-100 PC78MR-6
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD SWING MOTOR

1. Output shaft 9. Safety valve


2. Housing 10. Check valve
3. Shoe 11. Check valve spring
4. Piston 12. Brake spring
5. Cylinder block 13. Brake piston
6. Valve plate 14. Disc
7. Center spring 15. Plate
8. Swash plate

Unit: mm
No. Item Criteria Remedy
Basic dimension Allowable limit
A Check valve spring Free length
Outside Installed Installed Free length Installed
diameter length load load If damaged
or deformed,
0.9 N 0.69 N replace spring.
15.5 9.0 11.5 {0.09 kg} {0.07 kg}
B Valve return spring
1.8 N 1.41 N
33 13.8 19.5 {0.18 kg} {0.14 kg}

PC78MR-6 10-101
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD SWING MOTOR

BRAKE VALVE
Outline 2. When machine stops swinging
The brake valve consists of a check valve and a If the swing control lever is returned to the
safety valve. neutral position, oil is not supplied from the
pump to port MB any more. Since the return
Function circuit for the oil from the motor outlet to the
When the machine stops swinging, control valve tank is closed by control valve (1), the pres-
(1) closes the outlet circuit of the motor. Since sure in port MA rises and revolution resis-
the motor continues revolving because of the tance is generated in the motor, then the
inertia, the motor output pressure rises abnor- motor is braked.
mally to break the motor. Accordingly, the abnor- The pressure in port MA rises to the set pres-
mally high pressure is released through the sure of the safety valve. As a result, high
outlet (high pressure side) of the motor to protect braking torque is generated in the motor,
the motor. then the motor stops.
While the safety valve is operating, the oil
Operation discharged from the safety valve and the oil
1. When machine starts swinging from port S are supplied through check valve
When the swing control lever is operated to CB to port MB so that cavitation will not
swing to the left, the hydraulic oil from the occur in port MB.
pump flows through control valve (1) into port
MB. As a result, the pressure in port MB
rises and the starting torque is generated in
the motor and the motor starts revolution.
The oil from the motor outlet returns from
port MA through control valve (1) to the tank.

10-102 PC78MR-6
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD SWING MOTOR

MODULATING RELIEF VALVE


Function
The relief valve for the swing motor prevents the
relief pressure from rising sharply to reduce shocks
when the machine starts and stops swinging.

Operation
1. When circuit pressure is P0
The relief valve does not operate.
2. When circuit pressure rises sharply
When circuit pressure rises to P1, the
hydraulic pressure acts on the area differ-
ence between D1 and D3 (D1 > D3) and
pushes spring (4) to open valve (3).
At this time, pressure acts on the area differ-
ence between D1 and D2 (D2 > D1), so seat
(1) follows valve (3).
As seat (1) moves, the passage for the pres-
surized oil in chamber (a) to flow into port S
is narrowed by ball (2). Accordingly, seat (1)
does not move so fast as valve (3).
As a result, the relief pressure rises gradually
from P1 to P2 while seat (1) is moving to
sleeve (5).

PC78MR-6 10-103
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD SWING MOTOR

SWING BRAKE
1. When solenoid valve is de-energized 2. When solenoid valve is energized

Operation Operation
When the solenoid valve of the swing brake is When the solenoid valve of the swing brake is
de-energized, the hydraulic oil from the self- energized, the valve is changed and hydraulic oil
pressure reducing valve is shut off and port B is from the self-pressure reducing valve flows
connected to the tank circuit. through port B into brake chamber A.
As a result, brake piston (13) is pushed up by The hydraulic oil in chamber A pushes brake
brake spring (12) to press disc (14) and disc (15) spring (12) and brake piston (13) moves down.
to apply the brake. As a result, disc (14) and plate (15) are sepa-
rated and the brake is released.

10-104 PC78MR-6
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD SWING MOTOR

REVERSE ROTATION PREVENTION LEVEL

MA : Port 1. Valve Body


MB : Port 2. Spool (MA end)
T1 : Port 3. Spring (MA end)
T2 : Port 4. Plug (MA end)
5. Spool (MB end)
6. Spring (MB end)
7. Plug (MB end)

PC78MR-6 10-105
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD SWING MOTOR

EFFECT EXPLANATION DRAWING

10-106 PC78MR-6
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD SWING MOTOR

Function
This valve reduces the swing back generated in
the swing body by the inertia of the swing body,
the backlash and rigidity of the machinery sys-
tem, and the compression of the hydraulic oil
when the swing is stopped.
This is effective in preventing spillage of the load
when stopping the swing and reducing the cycle
time (the positioning ability is good and it is pos-
sible to move swiftly to the next job).

1. When brake pressure is being generated at


port MB
Operation
Pressure MB passes through the notch and goes
to chamber d, spool (5) compresses spring (6)
according to the difference in area D1 > D2,
moves to the left, and MB o e is connected.
When this happens, pressure MA is below the
set pressure of spring (3), so spool (2) does not
move. For this reason, the pressure oil is closed,
and the braking force is ensured.

2. After motor stops Operation


The motor is reversed by the closing pressure
generated at port MB. (1st reversal)
When this happens, reversal pressure is gener-
ated at port MA. Pressure MA goes to chamber
a, compresses spring (3), spool (2) moves to the
right, and MA o b is connected.
At the same time, b o f is connected through the
drill hole in spool (5), so the reversal pressure at
port MA is bypassed to port T to prevent the 2nd
reversal.

PC78MR-6 10-107
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD WORK EQUIPMENT AND SWING PPC VALVE

WORK EQUIPMENT AND SWING PPC VALVE

P : From main pump


T : To tank
P1 : Left - Arm OUT/Right - Boom LOWER
P2 : Left - Arm IN/Right - Boom RAISE
P3 : Left - Swing RIGHT/Right - Bucket CURL
P4 : Left - Swing LEFT/Right - Bucket DUMP

10-108 PC78MR-6
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD WORK EQUIPMENT AND SWING PPC VALVE

1. Spool
2. Metering spring
3. Centering spring
4. Piston
5. Disc
6. Nut (For connection of lever)
7. Joint
8. Plate
9. Retainer
10. Body
11. Filter

10-110 PC78MR-6
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD WORK EQUIPMENT AND SWING PPC VALVE

Unit: mm
No. Item Criteria Remedy
Basic dimension Allowable limit
Free length
Centering spring Outside Installed Installed Free length Installed
12 (For ports P3 and P4) diameter length load load

17.65 N 14.1 N If damaged


42.48 15.5 34.0 {1.80 kg} {1.44 kg} or deformed,
replace spring.
Centering spring 29.42 N 23.5 N
13 (For ports P1 and P2) 44.45 15.5 34.0 {3.0 kg} {2.40 kg}
16.66 N 13.3 N
14 Metering spring 26.47 8.20 24.9 {1.70 kg} {1.36 kg}

PC78MR-6 10-111
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD WORK EQUIPMENT AND SWING PPC VALVE

OPERATION
1. At neutral
Ports A and B of the control valve and ports P1,
P2, P3 and P4 of the PPC valve are connected
to drain chamber D through fine control hole f in
spool (1). (Fig. 1)

2. During fine control (neutral o fine control)


When piston (4) starts to be pushed by disc (5),
retainer (9) is pushed; spool (1) is also pushed
by metering spring (2), and moves down.
When this happens, fine control hole f is shut off
from drain chamber D, and at almost the same
time, it is connected to pump pressure chamber
PP, so pilot pressure oil passes through fine con-
trol hole f and goes from port P1 to port A.
When the pressure at port P1 becomes higher,
spool (1) is pushed back and fine control hole f is
shut off from pump pressure chamber PP. At
almost the same time, it is connected to drain
chamber D to release the pressure at port P1.
When this happens, spool (1) moves up or down
so that the force of metering spring (2) is bal-
anced with the pressure at port P1. The relation-
ship in the position of spool (1) and body (10)
(fine control hole f is at a point midway between
drain hole D and pump pressure chamber PP)
does not change until retainer (9) contacts spool
(1).
Therefore, metering spring (2) is compressed
proportionally to the amount of movement of the
control lever, so the pressure at port P1 also
rises in proportion to the travel of the control
lever.
In this way, the control valve spool moves to a
position where the pressure in chamber A (the
same as the pressure at port P1) and the force of
the control valve spool return spring are bal-
anced. (Fig. 2)

10-112 PC78MR-6
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD WORK EQUIPMENT AND SWING PPC VALVE

3. During fine control


(when control lever is returned)
When disc (5) starts to be returned, spool (1) is
pushed up by the force of centering spring (3)
and the pressure at port P1.
When this happens, fine control hole f is con-
nected to drain chamber D and the pressure oil
at port P1 is released.
If the pressure at port P1 drops too far, spool (1)
is pushed down by metering spring (2), and fine
control hole f is shut off from drain chamber D. At
almost the same time, it is connected to pump
pressure chamber PP, and the pump pressure is
supplied until the pressure at port P1 recovers to
a pressure that corresponds to the lever position.
When the spool of the control valve returns, oil in
drain chamber D flows in from fine control hole f
in the valve on the side that is not working. The
oil passes through port P2 and enters chamber
B to fill the chamber with oil. (Fig. 3)

4. At full stroke
When disc (5) pushes down piston (4), and
retainer (9) pushes down spool (1), fine control
hole f is shut off from drain chamber D, and is
connected with pump pressure chamber PP.
Therefore, the pilot pressure oil passes through
fine control hole f and flows to chamber A from
port P1, and pushes the control valve spool.
The oil returning from chamber B passes from
port P2 through fine control hole f and flows to
drain chamber D. (fig. 4)

PC78MR-6 10-113
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD TRAVEL PPC VALVE

TRAVEL PPC VALVE

P : From main pump


T : To tank
P1 : Left travel reverse
P2 : Left travel forward
P3 : Right travel reverse
P4 . Right travel forward

10-114 PC78MR-6
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD TRAVEL PPC VALVE

1. Plate 5. Metering spring


2. Body 6. Centering spring
3. Piston 7. Valve
4. Collar 8. Bolt

Unit: mm
No. Item Criteria Remedy
Basic dimension Allowable limit
Free length Installed Installed Installed
9 Metering spring Outside diam- length load Free length load
eter If damaged
or deformed,
26.53 8.15 24.9 16.7 N 13.3 N replace spring.
{1.70 kg} {1.36 kg}

10 Centering spring 52.06 15.5 31.9 135.2 N 108 N


{13.8 kg} {11.04 kg}

PC78MR-6 10-115
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD TRAVEL PPC VALVE

OPERATION
1. At neutral
Ports A and B of the control valve and ports P1
and P2 of the PPC valve are connected to drain
chamber D through fine control hole f in spool
(1). (Fig. 1)

2. During fine control (neutral o fine control)


When piston (4) starts to be pushed by disc (5),
retainer (9) is pushed; spool (1) is also pushed
by metering spring (2), and moves down.
When this happens, fine control hole f is shut off
from drain chamber D. At almost the same time,
it is connected to pump pressure chamber PP,
and the pilot pressure is sent from port A through
fine control hole f to port P1 .
When the pressure at port P1 rises, spool (1) is
pushed back. Fine control hole f is shut off from
pump pressure chamber PP. At almost the same
time, it is connected to drain chamber D to
release the pressure at port P1.
As a result, spool (1) moves up and down until
the force of metering spool (2) is balanced with
the pressure of port P1.
The relationship in the position of spool (1) and
body (10) (fine control hole f is in the middle
between drain hole D and pump pressure cham-
ber PP) does not change until retainer (9) con-
tacts spool (1).
Therefore, metering spring (2) is compressed in
proportion to the travel of the control lever, so the
pressure at port P1 also rises in proportion to the
travel of the control lever.
In this way, the control valve spool moves to a
position where the pressure of chamber A (same
as pressure at port P1) and the force of the
return spring of the control valve spool are bal-
anced. (Fig. 2)

10-116 PC78MR-6
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD TRAVEL PPC VALVE

3. Fine control (control lever returned)


When disc (5) starts to be returned, spool (1) is
pushed up by the force of centering spring (3)
and the pressure at port P1.
Because of this, fine control hole f is connected
to drain chamber D, and the pressurized oil at
port P1 is released.
If the pressure at port P1 drops too much, spool
(1) is pushed up by metering spring (2), so fine
control hole f is shut off from drain chamber D. At
almost the same time, it is connected to pump
pressure chamber PP, so the pressure at port P1
supplies the pump pressure until the pressure
recovers to a pressure equivalent to the position
of the lever.
When the control valve returns, oil in drain cham-
ber D flows in from fine control hole f of the valve
on the side that is not moving. It passes through
port P2 and enters chamber B to fill the chamber
with oil. (Fig. 3)

4. At full stroke
Disc (5) pushes down piston (4), and retainer (9)
pushes down spool (1). Fine control hole f is shut
off from drain chamber D, and is connected to
pump pressure chamber PP.
Therefore, the pilot pressure oil passes through
fine control hole f and flows to chamber A from
port P1 to push the control valve spool.
The return oil chamber B passes from port P2
through fine control hole f and flows to drain
chamber D. (fig. 4)

PC78MR-6 10-117
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD BOOM SWING PPC VALVE, BLADE PPC VALVE

BOOM SWING PPC VALVE


BLADE PPC VALVE

T : To tank
P : From main pump
P1 : To right boom swing/blade raise valve
P2 : To left boom swing/blade lower valve

1. Spool 6. Plate
2. Metering spring 7. Retainer
3. Centering spring 8. Body
4. Piston 9. Filter
5. Lever

10-118 PC78MR-6
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD BOOM SWING PPC VALVE, BLADE PPC VALVE

For Boom Swing


Unit: mm
No. Item Criteria Remedy
Basic dimension Allowable limit
Free length Installed Installed Installed
10 Centering spring Outside length load Free length load
diameter If damaged
or deformed,
124.5 N 100 N replace spring.
33.88 15.3 28.4 {12.7 kg} {10.2 kg}
16.67 N 13.3 N
11 Metering spring 22.73 8.1 22.0 {1.70 kg} {1.36 kg}

For Blade
Unit: mm
No. Item Criteria Remedy
Basic dimension Allowable limit
Free length
Outside Installed Installed Free length Installed
10 Centering spring diameter length load load If damaged
or deformed,
14.7 N 118 N replace spring.
42.36 15.5 32.5 {15 kg} {12 kg}
16.67 N 13.3 N
11 Metering spring 22.73 8.1 22.0 {1.7 kg} {1.36 kg}

PC78MR-6 10-119
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD BOOM SWING PPC VALVE, BLADE PPC VALVE

Operation
1. In the neutral mode
P1 and P2 ports of the operation valves A, B and
PPC valve are connected to drain room D via the
fine control hole f on the spool (1).

2. In the fine control mode


(Neutral o fine control)
As the piston (4) is pushed by disk (5), the
retainer (7) is pushed too. At the same time, the
spool (1) is also pushed down via the metering
spring (2).
By this move, connection of the fine control hole
f is switched from the drain room D to the pump
pressure room PP, and pilot pressure oil for the
control pump is conducted from P1 port to A
port.
As P1 port pressure increases, the spool (1) is
pushed back. By this move, connection of the
fine control hole f is switched from the pump
pressure room PP to the drain room D, thereby
relieving P1 port pressure.
As the result, the spool (1) moves up and down
so that force of the metering spring (2) and P1
port pressure may be balanced.
Positional relationship between the spool (1) and
body (8) (fine control hole f is situated at mid
point between the drain room D and pump pres-
sure room PP) remains unchanged until the
retainer (7) is contacted against the spool (1).
The metering spring (2) is, therefore, com-
pressed in proportion to strokes of the operation
lever. Thus, the P1 port pressure too, increases
in proportion to strokes of the operation lever.
As the result, the operation valve spool moves to
the position where the pressure of A room (the
same as P1 port pressure) is balanced against
force of the operation valve spool return spring.

10-120 PC78MR-6
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD BOOM SWING PPC VALVE, BLADE PPC VALVE

3. In the fine control mode (when the operation


lever is shifted back to its original position)
As the lever (5) starts returning, the spool (1)
is pushed up by force of the centering spring
(3) and P1 port pressure. By this move, the
fine control hole f is connected to the drain
room D and relieves pressurized oil of P1
port to it.
If P1 port pressure goes excessively low, the
spool (1) is pushed down by the metering
spring (2), and passage between fine control
hole f and drain room D is shut down. And,
almost at the same time, the hole is con-
nected to the pump pressure room PP and
starts supplying pump the pressure. This
supply continues until the P1 port pressure is
recovered to the level equivalent to the lever
position.
When the operation valve spool returns, oil
in the drain room D flows in through the fine
control hole f on the not moving side valve.
Oil is then conducted via P2 port to the room
B to fill it up.

4. In the full stroke mode


When the disk (5) pushes down piston (4)
and the retainer (7) pushes down the spool
(1), connection of the fine control hole f is
switched from the drain room D, to the pump
pressure room PP.
Thus, pilot pressurized oil from the control
pump passes through fine control hole f and
conducted to A room via P1 port to push the
operation valve spool.
Return oil from B room is conducted from P2
port to the drain room D via the fine control
hole f.

PC78MR-6 10-121
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD BOOM HYDRAULIC ANTI-BURST VALVE

BOOM HYDRAULIC ANTI-BURST VALVE (FOR EU SPEC.)

V : From control valve


T : To hydraulic tank
CY : To hydraulic cylinder
PI : From PPC valve
PCY: For pressure pickup and equalizer circuits

10-121-1 PC78MR-6
(1)
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD BOOM HYDRAULIC ANTI-BURST VALVE

1. Pilot spool
2. Spring (1st stage of spool)
3. Spring (2nd stage of spool)
4. Safety valve
5. Check valve
6. Spring

Unit: mm

No. Item Criteria Remedy

Basic dimension Allowable limit


Free length x Installed Installed Free Installed
7 Check valve spring Outside diameter length load length load
14.7 1.5 N 10.8 N If damaged or
16.4 x 8.9 11
{1.5 0.15 kg} {1.1 kg} deformed,
24.7 1.5 N 18.6 N replace spring
8 Spool return spring 19.1 8 13.5
{2.52 0.15 kg} {1.9 kg}
55.4 3.0 N 42.2 N
9 Spool return spring 24.8 16.8 22.5
{5.65 0.3 kg} {4.3 kg}

PC78MR-6 10-121-2
(1)
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD BOOM HYDRAULIC ANTI-BURST VALVE

Function
If the piping between the main valve and a work
equipment cylinder bursts, this valve prevents the oil
from flowing back from the work equipment cylinder
to prevent sudden fall of the work equipment.

Operation
1. When the work equipment is in neutral
[When piping is normal]
Check valve (5) is closed by the work equip-
ment cylinder holding pressure applied
through port CY to chamber b.
When the work equipment is in neutral, no
pilot pressure is applied from the PPC valve
to port PI. Accordingly, pilot spool (1) is
moved to the left end by the force of springs
(2) and (3), then chambers a and b are shut
off from each other.
Accordingly, oil does not flow from the main
valve to the work equipment cylinder, thus
the work equipment cylinder is held.
If the pressure in the work equipment cylin-
der rises high abnormally, work equipment
cylinder holding pressure Pb operates safety
valve (4).

[When piping bursts]


Even if piping A between the main valve and
work equipment cylinder bursts, chamber a
is shut off from chanber b as in the case
where the piping is normal. Accordingly, the
work equipment cylinder is held.
When the engine is stopped and the work
equipment is held in air, if port PCY is
opened, oil in chamber b flows out through
orifice (7) and port PCY. Accordingly, the
work equipment lowers slowly.

10-121-3 PC78MR-6
(1)
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD BOOM HYDRAULIC ANTI-BURST VALVE

2. When oil is sent from main valve to cylinder


[When piping is normal]
If pressure Pa of the oil sent from the main
valve to chamber a is higher than the total of
pressure Pb in chamber b connected to the
work equipment cylinder and the force of
spring (6), check valve (5) opens and cham-
bers a and b are connected to each other
and the oil flows from the main valve to the
work equipment cylinder.

[When piping bursts]


If piping A between the main valve and the
work equipment cylinder bursts, the oil in
chamber a flows out through the burst part
and pressure Pa in chamber a lowers.
If Pa lowers below the total of pressure Pb in
chamber b and the force of spring (6), check
valve (5) closes and chambers a and b are
shut off from each other. Accordingly, pres-
sure Pb in the cylinder is held and the work
equipment does not fall suddenly.

PC78MR-6 10-121-4
(1)
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD BOOM HYDRAULIC ANTI-BURST VALVE

3. When oil is returned from work equipment


cylinder to main valve
[When piping is normal]
The work equipment cylinder holding pres-
sure is applied to chamber b and check valve
(5) closes.
The pilot pressure from the PPC valve is
applied to port PI. If it is higher than the force
of spring (2) (area of d), spool (1) moves to
the right standby position (1st-stage stroke).
At this time, chambers a and b are not con-
nected to each other.
If the pilot pressure rises higher than the
force of spring (3) (area of d), spool (1)
moves further to the right and chambers a
and b are connected to each other (2nd-
stage stroke).
Accordingly, the oil is returned from the work
equipment cylinder to the main valve.

[When piping bursts]


If piping A between the main valve and work
equipment cylinder bursts, the oil in chamber
a flows out through the burst part. Since oil
supplied from chamber b to chamber a flows
through opening c of spool (1), however, the
work equipment does not fall suddenly.

If the PPC valve is returned to the neutral


position, spool (1) returns to the left end to
shut off chambers a and b from each other.
Accordingly, the work equipment stops.

10-121-5 PC78MR-6
(1)
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD WORK EQUIPMENT

WORK EQUIPMENT

Unit : mm

No. Item Criteria Remedy

Standard Tolerance Standard Clearance


Clearance between swing size Shaft Hole clearance limit
1 bracket and revolving frame
mounting pin and bushing -0.036 +0.204 0.161
110 -0.090 +0.125 0.294 1.0

Clearance between boom and -0.030 +0.174 0.130


2 swing bracket mounting pin 65 -0.100 +0.100 0.274 1.0
and bushing
Clearance between boom and 60 -0.030 +0.174 0.130
3 arm mounting pin and bushing -0.100 +0.100 0.274 1.0

Clearance between arm and -0.225 -0.062 0.105


4 bucket mounting pin and 50 1.0 Replace pin
bushing -0.285 -0.120 0.223 and bushing

Clearance between arm and 50 -0.225 -0.062 0.105


5 link mounting pin and bushing -0.285 -0.120 0.223 1.0

Clearance between link and 60 -0.030 +0.173 0.130


6 link mounting pin and bushing -0.100 +0.100 0.273 1.0

Clearance between bucket -0.225 -0.040 0.131


7 and link mounting pin and 50 -0.285 -0.094 0.245 1.0
bushing
Clearance between blade and -0.025 +0.142 0.105
8 track frame mounting pin and 50 -0.087 +0.080 0.229 1.0
bushing

10-122 PC78MR-6
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD WORK EQUIPMENT

PC78MR-6 10-123
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD DIMENSIONS OF EACH PART OF WORK EQUIPMENT

DIMENSIONS OF EACH PART OF WORK EQUIPMENT


1. ARM SECTION

10-124 PC78MR-6
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD DIMENSIONS OF EACH PART OF WORK EQUIPMENT

PC78MR-6
No. Allowance
Measuring point Basic dimension
Shaft Hole
-0.030 +0.100
1 60
-0.100 0
+1.0
Arm side 71.5
2 0
Cylinder head side 70 1.2
-0.030 +0.100
3 60
-0.100 0
+0.5
Boom side 220
0
4
-0.5
Arm side 220
-1.0
5 142.4 2.0
6 218.8 1.0
7 458.6 1.0
8 1,650
9 2,093.9 3.0
10 1,661.2 1.3
11 258.7 0.3
12 15.1 1.0
13 395.1 0.1
14 342 0.1
15 312.2
16 1,066.9
-0.225 0
17 50
-0.285 -0.150
-1.0
Link side 200
-2.0
18
+2.0
Bucket side 200
0
-0.225 0
19 50
-0.285 -0.150
-0.50
Arm side 188
-1.0
20
+3.0
Bucket side 211
0
Min. 1,055 1.5
21
Max. 1,765

PC78MR-6 10-125
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD DIMENSIONS OF EACH PART OF WORK EQUIPMENT

2. BUCKET PORTION

10-126 PC78MR-6
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD DIMENSIONS OF EACH PART OF WORK EQUIPMENT

PC78MR-6
No.
Measuring point Basic dimension Allowance
1 309.8 0.5
2 38.6 0.5
3 97.1
4 312.2
5 1,057.2
6 143.7
7 8
8 5.2
0
9 50
-0.15
10 60
+0.2
11 70
0
+2.0
12 200
0
13 40
14 71
+1.0
15 296
0
16 18
17 100
18 115
19 95
+3.0
20 211
0
21 40
22 24
23 89.3
24 87.9
25 60
26 66

PC78MR-6 10-127
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD AIR CONDITIONER PIPING

AIR CONDITIONER PIPING (OPTIONAL)

A: Hot/Cool air outlet 1. Hot water take-out piping


B: Inside air circulation opening 2. Air conditioner compressor
C: Fresh air inlet 3. Hot water return piping
4. Refrigerant piping
5. Condenser
6. Receiver drier
7. Air conditioner unit
8. Duct

10-128 PC78MR-6
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD ELECTRIC CONTROL SYSTEM

ELECTRIC CONTROL SYSTEM

Engine control function

Engine and pump compound


control function

Overheat prevention function

Swing control function

Travel control function

PPC lock function

(*1)
Electric Overload alarm function
control system

Error code display and alarm function

Self-diagnosis function

Error code memory func

*1. For EU spec. machine only.

PC78MR-6 10-129
(1)
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD ELECTRIC CONTROL SYSTEM

GENERAL SYSTEM DIAGRAM (FOR STD SPEC.)

10-130 PC78MR-6
(1)
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD ELECTRIC CONTROL SYSTEM

1. Battery
2. Battery relay
3. Fusible link
4. Starting switch
5. Fuse box
6. Controller
7. Emergency pump drive switch
8. Emergency boom swing operating and swing
holding brake release switch
9. Resistor
(For emergency boom swing operating)
10. Resistor (For emergency pump drive)
11. Safety lock lever
12. PPC lock switch
13. Starting motor cut relay
14. Safety relay
15. One-touch deceleration switch
16. Fuel control motor relay (For accelerator)
17. Fuel control motor relay (For deceleration)
18. Fuel control dial
19. Fuel control motor
20. Monitor panel
21. Travel speed boost pedal
22. Travel alarm (If equipped)
23. PPC lock solenoid valve
24. 2-stage travel speed selector solenoid valve
25. Swing holding brake solenoid valve
26. Left boom swing stop EPC valve
27. Right boom swing stop EPC valve
28. TVC-EPC valve
29. Right work equipment PPC valve
30. Travel PPC valve
31. Left work equipment PPC valve
32. Boom swing PPC valve
33. Blade PPC valve
34. Attachment control PPC valve
35. Boom RAISE PPC oil pressure switch
36. Travel PPC oil pressure switch
37. Arm IN PPC oil pressure switch
38. Swing PPC oil pressure switch
39. Boom swing potentiometer
40. Engine stop solenoid
41. Engine stop solenoid relay
42. Starting motor
43. Engine speed sensor
44. Coolant temperature sensor
45. Hydraulic pump
45a. Servo piston
45b. LS valve
45c. TVC valve
46. Control valve
46a. Pump merge-divider valve
47. Travel motor
48. Swing motor

PC78MR-6 10-131
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD ELECTRIC CONTROL SYSTEM

GENERAL SYSTEM DIAGRAM (FOR EU SPEC.)

10-131-1 PC78MR-6
(1)
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD ELECTRIC CONTROL SYSTEM

1. Battery
2. Battery relay
3. Fusible link
4. Starting switch
5. Fuse box
6. Controller
7. Emergency pump drive switch
8. Emergency boom swing operating and swing
holding brake release switch
9. Resistor
(For emergency boom swing operating)
10. Resistor (For emergency pump drive)
11. Safety lock lever
12. PPC lock switch
13. Starting motor cut relay
14. Safety relay
15. One-touch deceleration switch
16. Fuel control motor relay (For accelerator)
17. Fuel control motor relay (For deceleration)
18. Fuel control dial
19. Fuel control motor
20. Monitor panel
21. Travel speed boost pedal
22. Travel alarm (If equipped)
23. PPC lock solenoid valve
24. 2-stage travel speed selector solenoid valve
25. Swing holding brake solenoid valve
26. Left boom swing stop EPC valve
27. Right boom swing stop EPC valve
28. TVC-EPC valve
29. Right work equipment PPC valve
30. Travel PPC valve
31. Left work equipment PPC valve
32. Boom swing PPC valve
33. Blade PPC valve
34. Attachment control PPC valve
35. Boom RAISE PPC oil pressure switch
36. Travel PPC oil pressure switch
37. Arm IN PPC oil pressure switch
38. Swing PPC oil pressure switch
39. Boom swing potentiometer
40. Engine stop solenoid
41. Engine stop solenoid relay
42. Starting motor
43. Engine speed sensor
44. Coolant temperature sensor
45. Hydraulic pump
45a. Servo piston
45b. LS valve
45c. TVC valve
46. Control valve
46a. Pump merge-divider valve
47. Travel motor
48. Swing motor
49. Overload alarm actuation switch
50. Overload alarm pressure switch

PC78MR-6 10-131-2
(1)
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD ELECTRIC CONTROL SYSTEM

ENGINE CONTROL FUNCTION

1. Battery
2. Battery relay
3. Fusible link
4. Starting switch
5. Fuse box
6. Controller
7. Safety lock lever
8. PPC lock switch
9. Starting motor cut relay
10. Safety relay
11. Fuel control dial
12. Fuel control motor
13. Fuel control motor relay (For accelerator)
14. Fuel control motor relay (For deceleration)
15. One-touch deceleration switch
16. Monitor panel
17. Engine stop solenoid
18. Engine stop solenoid relay
19. Starting motor

10-132 PC78MR-6
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD ELECTRIC CONTROL SYSTEM

Starting engine Function of preventing engine stop solenoid


If starting switch (4) is turned to the ON position, from burning
engine stop solenoid (17) moves governor stop Engine stop solenoid relay (18) is installed to
lever to the "RUN" side. prevent engine stop solenoid (17) from burning.
Accordingly, if the electric system has any trou- The time to supply the suction current is limited
ble, the engine stops, that is, a fail-safe mecha- to 3 seconds after starting switch (4) is turned to
nism is formed. the ON position by replacing the 2-wire engine
If starting switch (4) is turned to the START posi- stop solenoid (17) (which uses the same wire for
tion while safety lock lever (7) is at the "LOCK" the suction and holding currents) with the 3-wire
position, the start signal flows to starting motor one (which uses independent wires for the suc-
(19) and the engine starts. If safety lock lever (7) tion and holding currents) and adding a timer
is at the "FREE" position, the start signal to start- function and engine stop solenoid relay (18) to
ing motor (19) is cut out by starting motor cut controller (6).
relay (9) and the engine cannot start.
At this time, since fuel control motor (12) is
linked with fuel control dial (11), the engine
speed is fixed to the speed set with fuel control
dial (11).

Controlling engine speed


Fuel control motor (12) outputs the acceleration
(engine speed raising) signal and deceleration
(engine speed lowering) signal to controller (6)
according to the position of fuel control dial (11).
Upon receiving the signal, controller (6) outputs
the drive signal through fuel control motor relays
(13) and (14) to fuel control motor (12).
Fuel control motor (12) lengthens or shortens A: Operation of starting switch
the cable to control the engine speed according B: Suction coil current
to the drive signal. C: Holding coil current
t: 3 seconds

PC78MR-6 10-133
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD ELECTRIC CONTROL SYSTEM

Stopping engine
If starting switch (4) is turned to the OFF posi-
tion, engine stop solenoid (17) moves the gover-
nor stop lever to the STOP side and the engine
stops.

One-touch deceleration
If one-touch deceleration switch (16) is pressed,
the deceleration signal is output to controller (6).
Controller (6) turns on the one-touch decelera-
tion monitor of monitor panel (16) and drives fuel
control motor (12) to lower the engine speed to
low idling.
If one-touch deceleration switch (15) is pressed
while the engine is being started, the engine
speed is set to low idling. If it is pressed again,
the engine speed returns to the speed set with
fuel control dial (11).
a Even if the engine is stopped while the one-
touch deceleration system is turned on, the latter
is turned off when the engine is started next time
(the engine speed is set the speed set with the
fuel control dial).
a Even if the fuel control dial is operated while the
one-touch deceleration system is turned on, the
engine speed is kept at low idling.
a If the fuel control dial is at low idling, the engine
speed does not lower any more even if the one-
touch deceleration switch is pressed

A: One-touch deceleration switch [ON]


B: One-touch deceleration switch [OFF]
C: Engine speed set with fuel control dial
D: Low idling
E: Max. 1 sec

10-134 PC78MR-6
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD ELECTRIC CONTROL SYSTEM

ENGINE AND PUMP COMPOUND CONTROL FUNCTION

1. Battery Input/Output signals


2. Battery relay a. Controller power source
3. Fusible link b. Solenoid power source
4. Starting switch c. Monitor panel power source
5. Fuse box d. S-NET signal
6. Controller e. Coolant temperature signal
7. Emergency pump drive switch f. Engine speed signal
8. Resistor (For emergency pump drive) g. EPC valve drive signal
9. Monitor panel
10. TVC-EPC valve
11. Engine speed sensor
12. Coolant temperature sensor
13. Control valve
13a. Pump merge-divider valve
14. Hydraulic pump
14a. Servo piston
14b. LS valve
14c. TVC valve

PC78MR-6 10-135
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD ELECTRIC CONTROL SYSTEM

Functions
The "active" or "E" mode is selected with the
working mode selection switch on the monitor
panel. In each mode, proper engine torque and
pump absorption torque are selected according
to the contents of work.
The controller detects the engine governor
speed set with the fuel control dial and the actual
engine speed and controls the hydraulic system
so that the pump will absorb the all torque at
each output point of the engine, according to the
pump absorption torque set for each mode.
If the engine speed is lowered, the pump absorp-
tion torque is reduced to prevent the engine from
stopping.

10-136 PC78MR-6
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD ELECTRIC CONTROL SYSTEM

Control method in each mode

Active mode
Matching point of active mode:

40.5 kw / 1.850 rpm


Active mode {54.0 HP / 1.850 rpm}

If the pump load increases and the pressure


rises, engine speed lowers.
At this time, the pump discharge is reduced to
heighten the engine speed to near the full output
point. On the other hand, if the pressure lowers,
engine speed is heightened to near the full out-
put point to increase the pump discharge.
The engine is constantly used near the full output
point by repeating this control.

PC78MR-6 10-137
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD ELECTRIC CONTROL SYSTEM

E mode
Matching point of E mode: 85% partial output
point

37.5 kw / 1.660 rpm


E mode {50.0 HP / 1,660 rpm}

In this mode, the engine speed is lowered along


the constant horsepower curve of the engine,
keeping the pump absorption torque at a con-
stant level.
The engine is used in the high fuel efficiency
area by this control method.

10-138 PC78MR-6
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD ELECTRIC CONTROL SYSTEM

Driving pump in an emergency


Even if the controller, etc. has a problem and the
hydraulic pump does not operate normally, the
operator can work temporarily by operating the
emergency pump drive switch (S).

(1) Auto: Normal state


(2) Cancel: Abnormal state

a The emergency pump drive switch (S) is of alter-


native type. If it is set to the "CANCEL (2)" posi-
tion while the machine is normal, user code
"E02" is displayed on the display unit.

OVERHEAT PREVENTION
FUNCTION
a For the system circuit diagram, see "Engine and
pump compound control function".

If the coolant temperature rises too high, the


pump load is lowered to prevent the engine from
overheatin

Operating condition Operation Resetting condition

Pump absorption torque is reduced accord-


ing to torque control system to reduce
Coolant temperature Coolant temperature is
engine load.
is above 99C below 95C
(Matching point: 90% partial output point)
Engine speed is kept as it is.

PC78MR-6 10-139
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD ELECTRIC CONTROL SYSTEM

SWING CONTROL FUNCTION

1. Battery Input/Output signals


2. Battery relay a. Controller power source
3. Fusible link b. Solenoid power source
4. Starting switch c. Solenoid valve drive signal
5. Fuse box d. Swing PPC oil pressure switch signal
6. Controller e. Arm IN PPC oil pressure switch signal
7. Swing holding brake release switch f. Boom swing potentiometer signal
8. Swing holding brake solenoid valve
9. Swing motor
10. Left work equipment PPC valve
11. Arm IN PPC oil pressure switch
12. Swing PPC oil pressure switch
13. Engine
14. Hydraulic pump
15. Control valve
15a. Pump merge-divider valve
16. Boom swing potentiometer

10-140 PC78MR-6
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD ELECTRIC CONTROL SYSTEM

Function Relationship between swing holding brake can-


cel switch and swing holding brake
Swing holding brake Swing holding
When the machine stops swinging, the swing brake cancel Operation
holding brake is applied automatically to prevent switch
hydraulic drift on a slope, etc.
If swing control lever or arm IN
When the arm is moved in, the swing holding
lever is set to neutral position,
brake is released to reduce the load on the swing
swing holding brake is applied
unit during digging work.
about 5 seconds later.
The swing holding brake is released automati-
If swing control lever or arm IN
cally when the boom swings to reduce the Auto
lever is operated, swing holding
shocks made at each start and stop of swinging. (Normal state)
brake is released and machine
a If the swing holding brake is released, only the
can swing freely.
hydraulic brake of the safety valve is used to
The swing holding brake is applied
stop swinging. Accordingly, if the machine stops
and released according to boom
swinging on a slope, etc. the boom may drift
swing operation.
hydraulically. Take care.
When swing holding brake system
Releasing swing holding brake has trouble, if swing holding brake
Even if the controller, etc. has a problem and the cancel switch (S) is set to "Cancel
swing holding brake does not operate normally (2)", swing holding brake is
and the machine does not swing, the operator released and machine can swing.
Cancel
can swing the machine by releasing the swing Even if swing control lever or arm
(Abnormal
holding brake with the swing holding brake can- IN lever is set to neutral position,
state)
cel switch (S). swing holding brake does not oper-
ate, however.
(1) Auto: Normal state The swing holding brake does not
(2) Cancel: Abnormal state work even if the boom swing pedal
is in neutral.
a Emergency swing holding brake cancel switch
(S) is of alternative type. If it is set to the "CAN- Time chart of input and output signals
CEL (2)" position while the machine is normal,
user code "E03" or "E41" are displayed on the
display unit.

PC78MR-6 10-141
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD ELECTRIC CONTROL SYSTEM

TRAVEL CONTROL FUNCTION

1. Battery Function
2. Battery relay Changing travel speed
3. Fusible link If the travel speed boost selector switch is oper-
4. Starting switch ated or the travel speed boost pedal is pressed,
5. Fuse box the motor capacity changes to change the travel
6. Controller speed.
7. Monitor panel
8. 2-stage travel speed selector solenoid valve a When the engine is started, the travel speed
9. Left travel motor boost selector switch is set to the low speed
10. Right travel motor position automatically.
11. Travel PPC valve a The travel speed boost pedal is effective only
12. Travel PPC oil pressure switch while the "Lo" lamp of the travel speed boost
13. Travel alarm (If equipped) selector switch is lighting. Even if the pedal is
14. Engine pressed while the "Hi" lamp is lighting up, the
15. Hydraulic pump travel speed does not change.
16. Control valve
16a. Pump merge-divider valve Lo lamp Hi lamp
17. Travel speed boost pedal Travel speed boost
lights up lights up
selector switch
(Low speed) (High speed)
Input/Output signals Motor capacity
a. Controller power source 36.3 24.1
(cc/rev)
b. Solenoid power source
Released

Travel speed
c. Monitor panel power source 3.0 4.5
Travel speed boost pedal

(km/h)
d. S-NET drive signal
e. Solenoid valve drive signal Swash plate
angle of travel Max. Min.
f. Travel PPC oil pressure switch signal
motor
g. Travel alarm drive signal
h. 2nd travel speed selection signal Motor capacity
24.1 24.1
(cc/rev)
Travel speed
Pressed

4.5 4.5
(km/h)
Swash plate
angle of travel Min. Min.
motor

10-142 PC78MR-6
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD ELECTRIC CONTROL SYSTEM

PPC LOCK FUNCTION

1. Battery Input/Output signals


2. Battery relay a. Controller power source
3. Fusible link b. Solenoid power source
4. Starting switch c. Solenoid valve drive signal
5. Fuse box
6. Controller Function
7. Safety lock lever The PPC lock switch is linked with the safety
8. PPC lock switch lock lever. If the safety lock lever is set to the
9. PPC lock solenoid valve LOCK position, the PPC lock switch is turned
10. Left work equipment PPC valve OFF.
11. Right work equipment PPC valve If the PPC lock switch is turned OFF, the current
12. Travel PPC valve to the PPC lock solenoid valve is cut out and the
13. Blade PPC valve work equipment does not move any more even
14. Engine if the work equipment control lever is operated.
15. Hydraulic pump
16. Boom swing PPC valve

PC78MR-6 10-143
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD ELECTRIC CONTROL SYSTEM

OVERLOAD ALARM FUNCTION (FOR EU SPEC.)

1. Battery Input/Output signals


2. Battery relay a. Power supply of controller
3. Fusible link b. Power supply of solenoids
4. Starting switch c. Power supply of monitor panel
5. Fuse box d. S-NET signal
6. Controller e. Overload alarm actuation signal
7. Monitor panel f. Overload alarm pressure signal
8. Overload alarm actuation switch
9. Overload alarm pressure switch

Function
If the pressure in the boom cylinder bottom cir-
cuit rises above the set value, the caution lamp
lights up and the buzzer sounds to notify the
operator of possibility of tipping over of the
machine by an overload.

10-143-1 PC78MR-6
(1)
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD ELECTRIC CONTROL SYSTEM

BOOM SWING END CUSHION FUNCTION


When the boom is swung, the boom swing speed is reduced before each stroke end to reduce the shock
made at the stroke end. This function reduces the spillage of soil and the load on the chassis.

1. Decelerating function 2. Correction function

If the boom swings and enters area (B) from If the potentiometer is replaced or the work
area (A), its swing speed is lowered gradu- equipment is replaced, an input signal error
ally to reduce the shock made at the stop is made because of the error of the installa-
position. tion of the potentiometer.
At this time, the output pressure from the With the correction function, this error can be
boom swing PPC valve to the boom swing corrected easily without measuring the out-
control valve is reduced by controlling the put voltage or adjusting the potentiometer
EPC valve according to the angle sensor sig- finely.
nal. If the boom is swung to each stroke and the
As a result, the shock made at the stroke end set angle (0) is input, the difference between
is reduced. angle (A) calculated from the actual output
voltage of the potentiometer and standard
angle (B) set in the computer (installation
error) is saved as "correction value (C)".

A. Ordinary area
B. Deceleration area

10-144 PC78MR-6
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD ELECTRIC CONTROL SYSTEM

SELF-DIAGNOSTIC FUNCTION
1. Error code display and alarm function 2. Error code memory function
The system of this function consists of the If a problem occurs in the leading system, it
controller and the electronic components is detected by the self-diagnostic function
such as the potentiometers that output input and its error code is stored in memory.
signals and the solenoid valves and EPC a For details of the display and resetting
valves that receive output signals. The con- method, see TESTING AND ADJUSTING.
troller is constantly checking that those elec-
tronic component and itself are functioning
normally.
If a problem occurs in any of these compo-
nents, the controller carries out trouble-
shooting and displays the result as a "user
code" or "service code" on the display unit
(1) of the monitor panel and turns on the
alarm buzzer to warn the operator of the
trouble.
a For details of the display and action to take,
see TESTING AND ADJUSTING.

PC78MR-6 10-145
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD SYSTEM COMPONENTS

SYSTEM COMPONENTS
Fuel control dial

1. Fuel control dial


2. Fuel control motor

10-146 PC78MR-6
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD SYSTEM COMPONENTS

Fuel control motor

1. Motor assembly Input and output signals


2. Cable SWP-6P [CN-K27]
3. Connector
Pin Input/Output
Signal name
No. signal
1 Motor acceleration signal Input
2 Power source
3 One-touch deceleration signal Output
4 Motor deceleration signal Input
5 Acceleration signal Output
6 Deceleration signal Output

PC78MR-6 10-147
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD SYSTEM COMPONENTS

CONTROLLER

Input/output signals
DEUTSCH-24P [CN-M95]
Pin Signal name I/O signal Pin Signal name I/O signal
No. No.
1 NC 13 NC
(*1) NC 14 NC
2
(*2) Boom cylinder bottom presser sensor Input 15 NC
3 NC 16 NC
4 GND (Signal) 17 Attachment 1 Input
5 2-stage travel speed selection switch Input 18 Travel PPC oil pressure switch Input
6 Arm IN PPC oil pressure switch Input 19 NC
7 NC 20 NC
8 Boom swing angle Input 21 GND (Analog)
9 NC 22 Sensor power source (+5 V) Output
10 GND signal 23 NC
11 NC 24 Swing PPC oil pressure switch Input
12 Boom RAISE PPC oil pressure switch Input
*1. Serial No.: 1001 1094
*2. Serial No.: 1095 and up

10-148 PC78MR-6
(1)
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD SYSTEM COMPONENTS

DEUTSCH-40P (1) [CN-M96]


Pin Signal name I/O signal Pin Signal name I/O signal
No. No.
1 NC 21 S-NET Input/Output
2 NC 22 NC
3 NC 23 NC
4 NC 24 NC
5 NC 25 Signal for selecting Tire 2 Input
6 NC 26 NC
7 UU/US selection signal Input 27 Mode selection 2 Input
8 NC 28
9 NC 29 GND (Pulse)
10 NC 30 MR selection signal Input
11 NC 31 GND (S-NET)
12 NC 32 NC
13 NC 33 NC
14 NC 34 GND (232C)
15 Back-up light signal Input 35 NC
16 Main monitor selection signal Input 36 NC
17 Attachment 3 Input 37 Model selection 1 Input
18 NC 38 NC
19 NC 39 GND (Pulse)
20 NC 40 Engine speed sensor (+) Input

DEUTSCH-40P (2) [CN-M97]


Pin Signal name I/O signal Pin Signal name I/O signal
No. No.
1 Controller power Input 21 GND (Controller)
2 Solenoid power Input 22 Solenoid power source Input
3 GND (Solenoid) 23 GND (Solenoid)
4 Engine stop solenoid relay Output 24 Key signal Input
5 Left boom swing stop EPC valve Output 25 Governor motor relay (For acceleration) Output
6 NC 26 NC
7 Swing holding brake solenoid valve Output 27 2-stage travel speed selector solenoid valve Output
8 NC 28 NC
9 One-touch deceleration switch Input 29 Deceleration signal Input
10 Air conditioner compressor signal Input 30 NC
11 Controller power Input 31 GND (Controller)
12 Solenoid power Input 32 GND (Controller)
13 GND (Solenoid) 33 GND (Controller)
14 Key signal Input 34 NC
15 Right boom swing stop EPC valve Output 35 Governor motor relay (For deceleration) Output
16 TVC-EPC vlave Output 36 NC
17 Swing and travel alarm Output 37 NC
18 NC 38 NC
19 Acceleration signal Input 39 Auto-deceleration signal Input
(*1) NC 40 NC
20
(*2) Alarm actuation switch Input
*1 Serial No.: 1001 1094
*2 Serial No.: 1095 and up

PC78MR-6 10-149
(1)
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD SYSTEM COMPONENTS

Potentiometer

1. Shaft 4. Brush
2. Housing 5. Resistor
3. Bearing 6. Connector

Functions
A potentiometer is installed on each of the boom
feet, arm foot and second boom top to detect the
angle of the boom, arm and offset work equip-
ment.
Using the resistance value of the variable resis-
tor, potentiometers send angle data to the con-
troller by converting the supply voltage (5V) into
signal voltage according to the angle of the work
equipment.

10-150 PC78MR-6
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD SYSTEM COMPONENTS

Register

1. Register
2. Connector

Specifications

Model System Resistance ( )


For TVC-EPC valve of 30
hydraulic pump
PC78MR-6 For right boom swing stop
EPC valve 5
For left boom swing stop
EPC valve

Function
When the emergency pump drive switch is
turned ON, this resistor is used to supply a
proper current to EPC valve according to the
condition of the work equipment.
a Current does not flow under the normal condi-
tion.

PC78MR-6 10-151
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD SYSTEM COMPONENTS

PPC oil pressure switch

1. Plug
2. Switch
3. Connector

Specifications
Contact composition: N.O. contact
Operation (ON) pressure: 490 98.1 kPa
{5.0 1.0 kg/cm2}
Reset (OFF) pressure: 294 49.0 kPa
{3.0 0.5 kg/cm2}

Function
The control valve has 5 PPC oil pressure
switches, which sense the operating condi-
tion of each actuator from the PPC pressure
and send it to the controller.

10-152 PC78MR-6
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD SYSTEM COMPONENTS

Overload alarm pressure switch (For EU spec.)

1. Plug
2. Sensor
3. Connector

Function
One pressure switch is installed to the boom cyl-
inder bottom circuit to sense the hydraulic pres-
sure on the boom cylinder bottom side.

PC78MR-6 10-152-1
(1)
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD SYSTEM COMPONENTS

Engine speed sensor


a See SENSOR.

TVC-EPC valve
a See HYDRAULIC PUMP.

PPC lock solenoid valve

2-stage travel speed selector solenoid valve

Swing holding brake solenoid valve

Left boom swing stop EPC valve

Right boom swing stop EPC valve

a See EPC SOLENOID VALVE.

Monitor panel
a See MONITOR SYSTEM

PC78MR-6 10-153
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD MONITOR SYSTEM

MONITOR SYSTEM

1. Monitor panel Outline


2. Battery The monitor system monitors the machine condi-
3. Controller tion by the sensors installed to various parts of
4. Sensors and switches the machine and processes and displays it on
5. Wiper motor, windshield washer motor the panel immediately to notify the operator of
the condition of the machine.
Input and output signals
a. Power source
b. Switch signal
c. Caution signal
d. Sensor, switch signal
e. Sensor, switch signal
f. Drive output

10-154 PC78MR-6
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD MONITOR SYSTEM

MONITOR PANEL

Outline
The monitor panel has the monitor display function, gauge display function, service meter function, electric
system display function, and alarm buzzer.
The monitor panel has a CPU (Center Processing Unit) in it to display and output information.
The monitor switch unit consists of 3 flat sheet switches. Each time those switches are pressed, the dis-
played machine condition changes. The currently displayed condition is indicated by the LED at the top of
the switches.
If there is any trouble in the monitor panel, controller, or wiring between monitor panel and controller, the
monitor does not display information correctly.
AMP040-20P [CN-P02]
Input and output signals Input/
Pin
AMP070-12P [CN-P01] Signal name Output
No.
Input/ signal
Pin
Signal name Output 1 Engine coolant temperature Input
No.
signal 2 Fuel level Input
1 Starting switch (Battery) Input 3 Radiator water level Input
2 Starting switch (Battery) Input 4 NC Input
3 Windshield washer motor output Output 5 Air cleaner clogged Input
4 Starting switch (Terminal C) Input 6 NC Input
5 Wiper W contact Input 7 Engine oil pressure Input
6 GND 8 Engine oil level Input
7 GND Input/
9 S-NET signal
8 VB+ (24 V) Input Output
9 Wiper motor (+) Output Input/
10 S-NET signal
10 Wiper motor (-) Output Output
11 Alarm buzzer ON signal Input 11 Charge level Input
12 Wiper P contact Input 12 NC
13 GND (Analog signal)
14 NC
15 Pull-up window limit switch Input
16 Alarm buzzer cancel Input
17 Swing lock Input
18 Preheating Input
19 Lamp switch Input
20 GND (S-NET)

PC78MR-6 10-155
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD MONITOR SYSTEM

METER DISPLAY UNIT (FOR STD SPEC.)

No. Display type Display item Display range Display method Display Remarks
color
Time is measured while engine is running
1 Service meter 0-99999.9 h (alternator is generating) (Lamp always lights
up even if starting switch is at OFF position.)
If electric control system has trouble, 3
alphanumerics (user code, service code) is
[*1] 3 alphanumer- displayed. Blue LCD
2 Display ics Voltage of boom swing potentiometer is
0 99.9 V displayed.

See above Segment of corresponding level and all seg-


3a Gauge drawing. ments below it light up.
Coolant [Monitor lamp blinks when 8th level lights up
temperature Above set
3b Monitor temperature (above 99C). Monitor lamp blinks and alarm Red LED
(99C) buzzer sounds when 9th level lights up.]
See above Segment of corresponding level and all seg-
4a Gauge drawing. Blue LCD
ments below it light up.
Fuel level [Monitor lamp blinks and alarm buzzer sounds
Below set level
4b Monitor (30 liters) when 1st level lights up (below 30 liters).] Red LED

Lamp lights up for about 30 seconds when


starting switch is turned to HEAT position, then
5 Preheating During preheating blinks (for about 10 seconds) to show that pre-
Pilot heating is finished and then goes off. Green
When one-touch
6 One-touch decelerator Lamp lights up when one-touch decelerator
deceleration operates operates.
Lamp
When charging
is defective Lamp lights up when starting switch is turned
7 Charge level (charge voltage to ON position and goes off after engine
Caution < battery voltate)starts. Lamp is turned off when normal and on Red
when abnormal.
Below set pressure (If trouble occurs while engine is running,
8 Engine oil (49 kPa {0.5 kg/
pressurre buzzer sounds.)
cm2})
*1: For the display method of the marked items, see ELECTRIC CONTROL SYSTEM.

10-156 PC78MR-6
(1)
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD MONITOR SYSTEM

METER DISPLAY UNIT (FOR EU SPEC.)

Display
No. Display type Display item Display range Display method color Remarks

Time is measured while engine is running


1 Service meter 0-99999.9 h (alternator is generating) (Lamp always lights
up even if starting switch is at OFF position.)
If electric control system has trouble, 3
[*1] alphanumerics (user code, service code) is Blue LCD
2 Display 3 alphanumerics displayed. In depth 0 set mode, depth from
datum plane is displayed.
See above Segment of corresponding level and all seg-
3a Gauge drawing. ments below it light up.
Coolant [Monitor lamp blinks when 8th level lights up
temperature Above set
3b Monitor temperature (above 99C). Monitor lamp blinks and alarm Red LED
(99C) buzzer sounds when 9th level lights up.]
See above Segment of corresponding level and all seg-
4a Gauge drawing. Blue LCD
ments below it light up.
Fuel level [Monitor lamp blinks and alarm buzzer sounds
Below set level
4b Monitor (30 liters) when 1st level lights up (below 30 liters).] Red LED

Lamp lights up for about 30 seconds when


starting switch is turned to HEAT position, then
5 Preheating During preheating blinks (for about 10 seconds) to show that pre-
Pilot heating is finished and then goes off. Green
When one-touch
6 One-touch decelerator Lamp lights up when one-touch decelerator
deceleration operates operates.

Below set pressure


7 Overload (12.7 MPa {130 kg/ Lamp
cm2})
Lamp lights up when starting switch is turned
When charging to ON position and goes off after engine starts.
8 Caution Charge level is defective Lamp is turned off when normal and on when Red
(charge voltage abnormal.
< battery voltate) (If trouble occurs while engine is running,
buzzer sounds.)
Below set pressure
9 Engine oil (49 kPa {0.5 kg/
pressurre
cm2})
*1: For the display method of the marked items, see ELECTRIC CONTROL SYSTEM.

PC78MR-6 10-156-1
(1)
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD MONITOR SYSTEM

MONITOR SWITCH UNIT

No. Name Function Operation


Switch used to select 1 of 2 travel speeds
Travel speed selec-
1 When Lo lamp is ON: Low travel speed Lo io Hi
tor switch
When Hi lamp is ON: High travel speed
Switch used to set movement and power of work
equipment
Working mode When E lamp is OFF: Active mode (For heavy load Active (OFF) io E
2
selector switch work) (Lamp OFF)
When E lamp is ON: E mode (For work in which fuel
consumption is more important)
Switch used to operate front glass wiper
When ON lamp is ON: Wiper operates continuously. OFF (Lamp OFF) o INT (Intermittent) o
3 Wiper switch
When INT lamp is ON: Wiper operates intermittently. ON (Continuous)
When all lamps are OFF: Wiper is stopped.
[When wiper is stopped]
ON: Washing liquid spouts and wiper
operates continuously.
OFF:After switch is released, wiper
operates by 2 cycles continuously
and then stops.
Windshield washer
4 Switch used to spout washing liquid over front glass [When wiper is operating intermittently]
switch
ON: Washing liquid spouts and wiper
operates continuously.
OFF:After switch is released, wiper
operates for 2 cycles continuously
and then starts intermittent opera-
tion again.

a The boldfaced letters in the operation column


denote the position to which each switch is reset
when the starting switch is turned to the "ON"
position.

PC78MR-6 10-157
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD SENSORS

SENSORS
The signals from the sensors are input directly to the panel or controller.
The sensors are classified into 3 of contact type, resistance type, and electromagnetic type.
Either of each sensor of contact type must be connected to the chassis ground.

Type of display Type of sensor Sensing method When normal When abnormal

Caution Engine oil pressure Contact OFF (Open) ON (Closed)

Coolant temperature Resistance


Gauge
Fuel level Resistance

Engine speed Electromagnetic

Engine oil pressure sensor

1. Plug 3. Contact 5. Spring


2. Contact ring 4. Diaphragm 6. Terminal

Function
This sensor is installed to the engine cylinder block to sense oil pressure with diaphragm (4). If the oil pres-
sure lowers below the set level, the switch is turned on and the signal is sent to the monitor panel.

Coolant temperature sensor

1. Connector 2. Plug 3. Thermistor

Function
This sensor is installed to the engine cylinder block. It senses changes of temperature by changes of the
resistance of thermistor (3) and sends the change signals to the monitor panel.

10-158 PC78MR-6
(1)
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD SENSORS

Fuel level sensor

1. Float 3. Connector
2. Arm 4. Variable resistor

Function
This sensor is installed to the fuel tank and
its float (1) moves up and down according to
the fuel level. Float (1) operates variable
resistor (4) through arm (2) and sends the
signals to the monitor panel.

PC78MR-6 10-159
(1)
STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND
MAINTENANCE STANDARD SENSORS

Engine speed sensor

Wire Housing
Magnet Connector
Terminal

Function
This sensor is installed to the engine flywheel cover. It counts the number of teeth which pass in front of it and
sends the signals to the controller.

Reference: Number of teeth of ring gear: 110

10-160 PC78MR-6
(1)
20 TESTING AND ADJUSTING

STANDARD VALUE TABLE ........................... 20- 2


Standard value table for engine .................. 20- 2
Standard value table for chassis ................. 20- 3
Standard value table for electrical parts .......20- 11
TESTING AND ADJUSTING.......................... 20-101
TROUBLESHOOTING ................................... 20-201

a Note the following when making judgements using the standard value tables for testing, adjusting, or trou-
bleshooting.

1. The standard value for a new machine given in the table is the value used when shipping the machine from
the factory and is given for reference. It is used as a guideline for judging the progress of wear after the
machine has been operated, and as a reference value when carrying out repairs.

2. The service limit value given in the tables is the estimated value for the shipped machine based on the
results of various tests. It is used for reference together with the state of repair and the history of operation
to judge if there is a failure.

3. These standard values are not the standards used in dealing with claims.

When carrying out testing, adjusting, or troubleshooting, park the machine on level ground, insert the
safety pins, and use blocks to prevent the machine from moving.
When carrying out work together with other workers, always use signals and do not let unauthorized peo-
ple near the machine.
When checking the water level, always wait for the water to cool down. If the radiator cap is removed when
the water is still hot, the water will spurt out and cause burns.
Be carught in the fan, fan belt or other rotating parts.

PC78MR-6 20-1
TESTING AND ADJUSTING STANDARD VALUE TABLE FOR ENGINE

STANDARD VALUE TABLE FOR ENGINE


Machine Model PC78MR-6

Engine S4D95LE-3

Standard Value for


Item Measurement Conditions Unit Service Limit Value
New Machine

High idling (When mounted on machine) 2,020 50

Revolving speed Low idling (When mounted on machine) rpm

Rated revolving speed 1,850

At sudden acceleration Max. 3.5 6.0


Exhaust gas color At high idling Bosch Index Max. 1.0 2.0

Valve clearance (At nor- Air intake valve 0.35


mm
mal temperature) Exhaust valve 0.50

MPa Min. 2.94 2.06


Compression pressure Oil temperature: 40 60 C
{kg/cm2} {Min. 30} {21}
(SAE15W-40 oil) (Engine speed)
(rpm) 320 360

Blow-by pressure (Water temperature operating range) Pa Max. 490 {50} 980 {100}
(SAE30 oil) At rated output {mmH2O} reference value reference value

(Water temperature operating range)

0.34 0.54 0.25


(SAE30)
{3.5 5.5} {2.5}
At high idling
(SAE10W) 0.29 0.49 0.21
MPa
Oil pressure {3.0 5.0} {2.1}
{kg/cm2}

(SAE30) Min. 0.18 0.15


{Min. 1.8} {1.5}
At low idling
Min. 0.15 0.13
(SAE10W)
{Min. 1.5} {1.3}

Oil temperature All revolution range (In oil pan) C 90 110 120

Fuel injection timing Before compression top dead center (Deg.) 5 0.75 5 0.75

Deflection under
finger pressure of
Tension of fan belt 6 10 6 10
approx. 58.8 N {6
kg}

mm

Deflection under
Tension of air compres- finger pressure of
sor belt approx. 58.8 N {6 6 10 6 10
kg}

20-2 PC78MR-6
TESTING AND ADJUSTING STANDARD VALUE TABLE FOR CHASSIS

STANDARD VALUE TABLE FOR CHASSIS


Machine Model PC78MR-6

Cate- Standard Value Service Limit


Item Measurement Conditions Unit
gory for New Machine Value
Engine speed

Hydraulic oil temperature: 45 55 C


Engine water temperature: Within operating
At relief of 1 pump rpm Min. 1,800 Min. 1,800
range
Relief of 1 pump....Arm DUMP relief

Max. 95
Boom control lever N o RAISE, LOWER 85 10
Min. 75

Arm control lever N o IN, OUT Max. 95


85 10
Min. 75

Max. 95
N o CURL, DUMP
Stroke of control lever, pedal stroke

Bucket control lever 85 10


Min. 75

Swing control lever N o LEFT, RIGHT Max. 95


Center of 85 10
Min. 75
lever grip
Boom swing control End of pedal Max. 23
N o LEFT, RIGHT 21 2
pedal Read Max. mm Min. 19
value through
Max. 59
Blade control lever stroke end N o RAISE, LOWER 53 6 Min. 47
Stop engine
N o FORWARD, Max. 127
Travel control lever 115 12
REVERSE Min. 103

Forward Max. 39
Attachment control N o FORWARD, Forward 37 Min. 35
pedal REVERSE Reverse 23 Reverse Max. 25
Min. 21

Play of control lever Max. 10 Max. 15

Boom control lever 15.7 3.9 Max. 24.5


{1.6 0.4} {Max. 2.5}

Arm control lever 15.7 3.9 Max. 24.5


{1.6 0.4} {Max. 2.5}

12.7 2.9 Max. 21.6


Bucket control lever
Measure operating effort of each control lever {1.3 0.3} {Max. 2.2}
Operating effort of control lever

by installing push-pull scale to center of its


Swing control lever grip. 12.7 2.9 Max. 21.6
{1.3 0.3} {Max. 2.2}
Measure operating effort of each control pedal
by installing push-pull scale to its end.
Boom swing control 78.4 19.6 Max. 117.7
pedal Read Max. value through stroke end. N {8.0 2} {Max. 12}
Stop engine. {kg}
25.5 6.9 Max. 39.2
Blade control lever {2.6 0.7} {Max. 4.0}

Forward 22.54.9 Forward Max. 31.0


Attachment control {2.30.5} {Max. 3.2}
pedal Reverse 36.34.9 Reverse Max. 50.9
{3.70.5} {Max. 5.2}

24.5 5.9 Max. 39.2


Lever
{2.5 0.6} {Max. 4.0}
Travel control lever
74.5 18.6 Max. 107.6
Pedal {7.6 1.9} {Max. 11}

PC78MR-6 20-3
TESTING AND ADJUSTING STANDARD VALUE TABLE FOR CHASSIS

Machine Model PC78MR-6

Standard
Cate- Value for Service Limit
gory Item Measurement Conditions Unit New Value
Machine

Boom 26.5 0.98 26.5 1.47


{270 10} {270 15}

26.5 0.98 26.5 1.47


Arm {270 10} {270 15}

26.5 0.98 26.5 1.47


Bucket {270 10} {270 15}

Boom swing 26.5 0.98 26.5 1.47


{270 10} {270 15}
Hydraulic oil temperature: 45 55 C
Swing With blade 20.5 0.98 20.5 1.47
Relief pressure with engine at full throt- {210 10} {210 15}
tle (Relieve only circuit to be mea-
Oil pressure

sured) MPa 12.74 + 01.95 12.74 1.47


RAISE
{kg/cm2} {130 15} {130 15}
Blade
21.08 0.98 21.08 1.47
LOWER
{215 10} {215 15}

Travel 26.5 0.98 26.5 1.47


{270 10} {270 15}

3.14 + 00.2 3.14 + 0.3


0
Control
{32 + 02 } {32 + 03 }

Hydraulic oil temperature: 45 55 C


Lowering of oil Difference between relief pressure at Max. engine speed
pressure Max. 20 Max. 20
and relief pressure at 1/2 of rated engine speed (Pres-
sure at relief of 1 pump)

Position of work equipmentMax. Reach

Overrun of deg 40 10 Max. 60


swing (mm) {297 74} {Max. 446}

Run engine a full throttle


Hydraulic oil temperature: 45 55 C
Deviation of swing circle made when it stops after swing-
ing 1 turn
Value in { } is deviation of periphery of swing circle
Swing

2.2 0.3 Max. 2.8


90 sec
{2.6 0.3} {Max. 3.2}

Time required
to start swing-
ing
Run engine at full throttle
Hydraulic oil temperature: 45 55 C 3.7 0.3 Max. 4.3
180
Time required to swing 90 and 180 {4.1 0.3} {Max. 4.7}
from starting point
Value in { } is measured under rated
bucket load

20-4 PC78MR-6
TESTING AND ADJUSTING STANDARD VALUE TABLE FOR CHASSIS

Machine Model PC78MR-6

Standard
Service
Cate- Value for
gory Item Measurement Conditions Unit New Limit
Machine Value

Position of work equipment Max. Reach

Time required to
finish swinging sec 30 2 Max. 35

Run engine at full throttle


Hydraulic oil temperature: 45 55 C
Time required to swing 5 turns after swinging 1 turn

Position of work equipment: Extend to Max. reach with bucket under


rated load or filled with dirt and sand
Swing

(Rated load: 450 kg)

Hydraulic drift of mm 0 0
swing (deg) (0) (0)

Run engine at full throttle


Hydraulic oil temperature: 45 55 C
Swing upper structure to 45 on slope of 15
Make match marks on swing circle outer race and track frame
Measure deviation of marks made in 15 minutes

Run engine at full throttle


Leakage from /
Hydraulic oil temperature: 45 55 C Max. 3.5 Max. 7.0
swing motor min.
Relieve swing circle

Position of work equipment

Low speed 34 3 41

Travel speed (1)

Run engine at full throttle


Hydraulic oil temperature: 45 55 C 25 3 30
High speed {23 2} {28}
Raise either track and measure time required to
move 5 turns after finishing 1 turn.
{ }: Rubber shoe specification
Travel

sec
Position of work equipment

26 2 28
Low speed
{25 2} {20}

Travel speed (2)

Run engine at full throttle 17 2 21


Hydraulic oil temperature: 45 55 C High speed
{15.5 2} {19.5}
Measure time required to travel 20 m after run-up
of at least 10 m on flat surface
{ }: Rubber shoe specification

PC78MR-6 20-5
TESTING AND ADJUSTING STANDARD VALUE TABLE FOR CHASSIS

Machine Model PC78MR-6

Standard
Service
Cate- Value for
gory Item Measurement Conditions Unit New Limit
Machine Value

Position for measurement

Run engine at full throttle


Hydraulic oil temperature: 45 55 C
Travel deviation Measure deviation made during travel of 20 m after run-up mm Max. 300 330
of at least 10 m on flat surface
Measure on firm and level place
Travel

a Measure distance x

Leakage from Hydraulic oil temperature: 45 55 C


swivel joint cc/min. Max. 10 Max. 50
(Each port) Apply relief pressure to port to be measured

Position for measurement

Hydraulic drift of mm 0 0
travel

Stop engine
Hydraulic oil temperature: 45 55 C
Stop machine on slope of 30 with sprocket up
Measure hydraulic drift of travel made in 5 minutes

Run engine at full throttle


Leakage from
travel motor Hydraulic oil temperature: 45 55 C /min. Max. 4.5 Max. 7.0
Lock shoes and relieve travel circuit

20-6 PC78MR-6
TESTING AND ADJUSTING STANDARD VALUE TABLE FOR CHASSIS

Machine Model PC78MR-6

Standard
Service
Cate- Value for
gory Item Measurement Conditions Unit New Limit
Machine Value

Position for measurement


Whole work
equipment
(Hydraulic drift of Max. 350 Max. 600
bucket tooth tip)

Boom cylinder
(Retraction of cyl- Max. 8 Max. 12
inder)
Hydraulic drift

Arm cylinder Measure extension and retraction of each cylinder and


(Extension of cyl- Max. 41 Max. 62
inder) hydraulic drift of bucket tooth tip from above position mm
Measure on level and flat surface
Bucket: Apply rated load of 4,413 N {450 kg}
Set lever in neutral
Stop engine
Bucket cylinder Hydraulic oil temperature: 45 55 C
(Retraction of cyl- Max. 25 Max. 38
inder) Start measurement just after setting
Measure hydraulic drift every 5 minutes and judge after
15 minutes

Stop engine
Blade Hydraulic oil temperature: 45 55 C
(Hydraulic drift of Max. 20 Max. 30
blade tip Measure hydraulic drift of blade tip from Max. height in
15 minutes
Work equipment

Leakage from cylinder Hydraulic oil temperature: 45 55 C


cc/min. Max. 1.5 Max. 7.5
(Each cylinder) Apply relief pressure to cylinder to be measured

Position for measurement


Boom 3.2 0.3 Max. 4
Bucket tooth on RAISE (To just before (To just before
ground cushion) cushion)

Max. extension of LOWER 3.1 0.3 Max. 3.7


cylinder
Work equipment speed

Run engine at full throttle


Hydraulic oil temperature: 45 55 C

sec
Position for measurement
3.3 0.3 Max. 4.1
Arm IN (To just before (To just before
Max. retraction of cushion) cushion)
cylinder

Max. extension of 2.9 0.3 Max. 3.5


cylinder DUMP (To just before (To just before
Run engine at full throttle cushion) cushion)
Hydraulic oil temperature: 45 55 C

PC78MR-6 20-7
TESTING AND ADJUSTING STANDARD VALUE TABLE FOR CHASSIS

Machine Model PC78MR-6

Standard
Service
Cate- Value for
gory Item Measurement Conditions Unit New Limit
Machine Value

Position for measurement


Bucket
Max. retraction of CURL 3.2 0.4 Max. 4.0
cylinder

Max. extension of DUMP 2.3 0.3 Max. 3.1


cylinder
Run engine at full throttle
Hydraulic oil temperature: 45 55 C

Position for measurement


Work equipment speed

Boom swing Swing (R.H.) 6.7 0.4 Max. 7.6


Swing (R.H.)

Swing (L.H.) Swing (L.H.) 4.5 0.4 Max. 5.3


Run engine at full throttle
Hydraulic oil temperature: 45 55 C
Work equipment

Position for measurement


sec
Blade RAISE 1.3 0.3 Max. 2.1
Blade on ground

Max. height of blade LOWER 1.3 0.3 Max. 2.1


Run engine at full throttle
Hydraulic oil temperature: 45 55 C

Position for measurement


Time lag

Boom Max. 2 Max. 3.9

Run engine at full throttle


Hydraulic oil temperature: 45 55 C
Retract arm and bucket cylinder fully and lower boom
from Max. height.
Measure time from when bucket touches ground until
when machine body rises.

20-8 PC78MR-6
TESTING AND ADJUSTING STANDARD VALUE TABLE FOR CHASSIS

Machine Model PC78MR-6

Cate- Standard Service Limit


Item Measurement Conditions Unit Value for New
gory Machine Value

Position for measurement

Arm 0 Max. 1.0

Run engine at full throttle


Hydraulic oil temperature: 45 55 C
Set upside of boom level and retract bucket cylinder fully.
Extend bucket cylinder and measure time from when arm
stops on lower side until when arm starts moving again.

Position for measurement


Time lag

sec
Bucket 0 Max. 1.0
Work equipment

Run engine at full throttle


Hydraulic oil temperature: 45 55 C
Set upside of boom level and retract bucket cylinder fully.
Extend bucket cylinder and measure time from when arm
stops on lower side until when arm starts moving again.

Position for measurement

Blade Max. 1.0 Max. 2.0

Run engine at full throttle


Hydraulic oil temperature: 45 55 C
Lower blade from Max. height and measure time from
when blade touches ground until when machine body rises.
Discharge of hydraulic pump

Piston See following See following


See following pages /min.
pump pages pages

PC78MR-6 20-9
TESTING AND ADJUSTING STANDARD VALUE TABLE FOR CHASSIS

Cate- PC78MR-6 (With blade)


gory Main pump discharge
Performance of hydraulic pump

Rated pump speed: 1,850 rpm

Discharge pressure of test


Check- Average pressure Standard discharge Lower limit of criterion
point pump (MPa {kg/cm2}) ( /min.) ( /min.)
(MPa {kg/cm2})

Any P1 (P2) P1 (P2) See graph See graph

a Avoid measuring near a bend of the graph since the error is large there.
a When measuring without removing the pump from the machine, if the engine speed cannot be set to the specified level
with the fuel control dial, calculate the pump discharge pressure at the specified speed from the actual engine speed
and measured pump discharge.

20-10 PC78MR-6
TESTING AND ADJUSTING STANDARD VALUE TABLE FOR ELECTRIC PARTS

STANDARD VALUE TABLE FOR ELECTRIC PARTS


Compo- Con- Inspec-
Sys Measurement Condi-
nent nector tion Criteria
tem tions
Name No. Method

If the condition is within the range shown in


the table below, it is normal.

Between (1), (11) chassis ground 20 30 V

Measurement
1) Turn starting
switch OFF.

voltage
Source Since power is constantly supplied, volt-
M97 2) Insert T-adapter.
voltage age is detected even if starting switch is 3) Turn starting
turned OFF.
switch ON.
Between (2), (12) , (22) chassis ground 20 30 V

If the condition is within the range shown in


the table below, it is normal.

Between M97 (38) (13) 20 28 V


Measurement

1) Turn starting
PPC main switch OFF.
voltage

pressure M97
When safety 2) Insert T-adapter.
lock sole- M13
noid lock lever is at 20 30 V 3) Turn starting
FREE M13 switch ON.
When safety Between (1) (2)
lock lever is at Max. 0 V
LOCK

If the condition is within the range shown in


Swing the table below, it is normal.
RIGHT stop M97 1) Turn starting
Between (15) (23) 940 50 mmA switch OFF.
solenoid
Measurement

2) Insert T-adapter.
of current

3) Turn starting
switch ON.
Controller

If the condition is within the range shown in


the table below, it is normal. 4) Exclude part near
Swing LEFT swing stroke end.
stop M97
Between (5) (23) 940 50 mmA
solenoid

If the condition is within the range shown in 1) Turn starting


Measurement

the table below, it is normal.


of voltage

Potentio switch OFF.


power- M95 2) Insert T-adapter.
Between (22) (21) 5 0.5 V 3) Turn starting
source
switch ON.

If the condition is within the range shown in the table below,


it is normal.
Model PC78MR-6
Measurement

Between M96 (37) M95 (10) Max. 1 V 1) Turn starting


of voltage

switch OFF.
Model M95 2) Insert T-adapter.
selection M96 Between M96 (27) M95 (10) Min. 7 V
3) Turn starting
switch ON.
Between M96 (7) M95 (10) Max. 1 V

Between M96 (30) M95 (10) Max. 1 V

If the condition is within the range shown in the table below,


it is normal
Measurement

Boom 1) Turn starting


of voltage

When boom is raised Between Max. 1V switch OFF..


RAISE
M95 M95 (12) 2) Insert T-adapter.
pressure chassis 3) Turn starting
switch When in neutral ground 5 0.5 V switch ON.

PC78MR-6 20-11
TESTING AND ADJUSTING STANDARD VALUE TABLE FOR ELECTRIC PARTS

Inspec-
Sys- Component Connector tion Criteria
Measurement
tem Name No. Conditions
Method
If the condition is within the range shown in the table
below, it is normalTurn starting switch OFF.

When machine swings Between


1) Turn starting

Measurement
When arm is moved IN (24) - chas- Max. 1 V
Swing, arm switch OFF.

of voltage
When machine travels sis ground
IN, travel Between 2) Insert T-
pressure M95
(6) - chassis adapter.
switch ground 3) Turn starting
Between switch ON.
When in neutral (18) - chas- Max. 1 V
sis ground

If the condition is within the range shown in the table


below, it is normal 1) Turn starting
switch OFF.
Measurement

Between (8) (21) 3.8 4.8 V 2) Insert T-


Boom swing
of voltage

adapter.
angle poten-
M95 3) Turn starting
tiometer
signal switch ON.
4) Move right
swing to stroke
end.

If the condition is within the range shown in the table


below, it is normal 1) Turn starting
switch OFF.
When swing holding brake 2) Disconnect
Measurement

clear switch is OFF 20 30 V


of resistance

Swing connector.
(When normal) Between
holding 3) Insert T-
M97
Controller

brake clear (7) (13) adapter.


solenoid When swing holding brake
4) Turn starting
clear switch is ON Max. 1 V
(When cleared) switch ON.
5) Swing or move
arm in.

If the condition is within the range shown in the table


below, it is normal
1) Turn starting
Measurement

Between (C) (B) 0.2 7 kz


of resistance

switch OFF.
Swing 2) Disconnect
angle poten- M101 Between (B) (A) 0.2 7 kz
(Male) connector.
tiometer
Between (C) (A) 4 6 kz 3) Insert T-
adapter.

If the condition is within the range shown in the table


below, it is normal
1) Turn starting
Measurement
of resistance

Between M12 (male) (1) (2) 5 25 z switch OFF.


Right swing M12 2) Disconnect
stop EPC
(Male) Between M12 (male) (1), (2) chas- connector.
solenoid Min. 1 Mz
sis ground 3) Insert T-
adapter.

If the condition is within the range shown in the table


below, it is normal
1) Turn starting
Measurement
of resistance

Between M11 (male) (1) (2) 5 25 z switch OFF.


Left swing 2) Disconnect
M11
stop EPC (Male)
solenoid Between M11 (male) (1), (2) chassis connector.
ground Min. 1 Mz
3) Insert T-
adapter.

20-12 PC78MR-6
TESTING AND ADJUSTING STANDARD VALUE TABLE FOR ELECTRIC PARTS

Sys- Connector Inspection Measurement


tem Component Name No. Method Criteria Conditions

If the condition is within the range shown in the


table below, it is normal.
1) Turn starting

Measurement of
Between M13 (Male) switch OFF.

resistance
35 80 z
PPC main pres- M13 (1) (2) 2) Disconnect
sure lock solenoid (Male) adapter.
Between M13 (Male) Min. 1 Mz 3) Connect T-
(1), (2) chassis ground
adapter.

If the condition is within the range shown in the


table below, it is normal.
1) Turn starting

Measurement of
Machine control

Between M14 (Male) switch OFF.

resistance
Swing holding 35 80 z
M14 (1) (2) 2) Disconnect
brake reset sole-
noid (Male) adapter.
Between M14 (Male) Min. 1 Mz 3) Connect T-
(1), (2) chassis ground
adapter.

If the condition is within the range shown in the


table below, it is normal.
1) Turn starting
Measurement of

Between M15 (Male) switch OFF.


resistance

35 80 z
2nd travel speed M15 (1) (2) 2) Disconnect
selection solenoid (Male) adapter.
Between M15 (Male) 3) Connect T-
Min. 1 Mz
(1), (2) chassis ground
adapter.

If the monitor panel displays as shown in Tables 1 and 2, it is normal.


Table 1 (Check and caution section).

Sensor
Monitored Item Measurement
(Input connector) Conditions Display Input
Signal

Light is
Machine monitor system

ON. Max. 1 V
Engine oil pressure Start engine.
P02 (7)
Light is
OFF. 20 30 V
Check and caution 1) Connect T-
section adapter
Light is Max. 5 V
ON.
Charge level
P02 (11) Start engine.
Light is 20 30 V
OFF.

Light is
20 30 V
ON.
Preheater
P02 (18) Stop Engine.
Light is Max. 1 V
OFF.

PC78MR-6 20-13
TESTING AND ADJUSTING STANDARD VALUE TABLE FOR ELECTRIC PARTS

Com-
Sys-
ponent Connector No. Inspection Method Criteria Measurement Conditions
tem
Name

Table 2 (Gauge)

Display level resis- 1) Turn starting switch


tance (kz) OFF and insert dummy
Item indicated by gauge
(Monitor panel input
resistor or measure
resistance)
resistance of sensor.
Turn starting switch 2) Turn starting switch ON
Turn starting switch ON
OFF and check indication.

Min. Max.

Upper side 9 4.00 3.45

8 3.13 3.75

I 7 3.39 3.94
Measurement of resis- 6 3.56 4.39
tance of coolant tem-
perature gauge P02 (1)
(13) Position of indication 5 3.97 5.18

4 4.68 6.89

O 3 6.23 10.88
Machine monitor system

2 10.34 36.86

Lower side 1 33.35 37.83


Gauge
section a Blink at levels 8 and 9.

Display level resis- 1) Turn starting switch


tance (z) OFF and insert dummy
Item indicated by gauge
(Monitor panel input resistor or measure
resistance)
resistance of sensor.
Turn starting switch 2) Turn starting switch ON
Turn starting switch ON
OFF and check indication.

Min. Max.

Upper side 9 10 6.8

8 6.2 13.7

I 7 12.4 22.1

Measurement of resis- 6 20.0 30.5


tance of fuel level
gauge P02 (2) (13) Position of indication 5 27.6 41.0

4 37.1 54.6

O 3 49.4 77.7

2 70.3 101.9

Lower side 1 92.2 10

a Level 1 blinks.

20-14 PC78MR-6
TESTING AND ADJUSTING STANDARD VALUE TABLE FOR ELECTRIC PARTS

Inspec-
Sys- Component Connector Measurement
tion Criteria
tem Name No. Conditions
Method

If the condition is within the range shown in the table


below, it is normal.

Check of continuity
Normal
engine oil No continuity 1) Start engine
Engine oil pres- Between termi- pressure
T6 nal chassis 2) Disconnect
sure sensor
ground terminal
Low engine Normal conti-
oil pressure nuity

If the condition is within the range shown in the table


Measurement of resistance below, it is normal.

Normal 1) Turn start-


temperature Approx. 40 kz ing switch
Coolant temper- Between (25 C)
M18 (Male) OFF
ature sensor (1) (2)
2) Disconnect
Machine monitor system

Approx. 3.3
105 C kz connector

If the condition is within the range shown in the table


Measurement of resistance

below, it is normal.

Full 25z 1) Turn start-


Between ing switch
(1) (2)
Fuel level sensor M9 (Male) Empty 105 110 z OFF
2) Disconnect
connector
Measurement of voltage

Between T4 While engine is running (at 1/2 or more of full throttle) o


(Terminal 27.5 29.5 V
Alternator R) chas-
1) Start engine
If battery is deteriorated or temperature is low, voltage
sis ground may not rise for a while after engine is started.

PC78MR-6 20-15
TESTING AND ADJUSTING

List of devices for testing, adjusting, & troubleshooting .............................................................................. 20-102


Measuring engine speed............................................................................................................................. 20-103
Measuring exhaust gas color ...................................................................................................................... 20-104
Adjusting valve clearance ........................................................................................................................... 20-105
Measuring compression pressure ............................................................................................................... 20-106
Measuring blow-by pressure ....................................................................................................................... 20-107
Testing and adjusting fuel injection timing................................................................................................... 20-108
Measuring engine oil pressure .................................................................................................................... 20-112
Adjusting engine stop solenoid ................................................................................................................... 20-113
Adjusting fuel control linkage ...................................................................................................................... 20-115
Adjusting engine speed sensor ................................................................................................................... 20-117
Testing and adjusting hydraulic pressure in work equipment, swing, and travel circuits............................. 20-118
Measuring LS differential pressure and adjusting LS valve ........................................................................ 20-121
Adjusting PC valve ...................................................................................................................................... 20-123
Testing TVC-EPC solenoid output pressure ............................................................................................... 20-123
Measuring control circuit pressure .............................................................................................................. 20-124
Measuring PPC valve output pressure ....................................................................................................... 20-125
Testing solenoid valve output pressure ....................................................................................................... 20-126
Adjusting work equipment valve and swing PPC valve .............................................................................. 20-128
Testing travel deviation ............................................................................................................................... 20-129
Testing parts which can cause hydraulic drift of work equipment ............................................................... 20-131
Measuring oil leakage from swing and travel motors .................................................................................. 20-132
Releasing residual pressure from hydraulic circuit ..................................................................................... 20-133
Testing clearance of swing circle bearing ................................................................................................... 20-134
Testing and adjusting track shoe tension .................................................................................................... 20-135
Bleeding air from hydraulic circuit ............................................................................................................... 20-136
Replacement procedure of potentiometers ................................................................................................. 20-138
Procedure for testing diode ......................................................................................................................... 20-139

PC78MR-6 20-101
TESTING AND ADJUSTING LIST OF DEVICES FOR TESTING, ADJUSTING, & TROUBLESHOOTING

LIST OF DEVICES FOR TESTING, ADJUSTING, & TROUBLESHOOTING


Items to Be Sym-
Tested/Adjusted bol Part No. Part Name Remarks

Digital indication L: 60 2,000 rpm


1 799-203-9000 Multi-tachometer
H: 60 19,999 rpm
Engine speed A
2 6210-81-4111 Gear box

Water temperature and oil B 799-101-1500 Digital thermometer -50 1,200 C


temperature

Pressure gauge 2.5, 5.9, 39.2, 58.8 MPa


799-101-5002 Hydraulic tester kit
1 {25, 60, 400, 600 kg/cm2}

790-261-1203 Digital hydraulic tester Pressure gauge 58.8 MPa {600 kg/cm2}

2 799-401-2320 Hydraulic gauge Pressure gauge 1.0 MPa {10 kg/cm2}

799-101-5160 Nipple PT1/8

3 799-101-5220 Nipple 10 mm P = 1.25


Oil pressure C
07002-11023 O-ring

(Both male and female) 9/16-18 UNF


799-401-2910 Nipple
(Female: PT1/8)
4
02896-11008 O-ring

07043-00108 Nipple PT1/8 (Hexagon hole)

5 799-401-2701 Differential pressure


gauge

1 795-502-1590 Compression gauge 0 6.9 MPa {0 70 kg/cm2}


Compression pressure D Kit No.: 795-502-1205

2 795-502-1370 Adapter

Blow-by pressure E 799-201-1504 Blow-by checker 0 4,900 Pa {0 500 mmH2O}

Valve clearance F Purchased Filler gauge

1 790-201-9000 Handy smoke checker


Discoloration 0 70% (with standard color)
Exhaust gas color G
2 Purchased Smoke meter (Discoloration % x 1/10 Bosch index)

Operating effort H Purchased Push-pull scale

Stroke and hydraulic drift I Purchased Scale

Work equipment speed J Purchased Stopwatch

790-601-9320 Box 24-pin


1
799-601-9310 Plate Applicable to 40-pole connector

2 799-601-8000 Adapter assembly Including 21-pin box

799-601-7310 For SWP12


Troubleshooting for wiring
K 799-601-7050 For SWP6
harnesses and sensors
799-601-7520 Adapter 12 for 070
3
799-601-7360 Relay 5P

799-601-7370 Relay 6P

799-601-9200 Adapter kit

2 795-102-2102 Spring pusher


Fuel injection timing O Commercialy
3 Dial guage
available

20-102 PC78MR-6
TESTING AND ADJUSTING MEASURING ENGINE SPEED

MEASURING ENGINE SPEED


1. When measuring engine speed during operation 2. When measuring engine speed during measure-
a Measure the engine speed under the follow- ment of compression pressure
ing condition. 1) Remove the cover for setting the injection
Cooling water temperature: Within oper- timing of the injection pump from the timing
ating range gear case and install gear box A2.
Hydraulic oil temperature: 45 55 C
1) Remove clamp (1) of the high pressure injec-
tion pipe and install sensor [1] of multi-
tachometer A to injection pipe (2).

2) Install bracket [3] of multi-tachometer A1 to


gear box A2 and connect the wiring harness
to tachometer A1.
3) Revolve the engine with the starting motor
2) Connect the wiring harness of sensor [1] to according to the procedure for measuring
amplifier [2] and connect the output wiring compression pressure and measure the
harness of amplifier [2] to tachometer A1. revolving speed.
3) Start the engine and turn dial a of amplifier
[2] so that the value indicated by tachometer
A1 will be stabilized, then measure the fol-
lowing revolving speeds.
i) Low idling speed and high idling speed
Set the fuel control lever to the low idling
and high idling positions and measure
the revolving speeds at the respective
positions.
ii) Revolving speed when pump is relieved
Relieve the pump and run engine at full
throttle and measure its revolving speed.

PC78MR-6 20-103
TESTING AND ADJUSTING MEASURING EXHAUST GAS COLOR

MEASURING EXHAUST GAS COLOR


When an air source and a power source are not 6) Raise the engine speed sharply and press
available in the field, use handy smoke checker accelerator pedal [3] of tool G2 simulta-
G1. When recording formal data, etc., use neously to have the filter paper absorb the
smoke meter G2. exhaust gas.
a Before measuring the exhaust gas color, 7) Place the stained filter paper on the unused
raise the cooling water temperature to the filter paper (at least 10 pieces) in the filter
operating range. paper holder and read the indicated value.

When installing and removing the measuring


instrument, take care not to touch a hot part.

1. Measuring with handy smoke checker G1


1) Install a piece of filter paper to tool G1.
2) Insert the exhaust gas suction pipe in the
exhaust pipe, then raise the engine speed
sharply and operate the handle of tool G1
simultaneously to have the filter paper
absorb the exhaust gas.
3) Remove the filter paper and compare it with
the attached scale.

2. Measuring with smoke meter G2


1) Insert probe [1] of G2 in the outlet of the a The firing order of the engine is as follows
exhaust pipe and tighten the clip to secure Firing order: 1 2 4 3
the probe to the exhaust pipe. a The air intake valves and exhaust valves may be
2) Connect probe hose [2], cable of accelerator adjusted in the firing order by revolving the
pedal [3], and air hose [4] to tool G2. crankshaft forward by 180 (4 cylinders).
a Set the supplied air pressure below 1.47 a For the valve clearance, see TESTING AND
MPa {15 kg/cm}. ADJUSTING, Failure criteria table.
3) Connect the power cable to an outlet of AC
100 V.
a When connecting the power cable, check
that the power switch of tool G2 is turned
OFF.
4) Loosen cap nut [5] of the suction pump and
fit the filter paper.
a Fit the filter paper securely so that the
exhaust gas will not leak.
5) Turn ON the power switch of tool G2.

20-104 PC78MR-6
TESTING AND ADJUSTING ADJUSTING VALVE CLEARANCE

ADJUSTING VALVE CLEARANCE


Method of adjusting valve clearance a Adjust the valve clearance according to the
1. Remove the cylinder head cover. following procedure. Loosen locknut (8) of
adjustment screw (7). Insert filler gauge A of
2. Turn the crankshaft forward and bring cylinder the specified thickness between valve stem
No. 1 to the compression top dead center and (6) and rocker arm (5) and adjust the valve
match the TOP mark line of crank pulley (5) to clearance so that the filler gauge will move
pointer (6), watching the movement of the air lightly.
intake valve of cylinder No. 4 (4 cylinders).
a The air intake valve of cylinder No. 4 (4 cylin-
ders) moves (opens) when cylinder No. 1
comes near the compression top dead cen-
ter.

5. Tighten the locknut to secure the adjustment


screw.

Locknut: 44 5.0 Nm {4.5 0.5 kgm}

3. Adjust the clearance of the valves marked with q


in the valve arrangement shown below.

4. Turn the crankshaft forward by 1 turn and adjust


the clearance on the valves marked with Q.

PC78MR-6 20-105
TESTING AND ADJUSTING MEASURING COMPRESSION PRESSURE

MEASURING COMPRESSION PRESSURE


When measuring the compression pressure, 6. Disconnect wiring harnesses (2) from the termi-
take care not to touch the exhaust manifold, etc. nals of the engine stop solenoid. Revolve the
to burn yourself or the rotary parts such as the engine with the starting motor and measure the
fan, fan belt, etc. to be caught in them. compression pressure and engine speed at this
time.
1. Adjust the valve clearance accurately. For a Read the pressure gauge when its pointer is sta-
details, see Adjusting valve clearance. bilized.
2. Warm up the engine until the oil temperature is a When measuring the compression pressure,
40 60 C. measure the engine speed, too, and check that it
3. Remove nozzle holder assembly (1) of the cylin- is in the range of the measurement conditions.
der to be measured. a After measuring the compression pressure,
4. Install adapter D2 to the fitting part of the nozzle install nozzle holder assembly (1).
holder and connect pressure gauge D1.
Nozzle holder mounting bolt:
39.2 49 Nm {4 5 kgm}

5. Set the multi-tachometer to the engine.


a See Measuring engine speed.

20-106 PC78MR-6
TESTING AND ADJUSTING MEASURING BLOW-BY PRESSURE

MEASURING BLOW-BY PRESSURE


a Measure the blow-by pressure under the follow- a Normally, the blow-by pressure should be
ing condition. measured while the engine is operated at the
Cooling water temperature: rated output. In the field, however, an
Within operating range approximate value can be obtained by reliev-
Hydraulic oil temperature: 40 60C ing the hydraulic circuit.
a If it is impossible to run the engine at the
1. Install the nozzle of blow-by checker E to blow- rated output or relieve the hydraulic circuit,
by hose (2). measure while the engine is running at high
idling.
The value obtained in this case is about 80%
of the blow-by pressure at the rated output.
a The blow-by pressure may vary largely with
the engine condition. If the measured value
is judged abnormal, check for increase of oil
consumption, bad exhaust gas color, deterio-
ration of oil, high deterioration speed of oil,
etc. which are related to the abnormal blow-
by pressure.

2. Connect the nozzle to the gauge by the hose.

3. Set the working mode in the ACTIVE mode, run


the engine at full throttle, and relieve the arm
dump circuit.

4. When the gauge pointer is stabilized, measure


the blow-by pressure.
Do not touch a hot part or a rotary part dur-
ing measurement.

PC78MR-6 20-107
TESTING AND ADJUSTING TESTING AND ADJUSTING FUEL INJECTION TIMING

TESTING AND ADJUSTING FUEL INJECTION TIMING


Adjustment by use of match marks 2. Remove front cover (3) of the fuel injection
a Apply this method usually. pump.
(Then installing the fuel injection pump to the 3. Install the fuel injection pump holder and drive
original engine without repairing it, when check- gear as one unit to the engine.
ing only the injection timing, etc.) 4. Insert the timing check pin 4.0 4.5 mm in diam-
eter and 80 mm in length on hole a of the front
1. Bring cylinder No. 1 to the compression top dead gear cover and match it to the hole of the drive
center. gear.
1) Turn the crankshaft forward and match a Check that the timing check pin enters
1.4Top line (1) on the crank pulley to pointer straight and the hole of the fuel injection
(2). pump holder is aligned with the mounting
hole of the front gear cover (in which the
mounting bolt will be inserted).
a If the holes are deviated from each other,
remove the fuel injection pump and check its
engagement with the drive gear.

2) Check that cylinder No. 1 is at the compres-


si on top de ad ce nter by the fo ll owi ng
method. If the following condition is not
obtained, turn the crankshaft one more turn.
a If the fuel injection pump is removed:
Check that C is seen at the tooth tip of 5. Remove the timing check pin and tighten each
the idler gear. bolt.
a If the fuel injection pump is installed to
the engine: Remove the head cover and
check that (both air intake valve and
exhaust valve of cylinder No. 1 have the
valve clearance).

20-108 PC78MR-6
TESTING AND ADJUSTING TESTING AND ADJUSTING FUEL INJECTION TIMING

Adjustment by delivery valve method 4. Using spring pusher O2, compress the valve
(When installing a repaired or replaced fuel injection spring and remove valve cotter (5).
pump, when checking after disassembling or replac- 5. Loosen spring pusher O2 and remove spring
ing the gear train) seat (6) and valve spring (7).

1. Remove the cylinder head cover.


2. Bring cylinder No. 1 to the compression top dead
center.
1) Turn the crankshaft forward and match injec-
tion timing line (1) on the crank pulley to
pointer (2).
2) Check that both air intake valve and exhaust
valve of cylinder No. 1 have the valve clear-
ance.
a If either or both of the valves do not have
the valve clearance, turn the crankshaft
one more turn.

6. Turn the stem of air intake valve (8) with the fin-
gers while it is in contact with the top of piston (9)
to fit it securely.

3. Remove snap ring (3) from the front end of the


rocker shaft, then remove air intake rocker arm
(4) of cylinder No. 1.

PC78MR-6 20-109
TESTING AND ADJUSTING TESTING AND ADJUSTING FUEL INJECTION TIMING

7. Apply dial gauge O3 to the valve stem end and


turn the crankshaft forward or in reverse to set
the dial gauge to 0 when its pointer starts turning
in reverse.
8. Turn the crankshaft about 45 degrees in reverse
from the compression top dead center of cylinder
No. 1.
9. Turn the crankshaft forward so that the dial
gauge indicates standard dimension a.
Standard dimension
BTDC (Deg) 5 0.75
a mm 0.3 0.08

12. Set the fuel injection lever to the FULL position.


13. Loosen the nut at the oblong hole of the injection
pump mounting flange, then loosen the injection
pump mounting bolts (14).

10. Disconnect fuel injection pipe (10) of cylinder No.


1.
11. Remove delivery valve holder (11), and remove
delivery valve (12) and spring (13) from its
inside. Then, install delivery valve holder (11)
again. 14. Turning the injection pump outward and operat-
ing the priming pump, move the injection pump
toward the cylinder block little by little and stop
when the fuel stops flowing out of the delivery
valve holder.
a If the injection pump is slanted out, the injec-
tion timing is delayed. If the former is slanted
toward the cylinder block, the latter is
advanced.
15. Tighten injection pump mounting bolts (14) alter-
nately.
16. Tighten the nut at the oblong hole of the injection
pump mounting flange.

20-110 PC78MR-6
TESTING AND ADJUSTING TESTING AND ADJUSTING FUEL INJECTION TIMING

17. Turn the crankshaft forward and check that the


pointer of the dial gauge is in the standard range
shown in the following table when cylinder No. 1
is at the top dead center (when the pointer of the
dial gauge starts moving in reverse). If the
pointer of the dial gauge is out of this range,
repeat the above steps from 7.
Dimension when cylinder is at top dead cen-
ter: 0 0.08 mm

18. Remove the delivery valve holder (11) and install


delivery valve (12) and spring (13) to it, then
install delivery valve holder (14) again.
a Replace the o-ring and copper gasket of the
delivery valve.
Tighten the delivery valve 3 times to secure
it. (If it is not tightened sufficiently, the gas-
ket may be broken.)

Delivery valve holder:


39.2 44.1 Nm {4 4.5 kgm}

19. Connect fuel injection pipe (3).

Sleeve nut:
19.6 24.5 Nm {2 2.5 kgm}

20. Install valve spring (7) and valve seat (6).

21. Compress the valve spring with spring pusher


O2 and install valve cotter (5).

22. Install air intake rocker arm (4) of cylinder No. 1,


then install snap ring (3).
Install the snap ring securely.

23. Install the cylinder head cover.

Sleeve nut:
7.84 9.8 Nm {0.8 1.0 kgm}

PC78MR-6 20-111
TESTING AND ADJUSTING MEASURING ENGINE OIL PRESSURE

MEASURING ENGINE OIL PRESSURE


a Measure the engine oil pressure under he follow- 3. Run the engine at low idling and high idling and
ing condition. measure the engine oil pressure at each speed.
Cooling water temperature: Within operating
range

1. Remove oil pressure pickup plug (1) (PT 1/8)


from the engine block under the alternator.

2. Install oil pressure measuring nipple C3 and con-


nect oil pressure gauge C2 (0.98 MPa {10 kg/
cm}).

20-112 PC78MR-6
TESTING AND ADJUSTING ADJUSTING ENGINE STOP SOLENOID

ADJUSTING ENGINE STOP SOLENOID


1. Install ball joint (2) to solenoid (1) and tighten 3. Supply power to solenoid (1) to turn it on.
locknut (3). a If stop lever (6) and rod end (5) of the fuel
a a: Approx. 1mm (thread) injection pump are connected before the
solenoid is turned on, the solenoid cannot
pull sufficiently (the operating current flows
continuously) and the coil will burn. Accord-
ingly, do not connect them at this time.

2. Install rod (4) and rod end (5) to ball joint (2) tem-
porarily.
a Screwing depth b of rod in ball joint:
Approx. 12.5 mm
a Screwing depth c of rod end in rod: 4. Check that solenoid (1) is turned on, then con-
Approx. 10.0 mm nect rod end (5) to stop lever (6) and adjust the
length of rod (4) so that the stop lever will touch
the lever end on the service side.
a If solenoid (1) is connected to the power
source without using the machine wiring, do
not keep the PULL terminal cable connected.
(If the PULL terminal cable is kept con-
nected, the operating current flows continu-
ously and the coil will burn.)

PC78MR-6 20-113
TESTING AND ADJUSTING ADJUSTING ENGINE STOP SOLENOID

a Stop lever (6) touches the lever end on the 5. Tighten nut (7) of the joint of stop lever (6) and
service side (inside the fuel injection pump). rod end (5) and insert the cotter pin.
a Play: 0 mm a Install the rod end with grease hole (8) up.

Rod end: Grease (G2-LI)

6. Lengthen rod (4) to give play to the stop lever


end on the service side.
a Play d: 1.0 2.0 mm (loosen rod by 1/2 1
turn.)

a When adjusting the length of rod (4), do not


apply force so strongly that stop lever (6) will
be pulled up more than the lever end.
a Adjust the length of the rod as shown below.

20-114 PC78MR-6
ADJUSTING ENGINE STOP SOLENOID,
TESTING AND ADJUSTING ADJUSTING FUEL CONTROL LINKAGE

7. Tighten locknut (8). ADJUSTING FUEL CONTROL


a At this time, take care that rod (4) will not turn
together with locknut (9). Do not twist stop LINKAGE
lever (6) forcibly.
8. Start and stop the engine 2 3 times and check 1. Adjusting control linkage
that solenoid (6) operates smoothly to stop the 1) If any part was replaced, connect the cable
engine. to the fuel injection pump governor lever
securely.
a Connect the cable to the hole at the end
of the injection pump governor lever.
2) Turn the starting switch to the ON position
and set the fuel control dial to the FULL posi-
tion.
3) Bring fuel injection pump governor lever (1)
in contact with stopper (2) on the FULL side.
4) Under this condition, pull cable (3) with force
of about 98 N {about 10 kg} and tighten nuts
(4) and (5) temporarily.
a Tighten the nuts while pulling the cable to
eliminate play.
5) Return nut (4) by 2 turns and tighten nut (5)
by 2 turns retighten them.
6) Start the engine and check that it runs at the
specified speed.

PC78MR-6 20-115
TESTING AND ADJUSTING ADJUSTING FUEL CONTROL LINKAGE

2. Adjusting control linkage finely 4) Tighten nuts (6) and (7).


If the control linkage cannot be adjusted by the
method in 1. above, adjust it finely with the turn- Nut: 8.8 10.8 Nm {0.9 1.1 kgm}
buckle above the cable.
When the engine speed (high idling speed) is a At this time, check that clearance A and
below the specified level B between bolt (8) and nuts (6) and (7)
1) Turn the starting switch to the ON position are 5 3.5 mm (1.5 8.5 mm).
and set the fuel control dial to the FULL posi- a At this time, check that the rubber boot
tion. (10) of the cable is not twisted.
2) Loosen nut (6) (right-hand screw) and nut (7) 5) Start the engine and check that it runs at the
(left-hand screw). specified speed.
3) Turn bolt (8) counterclockwise, seeing from
the governor lever side, to eliminate the
clearance between injection pump governor
lever (1) and full stopper (2).
4) Tighten nuts (6) and (7).

Nut: 8.8 10.8 Nm {0.9 1.1 kgm}

a At this time, check that clearance A and


B between bolt (8) and nuts (6) and (7)
are 5 3.5 mm (1.5 8.5 mm) respec-
tively.
a At this time, check that the rubber boot
(10) of the cable is not twisted.
5) Start the engine and check that it runs at the
specified speed.
When the engine speed (low idling speed) is
above the specified speed.
1) Turn the starting switch to the ON position
and set the fuel control dial to the decelera-
tion (SLOW) position.
2) Loosen nut (6) (right-hand screw) and nut (7)
(left-hand screw).
3) Turn bolt (8) counterclockwise, seeing from
the governor lever side, to lengthen the cable
and eliminate the clearance between injec-
tion pump governor lever (1) and low idling
stopper (9).

20-116 PC78MR-6
TESTING AND ADJUSTING ADJUSTING ENGINE SPEED SENSOR

ADJUSTING ENGINE SPEED SENSOR


a Adjust the engine speed sensor for the pump
controller according to the following procedure.
a The engine G speed and engine Ne speed sen-
sor for the engine controller cannot be adjusted.
1. Screw in sensor (1) until its tip touches the tooth
tip of flywheel ring gear (2).
a Before installing the sensor check that its tip
is free from steel chips and flaws.

Threads: Hydraulic sealant

2. Return sensor (1) by 1/2 2/3 turns.


a A clearance of 0.75 1.00 mm is made
between the sensor tip and gear tooth tip.

3. Secure sensor (1) with nut (3).

Nut: 69 74 Nm {7.0 7.5 kgm}

PC78MR-6 20-117
TESTING AND ADJUSTING HYDRAULIC PRESSURE IN
TESTING AND ADJUSTING WORK EQUIPMENT, SWING, AND TRAVEL CIRCUITS

TESTING AND ADJUSTING HYDRAULIC PRESSURE IN WORK


EQUIPMENT, SWING, AND TRAVEL CIRCUITS
a Hydraulic oil temperature for measurement:
45 55 C
Lower the work equipment to the ground and
stop the engine. Then, loosen the hydraulic oil
filler cap slowly to release the internal pres-
sure of the hydraulic tank. Set the safety valve
lock lever to the LOCK position.

Measuring hydraulic pressure in boom arm,


bucket, travel, and swing circuits

1. Measuring
1) Installing pressure gauge
i) Open the top cover of the valve and
remove the side cover.
ii) Remove pressure pickup plug (1) or (2)
(10 mm, P = 1.25) and install nipple C3,
then connect oil pressure gauge C1
(58.8 MPa {600 kg/cm}
a Use plug (1) to measure the hydraulic
pressure in boom, arm, and bucket cir-
cuits and use plug (2) to measure the
hydraulic pressure in the swing and
travel circuits.
2) Measuring unload pressure
Measure the hydraulic pressure while the
engine is running at full throttle and the con-
trol lever is in neutral.
3) Measuring pump relief pressure
Measure the hydraulic pressure when each
actuator is relieved while the engine is run-
ning at full throttle.

Measuring hydraulic pressure in swing and


blade circuits

1. Measuring pump relief pressure


1) Remove the top cover of the valve.
2) Remove pressure pickup plug (3) (10 mm, P
= 1.25) and install nipple C3, then connect oil
pressure gauge (58.8 MPa {600 kg/cm}).
a See the photo.
3) Measure the hydraulic pressure when swing
or blade lower actuator is relieved while the
engine is running at full throttle.

20-118 PC78MR-6
TESTING AND ADJUSTING HYDRAULIC PRESSURE IN
TESTING AND ADJUSTING WORK EQUIPMENT, SWING, AND TRAVEL CIRCUITS

2. Adjusting
Adjusting main relief valve for boom, arm,
bucket, swing, and travel circuits.
Remove cap (2) of main relief valve (1) and
loosen locknut (3), then adjust with adjust-
ment screw (4).
a As the adjustment screw is
rotated to the right, the pressure is
heightened, and it is
rotated to the left, the pressure is low-
ered.
a Quantity of adjustment per turn of adjustment
screw: 12.5 MPa {128 kg/cm}

Locknut: 39 49 Nm {4 5 kgm}
Cap: 39 49 Nm {4 5 kgm}

PC78MR-6 20-119
TESTING AND ADJUSTING HYDRAULIC PRESSURE IN
TESTING AND ADJUSTING WORK EQUIPMENT, SWING, AND TRAVEL CIRCUITS

2. Adjusting Adjusting main relief valve for blade (RAISE)


Adjusting main relief valve for swing and circuits
blade (LOWER) circuits Remove cap (10) of main relief valve (9) and
Remove cap (6) of main relief valve (5) and loosen locknut (11), then adjust with adjust-
loosen locknut (7), then adjust with adjust- ment screw (12).
ment screw (8). a As the adjustment screw is
a As the adjustment screw is rotated to the right, the pressure is
rotated to the right, the pressure is heightened, and it is
heightened, and it is rotated to the left, the pressure is low-
rotated to the left, the pressure is low- ered.
ered. a Quantity of adjustment per turn of adjustment
a Quantity of adjustment per turn of adjustment screw: 19.6 MPa {200 kg/cm}.
screw: 12.5 MPa {128 kg/cm}.
Locknut : 39 49 Nm {4 5 kgm}
Locknut : 39 49 Nm {4 5 kgm} Cap : 39 49 Nm {4 5 kgm}
Cap : 39 49 Nm {4 5 kgm}

20-120 PC78MR-6
TESTING AND ADJUSTING MEASURING LS DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE AND ADJUSTING LS VALVE

MEASURING LS DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE AND ADJUSTING


LS VALVE
1. Measuring LS differential pressure 2) Measuring with oil pressure gauge
1) Measuring with main relief differential pres- a Measure with the same gauge.
sure gauge i) Remove pump pressure pickup plug (1)
i) Remove pump pressure pickup plug (1) (on the high pressure side) and discon-
(on the high pressure side) and discon- nect LS pressure hose (2) (on the low
nect LS pressure hose (2). Install nipple pressure side) and install adapter C3.
C3 to the high pressure side and nipple ii) Connect pressure gauge C1 (39.2 MPa
C4 to the LS pressure side. {400 kg/cm}).
ii) Connect differential pressure gauge C5. a Use a pressure gauge having unit
a Connect the high pressure side of divisions of 1.0 MPa {10 kg/cm}. (If a
the differential pressure gauge to the pressure gauge of 39.2 MPa {400 kg/
main relief pressure side and con- cm} is not available, one of 58.8
nect the low pressure side to the LS MPa {600 kg/cm} will do.)
pressure side. iii) Measure the pump discharge pressure
iii) Measure the LS differential pressure under the condition in Table 1.
under the condition in Table 1. Read the pointer correctly, facing the
gauge.
Table 1 iv) Measure the LS pressure under the con-
Fuel Control Differential dition in Table 1.
Operation a Read the pointer correctly, facing the
Dial Pressure {kg/cm}
gauge.
Set lever in 2.5 4.4 a LS differential pressure = (Pump dis-
FULL
neutral {25 45} charge pressure) (LS pressure)
Curl bucket
2.11 0.1
FULL (With lever at
{21.5 1}
FULL position)

PC78MR-6 20-121
TESTING AND ADJUSTING MEASURING LS DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE AND ADJUSTING LS VALVE

Adjusting
1. Adjusting LS valve
a If the differential pressure is abnormal, adjust
the LS valve according to the following pro-
cedure.
a Before loosening the locknut, be sure to
make match marks.
1) Loosen locknut (3) and adjust with adjust-
ment screw (4).
a As the adjustment screw is
rotated to the right, the pressure is
heightened, and it is
rotated to the left, the pressure is
lowered.
a Quantity of adjustment per turn of adjust-
ment screw: 1.27 MPa {13 kg/cm}.
2) After adjusting, tighten locknut (3).

Locknut: 29.4 39.2 Nm {3 4 kgm}

a After adjusting, measure the LS differen-


tial pressure, referring to Measuring
described above.
a When loosening or tightening the lock-
nut, secure adjustment screw (4) with a
spanner so that it will not be dragged.

20-122 PC78MR-6
TESTING AND ADJUSTING ADJUSTING PC VALVE

ADJUSTING PC VALVE TESTING TVC-EPC SOLENOID


a When the load is increased, the engine speed
OUTPUT PRESSURE
may lower or the engine speed may be normal Measuring
and working speed may be lower. If this trouble a Hydraulic oil temperature for measurement: 45
occurs and the pump discharge pressure and LS 55 C
differential pressure are normal, adjust the pump 1) Remove pump pressure pickup plug (1) (10
PC valve according to the following procedure. mm, P = 1.25) and install nipple C3 of the oil
a Before loosening locknut, be sure to make match pressure gauge kit and connect oil pressure
marks. gauge kit and connect oil pressure gauge C1
1. Loosen locknut (1) and adjust with adjustment (5.9 MPa {60 kg/cm}).
screw (2).
a Since the PC valve is of eccentric type, in which
direction the adjustment screw should be turned
to increase the absorption torque is unknown.
Accordingly, monitor the engine speed when
turning the adjustment screw.
2. After adjusting, tighten locknut (1).

Locknut: 29.4 39.2 Nm {3 4 kgm}

2) Start the engine and measure the oil pres-


sure under the following condition.

Table 1 Measurement Condition


Measure- Measured
Engine Monitor Output
ment Pressure MPa
Speed Current
Condition {kg/cm}
0.54 0.84
FULL Neutral 410 mA
{5.5 8.5}
Float one
0 0.2
FULL side and 100 mA
{0 2}
run idle
2.74 3.53
SLOW Neutral 900 mA
{28 36}

PC78MR-6 20-123
TESTING AND ADJUSTING MEASURING CONTROL CIRCUIT PRESSURE

MEASURING CONTROL CIRCUIT PRESSURE


Measuring 4) Start and run the engine at full throttle and
a Hydraulic oil temperature for measurement: 45 measure the circuit pressure.
55 C
Adjusting
Lower the work equipment to the ground and If the control circuit pressure is abnormal, adjust
stop the engine. Then, loosen the hydraulic oil the control relief valve according to the following
filler cap slowly to release the internal pressure procedure.
of the hydraulic tank. Set the safety valve lock 1) Loosen locknut (2) of relief valve (1) and
lever to the LOCK position. adjust with adjustment screw (3).
a As the adjustment screw is
1) Remove the front cover front guard plate of rotated to the right, the pressure is
the valve. heightened, and it is
2) Remove pressure pickup plug (1) (10 mm, P rotated to the left, the pressure is low-
= 1.25) from the top of the solenoid valve ered.
block. a Quantity of adjustment per turn of adjustment
screw: 0.32 MPa {3.3 kg/cm}.

Locknut: 20 29 Nm {2 3 kgm}

a After adjusting, check the set pressure


according to the procedure in 1.

3) Connect nipple C3 and install oil pressure


gauge C1 (5.8 MPa {60 kg/cm}).

20-124 PC78MR-6
TESTING AND ADJUSTING MEASURING PPC VALVE OUTPUT PRESSURE

MEASURING PPC VALVE OUTPUT PRESSURE


a Hydraulic oil temperature for measurement: a Measuring points
45 55 C
a. Blade RAISE J. LEFT swing
1. Measuring PPC valve output pressure
1) Disconnect hose (1) of the circuit to be mea- b. Blade LOWER k. Boom RAISE
sured. c. RIGHT swing l. Boom LOWER
d. LEFT swing m. Arm OUT
e. LEFT REVERSE travel n. Arm IN
f. LEFT FORWARD travel o. Bucket DUMP
g. RIGHT REVERSE travel p. Bucket CURL
h. RIGHT FORWARD travel q. Service
i. RIGHT swing r. Service

2) Install adapter C4 between hose (1) and


elbow.
3) Install oil pressure gauge C1 (5.9 MPa {60
kg/cm}) to adapter C3.
4) Run the engine at full throttle and operate the
control lever of the circuit to be measured
and measure oil pressure.

a If the output on the control valve side is low,


measure the input pressure of the PPC valve. Of
the input pressure of the PPC valve is normal,
the PPC valve is defective.

PC78MR-6 20-125
TESTING AND ADJUSTING TESTING SOLENOID VALVE OUTPUT PRESSURE

TESTING SOLENOID VALVE OUTPUT PRESSURE


a Hydraulic oil temperature for measurement: Measuring
45 55 C 1. Measuring output pressure of ON-OFF sole-
1. Measuring output pressure of boom swing noid valve.
stop EPC solenoid valve 1) Disconnect ON-OFF solenoid valve output
1) Disconnect EPC solenoid valve output hose hose and install oil pressure gauge C1 (5.9
(1) and install oil pressure gauge C1 (5.9 MPa {60 kg/cm}), using nipple C3 and C4 in
MPa {60 kg/cm}), using nipples C3 and C4 the oil pressure gauge kit.
in the oil pressure gauge kit. 2) Measure the output pressure of the solenoid
a The EPC solenoid valve is installed in the valve under the condition in Table 2.
6-spool solenoid valve assembly under a The ON-OFF solenoid valve.
the floor plate. Installed in the 6-spool soleoid valve
assembly at the front under the floor
plate.

2) Measure the output pressure under the con-


dition in Table 1.

Table 1
Oil pressure
Solenoid Name Measurement Condition Remarks
MPa {kg/cm}
3.14 0.49
While boom is swinging to right
{32 5}
1 Swing right stop EPC
1.13 0.29
Stroke end
{11.5 3}
3.14 0.49
While boom is swinging to left
Boom swing stop {32 5}
2
EPC 1.13 0.29
Stroke end
{11.5 3}

20-126 PC78MR-6
TESTING AND ADJUSTING TESTING SOLENOID VALVE OUTPUT PRESSURE

Table 2
Operation of Oil pressure
Solenoid Name Measurement Condition Operating Condition Remarks
solenoid MPa {kg/cm}
Oil pressure is
Set safety lock lever in 3.14 0.29
applied to PPC valve ON
PPC FREE position. {32 3}
circuit.
1 oil pressure-
ssure lock Oil pressure is not
Set safety lock lever in
applied to PPC valve OFF 0
LOCK position.
circuit.
Operate swing or boom 3.14 0.49
Brake is released. ON
swing or arm-in lever. {32 5}
Swing hold-
2 Set swing or arm-in lever
ing brake
in neutral (5 sec after Brake is applied. OFF 0
setting in neutral)
Set travel speed selector Travel speed is 3.14 0.49
ON
Travel speed switch in Hi. increased. {32 5}
3
selector Set travel speed selector Travel speed is
OFF 0
switch in Lo. decreased.
Note: Operation of solenoid valve is as follows;
When ON: Power is applied (Hydraulic oil is generated).
When OFF: Power is not applied (Hydraulic oil is 0).

PC78MR-6 20-127
TESTING AND ADJUSTING ADJUSTING WORK EQUIPMENT VALVE AND SWING PPC VALVE

ADJUSTING WORK EQUIPMENT VALVE AND SWING PPC VALVE


If the work equipment control lever or swing control
lever has excessive play, adjust it according to the
following procedure.
Lower the work equipment to the ground and
stop the engine. Then, loosen the hydraulic oil
filler cap slowly to release the internal pressure
of the hydraulic tank. Set the safety valve lock
lever to the LOCK position.

1. Remove the PPC valve.


2. Remove bolt (1).
3. Loosen locknut (2) and screw in disc (3) until it
touches the heads of 4 pistons (4).
a At this time, do not move the pistons.
4. Fix disc (3) and tighten locknut (2) to the speci-
fied torque.

Locknut: 98 127 Nm {10 13 kgm}

5. Install boot (1).


a The clearance between disc (3) and piston
(4) is eliminated by the above adjustment.

20-128 PC78MR-6
TESTING AND ADJUSTING TESTING TRAVEL DEVIATION

TESTING TRAVEL DEVIATION


1. Measuring when traveling
1) Set the machine in the travel posture.
a For the travel posture, extend the bucket
and arm cylinder rods fully, and hold the
boom angle at 45.
2) Travel for 10 m, then measure deviation a
when traveling for the next 20 m.
a Measure with the engine at full throttle.
a Install a hydraulic pressure gauge and
measure the pump discharge pressure a
the same time.

PC78MR-6 20-129
TESTING AND ADJUSTING TESTING TRAVEL DEVIATION

Adjusting 2. Insert hexagonal wrench (1) (Width across flats:


a Travel deviation can be corrected by draining a 4 mm) in adjustment plug (1) or (2).
part of the oil discharged from the pump which a Insert the hexagonal wrench securely.
discharges more oil with the adjustment plugs. 3. Loosen locknut (3), leaving the hexagonal
If the travel deviation is corrected by this method, wrench inserted.
however, the travel speed, work equipment a Before adjusting, mark the position of the
speed in the compound operation, and relief locknut with paint.
pressure lower since the pump discharge is a Loosen the locknut, securing the hexagonal
reduced. wrench.
a The following is the method of correcting devia- Loosening angle of locknut: Approx. 90
tion applied when the machine deviates to the 180
right (left) in both travel directions.
a Travel deviation can be corrected by the follow-
ing method only when it is 200 mm or less.

If the adjustment plug is loosened more than


the adjustment limit, high pressure oil spurts
out. Take care extremely.

Lower the work equipment to the ground and


stop the engine. Then, loosen the hydraulic oil
filler cap slowly to release the internal pressure
of the hydraulic tank.

1. Check the position of each adjustment plug of


the main pump. 4. Correct the travel deviation by loosening adjust-
When the machine deviates to the right: ment plug (1) or (2).
Loosen adjustment plug (1). Quantity of correction of travel deviation per
When the machine deviates to the left: turn of adjustment plug: 150 mm (For refer-
Loosen adjustment plug (2). ence)
a Loosen only either plug. Do not loosen both a When the machine is shipped, the adjust-
plugs at the same time. ment plugs are tightened fully. Adjust the cor-
rection angle by the loosening angle of the
adjustment plugs.
a If the adjustment plug is dragged when the
locknut is loosened, tighten it again.
a The adjustable range of each adjustment
plug is 2 turns / 720 degrees from the tight-
ened position.
5. Tighten locknut (3).
Locknut:2.94 4.9 Nm {0.3 0.5 kgm}

6. Check for travel deviation again. If the machine


still deviates, adjust again according to the
above procedure.
a Do not loosen the adjustment plugs more
than the adjustable range (2 turns / 720
degrees).

20-130 PC78MR-6
TESTING PARTS WHICH CAN CAUSE HYDRAULIC DRIFT
TESTING AND ADJUSTING OF WORK EQUIPMENT

TESTING PARTS WHICH CAN CAUSE HYDRAULIC DRIFT OF


WORK EQUIPMENT
a Hydraulic oil temperature for measurement: 45
55 C
1. Work equipment cylinder
a If the hydraulic drift of the work equipment
exceeds the standard value, measure the leak-
age in the cylinder according to the following pro-
cedure to see if the cause of the hydraulic drift is
on the cylinder side or control valve side.
If the leakage is less than the standard value,
the cause is on the control valve side.
If the leakage is above the standard value,
the cause is on the cylinder side.
1) Extend the rod of the cylinder to be mea-
sured and stop the engine.
2) Disconnect hoses (1) (4) on the head side 3) Run the engine at full throttle and apply relief
and block the pipes on the machine side with pressure to the cylinder bottom.
plugs.
1. Boom cylinder head hose
2. Arm cylinder head hose
3. Bucket cylinder head hose
4. Swing cylinder head hose

Take care not to disconnect the bottom hoses.

4) After 30 seconds, measure the oil leakage in


1 minute.

PC78MR-6 20-131
TESTING AND ADJUSTING MEASURING OIL LEAKAGE FROM SWING AND TRAVEL MOTORS

MEASURING OIL LEAKAGE FROM SWING AND TRAVEL


MOTORS
a Hydraulic oil temperature for measurement: 45 2. Travel motor
55 C 1) Disconnect drain hose (3) of the travel motor
1. Swing motor and plug the hose.
1) Disconnect drain hose (1) of the swing motor 2) Put a block in the grouser of the track shoe
(on the hydraulic tank side). or between the sprocket and the frame to
a Plug the hydraulic tank. lock the track shoe.
2) Stick the bucket into the ground to lock the 3) Run the engine at full throttle and relieve the
swing mechanism. travel circuit.
3) Run the engine at full throttle and relieve the
swing circuit. Since a wrong operation of a lever can cause
4) After 30 seconds, measure the oil leakage in an accident, make signs and confirm the oper-
1 minute. ations security.
a After measuring 1 time, swing 180 degrees
and measure again. 4) After 30 seconds, measure the oil leakage in
1 minute.
a Measure the oil leakage several times, mov-
ing the motor little by little (shifting the valve
plate and piston from the cylinder).

20-132 PC78MR-6
TESTING AND ADJUSTING RELEASING RESIDUAL PRESSURE FROM HYDRAULIC CIRCUIT

RELEASING RESIDUAL PRESSURE FROM HYDRAULIC CIRCUIT


a Since an accumulator is not installed, the resid-
ual pressure in the piping between the control
valve and each hydraulic cylinder or swing motor
cannot be released even if the control levers are
operated. Accordingly, when removing the above
piping, observe the following points.
1) Run the engine at low speed and lower the
work equipment to the ground, taking care
not to relieve the cylinder at the stroke end,
then stop the engine.
a If the hydraulic cylinder is relieved at the
stroke end before the engine is stopped,
do not perform the following work for 5 ~
10 minutes.
2) Loosen pressure release plug (4) of the con-
trol valve gradually to release the residual
pressure from the circuit.

PC78MR-6 20-133
TESTING AND ADJUSTING TESTING CLEARANCE OF SWING CIRCLE BEARING

TESTING CLEARANCE OF SWING CIRCLE BEARING


Method of testing clearance of swing circle bear- 4. Set the arm at about right angles to the ground
ing on machine and lower the boom until the front part of the
1. Fix dial gauge with magnet (1) to the swing circle undercarriage floats.
outer ring (2) (or inner ring) (3) and apply the At this time, the front part of the upper structure
probe to the end face of the inner ring (or outer rises and the rear part lowers.
ring). Set the dial gauge to the front or rear part. 5. Read the dial gauge. The indicated value is the
clearance of the swing circle bearing.

Do not put your hand or foot under the under-


carriage during measurement.

2. Extend the work equipment to the maximum


reach and set the bucket tip to the height of the
underside of the revolving frame.
At this time, the front part of the upper structure
lowers and the rear part rises. 6. Set the machine in the position explained in 2
3. Set the dial gauge to the zero point. above again and check that the dial gauge indi-
cates zero. If the dial gauge does not indicate
zero, repeat Steps 2 5.

20-134 PC78MR-6
TESTING AND ADJUSTING TESTING AND ADJUSTING TRACK SHOE TENSION

TESTING AND ADJUSTING TRACK SHOE TENSION


Testing Adjusting
1. Run the engine at low idling and move the a If the track shoe tension is abnormal, adjust it
machine forward by the length of the track on the according to the following procedure.
ground and stop slowly. 1. When tension is too high.
2. Place square wood bar (3) over idler (1) and car- 1) Loosen valve (1) to discharge grease.
rier roller (2).
3. Measure the maximum distance between the top
Since the high pressure grease may spurt out,
of the track and the underside of the wood bar.
do not loosen the valve more than 1 turn.
If the standard slack a is in the following
range, the shoe tension is normal.
a If the grease is not discharged sufficiently,
move the machine slowly forward and in
Specification Standard Slack a reverse.
Road liner, steel shoe 10 30 mm 2) To check that the track shoe tension is nor-
mal, run the engine at low idling and move
Rubber shoe 1 3 mm
the machine forward by the length of track on
ground and stop slowly.
3) Test the track shoe tension again. If it is still
not normal, adjust it again.
2. When tension is low
1) Supply grease through grease fitting (2).
a If the track shoe tension is not tensed
well, move the machine slowly forward
and in reverse.

Grease fitting: Grease (G2-LI)

2) To check that the track shoe tension is nor-


mal, run the engine at low idling and move
the machine forward by the length of track on
ground and stop slowly.
3) Test the track shoe tension again. If it is still
not normal, adjust it again.

PC78MR-6 20-135
TESTING AND ADJUSTING BLEEDING AIR FROM HYDRAULIC CIRCUIT

BLEEDING AIR FROM HYDRAULIC CIRCUIT


Contents of work and procedures for bleeding air
Air bleeding item Procedure for Bleeding Air

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Bleeding
air from cir- Bleeding Bleeding Bleeding
Bleeding Starting
cuit Bleeding Bleeding air from air from air from Starting
air from between air from LS air from
engine swing travel swing PPC operation
pump pump and circuit cylinders
motor motor
hydraulic circuit
Contents of work
tank
Replacing hydraulic oil
Cleaning strainer
Q Q Q Q Q Q Note) Q Note) Q

Replacing return filter element Q Q Q


Replacing or repairing pump
Removing suction pipe
Q Q Q Q Q Q
Replacing or repairing control
valve
Q Q Q Q
Replacing cylinder
Removing cylinder piping
Q Q Q
Replacing swing motor
Removing swing motor piping
Q Q Q
Replacing travel motor and swivel
Removing travel motor and swivel
Q Q Q
Replacing or removing swing
PPC circuit parts (Swing PPC
valve, piping, pressure switch,
Q Q Q
etc.)
Note: Bleed air from the swing motor and travel motor only after the oil in the motor case is drained.

1. Bleeding air from pump 2. Bleeding air between pump and hydraulic tanks.
a If the pump is operated without filling pump a If the pump is operated without bleeding air
case with hydraulic oil, it is heated abnor- from the circuit between the pump and
mally and may be broken soon. Accordingly, hydraulic tank, it is heated abnormally and
bleed all air from the pump before operating may be broken soon. Accordingly, bleed all
the pump. air.
1) Loosen air bleeder (1) installed to the drain 1) Run the engine at medium speed (approx.
port and check that oil oozes out. 1,650 rpm)
2) After bleeding air, tighten the air bleeder. 2) Operate the work equipment slowly for about
5 minutes to bleed air.
Bleeder: 7.8 9.8 Nm {0.8 1.0 kgm}
3. Bleeding air from LS circuit
a Bleed air only after the hoses of the pump,
valve, and LS circuit are replaced.
a If air is not bled from the LS circuit, the work
equipment may malfunction.
1) Loosen air bleeder (2) installed to the LS port
of the pump.
2) Run the engine at low idling for 2 minutes.
3) Operate the bucket (dump and curl bucket to
the stroke ends) for about 2 minutes.
4) After bleeding air, tighten air bleeder (2).

20-136 PC78MR-6
TESTING AND ADJUSTING BLEEDING AIR FROM HYDRAULIC CIRCUIT

4. Bleeding air from hydraulic cylinder


a If the engine speed is heightened or the cyl-
inder is moved to the stroke end at first, the
air in the cylinder will damage the piston
packing, etc.
1) Run the engine at medium speed (approx.
1,650 rpm) and move each cylinder to about
100 mm before each stroke end 4 5 times.
a Never relieve the oil.
2) Move each cylinder to each stroke end 3 4
times.
3) Move each cylinder to each stroke end 4 5
more times to bleed air.
7. Bleeding air from swing PPC circuit
5. Bleeding air from swing motor 1) Stick the bucket into the ground to lock the
a Bleed air from the swing motor only after the swing mechanism.
oil is drained from the swing motor case. 2) Run the engine at low idling.
a If the swing motor is operated without bleed- 3) Loosen air bleeders (4) and (5) of the control
ing air from it, its bearings may be broken. valve.
1) Run the engine at low idling and loosen drain 4) Move the swing control lever through the full
hose (2). If oil oozes out, tighten the drain stroke repeatedly to check that all air is bled
hose. through bleeders (4) and (5).
a Do not swing the machine while bleeding 5) Tighten bleeders (4) and (5).
air.
2) Keep the engine speed at low idling and
Bleeder:
swing evenly at least 2 turns in each direc-
7.8 9.8 Nm {0.8 1.0 kgm}
tion.

6. Bleeding air from travel motor


a Bleed air from the travel motor only after the
oil is drained from the travel motor case.
1) Run the engine at low idling and loosen drain
hose (3). If oil oozes out, tighten the drain
hose.
2) Keep the engine speed at low idling and
swing 90? and float the track a little with the
work equipment, then run idle for 2 minutes.
3) Perform Step 2 above for each side.

PC78MR-6 20-137
TESTING AND ADJUSTING REPLACEMENT PROCEDURE OF POTENTIOMETERS

REPLACEMENT PROCEDURE OF POTENTIOMETERS


1. Remove boom swing potentiometer assemblies
(1), from the work equipment .
a Do not swing a removed potentiometer
assembly around its lever or turn the lever
unnecessarily.

2. Install potentiometer assemblies (1).

3. Be sure to reset input and output signals.

20-138 PC78MR-6
TESTING AND ADJUSTING PROCEDURE FOR TESTING DIODE

PROCEDURE FOR TESTING DIODE


Inspect a diode or a wiring harness containing a 2. Set the tester in the diode range, and the voltage
diode according to the following procedure. of the battery in it is indicated. If this voltage
Use a digital tester having a diode range. does not change, the diode doesn't have
1. Apply the red (+) test pin to the anode (P) side of continuity.
the diode, and the black (-) test pin to the cath- changes, the diode has continuity (normal)
ode (N) side. (Note).
a The current flow mark is printed on the diode 0 or near 0, the diode is shorted in it.
body. Note: A normal silicon diode indicates 450 600.

PC78MR-6 20-139
TROUBLESHOOTING

Points to remember when troubleshooting.................................................................................................. 20-202


SEQUENCE of events in troubleshooting ................................................................................................... 20-203
Point to remember when carrying out maintenance ................................................................................... 20-204
Checks before troubleshooting ................................................................................................................... 20-212
Type and location of connectors ................................................................................................................. 20-214
Connector arrangement diagram ................................................................................................................ 20-216
Connection table for connector pin numbers .............................................................................................. 20-219
Explanation of functions of electric system control mechanism .................................................................. 20-242
Display and special functions of monitor panel ........................................................................................... 20-243
TVC valve current adjustment table ............................................................................................................ 20-254
Adjusting service meter............................................................................................................................... 20-255
Method of using judgement table ................................................................................................................ 20-256
How to read flow of troubleshooting............................................................................................................ 20-258
Contents and procedure of troubleshooting ................................................................................................ 20-260
Troubleshooting for engine (S mode).......................................................................................................... 20-301
Troubleshooting for communication system (N mode)................................................................................ 20-401
Troubleshooting for controller (governor control system) (E mode)............................................................ 20-501
Troubleshooting for controller (pump control system) (C mode)................................................................. 20-601
Troubleshooting for controller (input signal system) (F mode).................................................................... 20-701
Troubleshooting for hydraulic and mechanical systems (H mode) ............................................................. 20-801
Troubleshooting for machine monitor system (M mode) ............................................................................. 20-901

PC78MR-6 20-201
TROUBLESHOOTING POINTS TO REMEMBER WHEN TROUBLESHOOTING

POINTS TO REMEMBER WHEN TROUBLESHOOTING


Stop the machine in a level place, and check that the safety pin, blocks, and parking brake are securely fit-
ted.

When carrying out the operation with two or more workers, keep strictly to the agreed signals, and do not
allow any unauthorized person to come near.

If the radiator cap is removed when the engine is hot, hot coolant may spurt out and cause burns, so wait
for the engine to cool down before starting troubleshooting.

Be extremely careful not to touch any hot parts or to get caught in any rotating parts.

When disconnecting wiring, always disconnect the negative () terminal of the battery first.

When removing the plug or cap from a location which is under pressure from oil, water or air, always
release the internal pressure first. When installing measuring equipment, be sure to connect it properly.
The aim of troubleshooting is to pinpoint the basic cause of the failure, to carry out repairs swiftly, and to prevent
reoccurrence of the failure.
When carrying out troubleshooting, an important point is to understand the structure and function of the
machine. However, a short cut to effective troubleshooting is to ask the operator various questions to form some
idea of possible causes of the failure that would produce the reported symptoms.
1. When carrying out troubleshooting, do not hurry 4) Check the stroke of the control valve spool.
to disassemble the components. If components 5) Other maintenance items can be checked
are disassembled immediately after a failure externally, so check any item that is consid-
occurs: ered to be necessary.
Parts that have no connection with the failure
or other unnecessary parts will be disassem- 4. Confirming the failure.
bled. Confirm the extent of the failure yourself, and
It will become impossible to find the cause of judge whether to handle it as a real failure or as a
the failure. problem with the method of operation, etc.
It will also cause a waste of man hours, parts, or a When operating the machine to re-enact the
oil and grease. At the same time, it will also lose troubleshooting symptoms, do not carry out
the confidence of the user or operator. For this any investigation or measurement that may
reason, when carrying out troubleshooting, it is make the problem worse.
necessary to carry out thorough prior investiga-
tion and to carry out troubleshooting in accor- 5. Troubleshooting
dance with the fixed procedure. Use the results of the investigation and inspec-
tion in Steps 2 4 to narrow down the causes of
2. Points to ask the user or operator. the failure, then use the troubleshooting flow-
1) Have any other problems occurred apart chart to locate the position of the failure exactly.
from the problem that has been reported? a The basic procedure for troubleshooting is as
2) Was there anything strange about the follows.
machine before the failure occurred? 1) Start from the simple points.
3) Did the failure occur suddenly, or were there 2) Start from the most likely points.
problems with the machine condition before 3) Investigate other related parts or informa-
this? tion.
4) Under what conditions did the failure occur?
5) Had any repairs been carried out before the 6. Measures to remove root cause of failure.
failure? When were these repairs carried Even if the failure is repaired, if the root cause of
out? the failure is not repaired, the same failure will
6) Has the same kind of failure occurred occur again.
before? To prevent this, always investigate why the prob-
lem occurred. Then, remove the root cause.
3. Check before troubleshooting.
1) Check the oil level.
2) Check for any external leakage of oil from the
piping or hydraulic equipment.
3) Check the travel of the control levers.

20-202 PC78MR-6
TROUBLESHOOTING SEQUENCE OF EVENTS IN TROUBLESHOOTING

SEQUENCE OF EVENTS IN TROUBLESHOOTING

TEW00180 TEW00181

Step 1
Examination, confirmation of symptoms

1) When a request for repairs is received, first


ask the following points.
Name of customer
Type, serial number of machine
Details of jobsite, etc.
2) Ask questions to gain an outline of the prob-
lem.
Condition of failure
Work being carried out at the time of the
failure
Operating environment
Past history, details of maintenance, etc.

Step 2
Determining probable location of cause

1) Look at the troubleshooting section of the


shop manual to find locations of possible
causes.

Step 3
Preparation of troubleshooting tools

1) Look at the table of troubleshooting tools in


the shop manual and prepare the necessary Step 7
tools. Pinpoint locations of failure (carry out
T-adapter troubleshooting)
Hydraulic pressure gauge kit, etc. Decide action to take
2) Look in the parts book and prepare the nec-
essary replacement parts. 1) Before starting troubleshooting, locate and
TEW00186 repair simple failures.
Check before starting items
Other check items
2) See the Troubleshooting Section of the shop
manual, select a troubleshooting flowchart
that matches the symptoms, and carry out
troubleshooting.
TEW00187

Step 6
Re-enacting failure

Drive and operate the machine to confirm


the condition and judge if there is really a
failure.

Step 4 Step 5
Go to jobsite Ask operator questions to confirm details of
failure.

Was there anything strange about the ma-


chine before the failure occurred?
Did the failure occur suddenly?
Had any repairs been carried out before the
TEW00189 failure?

PC78MR-6 20-203
TROUBLESHOOTING POINT TO REMEMBER WHEN CARRYING OUT MAINTENANCE

POINTS TO REMEMBER WHEN CARRYING OUT MAINTENANCE

To maintain the performance of the machine over a long period, and to prevent failures or other troubles before
they occur, correct operation, maintenance and inspection, troubleshooting, and repairs must be carried out.
This section deals particularly with correct repair procedures for mechatronics and is aimed at improving the
quality of repairs. For this purpose, it gives sections on "Handling electric equipment" and "Handling hydraulic
equipment" (particularly gear oil and hydraulic oil).

1. Points to remember when handling electric equip-


ment

1) Handling wiring harnesses and connectors


Wiring harnesses consist of wiring connecting one com-
ponent to another component, connectors used for con-
necting and disconnecting one wire from another wire,
and protectors or tubes used for protecting the wiring.
Compared with other electrical components fitted in
boxes or cases, wiring harnesses are more likely to be
affected by the direct effects of rain, water, heat, or vibra-
tion. Furthermore, during inspection and repair opera-
tions, they are frequently removed and installed again,
so they are likely to suffer deformation or damage. For
this reason, it is necessary to be extremely careful when
handling wiring harnesses.

Main failures occurring in wiring harness


1) Defective contact of connectors (defective contact
between male and female)
Problems with defective contact are likely to occur
because the male connector is not properly inserted into
the female connector, or because one or both of the con-
nectors is deformed or the position is not correctly
aligned, or because there is corrosion or oxidization of
the contact surfaces.

2) Defective crimping or soldering of connectors


The pins of the male and female connectors are in con-
tact at the crimped terminal or soldered portion, but if
there is excessive force brought to bear on the wiring,
the plating at the joint will peel and cause improper con-
nection or breakage.

20-204 PC78MR-6
TROUBLESHOOTING POINT TO REMEMBER WHEN CARRYING OUT MAINTENANCE

3) Disconnections in wiring
If the wiring is held and the connectors are pulled apart,
or components are lifted with a crane with the wiring still
connected, or a heavy object hits the wiring, the crimping
of the connector may separate, or the soldering may be
damaged, or the wiring may be broken.

4) High-pressure water entering connector


The connector is designed to make it difficult for water to
enter (drip-proof structure), but if high-pressure water is
sprayed directly on the connector, water may enter the
connector, depending on the direction of the water jet.
As already said, the connector is designed to prevent
water from entering, but at the same time, if water does
enter, it is difficult for it to be drained. Therefore, if water
should get into the connector, the pins will be short-cir-
cuited by the water, so if any water gets in, immediately
dry the connector or take other appropriate action before
passing electricity through it.

5) Oil or dirt stuck to connector


If oil or grease are stuck to the connector and an oil film
is formed on the mating surface between the male and
female pins, the oil will not let the electricity pass, so
there will be defective contact.
If there is oil or grease stuck to the connector, wipe it off
with a dry cloth or blow it dry with compressed air and
spray it with a contact restorer.
a When wiping the mating portion of the connector, be
careful not to use excessive force or deform the pins.
a If there is oil or water in the compressed air, the con-
tacts will become even dirtier, so remove the oil and
water from the compressed air completely before
cleaning with compressed air.

PC78MR-6 20-205
TROUBLESHOOTING POINT TO REMEMBER WHEN CARRYING OUT MAINTENANCE

2) Removing, installing, and drying connectors and


wiring harnesses

Disconnecting connectors
1) Hold the connectors when disconnecting.
When disconnecting the connectors, hold the con-
nectors and not the wires. For connectors held by a
screw, loosen the screw fully, then hold the male and
female connectors in each hand and pull apart. For
connectors which have a lock stopper, press down
the stopper with your thumb and pull the connectors
apart.
a Never pull with one hand.

2) When removing from clips


When removing a connector from a clip, pull the con-
nector in a parallel direction to the clip.
a If the connector is twisted up and down or to the
left or right, the housing may break.

3) Action to take after removing connectors


After removing any connector, cover it with a vinyl
bag to prevent any dust, dirt, oil, or water from get-
ting in the connector portion.
a If the machine is left disassembled for a long
time, it is particularly easy for improper contact to
occur, so always cover the connector.

20-206 PC78MR-6
TROUBLESHOOTING POINT TO REMEMBER WHEN CARRYING OUT MAINTENANCE

Connecting connectors
Check the connector visually.
1) Check that there is no oil, dirt, or water stuck to
the connector pins (mating portion).
2) Check that there is no deformation, defective
contact, corrosion, or damage to the connector
pins.
3) Check that there is no damage or breakage to
the outside of the connector.
a If there is any oil, water, or dirt stuck to the
connector, wipe it off with a dry cloth. If any
water has got inside the connector, warm the
inside of the wiring with a dryer, but be care-
ful not to make it too hot as this will cause
short circuits.
a If there is any damage or breakage, replace
the connector.

Fix the connector securely.


Align the position of the connector correctly, then
insert it securely.
For connectors with lock stopper, push in the con-
nector until the stopper clicks into position.

Correct any protrusion of the boot and any misalign-


ment of the wiring harness
For connectors fitted with boots, correct any protru-
sion of the boot. In addition, if the wiring harness is
misaligned, or the clamp is out of position, adjust it to
its correct position.
a If the connector cannot be corrected easily,
remove the clamp and adjust the position.

If the connector clamp has been removed, be sure to


return it to its original position. Check also that there
are no loose clamps.

Since the DT 8-pole and 12-pole heavy duty wire con-


nectors have 2 latches respectively, push them in until
they click 2 times.
1. Male connector, 2. Female conector
Normal locking state (Horizontal): a, b, d
Incomplete locking state (Diagonal): c

PC78MR-6 20-207
TROUBLESHOOTING POINT TO REMEMBER WHEN CARRYING OUT MAINTENANCE

Drying wiring harness


If there is any oil or dirt on the wiring harness, wipe it off
with a dry cloth. Avoid washing it in water or using
steam. If the connector must be washed in water, do not
use high-pressure water or steam directly on the wiring
harness.

If water gets directly on the connector, do as follows.


Disconnect the connector and wipe off the water with
a dry cloth.
a If the connector is blown dry with compressed
air, there is the risk that oil in the air may cause
defective contact, so remove all oil and water
from the compressed air before blowing with air.

Dry the inside of the connector with a dryer.


If water gets inside the connector, use a dryer to dry
the connector.
a Hot air from the dryer can be used, but regulate
the time that the hot air is used in order not to
make the connector or related parts too hot, as
this will cause deformation or damage to the
connector.

Carry out a continuity test on the connector.


After drying, leave the wiring harness disconnected
and carry out a continuity test to check for any short
circuits between pins caused by water.
a After completely drying the connector, blow it
with contact restorer and reassemble.

20-208 PC78MR-6
TROUBLESHOOTING POINT TO REMEMBER WHEN CARRYING OUT MAINTENANCE

3) Handling control box


1) The control box contains a microcomputer and elec-
tronic control circuits. These control all of the elec-
tronic circuits on the machine, so be extremely
careful when handling the control box.
2) Do not open the cover of the control box unless nec-
essary.

3) Do not place objects on top of the control box.


4) Cover the control connectors with tape or a vinyl bag.
Never touch the connector contacts with your hand.
5) During rainy weather, do not leave the control box in
a place where it is exposed to rain.

6) Do not place the control box on oil, water, or soil, or


in any hot place, even for a short time.
(Place it on a suitable dry stand)..
7) Precautions when carrying out arc welding
When carrying out arc welding on the body, discon-
nect all wiring harness connectors connected to the
control box. Fit an arc welding ground close to the
welding point.

2. Points to remember when troubleshooting electric circuits


1) Always turn the power OFF before disconnecting or connect connectors.
2) Before carrying out troubleshooting, check that all the related connectors are properly inserted.
a Disconnect and connect the related connectors several times to check.
3) Always connect any disconnected connectors before going on to the next step..
a If the power is turned ON with the connectors still disconnected, unnecessary abnormality displays
will be generated.
4) When carrying out troubleshooting of circuits (measuring the voltage, resistance, continuity, or current),
move the related wiring and connectors several times and check that there is no change in the reading
of the tester.
a If there is any change, there is probably defective contact in that circuit.

PC78MR-6 20-209
TROUBLESHOOTING POINT TO REMEMBER WHEN CARRYING OUT MAINTENANCE

3. POINTS TO REMEMBER WHEN HANDLING HYDRAU-


LIC EQUIPMENT

With the increase in pressure and precision of hydraulic


equipment, the most common cause of failure is dirt (foreign
material) in the hydraulic circuit. When adding hydraulic oil,
or when disassembling or assembling hydraulic equipment,
it is necessary to be particularly careful.

1) Be careful of the operating environment.


Avoid adding hydraulic oil, replacing filters, or repairing
the machine in rain or high winds, or places where there
is a lot of dust.

2) Disassembly and maintenance work in the field


If disassembly or maintenance work is carried out on
hydraulic equipment in the field, there is danger of dust
entering the equipment. It is also difficult to confirm the
performance after repairs, so it is desirable to use unit
exchange. Disassembly and main-tenance of hydraulic
equipment should be carried out in a specially prepared
dustproof workshop, and the performance should be
confirmed with special test equipment.

3) Sealing openings
After any piping or equipment is removed, the openings
should be sealed with caps, tapes, or vinyl bags to pre-
vent any dirt or dust from entering. If the opening is left
open or is blocked with a rag, there is danger of dirt
entering or of the surrounding area being made dirty by
leaking oil so never do this.
Do not simply drain oil out on to the ground, collect it and
ask the customer to dispose of it, or take it back with you
for disposal.

4) Do not let any dirt or dust get in during refilling oper-


ations.
Be careful not to let any dirt or dust get in when refilling
with hydraulic oil. Always keep the oil filler and the area
around it clean, and also use clean pumps and oil con-
tainers. If an oil cleaning device is used, it is possible to
filter out the dirt that has collected during storage, so this
is an even more effective method.

20-210 PC78MR-6
TROUBLESHOOTING POINT TO REMEMBER WHEN CARRYING OUT MAINTENANCE

5) Change hydraulic oil when the temperature is high.


When hydraulic oil or other oil is warm, it flows easily. In
addition, the sludge can also be drained out easily from
the circuit together with the oil, so it is best to change the
oil when it is still warm. When changing the oil, as much
as possible of the old hydraulic oil must be drained out.
(Drain the oil from the hydraulic tank; also drain the oil
from the filter and from the drain plug in the circuit.) If
any old oil is left, the contaminants and sludge in it will
mix with the new oil and will shorten the life of the
hydraulic oil.

6) Flushing operations
After disassembling and assembling the equipment, or
changing the oil, use flushing oil to remove the contami-
nants, sludge, and old oil from the hydraulic circuit.
Normally, flushing is carried out twice: primary flushing is
carried out with flushing oil, and secondary flushing is
carried out with the specified hydraulic oil.

7) Cleaning operations
After repairing the hydraulic equipment (pump, control
valve, etc.) or when running the machine, carry out oil
cleaning to remove the sludge or contaminants in the
hydraulic oil circuit.
The oil cleaning equipment is used to remove the
ultrafine (about 3) particles that the filter built into the
hydraulic equipment cannot remove, so it is an
extremely effective device.

PC78MR-6 20-211
TROUBLESHOOTING CHECKS BEFORE TROUBLESHOOTING

CHECKS BEFORE TROUBLESHOOTING


Judgement
Item Action
Value
1. Check fuel level, type of fuel Add fuel
2. Check for impurities in fuel Clean, drain
Lubricating oil, coolant

3. Check hydraulic oil level Add oil


4. Check hydraulic oil strainer Clean, drain
5. Check swing machinery oil level Add oil
6. Check engine oil level, type of engine oil Add oil
7. Check coolant level Add coolant
8. Check dust indicator for clogging Clean or replace
9. Check hydraulic oil filter Replace
1. Check for looseness, corrosion of battery terminal, wiring Tighten or replace
equipment
Electrical

2. Check for looseness, corrosion of alternator terminal, wiring Tighten or replace


3. Check for looseness, corrosion of starting motor terminal, wiring Tighten or replace
1. Check for abnormal noise, smell Repair
mechanical
equipment
Hydraulic,

2. Check for oil leakage Repair

3. Carry out air bleeding Bleed air

1. Check battery voltage (Engine stopped) 20 - 30 V Replace


2. Check battery electrolyte level Add or replace
3. Check for discolored, burnt, exposed wiring Replace
Electrical equipment

4. Check for missing wiring clamps, hanging wire Repair


5. Check for water leaking on wiring (Pay particular attention to water leaking Disconnect
connector and dry
on connectors or terminals)
6. Check for blown, corroded fuses Replace
After running for sev-
7. Check alternator voltage (Engine running at 1/2 throttle or above) eral minutes: Replace
27.5 ~ 29.5 V
8. Sound of actuation of battery relay (When starting switch is turned ON,

OFF)

20-212 PC78MR-6
TROUBLESHOOTING TYPE AND LOCATION OF CONNECTORS

TYPE AND LOCATION OF CONNECTORS


a The addresses in the follwing table are the addresses used in the connector arrangement drawing
(3-dimensional drawing).

Con- No. Con- No.


Add- Add-
nector Type of Location ress nector Type of Location ress
No. Pins No. Pins

A/C X 1 Air conditioner compressor L7 K20 M 8 Cab inlet R6

D4 SWP 2 Diode (Engine stop solenoid) H1 K21 S 8 Cab inlet R6

D5 SWP 2 Diode (Battery relay BR) G1 K23 5 Starting motor cut-out relay R8

D6 SWP 2 Diode (Battery relay BR) G1 K26 090 2 Horn switch M7

D11 SWP 2 Diode (TVC solenoid) R7 K27 SWP 6 Fuel governor control motor N7

D12 SWP 2 Diode (TVC solenoid) R8 K28 M 3 PPC hydraulic lock switch P2

Diode (PPC basic pressure


D13 SWP 2 Q8 K32 5 Accelerator relay O8
lock solenoid)

D22 SWP 2 Diode (Air conditioner com- H1 K33 5 Decelerator relay N8


pressor)
Diode (Engine stop solenoid Intermediate connector
D25 SWP 2 G1 K42 SUMITOMO 16 P8
relay) (Reset switch)

D26 SWP 2 Diode (Engine stop solenoid H9 K45 M 1 Ground (Radio) Q3


relay)

D30 SWP 2 Diode (PPC basic pressure R7 K51 090 20 Intermediate connector M7
lock solenoid) (Starting, light switch)

D31 SWP 2 Diode (Swing RIGHT stop R7 K52 M 3 Light switch N8


circuit)

D32 SWP 2 Diode (Swing RIGHT stop R6 K53 M 2 Buzzer cancel switch O8
circuit)
Revolving warning lamp
D33 SWP 2 Diode (Swing LEFT stop circuit) Q8 K54 M 3 P8
(Optional)

D34 SWP 2 Diode (Swing LEFT stop circuit) P8 M1 L 2 Intermediate connector M4


(Power supply, ground)
Overload warning cancel Intermediate connector
EU1 M 2 R5 M2 X 2 M4
switch (*1) (Power supply)
Intermediate connector
FB1 Fuse box R3 M3 DT (Gr) 8 M4
(Rotation sensor, etc.)

GND Terminal 1 Key stop solenoid L2 M4 DT (G) 8 Intermediate connector M4


(Swing angle sensor, etc.)

HOLD Terminal Intermediate connector


1 Key stop solenoid L2 M5 DT (Gr) 8 M3
(TVC solenoid)

K1 S 12 Intermediate connector M7 M6 DT (B) 8 Intermediate connector M3


(Monitor panel) (Related to pressure switch)

K2 S 16 Intermediate connector N7 For connection of boom


M7 DT (G) 8 M3
(Monitor panel) pressure sensor (*1)
2nd travel speed selection
K3 DT 2 O2 M9 DT 2 Fuel sensor I2
solenoid valve
Boom swing LEFT stop sole-
K11 SWP 12 Auto A/C unit O2 M11 DT 2 N2
noid

K12 M 2 Resister P8 Boom swing RIGHT stop


M12 DT 2 N2
solenoid

K17 X 2 Optional power supply unit P2 M13 DT 2 PPC hydraulic lock solenoid M2

K18 090 2 Decelerator switch Q2 M13 M 2 Speaker (Right) I9

K19 PA 9 Radio R3 M14 DT 2 Parking brake solenoid N2

*1. For EU spec. machine only.

20-214 PC78MR-6
(1)
TROUBLESHOOTING TYPE AND LOCATION OF CONNECTORS

Con- No. Con- No.


Add- Add-
nector Type of Location ress nector Type of Location ress
No. Pins No. Pins

M15 DT 2 Travel speed shifting sole- M2 P15 040 2 Sunlight sensor (Optional) M6
noid

M16 DT 2 Engine speed sensor J3 PULL Terminal 1 Key stop solenoid L3

Revolving frame ground


M17 X 1 Glow plug K8 T1 Terminal 1 I2
(Controller system)
Engine water temperature
M18 DT 2 sensor L8 T2 Terminal 1 Revolving frame ground H2

Revolving frame ground


M20 DT 2 TVC/EPC solenoid K8 T3 Terminal 1
(Controller SIG system)
H1

Pressure switch
M21 X 2 (Boom RAISE) G9 T4 Terminal 1 Alternator (Terminal R) L6

M22 X 2 Pressure switch (Swing) I9 T5 Terminal 1 Alternator (Terminal B) L6

M23 X 2 Pressure switch (Swing) G9 T6 Terminal 1 Engine oil pressure switch L5

M24 X 2 Pressure switch (Arm IN) H9 T9 Terminal 1 Battery relay (Terminal E) A4

M25 X 2 Pressure switch (Travel) I9 T10 Terminal 1 Battery relay (Terminal BR) A3

M26 L 2 Fusible link C8 T11 Terminal 1 Battery relay (Terminal M) A6

M27 L 2 Fusible link B8 T12 Terminal 1 Battery relay (Terminal B) A5

Intermediate connector
M28 DT 2 (Working lamp) J9 T16 Terminal 1 Engine stop solenoid relay K3

M30 X 2 Safety relay (S, R) J3 T17 Terminal 1 Engine stop solenoid relay K3

M31 KES 2 Windshield washer C8 T31 Terminal 1 Safety relay (Terminal B) K3

M32 DT 2 Travel/Swing alarm J2 T32 Terminal 1 Safety relay (Terminal C) L5

M35 L 2 Junction wiring harness K1 T33 Terminal 1 Starting motor (Terminal B) L7

M36 DT 2 Engine stop solenoid J2 T34 Terminal 1 Starting motor (Terminal C) L6

M71 M 2 Room light J9 W04 M 6 Wiper motor M5

M73 M 2 Speaker (Left) J9 W19 2 Cigarette lighter M5

M75 DT 2 Working lamp D9 B Terminal 1 Starting switch (Terminal B) M9

M80 040 2 Horn M2 BR Terminal 1 Starting switch (Terminal BR) M8

Boom bottom pressure sen- Starting switch (Terminal


M92 DT 3 D2 ACC Terminal 1 M8
sor (*1) ACC)

M95 DRC23 24 Controller R8 C Terminal 1 Starting switch (Terminal C) M9

M96 DRC23 40 Controller Q8 R1 Terminal 1 Starting switch (Terminal R1) N8

M97 DRC23 40 Controller Q8 R2 Terminal 1 Starting switch (Terminal R2) N8

Boom swing angle potenti-


M101 DT 3 F1
ometer

P01 040 12 Monitor panel M6

P02 P040 20 Monitor panel M6

*1. For EU spec. machine only.

PC78MR-6 20-215
(1)
TROUBLESHOOTING CONNECTOR ARRANGEMENT DIAGRAM

CONNECTOR ARRANGEMENT DIAGRAM


*1. For EU spec. machine only.

20-216 PC78MR-6
(1)
TROUBLESHOOTING CONNECTOR ARRANGEMENT DIAGRAM

PC78MR-6 20-217
(1)
TROUBLESHOOTING CONNECTOR ARRANGEMENT DIAGRAM

*1. For EU spec. machine only.

20-218 PC78MR-6
(1)
TROUBLESHOOTING CONNECTION TABLE FOR CONNECTOR PIN NUMBERS

CONNECTION TABLE FOR CONNECTOR PIN NUMBERS


a The terms male and female refer to the pins while the terms male housing and female housing refer to the
mating portion of the housing.

Num- X-Type Connector


ber of T-adapter Part
Pins Male (Female Housing) Female (Male Housing)
Number
1 Part Number: 08055-00181 Part Number: 08055-00191 799-601-7010

BWP04702
2 799-601-7020

Part Number: 08055-00282 Part Number: 08055-00292

BWP04703
3 BWP04704 799-601-7030

Part Number: 08055-00381 Part Number: 08055-00391

BWP04705
4 BWP04706 799-601-7040

Part Number: 08055-00481 Part Number: 08055-00491


Terminal part number: 79A-222-3370 Terminal part number: 79A-222-3390
Wire size: 0.85 Wire size: 0.85

Grommet: black Grommet: black
Quantity: 20 pieces Quantity: 20 pieces
Terminal part number: 79A-222-3380 Terminal part number: 79A-222-3410
Wire size: 2.0 Wire size: 2.0

Grommet: red Grommet: red
Quantity: 20 pieces Quantity: 20 pieces

PC78MR-6 20-219
TROUBLESHOOTING CONNECTION TABLE FOR CONNECTOR PIN NUMBERS

Num- SWP-Type Connector


ber of T-adapter Part
Pins Male (Female Housing) Female (Male Housing)
Number

BWP04707
6 799-601-7050

Part Number: 08055-10681 Part Number: 08055-10691

BWP04709 BWP04710
8 799-601-7060

Part Number: 08055-10881 Part Number: 08055-10891

BWP04711
BWP04712
12 799-601-7310

Part Number: 08055-11281 Part Number: 08055-11291

BWP04713 BWP04714
14 799-601-7070

Part Number: 08055-11481 Part Number: 08055-11491

20-220 PC78MR-6
TROUBLESHOOTING CONNECTION TABLE FOR CONNECTOR PIN NUMBERS

Num- SWP-Type Connector


ber of T-adapter Part
Pins Male (Female Housing) Female (Male Housing)
Number

BWP04715
16 BWP04716 799-601-7320

Part Number: 08055-11681 Part Number: 08055-11691


Terminal part number: Terminal part number:
Wire size: 0.85 Wire size: 0.85

Grommet: black Grommet: black
Quantity: 20 pieces Quantity: 20 pieces
Terminal part number: Terminal part number:
Wire size: 1.25 Wire size: 1.25

Grommet: red Grommet: red
Quantity: 20 pieces Quantity: 20 pieces

PC78MR-6 20-221
TROUBLESHOOTING CONNECTION TABLE FOR CONNECTOR PIN NUMBERS

Num- M-Type Connector


ber of T-adapter Part
Pins Male (Female Housing) Female (Male Housing)
Number
1 Part Number: 08056-00171 Part Number: 08056-00181 799-601-7080

BWP04718
2 BWP04717 799-601-7090

Part Number: 08056-00271 Part Number: 08056-00281

3 BWP04719 BWP04720 799-601-7110

Part Number: 08056-00371 Part Number: 08056-00381

4 BWP04721 BWP04722 799-601-7120

Part Number: 08056-00471 Part Number: 08056-00481

6 BWP04723 BWP04724 799-601-7130

Part Number: 08056-00671 Part Number: 08056-00681

8 799-601-7340
BWP04725 BWP04726

Part Number: 08056-00871 Part Number: 08056-00881

20-222 PC78MR-6
TROUBLESHOOTING CONNECTION TABLE FOR CONNECTOR PIN NUMBERS

Num- S-Type Connector


ber of T-adapter Part
Pins Male (Female Housing) Female (Male Housing)
Number

BWP04728
8 BWP04727 799-601-7140

Part Number: 08056-10871 Part Number: 08056-10881

10 BWP04729 BWP04730
(White) 799-601-7150

Part Number: 08056-11071 Part Number: 08056-11081

12 BWP04731 BWP04732 799-601-7350


(White)

Part Number: 08056-11271 Part Number: 08056-11281

16 BWP04733 BWP04734 799-601-7330


(White)

Part Number: 08056-11671 Part Number: 08056-11681

PC78MR-6 20-223
TROUBLESHOOTING CONNECTION TABLE FOR CONNECTOR PIN NUMBERS

Num- S-Type Connector


ber of T-adapter Part
Pins Male (Female Housing) Female (Male Housing)
Number

BWP04736
10 BWP04735
(Blue)

12 BWP04737 BWP04738
(Blue) 799-601-7160

Part Number: 08056-11272 Part Number: 08056-11282

16 BWP04739 BWP04740 799-601-7170


(Blue)

Part Number: 08056-11672 Part Number: 08056-11682

20-224 PC78MR-6
TROUBLESHOOTING CONNECTION TABLE FOR CONNECTOR PIN NUMBERS

Num- MIC-Type Connector


ber of T-adapter Part
Pins Male (Female Housing) Female (Male Housing)
Number
Body Part Number: 79A-222-2640 Body Part Number: 79A-222-2630
7
(Quantity: 5 pieces) (Quantity: 5 pieces)

11 Body Part Number: 79A-222-2680 Body Part Number: 79A-222-2670


(Quantity: 5 pieces) (Quantity: 5 pieces)

BWP04742
BWP04741
5 799-601-2710

Body Part Number: 79A-222-2620 Body Part Number: 79A-222-2610


(Quantity: 5 pieces) (Quantity: 5 pieces)

BWP04743 BWP04744
9 799-601-2950

Body Part Number: 79A-222-2660 Body Part Number: 79A-222-2650


(Quantity: 5 pieces) (Quantity: 5 pieces)

BWP04745 BWP04746
13 799-601-2720

Body Part Number: 79A-222-2710 Body Part Number: 79A-222-2690


(Quantity: 5 pieces) (Quantity: 5 pieces)

PC78MR-6 20-225
TROUBLESHOOTING CONNECTION TABLE FOR CONNECTOR PIN NUMBERS

Num- MIC-Type Connector


ber of T-adapter Part
Pins Male (Female Housing) Female (Male Housing)
Number

BWP04748
BWP04747
17 799-601-2730

Body Part Number: 79A-222-2730 Body Part Number: 79A-222-2720


(Quantity: 2 pieces) (Quantity: 2 pieces)

BWP04749 BWP04750
21 799-601-2740

Body Part Number: 79A-222-2750 Body Part Number: 79A-222-2740


(Quantity: 2 pieces) (Quantity: 2 pieces)
Body Part Number: 79A-222-2770 Body Part Number: 79A-222-2760

(Quantity: 50 pieces) (Quantity: 50 pieces)

20-226 PC78MR-6
TROUBLESHOOTING CONNECTION TABLE FOR CONNECTOR PIN NUMBERS

Num- AMP040-Type Connector


ber of T-adapter Part
Pins Male (Female Housing) Female (Male Housing)
Number

BWP04752
8 BWP04751 799-601-7180

Housing Part Number: 79A-222-3430

12 BWP04753 BWP047544 799-601-7190

Housing Part Number: 79A-222-3440

16 BWP04755 BWP04756 799-601-7210

Housing Part Number: 79A-222-3450

20 BWP04757 BWP04758 799-601-7220

Housing Part Number: 79A-222-3460

PC78MR-6 20-227
TROUBLESHOOTING CONNECTION TABLE FOR CONNECTOR PIN NUMBERS

AMP070-Type Connector
Num-
ber of
Pins Male (Female Housing) Female (Male Housing) T-adapter Part
Number

BWP04760
10 BWP04759 799-601-7510

Part Number: 08195-10210

12 BWP04761 BWP04762 799-601-7520

Part Number: 08195-12210

14 BWP04763 BWP04764 799-601-7530

Part Number: 08195-14210

18 BWP04765 BWP04766 799-601-7540

Part Number: 08195-18210

20 BWP04767 BWP04768 799-601-7550

Part Number: 08195-20210

20-228 PC78MR-6
TROUBLESHOOTING CONNECTION TABLE FOR CONNECTOR PIN NUMBERS

Num- L-Type Connector


ber of T-adapter Part
Pins Male (Female Housing) Female (Male Housing)
Number

BWP04770
2 BWP04769

Num- PA-Type Connector


ber of T-adapter Part
Pins Male (Female Housing) Female (Male Housing) Number

BWP04772
9 BWP04771

Num- BENDIX MS-Type Connector


ber of T-adapter Part
Pins Male (Female Housing) Female (Male Housing)
Number

BWP04774
10 BWP04773 799-601-3460

PC78MR-6 20-229
TROUBLESHOOTING CONNECTION TABLE FOR CONNECTOR PIN NUMBERS

Num- KES1 Automobile-Type Connector


ber of T-adapter Part
Pins Male (Female Housing) Female (Male Housing)
Number

BWP04776
BWP04775
2

Part Number: 08027-10210 (Natural color) Part Number: 08027-10260 (Natural color)
08027-10220 (Black) 08027-10270 (Black)

3 BWP04777 BWP04778

Part Number: 08027-10310 Part Number: 08027-10360

BWP04779 BWP04780
4

Part Number: 08027-10410 (Natural color) Part Number: 08027-10460 (Natural color)
08027-10420 (Black) 08027-10470 (Black)

BWP04781 BWP04782
6

Part Number: 08027-10610 (Natural color) Part Number: 08027-10660 (Natural color)
08027-10620 (Black) 08027-10670 (Black)

20-230 PC78MR-6
TROUBLESHOOTING CONNECTION TABLE FOR CONNECTOR PIN NUMBERS

Num- KES1 Automobile-Type Connector


ber of T-adapter Part
Pins Male (Female Housing) Female (Male Housing)
Number

BWP04784
BWP04783
8

Part Number: 08027-10810 (Natural color) Part Number: 08027-10860 (Natural color)
08027-10820 (Black) 08027-10870 (Black)

PC78MR-6 20-231
TROUBLESHOOTING CONNECTION TABLE FOR CONNECTOR PIN NUMBERS

Num- Socket-Type Connector for Relay


ber of T-adapter Part
Pins Male (Female Housing) Female (Male Housing)
Number

BWP04786
5 BWP04785 799-601-7360

BWP04788
6 BWP04787 799-601-7370

20-232 PC78MR-6
TROUBLESHOOTING CONNECTION TABLE FOR CONNECTOR PIN NUMBERS

Num- F-Type Connector


ber of T-adapter Part
Pins Male (Female Housing) Female (Male Housing)
Number

BWP04786
BWP04785
4

PC78MR-6 20-233
TROUBLESHOOTING CONNECTION TABLE FOR CONNECTOR PIN NUMBERS

The pin number is also marked on the connector (Electric wire insertion end).

Type HD30 Series Connector


(Shell
Size T-adapter Part
Body (Plug) Body (Receptacle)
Code) Number
Pin (Male Terminal) Pin (Female Terminal)

Part Number: 08191-11201, 08191-11202, Part Number: 08191-14101, 08191-14102,


08191-11205, 08191-11206 08191-14105, 08191-14106
18-8
Pin (Female Terminal) Pin (Male Terminal) 799-601-9210
(1)

Part Number: 08191-12201, 08191-12202, Part Number: 08191-13101, 08191-13102,


08191-12205, 08191-12206 08191-13105, 08191-13106
Pin (Male Terminal) Pin (Female Terminal)

Part Number: 08191-21201, 08191-12202, Part Number: 08191-24101, 08191-24102,


18-14 08191-21205, 08191-12206 08191-24105, 08191-24106
799-601-9220
(2) Pin (Female Terminal) Pin (Male Terminal)

Part Number: 08191-22201, 08191-22202 Part Number: 08191-23101, 08191-23102,


08191-22205, 08191-22206 08191-23105, 08191-23106

20-234 PC78MR-6
TROUBLESHOOTING CONNECTION TABLE FOR CONNECTOR PIN NUMBERS

The pin number is also marked on the connector (Electric wire insertion end).

Type HD30 Series Connector


(Shell
Size T-adapter Part
Body (Plug) Body (Receptacle)
Code) Number
Pin (Male Terminal) Pin (Female Terminal)

18-20 Part Number: 08191-31201, 08191-31202 Part Number: 08191-34101, 08191-34102


(3) 799-601-9230
Pin (Female Terminal) Pin (Male Terminal)

Part Number: 08191-32201, 08191-32202 Part Number: 08191-33101, 08191-33102


Pin (Male Terminal) Pin (Female Terminal)

18-21 Part Number: 08191-41201, 08191-42202 Part Number: 08191-44101, 08191-44102


(4) 799-601-9240
Pin (Female Terminal) Pin (Male Terminal)

Part Number: 08191-42201, 08191-42202 Part Number: 08191-43101, 08191-43102

PC78MR-6 20-235
TROUBLESHOOTING CONNECTION TABLE FOR CONNECTOR PIN NUMBERS

The pin number is also marked on the connector (Electric wire insertion end).

Type HD30 Series Connector


(Shell
Size T-adapter Part
Body (Plug) Body (Receptacle)
Code) Number
Pin (Male Terminal) Pin (Female Terminal)

Part Number: 08191-51201, 08191-51202 Part Number: 08191-54101, 08191-54102


24-9 (5) 799-601-9250
Pin (Female Terminal) Pin (Male Terminal)

Part Number: 08191-52201, 08191-52202 Part Number: 08191-53101, 08191-53102


Pin (Male Terminal) Pin (Female Terminal)

Part Number: 08191-61201, 08191-62202, Part Number: 08191-64101, 08191-64102,


24-16 08191-61205, 08191-62206 08191-64105, 08191-64106
799-601-9260
(6) Pin (Female Terminal) Pin (Male Terminal)

Part Number: 08191-62201, 08191-62202, Part Number: 08191-63101, 08191-63102,


08191-62205, 08191-62206 08191-63105, 08191-63106

20-236 PC78MR-6
TROUBLESHOOTING CONNECTION TABLE FOR CONNECTOR PIN NUMBERS

The pin number is also marked on the connector (Electric wire insertion end).

Type HD30 Series Connector


(Shell
Size T-adapter Part
Body (Plug) Body (Receptacle)
Code) Number
Pin (Male Terminal) Pin (Female Terminal)

Part Number: 08191-74101, 08191-74102, 08191-


Part Number: 08191-71201, 08191-71202,
74105,
24-21 08191-71205, 08191-71206 08191-74106
(7) 799-601-9270
Pin (Female Terminal) Pin (Male Terminal)

Part Number: 08191-72201, 08191-72202, Part Number: 08191-73101, 08191-73102,


08191-72205, 08191-72206 08191-73105, 08191-73106
Pin (Male Terminal) Pin (Female Terminal)

Part Number: 08191-81201, 08191-81202, 08191- Part Number: 08191-84101, 08191-84102, 08191-
24-22 81203, 08191-81204, 08191-81205, 08191-81206 84103, 08191-84104, 08191-84105, 08191-84106
799-601-9280
(8) Pin (Female Terminal) Pin (Male Terminal)

Part Number: 08191-82201, 08191-82202, 08191- Part Number: 08191-83101, 08191-83102, 08191-
82203, 08191-82204, 08191-82205, 08191-82206 83103, 08191-83104, 08191-83105, 08191-83106

PC78MR-6 20-237
TROUBLESHOOTING CONNECTION TABLE FOR CONNECTOR PIN NUMBERS

The pin number is also marked on the connector (Electric wire insertion end).

Type HD30 Series Connector


(Shell
Size T-adapter Part
Body (Plug) Body (Receptacle)
Code) Number
Pin (Male Terminal) Pin (Female Terminal)

Part Number: 08191-91203, 08191-91204, Part Number: 08191-94103, 08191-94104,


24-31 08191-91205, 08191-91206 08191-94105,08191-94106
799-601-9290
(9) Pin (Female Terminal) Pin (Male Terminal)

Part Number: 08191-92203, 08191-92204, Part Number: 08191-93103, 08191-93104,


08191-92205, 08191-92206 08191-93105, 08191-93106

20-238 PC78MR-6
TROUBLESHOOTING CONNECTION TABLE FOR CONNECTOR PIN NUMBERS

The pin number is also marked on the connector (Electric wire insertion end).

No. DT Series Connector


of T-adapter Part
Pins Body (Plug) Body (Receptacle)
Number

2 799-601-9020

Part Number: 08192-12200 (Normal type) Part Number: 08192-12100 (Normal type)
08192-22200 (Fine wire type) 08192-22100 (Fine wire type)

3 799-601-9030

Part Number: 08192-13200 (Normal type) Part Number: 08192-13100 (Normal type)
08192-23200 (Fine wire type) 08192-23100 (Fine wire type)

4 799-601-9040

Part Number: 08192-14200 (Normal type) Part Number: 08192-14100 (Normal type)
08192-24200 (Fine wire type) 08192-24100 (Fine wire type)

6 799-601-9050

Part Number: 08192-16200 (Normal type) Part Number: 08192-16100 (Normal type)
08192-26200 (Fine wire type) 08192-26100 (Fine wire type)

PC78MR-6 20-239
TROUBLESHOOTING CONNECTION TABLE FOR CONNECTOR PIN NUMBERS

No. DT Series Connector


of T-adapter Part
Pins Body (Plug) Body (Receptacle)
Number

8GR:799-601-9060
8B:799-601-9070
8
8G:799-601-9080
8BR:799-601-9080

Part Number: 08192-1820T (Normal type) Part Number: 08192-1810T (Normal type)
08192-2820T (Fine wire type) 08192-2810T (Fine wire type)

12GR:799-601-9110
12B:799-601-9120
12 12G:799-601-9130
12BR:799-601-9140

Part Number: 08192-1920T (Normal type) Part Number: 08192-1910T (Normal type)
08192-2920T (Fine wire type) 08192-2910T (Fine wire type)

20-240 PC78MR-6
TROUBLESHOOTING CONNECTION TABLE FOR CONNECTOR PIN NUMBERS

The pin number is also marked on the connector (Electric wire insertion end).

No. DTM Series Connector


of T-adapter Part
Pins Body (Plug) Body (Receptacle)
Number

2 799-601-9000

Part Number: 08192-02200 Part Number: 08192-02100

The pin number is also marked on the connector (Electric wire insertion end).

No. DTHD Series Connector


of T-adapter Part
Pins Body (Plug) Body (Receptacle)
Number

Part Number: 08192-31200 (Contact size #12) Part Number: 08192-31100 (Contact size #12)
08192-41200 (Contact size #8) 08192-41100 (Contact size #8)
08192-51200 (Contact size #4) 08192-51100 (Contact size #4)

PC78MR-6 20-241
(1)
TROUBLESHOOTING EXPLANATION OF FUNCTIONS OF ELECTRIC SYSTEM CONTROL MECHANISM

EXPLANATION OF FUNCTIONS OF ELECTRIC SYSTEM


CONTROL MECHANISM
Machine model: PC78MR-6

The control mechanism of the electric system consists of the monitor panel, governor, and pump controller.
Those components receive signals necessary to them. The governor and pump controller output or input the
necessary signal according to the signals selected by the monitor panel to control the absorption torque, engine
output, etc.

Network information

1) Working mode (Standard, E) information (Monitor panel o Controller)


2) One-touch slow-down (ON/OFF) signal (Monitor panel i Controller)
3) Travel Hi/Lo signal (Monitor panel i Controller)
4) Coolant temperature (Water temperature) information (Monitor panel o Controller)

*1. For EU spec. machine only.

20-242 PC78MR-6
(1)
TROUBLESHOOTING DISPLAY AND SPECIAL FUNCTIONS OF MONITOR PANEL

DISPLAY AND SPECIAL FUNCTIONS OF MONITOR PANEL


1. Diagnostic function of lamps, gauges, and buzzer

If the starting switch is turned ON, all the lamps and gauges light up for about 3 seconds and the buzzer
sounds for about 1 second to check the monitor panel, then the monitor panel displays normally (A lamp
which does not light up at this time is broken).

2. Function of displaying "user code"

All trouble information items of the controller are sent to the monitor panel. An emergent information item
among them is displayed as a "user code" automatically on the display (1) of the monitor panel to urge the
operator to take proper actions.

a The lamps other than display (1), service meter unit (2), and lighting parts (solid parts in the following illus-
tration) are turned OFF.

1) Display of User Code


(1) Display
(2) Service meter unit
(3) Mode selector switch (UP)
(4) Mode selector switch (DOWN)
(5) Set switch
(6) Travel speed selector switch
(7) Working mode selector switch
(8) Buzzer cancel switch
Note) Although switches are not indicated on
3, 4, and 5 of the panel, the functions
are installed to the parts at the tips of
the arrows.

Example) User code "E02" is displayed.

2) User Codes List


User Code Abnormal system
E02 TVC-EPC system
E03 Swing holding brake system
E05 Governor control system
E40 Angle sensor input system
E41 EPC solenoid output system

PC78MR-6 20-243
TROUBLESHOOTING DISPLAY AND SPECIAL FUNCTIONS OF MONITOR PANEL

3. Function of displaying "service code"

All trouble information items of the controller are sent to the monitor panel. All of the information items which
must display "user codes" and those which do not need display "user codes" are saved as "service codes"
in the monitor panel.

If the following operation is executed, the service code is displayed on the display of the monitor panel and
the letter "E" to indicate that the trouble is happening currently and the lapse time (service meter reading)
are displayed on the service meter unit.

1) Method of displaying and deleting service


(1) Display (5) Set switch
code
(2) Service meter unit (6) Travel speed switch
i) The service code is displayed by the fol-
(3) Mode selector switch (7) Working mode
lowing procedure:
(UP) selector switch
(1) Push and hold the "Buzzer cancel
(4) Mode selector switch (8) Buzzer cancel
switch (8)" and "Working mode selec-
(DOWN) switch
tor switch (7)" for 2.5 seconds.
(2) Push the "Buzzer cancel switch (8)"
and "Mode selector switch (UP) (3)"
[or Mode selector switch (DOWN)
(4)] and set "01" tothe 2nd and 3rd
columns from the left on service
meter unit (2).

(3) Push the "Set switch (5)".

Note) Although switches are not indicated on


3, 4, and 5 of the panel, the functions
are installed to the parts at the tips of
the arrows.
Example 1) "01" is displayed on service
meter unit (2).

Example 2) "E213" happened 6 hours


ago.
a If "E213" is still happening, the letter
"E" is displayed in the 2nd column of
service meter unit (2). If "E213" has
been repaired, "E" is not displayed.
a The lapse time is displayed in the 3
columns from the right of service
meter unit (2).

20-244 PC78MR-6
TROUBLESHOOTING DISPLAY AND SPECIAL FUNCTIONS OF MONITOR PANEL

Example 3) If any service code is not iv) To stop display of the service code, push
saved, "-" is displayed in the "Buzzer c ancel switch (8)" and
every column of display (1) "Working mode selector switch (7)".
and service meter unit (2). v) To delete the saved service codes, press
ii) To see the next displayed service code, the "Buzzer cancel switch (8)" and turn
push the "Buzzer cancel switch (8)" and OFF the "starting switch" simultaneously,
"Mode selector switch (UP)" (3). then turn ON the "starting switch" again
iii) To see the previous displayed service and push and hold the "Buzzer cancel
code, push the "Buzzer cancel switch (8)" switch (8)" for 5 seconds.
and "Mode selector switch (DOWN) (4)". a If the number of service codes
exceeds 20, they are deleted one by
one from the oldest one.

2) Service codes list


Error Code Abnormal System User Code
E101 Error history data are abnormal
E108 Engine coolant temperature is 105C
E112 Short circuit in forward system of wiper motor drive
E113 Short circuit in reverse system of wiper motor drive
E114 Short circuit in windshield washer drive system
E115 Wiper does not start wiping in 10 seconds
E116 Wiper is not retracted in 10 seconds
E203 Short circuit or grounding fault in swing holding brake solenoid system E03
E206 Short circuit or grounding fault in 2nd travel speed selection solenoid system E03
E213 Disconnection in swing holding brake solenoid system
E216 Disconnection in 2nd travel speed selection solenoid system
E218 Abnormality in communication between monitor panel and controller
E227 Short circuit or grounding fault in engine speed sensor system
E232 Short circuit or grounding fault in TVC-EPC Solenoid system E02
E233 Disconnection in TVC-EPC Solenoid system E02
Short circuit with chassis ground or disconnection on boom bottom pressure sen-
(*1) E251
sor (overload sensor) signal side or (+) side or disconnection on (-) side.
E258 Grounding fault on power source side of angle sensors
E304 Short circuit or grounding fault in engine stop solenoid relay system
E314 Disconnection in engine stop solenoid relay system
E323 Grounding fault in governor control accelerator relays system E05
E325 Grounding fault in governor control decelerator relays system E05
E328 Abnormality in governor control motor stal E05
E412 Abnormality in boom swing angle sensor (Short circuit in power supply) E40
E413 Abnormality in boom swing angle sensor (Disconnection) E40
E414 Defective correction of boom swing angle sensor
E451 Short circuit in boom swing LEFT stop EPC system E41
E452 Disconnection in boom swing LEFT stop EPC system E41
E453 Short circuit in boom swing RIGHT stop EPC system E41
E454 Disconnection in boom swing RIGHT stop EPC system E41
E501 Machine model not set
E502 Defective machine model selection signal
*1. For EU spec. machine only.

PC78MR-6 20-245
(1)
TROUBLESHOOTING DISPLAY AND SPECIAL FUNCTIONS OF MONITOR PANEL

4. Function of displaying "monitoring code"

The input signals from the sensors to each component and the output signals to drive the solenoids can be
checked in real time with the monitoring codes.

If the following operation is executed, the monitoring code No. is displayed in the 3rd column through the 5th
column from the left on service meter unit (2) of the monitor panel and the monitoring information is dis-
played on display (1).

1) Method of displaying monitoring code


(1) Display (5) Set switch
i) The monitoring code is displayed by the
(2) Service meter unit (6) Travel speed switch
following procedure:
(3) Mode selector switch (7) Working mode
(1) Push and hold the "Buzzer cancel
(UP) selector switch
switch (8)" and "Working switch (7)"
(4) Mode selector switch (8) Buzzer cancel
for 2.5 seconds.
(DOWN) switch
(2) Push the "Buzzer cancel switch (8)"
and "Mode selector switch (UP) (3)"
[or Mode selector switch (DOWN)
(4)] and set "02" to the 2nd and 3rd
columns from the left on display (2).
(3) Push the "Set switch (5)".
Note) Although switches are not indicated on
3, 4, and 5 of the panel, the functions
are installed to the parts at the tips of
the arrows.

Example 1) A numerical monitoring


code (Engine speed: 2,050
rpm) is displayed.

Example 2) A bit pattern monitoring code


1020 (ON/OFF input state (1)) is
displayed.

20-246 PC78MR-6
TROUBLESHOOTING DISPLAY AND SPECIAL FUNCTIONS OF MONITOR PANEL

ii) To see the next displayed monitoring


code, push the "Buzzer cancel switch (8)"
and "Mode selector switch (UP) (3)".
iii) To see the previous displayed monitoring
code, push the "Buzzer cancel switch (8)"
and "Mode selector switch (DOWN) (4)".
iv) To stop display of the monitoring code,
push and hold the "Buzzer cancel switch
(8)" and "Working mode selector switch
(5)" for 2.5 seconds.

2) Monitoring codes list


a For details of a code marked with "(6 bit)" in the Unit column, see the bit patterns table.
Compo-
Code No. Item Unit
nent Name
0001 Monitor model code - Controller
0008 S-NET connection state (6bit) Controller
0041 Water temperature sensor voltage 10 mA Controller
0042 Fuel level sensor voltage 10 mA Controller
0043 Charge voltage 100 mA Controller
0045 Sensor input 1 (6bit) Controller
0046 Sensor input 2 (6bit) Controller
0047 Output state (6bit) Controller
0048 Wiper state (6bit) Controller
0049 Spare Controller
0200 Software version No. (Monitor) Controller
Software version No. If 1.0 is displayed, version No. of control-
1000 Controller
(Controller) ler is 1.0.
1001 Attachment selection 00: Standard arm Controller
1010 Engine speed 10 rpm Controller
1020 ON/OFF input 1 (6bit) Controller
1021 ON/OFF input 2 (6bit) Controller
1022 ON/OFF input 3 (6bit) Controller
1023 ON/OFF input 4 (6bit) Controller
1024 ON/OFF input/output (6bit) Controller
1025 ON/OFF input/output (6bit) Controller
1026 ON/OFF input/output (6bit) Controller
1033 Boom swing angle sensor voltage V Controller
1050 EPC output current (TVC) 10 mA Controller
EPC output current
1052 If 55 is displayed, current is 55 mA. If cur- 10 mA Controller
(Boom swing LEFT stop)
rent is 1 A, however, FF is displayed.
EPC output current
1053 10 mA Controller
(Boom swing RIGHT stop)
1060 ON/OFF output (6bit) Controller

PC78MR-6 20-247
TROUBLESHOOTING DISPLAY AND SPECIAL FUNCTIONS OF MONITOR PANEL

3) Bit patterns list (Bits of corresponding Nos.


light up)
a [1] - [6] on digital display unit (1) are bit
Nos.
a The monitoring code No. (4 digits) is dis-
played in the 2nd column through 5th col-
umn from the left on service meter
display unit (2).

Code No. Item Bit Details (State When Bit Lights Up)
(1) ID2 is connected.
(2) ID3 is connected.
(3) ID4 is connected.
0008 S-NET connection state
(4) ID5 is connected.
(5) ID6 is connected.
(6) ID7 is connected.
(1) Starting switch is at "ON"
(2) Starting switch is at "START"
0045 Sensor input 1
(3) Starting switch is at "PREHEAT"
(4) Light switch is at "ON"
(2) Constant bit
0046 Sensor input 2 (3) Engine oil pressure (When low)
(6) Charge level is low (Engine is stopped)
0047 State of output (1) Buzzer output
(2) Washer output (Washer switch is turned ON)
(3) Wiper output 1
0048 State of wiper (4) Wiper output 2
(5) Wiper output 3
(6) Wiper output 4
(2) Buzzer cancel switch
(3) Window limit switch (ON)
0049 Spare
(4) W contact (Wiper is operated)
(5) P contact (Wiper is operated)
(1) ATT selection 2 (GND is connected)
ON/OFF input 1 (2) ATT selection 1 (GND is connected)
For detail of model (3) Model selection 1 (GND is connected)
1020 selection, see Table 1.
For detail of ATT selec- (4) ATT selection 3 (GND is connected)
tion, see Table 2. (5) UU/US selection (GND is connected)
(6) Model selection 2 (GND is connected)
(1) MR selection (GND in connected)
(3) Compressor signal
1021 ON/OFF input 2
(4)
(5) (a) Tier 2 selection signal (When power source is connected)

20-248 PC78MR-6
TROUBLESHOOTING DISPLAY AND SPECIAL FUNCTIONS OF MONITOR PANEL

Code No. Item Bit Details (State When Bit Lights Up)
(1) 2nd travel speed selection switch (Panel)
(2) Working mode selector switch
(3) Backup light
1022 ON/OFF input 3
(4) SET/CLEAR switch
(5) Mode selector (E) switch
(6) Mode selector (R) switch
(3) Travel pressure switch
(4) Swing pressure switch
1023 ON/OFF input 4
(5) Arm IN pressure switch
(6) Boom RAISE pressure switch
(1) Deceleration signal
(2) Acceleration signal
(3) Motor drive power supply
1024 ON/OFF input/output
(4) Auto deceleration signal
(5) Motor relay (-)
(6) Motor relay (+)
(1)
(2) Display selector switch (Monitor)
1025 ON/OFF input/output
(3) Arm ground angle alarm cancel switch
(6) Bucket dump prohibition solenoid + Rotary lamp
(1) Deceleration switch
(2) Alarm cancel
1026 ON/OFF input/output (3) Emergency work equipment operation switch
(4) 2nd travel speed selection switch (Pedal)
(5) Slide arm limit switch
(1) Swing holding brake switch (Brake is released)
(2) PPC main pressure lock (Main pressure lock is reset)
1060 ON/OFF input/output 2nd travel speed is selected (Machine travels at 2nd gear
(4)
speed)
(5) Travel/Swing alarm (Alarm is output)

PC78MR-6 20-249
TROUBLESHOOTING DISPLAY AND SPECIAL FUNCTIONS OF MONITOR PANEL

Table 1
Model selection table
Model Selection 1 Model Selection 2

PC78MR-6 GND OPEN

Table 2
1:Connection of the attachment selection wires is shown.
(The bits of GND are displayed during normal operation.)

Connection table of attachment selection wires


Attachment Attachment Selection (1) Attachment Selection (2) Attachment Selection (3)
Standard specification
Standard arm GND OPEN OPEN

20-250 PC78MR-6
TROUBLESHOOTING DISPLAY AND SPECIAL FUNCTIONS OF MONITOR PANEL

Procedure for correcting angle sensor


Back mode (When SP monitor is used)
Table 2 Method of selecting back mode and ordinary display
Back Mode
01 02 06
Mode
Code These modes are set to 2 levels (Note 8)
Emergency Error
(Note 3) Trouble Error Correction Previous Memory
Next Item
(Note 4) Memory Monitoring of potenti- Item Deletion
(Note 6)
Display ometer (Note 6)
PC78MR-6 Q Q Q
B Buzzer cancel Q Q Q Q Q Q
Working mode
a
selection
b Travel
c SET/CLEAR Q Q Q
d Model selection (E) Q
e Model selection (R) Q
Wiper selection
Washer
Continuous opera-
2.5 5 (Note 1)
tion time (SEC)
Note 1) Limited to 5 seconds after the power is turned ON.
Note 3) Displayed on the service meter unit.
Note 4) A flag from the controller is a trigger.
Note 6) Used to save monitoring error.
Note 8) Select with Buzzer cancel + Working mode selection. Select next or previous items with Buzzer can-
cel + E/R. Enter each mode with the SET/CLEAR switch.
Since the suitches "c, d and e" are not indicated on the panel of model MR, operate the same parts as
the panel of model MR.

PC78MR-6 20-251
TROUBLESHOOTING DISPLAY AND SPECIAL FUNCTIONS OF MONITOR PANEL

"06" Correction of boom swing angle sensor


The stroke end is saved for initial setting of each cylinder (portion where the angle sensor is installed).
No. Operation Display
(1) Set the starting switch to the ON position or run the "S-1" is displayed on the display section.
engine, and then hold warning buzzer cancel switch (B)
and working mode selector switch (a) for 2.5 seconds or
longer.
1
(2) Set the code of the service meter section to "06".
(B) + (d): Increase code.
(B) + (e): Decrease code.
(3) Press switch (c).
Set the machine in "position 1" and press switch (c). After switch (c) is pressed, "ooo" is displayed, and
(Position 1) then "S-2" is displayed on the display section.
Boom swing RIGHT end
When normal

If the system is not reset normally, " " flashes. When abnormal

Set the machine in "position 2" and press switch (c). After switch (c) is pressed, "ooo" is displayed, and
(Position 2) then " " is displayed on the display section.
Boom swing LEFT end When normal

(Completion of setting)
3

If the system is not reset normally, " " flashes.


When abnormal
(Flashing)

To finish monitoring, perform the operation of 1-(1), and the


4
monitor panel returns to the ordinary display state.
a If the system is not reset normally, the data UU monitor panel
before writing are deleted and the initial data are
applied. Accordingly, be sure to reset again.
* Although switches are not indicated on 3, 4,
and 5 of the panel, the functions are installed
to the parts at the tips of the arrows.

B: The buzzer cancel switch is installed to the right


console.

20-252 PC78MR-6
TROUBLESHOOTING DISPLAY AND SPECIAL FUNCTIONS OF MONITOR PANEL

"20" How to improve exhaust gas color at high altitude


Adjust the TVC current in this mode to reduce the pump absorption torque and improve the exhaust gas
color at high altitude.
a The work equipment speed, travel speed, and swing speed are lowered by the following operation.
a The following operation is not necessary for the normal work.
No. Operation Display
1) Turn the starting switch ON or run the engine and hold
buzzer cancel switch (B), travel speed shifting switch (b),
and switch (c) for 2.5 seconds.
2) Adjustment code (3) is displayed (flashed) at the left 2
positions and set value (4) is displayed (lighted) at the
1 right 1 position on display unit (1). "5-5E7" (S-SET) is dis-
played on service meter unit (2).
Although switches are not indicated on b, c, and d of the
panel, the functions are installed to the parts at the tips of
the arrows.

Adjustment code "20" flashes. Set the adjustment code with


switch (c).
2
The flashing adjustment code lights up.
The lighting set value flashes.
Increase or decrease the set value with switches (d) or (e)
and set it with switch (c).
(d): Code is increased.
(e): Code is decreased.
3
The lighting adjustment code flashes again.
The flashing set value lights up again.
For details of the adjustment code and set value, see the
TVC valve current adjustment table.
To finish adjustment of the TVC valve current, perform Step Change of setting is completed.
1-1), and the monitor panel returns to the normal display
state.
4 The set value is saved when the monitor panel returns to
the normal display state.
[ 1] Flashing: Code/Set value can be changed.
Caution: If the mode is reset forcibly by turning the starting
[ 2] Lighting: Code is selected/set.
switch OFF, the set value is not changed.
To initialize the set value of the TVC valve current adjustment
mode, set the adjustment code and the set value to "40" and
5 "1" respectively with switches (d) and (e), and then finish the
adjustment mode.

Note) If switch (d) or (e) is pressed at Step 2, the UU monitor panel


adjustment code changes. Accordingly, do
not press those switches.

B: The buzzer cancel switch is installed to the right


console.

PC78MR-6 20-253
TROUBLESHOOTING TVC VALVE CURRENT ADJUSTMENT TABLE

TVC VALVE CURRENT ADJUSTMENT TABLE


Adjustment code Set value
Initial Exhaust gas
(Left 2 positions of (Right 1 position of Contents
value color
display unit) display unit)
Increase pump absorption torque by +2.0 kgm
0
(-100 mA).
Increase pump absorption torque by +1.5 kgm
1
(-75 mA).
Increase pump absorption torque by +1.0 kgm
2 Bad
(-50 mA).
Increase pump absorption torque by +0.5 kgm
3
(-25 mA).

20 4 Q Initial value

Decrease pump absorption torque by -0.5 kgm


5
(+25 mA)
Decrease pump absorption torque by -1.0 kgm
6 Good
(+50 mA)
Decrease pump absorption torque by -1.5 kgm
7
(+75 mA)
Decrease pump absorption torque by -2.0 kgm
8
(+100 mA)

20-254 PC78MR-6
TROUBLESHOOTING ADJUSTING SERVICE METER

ADJUSTING SERVICE METER


Adjust the service meter when the monitor panel
is replaced.

1. Turn the starting switch ON.

2. To set the monitor panel in the service meter


adjustment mode, hold buzzer cancel switch (8)
and press the following switches on the monitor
panel in the order of 1) - 4).
1) Travel speed switch (6)
2) Set switch (5)
3) Working mode selector switch (7)
4) Mode selector (UP) switch (3)
a If the monitor panel is set in the adjustment
mode, both ends of service meter (2) flash
alternately.

3. To select a digit to be corrected, press the buzzer


cancel switch (8), working mode selector switch
(7), and set switch (5) simultaneously. Each time The monitor panel of the MR specification also
those switches are pressed, the selected position has switches (3) (5).
moves to the left. (The selected position moves
to the left only. After it reaches to the left end, it
returns to the right end again.)

4. To set or change the figure, press the buzzer


cancel switch (8), working mode selector switch
(7), and mode selector (UP) switch (3) simulta-
neously.

5. To finish the service meter adjustment mode,


repeat Step 2.
a The currently saved service meter value can-
not be reduced (returned to a smaller value).
When the service meter adjustment is fin-
ished after the service meter is set to a large
value, that value cannot be reduced either.
Take care.

PC78MR-6 20-255
TROUBLESHOOTING METHOD OF USING JUDGEMENT TABLE

METHOD OF USING JUDGEMENT TABLE


This decision list is a tool (decision table) for selecting whether a nature of trouble of a chassis is caused by an
electrical system failure or a hydraulic or mechanical failure and advancing to troubleshooting codes (N-OO, E-
OO, S-OO , C-OO, F-OO, H-OO, M-OO) that match each event.
The decision table identifies that processing should advance to which troubleshooting codes according to the
presence of the display of user and service codes.
a The abnormality display (warning) using the monitor panel directly advances to machine monitor trouble-
shooting code (M-OO). (Refer to the machine monitor system troubleshooting.)
1. Controller (Governor Control System) or Engine Related Decision List
When a service code is displayed on the monitor panel, advance to troubleshooting code (E-OO) of the
lowermost step of the decision table.
(A q is marked to the point where a failure mode and a service code match.)
If a service code is not displayed and a nature of trouble appears in the monitor panel, advance to diag-
nostic code (E-OO or S-OO) at the right end which matches the failure mode of the decision list.
<Example> Failure mode "Engine does not start"
[Procedure] Test that a service code is displayed on the monitor panel.

[Decision]
1) When a service code is displayed on the monitor panel: ....... Run a diagnostic check using the controller
(decelerator control) system "E3:OO".
2) When a service code is not displayed on the monitor panel and "Engine does not start":
When the starting motor rotates:
Check the rotation .... Advance to mechanical system troubleshooting "S-2".
of a starting motor. When the starting motor does not rotate:
.... Advance to electrical system troubleshooting "E-8".

20-256 PC78MR-6
TROUBLESHOOTING METHOD OF USING JUDGEMENT TABLE

2. Controller (Pump Control System) or Oil Pressure Related Decision Table


When a service code is displayed on the monitor panel, advance to the troubleshooting code (C-OO) of
the lowermost step of the decision table.
(A q is marked to the point where a failure mode and a service code match.)
If a service code is not displayed and a nature of trouble appears in the monitor panel, check the display
of an input signal that matches the failure mode of the decision table (display the location marked with a
circle (O)) and
When an input signal is displayed normally, advance to the diagnostic code (H-OO) at the right of the
decision list.
When an input signal is not displayed, advance to the diagnostic code (F-OO) at the lowermost step of
the decision list.

<Example> Failure mode "Swing is not performed"


[Procedure] Test that a service code is displayed on the monitor panel.

[Decision]
1) When a service code is displayed on the monitor panel: ....... Run a diagnostic check using the controller
(pump control) system "C:OO".
2) When a service code is not displayed on the monitor panel and "Swing is not performed":
Check controller input When the signal is provided:
signal. .... Advance to mechanical system troubleshooting "H-34" and "C-38".
(Check it in the monitor- When the signal is not provided:
ing mode.) .... Advance to the CR700 controller input signal system troubleshooting
"F-OO". (See section F mode)

PC78MR-6 20-257
(1)
TROUBLESHOOTING HOW TO READ FLOW OF TROUBLESHOOTING

HOW TO READ FLOW OF TROUBLESHOOTING


1. Classification of diagnosis code Nos.
Diagnosis Code No. Objective System of Diagnosis Service code
S-QQ Engine body
N-QQ Communication system
E-QQ Electric system of controller (Governor control system) E323, E325, E328
C-QQ Electric system of controller (Pump control system) E232, E233
F-QQ Controller (Input signal system)
H-QQ Hydraulic and mechanical systems
M-QQ Monitor panel E1-QQ

2. How to read troubleshooting (method) for each failure mode


1) Title column
In the title column of the troubleshooting, the troubleshooting code, service code, and failure mode (trou-
ble) are entered.
2) Classification of cases
If the troubleshooting method for a failure mode (a trouble) varies with the machine model, component,
phenomenon, the failure mode (the trouble) is classified further (This work is called classification of cas-
es), execute an applicable one. (See (2) in the example.) If the cases are not classified, start trouble-
shooting from the first of the failure mode.
3) How to carry out troubleshooting
Perform checking or measurement in the first step . Then, select either branch of YES and
NO and go to the next step . (Note: The "No." at the right shoulder of each is the reference
No. It is not the No. of the step.)
If the branch of YES or NO is connected directly to the Cause column, take the remedy shown in
the Remedy column. (See (3) in the example.)
Under the , the method of inspection, measurement, judgment, etc. are shown. If the result is
matched to the criterion, question, etc., take the branch of YES. If not, take the branch of NO.
Under the , preparation work for inspection and measurement and criterion are also shown. If
your neglect the preparation work or take a wrong method of operation or handling, you may have a
wrong judgment or may damage the devices. Accordingly, read well before starting inspection and
measurement, then carry out the work in the correct order.
4) General precautions
The general precautions for troubleshooting of each failure mode (trouble) are marked with a under the
title (See (4) in the example).
The precautions marked with a are not shown in the . Be sure to take them when performing the
inspections in the .
5) Diagnostic tools
For the diagnostic tools necessary for troubleshooting, see TESTING AND ADJUSTING, Diagnostic
tools list. Prepare them before starting the work.

20-258 PC78MR-6
TROUBLESHOOTING HOW TO READ FLOW OF TROUBLESHOOTING

6) Locations and connector pin Nos.


Before starting the work, check the Nos., inspection points, types, and locations of the wiring connectors
which appear in the flow of the troubleshooting for each failure mode (trouble) with the table of locations and
Nos. of connector pins.

<Example>
(1) M-1[E101](Error history data are abnormal) is displayed

(2) a This error is displayed when the connector P01, connector K1, fuse 18, connector M6, connector M2,
battery relay terminal B, or battery terminal in the monitor panel power supply system is disconnected or
connected for troubleshooting. This phenomenon does not indicate an error.

(When the power supply circuit of the monitor panel is cut out while the starting switch is at the OFF posi-
tion.)

a If the service code is displayed again after the resetting operation is performed, carry out the trouble-
shooting according to the following procedure.

Cause Remedy
1
After resetting operation,
operate machine normally After "resetting operation", is NO
Normal
and observe its condition for service code displayed again?
a while. (See Note 1.)
YES

2
Disconnection, defective contact,
Turn starting switch OFF Is voltage between P01 (8) NO or short circuit with chassis Repair or
ground in wiring harness
20 30 V chassis ground normal? between battery battery relay B replace
M27 (1), (2) P01 (Female) (8)
YES
Defective monitor panel Replace

PC78MR-6 20-259
TROUBLESHOOTING CONTENTS AND PROCEDURE OF TROUBLESHOOTING

CONTENTS AND PROCEDURE OF TROUBLESHOOTING


If a trouble occurs, carry out troubleshooting according to the judgment table, controller (governor control sys-
tem), and controller (pump control system). For the detailed contents and procedure of the troubleshooting,
however, see the following flow.

Before starting the troubleshooting, ask the operator about the trouble as long as possible and check the follow-
ing items in advance. (1) Connecting condition of the controller (Check with monitoring code 0001), (2) Break-
age of the fuses, (3) Battery voltage, (4) Generating (charge input) voltage (Monitoring code 0043 "H-34").

E02 (PC-EPC system)

(Swing holding
brake and 2nd
YES E03 travel speed
selection sole- o Go to No. 2
noid systems)

1 (Governor motor
E05 system)
Is user E200 group: Troubleshooting for pump controller (Pump control system) (C-mode)
code dis- Carry out trouble-
played on shooting in corre-
YES sponding mode.
monitor
panel? E300 group: Troubleshooting for pump controller (Governor control system) (E-mode)

Is service code displayed on


NO monitor panel?

Operate and check ser-


vice code.

Carry out troubleshooting


YES by engine (in S-mode).

5
Engine system Is electric system
of engine with no
failure code nor-
4 mal?
Is trouble in engine sys- Flow of part of
YES tem or hydraulic judgment table
(Mechanical) system?
where no trou-
3 bles are indi-
Adjust hydraulic pres-
Is input/output sure, then judge by cated.
Carry out troubleshooting
signal of con- engine speed.
NO NO by electric system of
troller normal? Is work equipment engine (in E-mode).
Check by always heavy and (Flow of part where there
monitoring does engine speed is no indication) (E-6 E-
lower under heavy 8)
code.
load?

Hydraulic (Carry out troubleshooting in H-


Mechanical System mode).

NO Troubleshoot by input sig-


nal system (F-mode).

a Judge the details by judgment table for controllers (governor control system) (pump control system).
For the No. and contents of monitoring, see the monitoring codes table.

20-260 PC78MR-6
TROUBLESHOOTING OF ENGINE (S MODE)

Method of using troubleshooting chart........................................................................................................ 20-302


S- 1 Starting performance is poor (Starting always takes time) ............................................................... 20-306
S- 2 Engine does not start ....................................................................................................................... 20-308
(1) Engine does not turn.................................................................................................................. 20-308
(2) Engine turns no but exhaust smoke comes out (Fuel is not being injected) .............................. 20-309
(3) Exhaust smoke comes out but engine does not start (Fuel is being injected) ........................... 20-310
S- 3 Engine does not pick up smoothly (Follow-up is poor) ......................................................................20-311
S- 4 Engine stops during operations ........................................................................................................ 20-312
S- 5 Engine does not rotate smoothly (Hunting) ...................................................................................... 20-313
S- 6 Engine lacks output (or lacks power) ............................................................................................... 20-314
S- 7 Exhaust smoke is black (Incomplete combustion) ........................................................................... 20-315
S- 8 Oil consumption is excessive (or exhaust smoke is blue) ................................................................ 20-316
S- 9 Oil becomes contaminated quickly ................................................................................................... 20-317
S-10 Fuel consumption is excessive......................................................................................................... 20-318
S-11 Oil is in cooling water, or water spurts back, or water level goes down............................................ 20-319
S-12 Oil pressure caution lamp lights up (Drop in oil pressure)................................................................ 20-320
S-13 Oil level rises (Water, fuel in oil) ....................................................................................................... 20-321
S-14 Water temperature becomes too high (Overheating) ....................................................................... 20-322
S-15 Abnormal noise is made ................................................................................................................... 20-323
S-16 Vibration is excessive ....................................................................................................................... 20-324

PC78MR-6 20-301
TROUBLESHOOTING METHOD OF USING TROUBLESHOOTING CHART

METHOD OF USING TROUBLESHOOTING CHART


This troubleshooting chart is divided into three
sections: questions, check items, and trouble-
shooting. The questions and check items are
used to pinpoint high probability causes that can
be located from the failure symptoms or simple
inspection without using troubleshooting tools.
Next, troubleshooting tools or direct inspection are
used to check the high probability causes to make
final confirmation.

[Questions]
Sections (A) + (B) in the chart on the right cor-
responds to the items where answers can be
obtained from the user. The items in (B) are Causes
items that can be obtained from the user,
depending on the user's level.
[Check items]
The serviceman carries out simple inspection
to narrow down the causes. The items under
(C) in the chart on the right correspond to this.
The serviceman narrows down the causes
from information (A) that he has obtained from (1) (2) (3)
the user and the results of (C) that he has
obtained from his own inspection.
[Troubleshooting]
Troubleshooting is carried out in the order of
probability, starting with the causes that have
been marked as having the highest probability
from information gained from [Questions] and
(a)
[Check items].
Questions

A (b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
Check items

B
C

i
shooting
Trouble-

ii
iii

20-302 PC78MR-6
TROUBLESHOOTING METHOD OF USING TROUBLESHOOTING CHART

The basic method of using the troubleshooting


chart is as follows.
Items listed for [Questions] and [Check items]
that have a relationship with the Cause items
are marked with Q, and of these, causes that
have a high probability are marked with w.
Check each of the [Questions] and [Check
items] in turn, and marked the Q or w in the
chart for items where the problem appeared.
The vertical column (Causes) that has the high-
est number of points is the most probable
cause, so start troubleshooting for that item to
make final confirmation of the cause.

1. For (Confirm recent repair history) in


the [Questions] Section, ask the user,
and mark the Cause column with E to Causes
use as reference for locating the cause
of the failure. However, do not use this
when making calculations to narrow

on)
down the causes.

jecti
2. Use the E in the Cause column as ref-

ve in
erence for [Degree of use (Operated

si
for long period)] in the [Questions] sec-

zle
renc

xces
noz
tion as reference. As a rule, do not use

ent
erfe

p (e
r
tion
it when calculating the points for locat-

lem
inde

ing
, int

pum
n tim
er e

injec
ing the cause, but it can be included if

, cyl
rger

tion
lean
necessary to determine the order for

ectio
ring
cha

ized

injec
troubleshooting. air c
urbo

ston

, se
r inj
ctive
ged

ged
rope
ed t

n pi

Defe
Clog

Clog
Seiz

Wor

Imp
1 Confirm recent repair history
2 Degree of use Operatred for long period

PC78MR-6 20-303
TROUBLESHOOTING METHOD OF USING TROUBLESHOOTING CHART

Example of troubleshooting when exhaust gas is black


Let us assume that [Clogged air cleaner] is taken to be the cause of black exhaust gas. Three symptoms
have causal relationship with this problem: [Exhaust gas slowly became black], [Power slowly became
weaker], and [Dust indicator is red].
If we look from these three symptoms to find the causes, we find that there is a relationship with five causes.
Let us explain here the method of using this causal relationship to pinpoint the most probable cause.

S-7 Exhaust gas is black (incomplete combustion)


General causes why exhaust gas is black
Insufficient intake of air
Improper condition of fuel injection Causes

Excessive injection of fuel

d)
d
hea
)

eize
ction

er s
e, va rger and
e inje

lung
eat
ssiv

lve s
leme nce

ck, p
ocha
le

exce
nozz
re

p (ra
nt

turb
terfe

(
er

ance

r
tion
ing
ump

le

valv
pum
n
d
er, in

ff
e
n

m
er e

injec

u
etwe
, cyli

lear
p

dm

t of
ti

ction
harg

tion
ction
lean

lve c

c
ring

gge
ized

air b
onta
injec
Legend

e inje
rboc
air c

r inje

, clo
ton
e

r va
: Possible causes (judging from Questions and check items)

f
c
s

o
ed tu

ctive

ctive
,
n pis

ectiv
kage
hed
ged

ged
rope

rope
: Most probable causes (judging from Questions and check items)
: Possible causes due to length of use (used for a long period)

Defe

Crus

Defe
Clog

Clog
Seiz

Wor

Deff
Imp

Imp

Lea
: Items to confirm the cause.
Confirm recent repair history
Degree of use Operated for long period
Suddenly became black
Color of exhaust gas Gradually became black
Questions

Blue under light load


Engine oil must be added more frequently
Suddenly
Power was lost
Gradually
Non-specified fuel has been used
Noise of interference is heard from around turbocharger
Dust indicator is red
Blow-by gas is excessive
Engine pickup is poor and combustion is irregular
When exhaust manifold is touched immediately after
Check items

starting engine, temperature of some cylinders is low


Match marks on fuel injection pump are out of alignment
Seal on injection pump has come off
Clanging sound is heard from around cylinder head
Exhaust noise is abnormal
Muffler is crushed
Leakage of air between turbocharger and head, loose clamp

When turbocharger is rotated by hand, it is found to be heavy


When air cleaner is inspected directly, it is found to be clogged
When compression pressure is measured, it is found to be low
Speed of some cylinders does not change when operating
on reduced cylinders
Troubleshooting

When check is made using delivery method, injection timing


is found to be incorrect
Injection pump test shows that injection amount is incorrect
When valve clearance is checked directly it is found to be
outside standard value
When muffler is removed, exhaust gas color returns to normal
When control rack is pushed, it is found to be heavy or does
not return
Replace

Replace
Replace

Replace

Replace
Replace
Repair
Clean

Adjust
Adjust
Adjust

Remedy

20-304 PC78MR-6
TROUBLESHOOTING METHOD OF USING TROUBLESHOOTING CHART

Five causes

Step 1
Clarify the relationship between the three
symptoms in the [Questions] and [Check items]
section and the five Cause items in the vertical
column.

Three symptoms

Step 2
Add up the total of and marks where the
horizontal lines for the three symptoms and the
vertical columns for the causes intersect.
(1) Clogged air cleaner element:
(2) Air leakage between turbocharger
and head:
(3) Clogged, seized injection nozzle:
(4) Defective contact of valve, valve seat:
(5) Worn piston ring, cylinder:

Step 3
The calculation in Step 2 show that the closest
relationship is with [Clogged air cleaner
element]. Follow this column down to the
troubleshooting area and carry out the
troubleshooting item marked . The Remedy is
given as [Clean], so carry out cleaning, and the
exhaust gas color should return to normal.

PC78MR-6 20-305
TROUBLESHOOTING S-1

S-1 Starting performance is poor (Starting always takes time)


Possible causes of the engine not starting though exhaust gas
being discharged.
Electrical system is defective.
Causes
Fuel supply is insufficient.
Air intake is insufficient.
Fuel selection is improper.
(Under the ambient temperature of 10C or lower, use

eat
ASTM D975 No.1

)
ircuit
lve s
a Battery charging rate

ing c
d va

aer
heat
Charging rate

e an
ent
Ambient 100 % 90 % 80 % 75 % 70 %
temperature

r
train
e
elem
der

pre-
in
f valv
20C 1.28 1.26 1.24 1.23 1.22

, stra
cylin

mp s
0C 1.29 1.27 1.25 1.24 1.23

ding
aner
act o
10C 1.30 1.28 1.26 1.25 1.24

filter
ing,

d pu
(inclu
ir cle
cont
ton r
A battery can be used if the specific gravity shows 70% or

l
e
e
e
u
a

plug
f
f
higher charging rate shown in the above table.

ctive
n pis

ging
gibg
ging
In cold weather, 75% or higher charging rate is required.

Glow
Defe

Clog
Clog
Clog
Wor
Confirm recent repair history
Degree of use of machine Operated for long period
Gradually became worse
Ease of starting
Starts when warm
Questions

Preheat indicator lamp does not light up.


Engine oil consumption became increased.
Filters have not been replaced according to the operation manual.
Non-specified fuel has been used for long.
Dust indicator lamp is ON.
Battery charge lamp is ON.
Starter motor runs slowly.
After engine started, some cylinders are cool when touched the exhaust
manifold.
Engine speed cannot be raised smoothly, and combustion is irregular.
Blow-by gas is excessive.
Check items

Match marks on fuel injection pump are not matched.


Mud is sticking to the fuel tank cap.
When the engine is cranked by the starter motor;
1) Even if the injection pump sleeve nut is loosened, little fuel comes out.
2) Even if the fuel filter air bleeding plug is loosened, little fuel comes out.
Leakage from the fuel piping
Engine hunting (rotation is irregular).

Compression pressure measurement found low pressure.


Direct inspection of the air element found clogging.
Direct inspection of the fuel filter and strainer found clogging.
Direct inspection of the feed pump strainer found clogging.
Troubleshooting

Heater mount section is not heated.


Is voltage 2630V between alternator terminal R and terminal E Yes
with engine at low idling? No
Either specific gravity or voltage of the battery is low.
Speed of some cylinders does not change when operating on reduced
cylinders.
When pushed, the control rack is heavy, or does not return.
(Remove the blind cover at the rear of the pump. Plunger control sleeve does
not move.)
Direct inspection of the fuel cap found clogging.
Legend
Replace

Replace
Correct

: Possible causes (judging from Questions and check items)


Clean
Clean
Clean

: Most probable causes (judging from Questions and check items) Remedy
: Possible causes due to length of use (used for a long period)
: Items to confirm the cause.

20-306 PC78MR-6
Replace Defe
ctive
Replace Defe alter
nato
ctive r (ex
Replace Defe a ltern terna
ctive ator l reg
Replace o (buil ulato

PC78MR-6
Defe r deg t-in r r typ
rade egula e)
ctive d b a
Adjust Injec injec
tion t t e ry
tor ty
pe)
tion nozz
Replace Defe
timin
g fail le
tive u re
Correct Leak
injec
tion
age, pum
Clean clog p (ra
TROUBLESHOOTING

Clog ging ck a
ged , or a nd p
Replace Defe
air b
reath ir in
fuel
lung
er st
ctive er ho pipin uck)
Replace Defe f e ed p le in g
Causes

ctive ump fuel


syst
boos em
t com
pens
ator
canc
el
S-1

20-307
TROUBLESHOOTING S-2

S-2 Engine does not start


(1) Engine does not turn
Causes

General causes why engine does not turn


Internal parts of engine seized
a If internal parts of the engine are seized, carry
out troubleshooting for "Engine stops during

ch
operations".

ction
swit
Defective electrical system

it

nne
ttery
circu

fety

a l co
d ba

r sa

id
ting

eno
ch
n
otor
e

lay o
star

i
lay
t

term

swit
iora

t sol
ng m

ry re
ty re
g of
eter

ting
ttery
el cu
ear

atte
tarti
wirin

safe
or d

star
in g g
Legend

a
u
b
b
s

f
: Possible causes (judging from Questions and check items)

ctive
ctive
ctive
ctive

ctive
ctive
ctive
ctive

en r
: Most probable causes (judging from Questions and check items)
: Possible causes due to length of use (used for a long period)

Defe
Defe
Defe
Defe

Defe
Defe
Defe
Defe

Brok
: Items to confirm the cause.

Confirm recent repair history


Questions

Degree of use of machine Operated for long period


Condition of horn when Horn does not sound
starting switch is turned ON Horn volume is low
Speed of rotation is low
When starting switch is Makes grating noise
turned to START, pinion Soon disengages again
moves out, but
Makes rattling noise and does not turn
When starting switch is turned to START, pinion does not
move out
Check items

When starting switch is turned to ON, there is no clicking


sound
Battery terminal is loose
When starting switch is turned ON, linkage is not actuated
Troubleshooting of defective wiring in starting circuit

When battery is checked, battery electrolyte is found to be low

Specific gravity of electrolyte, voltage of battery is low


For the following conditions 1) - 5), turn the starting switch
OFF, connect the cord, and carry out troubleshooting
1) When terminal B and terminal C of starting switch are
connected, engine starts
2) When terminal B and terminal C of starting motor are
Troubleshooting

connected, engine starts


3) When terminal B and terminal C of safety relay are
connected, engine starts
4) When terminal of safety switch and terminal B of starting
motor are connected, engine starts
5) There is no 24V between battery relay terminal b and
terminal E
When ring gear is inspected directly, tooth surface is found to be
chipped
Cannot be moved by hand even when linkage of fuel cut solenoid
is disconnected
Replace
Replace
Replace
Replace
Replace
Replace
Replace
Replace

Remedy

20-308 PC78MR-6
TROUBLESHOOTING S-2

(2) Engine turns but no exhaust smoke comes out


(Fuel is not being injected)

General causes why engine turns but no exhaust smoke comes out
Supply of fuel impossible
Supply of fuel is extremely small
Improper selection of fuel (particularly in winter)
Causes
a Standards for use of fuel
AMBIENT TEMPERATURE
KIND OF

d)
FLUID -4 14 32 50 68 86 F

eize
-20 -10 0 10 20 30

er s
ASTM D975 No. 2

y
ASTM D975 No.2

nk
lung
t, ke

el ta
n
ck, p
shaf
Diesel fuel

pisto

n fu
ASTM D975 No.1

p (ra

er

g
drive

o le i
pipin

l use e n o i d
r
mp

train
n e
pum

u
i

h
stra

tank
ump

fuel

ol
her
eed

cut s
d
pum
tion

ilter,
on p

reat
el in
king
en f
injec

uel f

fuel
air b
jecti

feed
nt fu

r f ue
, lea
Legend

brok
: Possible causes (judging from Questions and check items)

ctive
ctive
en in

fficie

g ed
ged
ged
g ed

rope
: Most probable causes (judging from Questions and check items)

ed,
: Possible causes due to length of use (used for a long period)

Defe
Defe

Clog
Clog
Clog
Clog
Brok

Seiz

Insu

Imp
: Items to confirm the cause.
Confirm recent repair history
Degree of use of machine Operated for long period
Exhaust smoke suddenly stops coming out (when starting again)
Questions

Replacement of filters has not been carried out according to


Operation Manual
Fuel tank is found to be empty
There is leakage from fuel piping
Mud is stuck to fuel tank cap
When starting switch is turned ON, linkage is not actuated
When fuel filter is drained, fuel does not come out
When engine is cranked with starting motor,
Check items

1) Injection pump coupling does no rotate.


2) No fuel comes out even when fuel filter air bleed plug is
loosened
3) No fuel spurts out even when injection pump sleeve nut is
loosened
Rust and water are found when fuel tank is drained

Inspect injection pump directly


When control rack is pushed, it is found to be heavy, or does
not return
Troubleshooting

Inspect feed pump directly


When fuel filter, strainer are inspected directly, they are found
to be clogged
When feed pump strainer is inspected directly, it is found
to be clogged
When fuel cap is inspected directly, it is found to be clogged
Even though the linkage of the fuel cut solenoid is
disconnected, it doesnot work
Replace
Replace
Replace

Replace
Replace
Correct
Correct
Clean
Clean

Remedy
Add

PC78MR-6 20-309
TROUBLESHOOTING S-2

(3) Exhaust smoke comes out but engine does not start (Fuel is being injected)

General causes why exhaust smoke comes out but


engine not start
Lack of rotating force due to defective electrical Causes
system
Insufficient supply of fuel

.)
Insufficient intake of air

r, etc
ck)
Improper selection of fuel and oil

r leve
r stu

ap
y
spra
it )
rocke

nk c
nge

circu

em
tive
el ta
, plu

syst
alve,

ating
ery

efec
n fu
k
r
r line
m (v

batt
c

fuel
t
a

e
n
aine

le, d
r

ole i
r e -h
leme
er
(
syste

te d
mp
inde

ir in
rain
p str

nozz
er h
ing p
riora
u

er e

g, a
r, st
, cyl
alve
p

d
h
pum
tion

l use
lean

tion
reat
ggin
e
l filte
ken v

rin g

u
e t
(incl
injec

or d

injec
feed

air b
air c

, clo

r f ue
Legend

e
, bro

ton
u

plug
: Possible causes (judging from Questions and check items)

ctive
ctive
n pis

kage
g ed

ged
ged
ged
ged

rope
ctive
: Most probable causes (judging from Questions and check items)

Glow
: Possible causes due to length of use (used for a long period)

Defe
Defe

Clog

Clog
Clog
Clog
Clog
Wor
Defe

Lea

Imp
: Items to confirm the cause.
Confirm recent repair history
Degree of use of machine Operated for long period
Suddenly failed to start
Questions

When engine is cranked, abnormal noise is heard from


around head
Engine oil must be added more frequently
Non-specified fuel is being used
Replacement of filters has not been carried out according to
Operation Manual
Rust and water are found when fuel tank is drained
Dust indicator lamp is red
Indicator lamp does not light up
Starting motor cranks engine slowly
Mud is stuck to fuel tank cap
When fuel lever is placed at FULL position, it does not contact stopper
Check items

When engine is cranked with starting motor,


1) Little fuel comes out even when injection pump sleeve nut
is loosened
2) No fuel comes out even when fuel filter air bleed plug is
loosened
There is leakage from fuel piping
When exhaust manifold is touched immediately after starting
engine, temperature of some cylinders is low
When fuel filter is drained, no fuel comes out

Remove head cover and check directly


When control rack is pushed, it is found to be heavy, or
does not return
When compression pressure is measured, it is found to be low
When fuel filter, strainer are inspected directly, they are
Troubleshooting

found to be clogged
When feed pump strainer is inspected directly, it is found to
be clogged
When air cleaner element is inspected directly, it is found to be clogged
Glow plug mount does not become warm
Either specific gravity of electrolyte or voltage of battery is low
When feed pump is operated, there is no response, or
operation is too heavy
Speed does not change when operation of certain cylinders is stopped
When fuel cap is inspected directly, it is found to be clogged
Replace
Replace
Replace

Replace
Correct

Correct
Clean
Clean
Clean

Clean
Clean

Remedy

20-310 PC78MR-6
TROUBLESHOOTING S-3

S-3 Engine does not pick up smoothly (Follow-up is poor)


General causes why engine does not pick up smoothly Causes
Insufficient intake of air
Insufficient supply of fuel
Improper condition of fuel injction
Improper fuel used

ap
pray

seat
nk c
ve s

alve
el ta
nce
fecti

nd v
r

n fu
r
fe re
nge
r line
nt

, de

g
iner

ve a
pipin
ole i
leme
iner

inter
lu

ance
inde
e
p
stra

f val
l
nozz
stra

er h
mp
er e

fuel
ger,
lear
, cyl
ump

act o
n pu

h
ilter,
lean

tion

char

reat
king
lve c
ring
ed p

jectio

cont
uel f

injec
air c

air b
, lea
urbo
Legend

r va
n
e

o
: Possible causes (judging from Questions and check items)

f
f

ed in

ctive
n pis

ged
ged

rope
ged
ged
ged

ed t

ged
: Most probable causes (judging from Questions and check items)
: Possible causes due to length of use (used for a long period)

C lo g
Defe
C lo g

Clog
Clog
Clog

Seiz

Seiz

Clog
Wor

Imp
: Items to confirm the cause.
Confirm recent repair history
Degree of use of machine Operated for long period
Replacement of filters has not been carried out according to
Questions

Operation Manual
Non-specified fuel is being used
Engine oil must be added more frequently
Rust and water are found when fuel tank is drained
Dust indicator lamp is red
Noise of interference is heard from around turbocharger
Engine pick-up suddenly became poor
Blue under light load
Color of exhaust gas
Black
Clanging sound is heard from around cylinder head
Mud is stuck to fuel tank cap
Check items

There is leakage from fuel piping


High idling speed under no load is normal, but speed
suddenly drops when load is applied
There is hunting from engine (rotation is irregular)
When exhaust manifold is touched immediately after starting
engine, temperature of some cylinders is low
Blow-by gas is excessive

When air cleaner element is inspected directly, it is found to


be clogged
When fuel filter, strainer are inspected directly, they are
found to be clogged
When feed pump strainer is inspected directly, it is found to be
clogged
Troubleshooting

Speed does not change when operation of certain cylinders


is stopped
When control rack is pushed, it is found to be heavy, or does not return
When compression pressure is measured, it is found to be low
When turbocharger is rotated by hand, it is found to be heavy
When valve clearance is checked directly, it is found to be
outside standard value
When fuel tank cap is inspected directly, it is found to be clogged
When feed pump is operated, operation is too light or too heavy
Replace
Replace
Replace

Replace
Correct

Correct
Adjust
Clean
Clean
Clean

Clean

Remedy

PC78MR-6 20-311
TROUBLESHOOTING S-4

S-4 Engine stops during operations


General causes why engine stops during operations
Causes
Seized parts inside engine
Insufficient supply of fuel

etc.)
Overheating

)
ver,
a If there is overheating and the engine stops,

tuck
ker le
carry out troubleshooting for overheating.

er s
od

, roc

nk
lung
in g r

el ta
g

y
nt
alve

ton
arin

ck, p
t, ke
e
nect

in fu
m

p pis
m (v
t be

p
shaf

p (ra
r

g
i

aine
u

pipin
r
, con

aine

hole
q
shaf

pum
e
train
ry e
t

pum
drive
s

p str
tank
y
iston

, str
lve s

fuel
rank

her
xilia

eed
ear

pum

tion
mp

filter
el in

reat
ic va

king
ed c

ed g
ed p

ed f
a

injec
u

air b
feed
uel p
ump

nt fu
ynam

, lea
Legend

fuel

seiz
seiz

z
seiz

e i
: Possible causes (judging from Questions and check items)

ctive
s
en p

fficie
en f

ged
ged
ged
ged
en,
en d
en,
: Most probable causes (judging from Questions and check items)

en,
en,
: Possible causes due to length of use (used for a long period)

Defe
Brok
Brok

Clog
Clog
C l og
Clog
Brok

Brok
Brok
Brok

Insu
Brok
: Items to confirm the cause.
Confirm recent repair history
Degree of use of machine Operated for long period
Abnormal noise was heard and
engine stopped suddenly
Condition when engine
Engine overheated and stopped
stopped
Questions

Engine stopped slowly


There was hunting and engine stopped
Fuel level lamp lights up
Fuel tank is found to be empty
Replacement of filters has not been carried out according
to Operation Manual
Non-specified fuel is being used
When feed pump is operated, operation is too light or too heavy
Mud is stuck to fuel tank cap
Engine rotates, but stops when power train is operated
Does not turn at all
Check items

When it is attempted to Turns in opposite direction


turn by hand using
barring tool Moves amount of backlash
Shaft does not turn
Rust and water are found when fuel tank is drained
Metal particles are found when oil is drained

Remove oil pan and inspect directly


Remove head cover and inspect directly
When gear train is inspected, it does not turn
Troubleshooting

Rotates when pump auxiliary equipment is removed


When fuel filter, strainer are inspected directly, they are
found to be clogged
When feed pump strainer is inspected directly, it is found to
be clogged
Inspect feed pump directly
When control rack is pushed, it is found to be heavy, or
does not return
Replace
Replace
Replace
Replace
Replace
Replace

Replace

Replace
Correct
Clean
Clean

Clean

Remedy
Add

20-312 PC78MR-6
TROUBLESHOOTING S-5

S-5 Engine does not rotate smoothly (Hunting)


General causes why engine does not rotate smoothly
Causes
Air in fuel system
Defective governor mechanism

p
zzle
Defective electric governor mechanism

pum
d no
(engine with electric governor)

feed
a If hunting stops when electric governor rod is

p an
an d
disconnected, carry out troubleshooting for

pum
nk
t a nk

el ta
ack
the chassis.

feed
erno
rnor

fuel
ro l r

in fu
r

een
v
gove

een
aine
f go

low
t

ner
n

hole
of co

betw
betw
i
p str
nt o

too

stra
tank
n of

her
it
tion
stme

cuit
e d is

pum

circu
lter,
ratio

el in

reat
ir
pera

c
i
adju

f
ope

air b
air in
nt fu

air in
g sp

fuel
Legend

e
o

e
: Possible causes (judging from Questions and check items)

f
ctive
ctive
ctive

fficie
idlin

g ed

ged
ged

ged,
ged,
: Most probable causes (judging from Questions and check items)
: Possible causes due to length of use (used for a long period)

Clog
Defe

Clog
Clog
Defe
Defe

Clog
Insu

Clog
Low
: Items to confirm the cause.
Confirm recent repair history
Degree of use of machine Operated for long period
Occurs at a certain speed range
Occurs at low idling
Condition of hunting
Questions

Occurs even when speed is raised


Occurs on slopes
Fuel tank is found to be empty
Replacement of filters has not been carried out according
to Operation Manual
Rust, water are found when fuel tank is drained
Leakage from fuel piping
When feed pump is operated,
1) No response, light, return is quick
Check items

2) No response, light, return is normal


Engine speed sometimes rises too far
Engine is sometimes difficult to stop
Seal on injection pump has come off

When governor lever is moved it is found to be stiff


When injection pump is tested, governor is found to be
Troubleshooting

improperly adjusted
When control rack is pushed, it is found to be heavy, or
does not return
When fuel cap is inspected directly, it is found to be clogged
When feed pump strainer is inspected directly, it is
found to be clogged
When fuel filter, strainer are inspected directly, they are
found to be clogged
Correct
Correct
Adjust
Adjust
Adjust
Adjust

Clean
Clean

Clean

Remedy
Add

PC78MR-6 20-313
TROUBLESHOOTING S-6

S-6 Engine lacks output (or lacks power)


General causes why engine lacks output
Causes
Insufficient intake of air
Insufficient supply of fuel
Improper condition of fuel injection
Improper fuel used

nt
stme
(if non-specified fuel is used, output drops)

eat

ragm
spra

lve s
adju
Lack of output due to overtaking

nk
iaph
tive

el ta
a If there is overheating and lack of output,

ce

d va
tive
efec

or d
eren

in fu
er
carry out troubleshooting for overheating.

c
e an
g
nt

e
ng
r

nsat
le, d
aine

f
f

iner
leme

, de
inter

p pl u

hole
e

i
r

p
inde

valv
c

p i

mpe
n
nozz
p str
stra

kage
a
er e

fuel
ger,

pum

her
lear
, cyl

ct of

st co
pum
lter,

er lin
tion

reat
le a n
char

king
lve c
r in g

onta
o
i

boo
njec
f

b
feed

i
air c

t
Legend

, lea
urbo

l lev
fuel

c
r va
ton

r
c
e

a i
: Possible causes (judging from Questions and check items)

j
i

ctive
ctive
ed in
n pis

t fue
ged

ged
ged
ged

rope
ged
ged
ed t
: Most probable causes (judging from Questions and check items)
: Possible causes due to length of use (used for a long period)

Defe
Defe
Clog

Clog
Clog
Clog
Clog
C log

Seiz
Seiz

Ben
Wor

Imp
: Items to confirm the cause.
Confirm recent repair history
Degree of use of machine Operated for long period
Suddenly
Power was lost
Gradually
Questions

Engine oil must be added more frequently


Replacement of filters has not been carried out according
to Operation Manual
Non-specified fuel is being used
Dust indicator lamp is red
Black
Color of exhaust gas
Blue under light load
Noise of interference is heard from around turbocharger
Blow-by gas is excessive
Engine pickup is poor and combustion is irregular
Check items

High idling speed under no load is normal, but speed


suddenly drops when load is applied
When exhaust manifold is touched immediately after starting
engine, temperature of some cylinders is low
There is hunting from engine (rotation is irregular)
Clanging sound is heard from around cylinder head
High idling speed of engine is low
Leakage from fuel piping

When air cleaner element is inspected directly, it is found to be


clogged
When turbocharger is rotated by hand, it is found to be heavy
When compression pressure is measured, it is found to be low
When fuel filter, strainer are inspected directly, they are
found to be clogged
Troubleshooting

When feed pump strainer is inspected directly, it is found


to be clogged
Speed does not change when operation of certain cylinders
is stopped
When control rack is pushed, it is found to be heavy, or
does not return
When valve clearance is checked directly, it is found to be
outside standard value
When lever is placed at FULL position, it does not contact stopper
When feed pump is operated, operation is too light or too heavy
When fuel cap is inspected directly, it is found to be clogged
Replace
Replace

Replace

Replace

Replace
Correct

Correct
Adjust

Adjust
Clean

Clean
Clean

Clean

Remedy

20-314 PC78MR-6
TROUBLESHOOTING S-7

S-7 Exhaust smoke is black (Incomplete combustion)


General causes why exhaust smoke is black
Causes
Insufficient intake of air
Improper condition of fuel injection
Excessive injection of fuel

d)
ead
on)

eize
nd h
jecti

at
er s