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Constellation

FromWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Aconstellationisformallydefinedasaregionofthecelestial
sphere,withboundarieslaiddownbytheInternational
AstronomicalUnion(IAU).Theconstellationareasmostlyhad
theiroriginsinWesterntraditionalpatternsofstarsfromwhich
theconstellationstaketheirnames.

In1922theInternationalAstronomicalUnionofficially
recognizedthe88modernconstellations,coveringtheentiresky.
Theybeganasthe48classicalGreekconstellationslaiddownby
PtolemyintheAlmagest.Constellationsinthefarsouthernsky
arelate16thandmid18thcenturyconstructions.12ofthe88
constellationscomposethezodiacsigns,thoughtheastronomical
positionsoftheconstellationsonlylooselymatchthedates
assignedtotheminastrology.

Thetermconstellationcanalsorefertothestarswithinthe
boundariesofthatconstellation.Notablegroupingsofstarsthat
donotformaconstellationarecalledasterisms.When
astronomerssaysomethingisinagivenconstellationthey
meanitiswithinthoseofficialboundaries.

Anygivenpointinacelestialcoordinatesystemcan
unambiguouslybeassignedtoasingleconstellation(butseeArgo
Navis).Manyastronomicalnamingsystemsgivetheconstellation
inwhichagivenobjectisfoundalongwithadesignationinorder
toconveyaroughideainwhichpartoftheskyitislocated.For Top:Baroquedrawingoftheconstellation
example,theFlamsteeddesignationforbrightstarsconsistsofa OrionfromJohannesHevelius'celestial
numberandthegenitiveformoftheconstellationname. catalogue
Bottom:ContemporarymapofOrionfrom
theIAUandphotographyofthenightsky
Contents
1 Terminology
1.1 Theterm"constellation"
1.2 Thenamingofconstellations
2 History
2.1 AncientnearEast
2.2 Chineseastronomy
2.3 Indianastronomy
2.4 Classicalantiquity
2.5 Islamicastronomy
2.6 EarlyModernera
3 IAUconstellations
4 Asterisms
5 Eclipticcoordinatesystems
6 Darkcloudconstellations
7 Seealso
8 References
9 Furtherreading
9.1 Mythology,lore,history,and
archaeoastronomy
9.2 Atlasesandcelestialmaps
9.3 Catalogs
10 Externallinks

Terminology
Theterm"constellation"

Theword"constellation"seemstocomefromtheLateLatintermcnstellti,whichcanbetranslatedas"setof
stars",andcameintouseinEnglishduringthe14thcentury.Amoremodernastronomicalsenseofthetermisasa
recognisablepatternofstarswhoseappearanceisassociatedwithmythologicalcharactersorcreatures,or
associatedearthboundanimalsorobjects.[1]Italsodenotes88namedgroupsofstarsintheshapeofstellar
patterns.[2]

TheAncientGreekwordforconstellationwas"".[3]

Colloquialusagedoesnotdrawasharpdistinctionbetween"constellation"inthesenseofanasterism(patternof
stars)and"constellation"inthesenseofanareasurroundinganasterism.Themodernsystemofconstellations
usedinastronomyemploysthelatterconcept.Forexample,thenorthernasterismknownastheBigDipper(US)or
thePlough(UK)comprisesthesevenbrighteststarsintheIAUconstellation(area)UrsaMajorwhilethesouthern
FalseCrossincludesportionsoftheconstellationsCarinaandVela.

Thetermcircumpolarconstellationisusedforanyconstellationthat,fromaparticularlatitudeonEarth,neversets
belowthehorizon.FromtheNorthPoleorSouthPole,allconstellationssouthornorthofthecelestialequatorare
circumpolarconstellations.Intheequatorialortemperatelatitudes,theinformaltermequatorialconstellationhas
sometimesbeenusedforconstellationsthatlietotheoppositethecircumpolarconstellations.[4]Dependingonthe
definition,equatorialconstellationscanincludethosethatlieentirelybetweendeclinations45northand45
south,[5]orthosethatpassoverheadbetweenthetropicsofCancerandCapricornbetweendeclinationsof23
northand23south.Theygenerallyincludeallconstellationsthatintersectthecelestialequatororpartofthe
zodiac.

Usuallytheonlythingthestarsinaconstellationhaveincommonisthattheyappearneareachotherinthesky
whenviewedfromtheEarth.Ingalacticspace,thestarsofaconstellationusuallylieatavarietyofdistances.
SincestarsalsotravelontheirownorbitsthroughtheMilkyWay,thestarpatternsoftheconstellationschange
slowlyovertime.Aftertenstohundredsofthousandsofyears,theirfamiliaroutlineswillbecome
unrecognisable.[6]

Thenamingofconstellations

Thetermschosenfortheconstellationthemselves,togetherwiththeappearanceofaconstellation,mayreveal
whereandwhenitsconstellationmakerslived.Thebigdipper,forexample,appearsinmanyculturesunder
differentnames,e.g."Plough"isthenameintheUnitedKingdom,parrotintheMayacivilization,andthe
Egyptianssawitaspartofthethighandlegofabull.ProfessorJohnD.Barrowclaimedthatpeoplewhonamed
constellationsdidnotdosobecausetheythoughtthemtobelookinglikee.g.aplough,butthenamingwas
symbolicinsteadforsomethingassociatedwithe.g.aplough.[7]
History
Theearliestdirectevidencefortheconstellationscomesfrominscribedstonesandclaywritingtabletsdugupin
Mesopotamia(withinmodernIraq)datingbackto3000BC.[8]ItseemsthatthebulkoftheMesopotamian
constellationswerecreatedwithinarelativelyshortintervalfromaround1300to1000BC.Thesegroupings
appearedlaterinmanyoftheclassicalGreekconstellations.[9]

AncientnearEast

TheBabylonianswerethefirsttorecognizethatastronomicalphenomenaare
periodicandapplymathematicstotheirpredictions.TheoldestBabylonianstar
cataloguesofstarsandconstellationsdatebacktothebeginningintheMiddle
BronzeAge,mostnotablytheThreeStarsEachtextsandtheMUL.APIN,an
expandedandrevisedversionbasedonmoreaccurateobservationfromaround
1000BC.However,thenumerousSumeriannamesinthesecataloguessuggestthat
theybuildonolder,butotherwiseunattested,SumeriantraditionsoftheEarly
BronzeAge.[10]

TheclassicalZodiacisaproductofarevisionoftheOldBabyloniansystemin
laterNeoBabylonianastronomy6thcenturyBC.KnowledgeoftheNeo
BabylonianzodiacisalsoreflectedintheHebrewBible.E.W.Bullinger
interpretedthecreaturesappearinginthebooksofEzekiel(andthencein
Revelation)asthemiddlesignsofthefourquartersoftheZodiac,[11][12]withthe
LionasLeo,theBullasTaurus,theManrepresentingAquariusandtheEagle
standinginforScorpio.[13]ThebiblicalBookofJobalsomakesreferencetoa Babyloniantabletrecording
numberofconstellations,includingAyish"bier",chesil"fool"and Halley'sCometin164BC.
chimah"heap"(Job9:9,38:3132),renderedas"Arcturus,OrionandPleiades"by
theKJV,butAyish"thebier"actuallycorrespondingtoUrsaMajor.[14]ThetermMazzaroth ,ahapax
legomenoninJob38:32,maybetheHebrewwordforthezodiacalconstellations.

TheGreeksadoptedtheBabyloniansysteminthe4thcenturyBC.AtotaloftwentyPtolemaicconstellationsare
directlycontinuedfromtheAncientNearEast.Anothertenhavethesamestarsbutdifferentnames.[9]

Chineseastronomy

InancientChinaastronomyhashadalongtraditioninaccuratelyobserving
celestialphenomena.[15]Starnameslatercategorizedinthetwentyeight
mansionshavebeenfoundonoraclebonesunearthedatAnyang,dating
backtothemiddleShangDynasty.TheseChineseconstellationsareoneof
themostimportantandalsothemostancientstructuresintheChinesesky,
attestedfromthe5thcenturyBC.ParallelstotheearliestBabylonian
(Sumerian)starcataloguessuggestthattheancientChinesesystemdidnot
ariseindependently.[16]

Chinesestarmapwithacylindrical ClassicalChineseastronomyisrecordedintheHanperiodandappearsin
projection(SuSong) theformofthreeschools,whichareattributedtoastronomersofthe
WarringStatesperiod.Theconstellationsofthethreeschoolswere
conflatedintoasinglesystembyChenZhuo,anastronomerofthe3rdcentury(ThreeKingdomsperiod).Chen
Zhuo'sworkhasbeenlost,butinformationonhissystemofconstellationssurvivesinTangperiodrecords,notably
byQutanXida.TheoldestextantChinesestarchartdatestothatperiodandwaspreservedaspartoftheDunhuang
Manuscripts.NativeChineseastronomyflourishedduringtheSongdynasty,andduringtheYuanDynastybecame
increasinglyinfluencedbymedievalIslamicastronomy(seeTreatiseonAstrologyoftheKaiyuanEra).[17]As
mapswerepreparedduringthisperiodonmorescientificlinestheywereconsideredasmorereliable.[18]

AwellknownmappreparedduringtheSongPeriodistheSuzhouAstronomicalChartpreparedwithcarvingsof
moststarsontheplanisphereoftheChineseSkyonastoneplateitisdoneaccuratelybasedonobservationsand
hasthesuprnovaoftheyearof1054inTauruscarvedonit.[18]

InfluencedbyEuropeanastronomyduringthelateMingDynasty,morestarsweredepictedonthechartsbut
retainingthetraditionalconstellationsnewstarsobservedwereincorporatedassupplementarystarsinold
constellationsinthesouthernskywhichdidnotdepictanyofthetraditionalstarsrecordedbyancientChinese
astronomers.FurtherimprovementsweremadeduringthelaterpartoftheMingDynastybyXuGuangqiand
JohannAdamSchallvonBell,theGermanJesuitandwasrecordedinChongzhenLishu(CalendricalTreatiseof
ChongzhenPeriod,1628).TraditionalChinesestarmapsincorporated23newconstellationswith125starsofthe
southernhemisphereoftheskybasedontheknowledgeofwesternstarchartswiththisimprovementtheChinese
SkywasintegratedwiththeWorldastronomy.[18][19]

Indianastronomy

SomeoftheearliestrootsofIndianastronomycanbedatedtotheperiodof
IndusValleyCivilization,aBronzeAgecivilisationinthenorthwestIndian
subcontinent.Afterwardstheastronomydevelopedasadisciplineof
Vedangaoroneofthe"auxiliarydisciplines"associatedwiththestudyof
theVedas,[20]dating1500BCorolder.Theoldestknowntextisthe
VedangaJyotisha,datedto14001200BC[21]

Aswithothertraditions,theoriginalapplicationofastronomywasthus TheNakatrasarethe27orsometime
religious.IndianastronomywasinfluencedbyGreekastronomybeginning 28Indianlunarmansionthe
inthe4thcenturyBCandthroughtheearlycenturiesoftheCommonEra, divisionsoftheskyinalongthe
forexamplebytheYavanajatakaandtheRomakaSiddhanta,aSanskrit ecliptic.Theirnamesarerelatedto
translationofaGreektextdisseminatedfromthe2ndcentury.[22] themostprominentasterismsinthe
respectivesectors.
Indianastronomyfloweredinthe5th6thcentury,withAryabhata,whose
Aryabhatiyarepresentedthepinnacleofastronomicalknowledgeatthe
time.LatertheIndianastronomysignificantlyinfluencedmedievalIslamic,ChineseandEuropeanastronomy.[23]
OtherastronomersoftheclassicalerawhofurtherelaboratedonAryabhata'sworkincludeBrahmagupta,
VarahamihiraandLalla.AnidentifiablenativeIndianastronomicaltraditionremainedactivethroughoutthe
medievalperiodandintothe16thor17thcentury,especiallywithintheKeralaschoolofastronomyand
mathematics.

Classicalantiquity

ThereisonlylimitedinformationonindigenousGreekconstellations,withsomefragmentaryevidencebeing
foundintheWorksandDaysofGreekpoetHesiod,whomentionedthe"heavenlybodies".[24]Greekastronomy
essentiallyadoptedtheolderBabyloniansystemintheHellenisticera,firstintroducedtoGreecebyEudoxusof
Cnidusinthe4thcenturyBC.TheoriginalworkofEudoxusislost,butitsurvivesasaversificationbyAratus,
datingtothe3rdcenturyBC.Themostcompleteexistingworksdealingwiththemythicaloriginsofthe
constellationsarebytheHellenisticwritertermedpseudoEratosthenesandan
earlyRomanwriterstyledpseudoHyginus.Thebasisofwesternastronomyas
taughtduringLateAntiquityanduntiltheEarlyModernperiodistheAlmagestby
Ptolemy,writteninthe2ndcentury.

InPtolemaicEgypt,nativeEgyptiantraditionofanthropomorphicfigures
representingtheplanets,starsandvariousconstellations.[25]Someofthesewere
combinedwithGreekandBabylonianastronomicalsystemsculminatinginthe
ZodiacofDendera,butitremainsunclearwhenthisoccurred,butmostwere
placedduringtheRomanperiodbetween2ndto4thcenturiesAD.Theoldest
knowndepictionofthezodiacshowingallthenowfamiliarconstellations,along
withsomeoriginalEgyptianConstellations,DecansandPlanets.[26][27]Ptolemy's
AncientEgyptianstarchart
Almagestremainedthestandarddefinitionofconstellationsinthemedievalperiod
anddecanalclockonthe
bothinEuropeandinIslamicastronomy.
ceilingfromthetombof
Senenmut
Islamicastronomy

ParticularlyduringtheIslamicGoldenAge(8th15thcenturies)theIslamicworld
experienceddevelopmentinastronomy.Thesedevelopmentsweremostlywritten
inArabicandtookplacefromNorthAfricatoCentralAsia,AlAndalus,andlater
intheFarEastandIndia.ItcloselyparallelsthegenesisofotherIslamicsciencesin
itsassimilationofforeignmaterialandtheamalgamationofthedisparateelements
ofthatmaterialtocreateasciencewithIslamiccharacteristics.Theseincluded
ancientGreekastronomy,Sassanid,andIndianworksinparticular,whichwere
translatedandbuiltupon.[28]Inturn,Islamicastronomylaterhadasignificant
influenceonByzantine[29]andEuropean[30]astronomy(seeLatintranslationsof
the12thcentury)aswellasChineseastronomy[31]andMalianastronomy.[32]

Asignificantnumberofstarsinthesky,suchasAldebaranandAltair,and
astronomicaltermssuchasalidade,azimuth,andalmucantar,arestillreferredtoby
theirArabicnames.[33][34]AlargecorpusofliteraturefromIslamicastronomy
remainstoday,numberingapproximately10,000manuscriptsscatteredthroughout Workintheobservatorium
theworld,manyofwhichhavenotbeenreadorcatalogued.Evenso,areasonably ofTaqialDin.
accuratepictureofIslamicactivityinthefieldofastronomycanbe
reconstructed.[35]

EarlyModernera

TheskiesaroundtheSouthCelestialPolearenotobservablefromnorthoftheequatorandwerenevercatalogued
bytheancientBabylonians,Greeks,ChineseandArabs.Themodernconstellationsinthisregionwerefirstdefined
duringtheageofexplorationbyPetrusPlancius,whousedtherecordsfromobservationsoftwelvenew
constellationsmadebytheDutchnavigatorsPieterDirkszoonKeyserandFrederickdeHoutmanattheendofthe
sixteenthcentury.TheywerelaterdepictedbyJohannBayerinhisstaratlasUranometriaof1603.[36]Several
morewerecreatedbyNicolasLouisdeLacailleinhisstarcatalogue,publishedin1756.[37]

SomemodernproposalsfornewconstellationswerenotsuccessfulanexampleisQuadrans,eponymousofthe
Quadrantidmeteors,nowdividedbetweenBotesandDracointhenorthernsky.Thelargeclassicalconstellation
ofArgoNaviswasbrokenupintothreeseparateparts(Carina,PuppisandVela),fortheconvenienceofstellar
cartographers.
Thecurrentlistof88constellations
recognizedbytheInternational
AstronomicalUnionsince1922is
basedonthe48listedbyPtolemyin
hisAlmagestinthe2ndcentury,
withearlymodernmodifications
andadditions(mostimportantly
introducingconstellationscovering
thepartsofthesouthernsky
Sketchofthesoutherncelestialsky unknowntoPtolemy)byPetrus
byPortugueseastronomerJooFaras Plancius(1592,1597/98and1613),
(May1,1500). JohannesHevelius(1690)and
NicolasLouisdeLacaille
(1763),[38][39][40]whonamedfourteenconstellationsandrenameda
fifteenthone.[41]DeLacaillestudiedthestarsofthesouthernhemisphere
from1750until1754fromCapeofGoodHope,whenhewassaidtohave Globefrom1602torepresentthe
observedmorethan10,000starsusinga0.5inches(13mm)refracting heavensmadebyWillemBlaeu
telescope.[41] (15711638).

IAUconstellations
In1922,HenryNorrisRussellaidedtheIAU(International
AstronomicalUnion)individingthecelestialsphereinto88
officialconstellations[42]Priortothis,Ptolemy'slistof48
constellationswithmanyadditionsmadebyEuropean
astronomershadprevailed.However,thesedivisionsdidnot
haveclearbordersbetweenthem.Itwasonlyin1930that
EugeneDelporte,theBelgianastronomercreatedan
authoritativemapdemarcatingtheareasofskyunderdifferent
constellations.[43]Wherepossible,thesemodernconstellations
usuallysharethenamesoftheirGraecoRomanpredecessors, Equirectangularplotofdeclinationvsright
suchasOrion,LeoorScorpius.Theaimofthissystemisarea ascensionofthemodernconstellationswithadotted
mapping,i.e.thedivisionofthecelestialsphereinto linedenotingtheecliptic.Constellationsarecolour
codedbyfamilyandyearestablished.
contiguousfields.[38]Outofthe88modernconstellations,36
(detailedview)(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipe
liepredominantlyinthenorthernsky,andtheother52
dia/commons/thumb/d/d4/Constellations_ecliptic_eq
predominantlyinthesouthern.
uirectangular_plot.svg/1000pxConstellations_eclipt
In1930,theboundariesbetweenthe88constellationswere ic_equirectangular_plot.svg.png)
devisedbyEugneDelportealongverticalandhorizontallines
ofrightascensionanddeclination.[44]However,thedataheusedoriginatedbacktoepochB1875.0,whichwas
whenBenjaminA.Gouldfirstmadehisproposaltodesignateboundariesforthecelestialsphere,asuggestion
uponwhichDelportewouldbasehiswork.Theconsequenceofthisearlydateisthatbecauseoftheprecessionof
theequinoxes,thebordersonamodernstarmap,suchasepochJ2000,arealreadysomewhatskewedandno
longerperfectlyverticalorhorizontal.[45]Thiseffectwillincreaseovertheyearsandcenturiestocome.

Asterisms
AnasterismisapatternofstarsrecognizedintheEarth'snightskyandmay
bepartofanofficialconstellation.Itmayalsobecomposedofstarsfrom
morethanoneconstellation.Thestarsofthemainasterismwithina
constellationareusuallygivenGreeklettersintheirorderofbrightness,the
socalledBayerdesignationintroducedbyJohannBayerin1603.Atotalof
1,564starsaresoidentified,outofapproximately10,000starsvisibletothe
nakedeye.[46]

Thebrighteststars,usuallythestarsthatmakeuptheconstellation's
eponymousasterism,alsoretainpropernames,oftenfromArabic.For
TheBigDipperasterism example,sixofthesevenstarsmakinguptheLittleDipperasterismofthe
constellationUrsaMinorhavepropernames,viz.Polaris(UMi),Kochab
(UMi),Pherkad(UMi),Yildun(UMi),AhfaalFarkadain(UMi)andAnwaralFarkadain(UMi).

Thestarswithinanasterismrarelyhaveanysubstantialastrophysicalrelationshiptoeachother,andtheirapparent
proximitywhenviewedfromEarthdisguisesthefactthattheyarefarapart,somebeingmuchfartherfromEarth
thanothers.However,therearesomeexceptions:almostallofthestarsintheconstellationofUrsaMajor
(includingmostoftheBigDipper)aregenuinelyclosetooneanother,travelthroughthegalaxywithsimilar
velocities,andarelikelytohaveformedtogetheraspartofaclusterthatisslowlydispersing.Thesestarsformthe
UrsaMajormovinggroup.

Eclipticcoordinatesystems
Theideaofdividingthecelestialsphereintoconstellations,understoodasareassurroundingasterisms,isearly
modern.Thecurrentlyusedboundariesbetweenconstellationsweredefinedin1930.Theconceptisultimately
derivedfromtheancienttraditionofdividingtheeclipticintotwelveequalpartsnamedfornearbyasterisms(the
Zodiac).Thisdefinedaneclipticcoordinatesystemwhichwasusedthroughoutthemedievalperiodandintothe
18thcentury.

Systemsofdividingtheecliptic(asopposedtodividingthecelestialsphereintoconstellationsinthemodern
sense)arealsofoundinChineseandHinduastronomy.InclassicalChineseastronomy,thenorthernskyisdivided
geometrically,intofive"enclosures"andtwentyeightmansionsalongtheecliptic,groupedintoFourSymbolsof
sevenasterismseach.Eclipticlongitudeismeasuredusing24Solarterms,eachof15longitude,andareusedby
Chineselunisolarcalendarstostaysynchronizedwiththeseasons,whichiscrucialforagrariansocieties.InHindu
astronomy,thetermfor"lunarmansion"isnkatra[47]InVedangaJyotisha,whichisderivedfromtheRikand
YajurJyotishatreatises,andisdatedbefore1600B.C,thezodiacisdividedinto27nkatras,eachnakshatra
covering1320'however,Abhijitthe28thnakshatrawasexcludedfromthistreatisethoughitswasinitiallyone
ofthe28partsoftheecliptic.LaterwiththeSiddhantacalendarofthezodiacsystemcomingintovogueVedanga
Jyotishabecameoutdated.[48][49][50]

Darkcloudconstellations
TheGreatRift,aseriesofdarkpatchesintheMilkyWay,ismorevisibleandstrikinginthesouthernhemisphere
thaninthenorthern.ItvividlystandsoutwhenconditionsareotherwisesodarkthattheMilkyWay'scentral
regioncastsshadowsontheground.[51]Somecultureshavediscernedshapesinthesepatchesandhavegiven
namestothese"darkcloudconstellations".MembersoftheIncacivilizationidentifiedvariousdarkareasordark
nebulaeintheMilkyWayasanimals,andassociatedtheirappearancewiththeseasonalrains.[52]Australian
Aboriginalastronomyalsodescribesdarkcloudconstellations,themostfamousbeingthe"emuinthesky"whose
headisformedbytheCoalsack,adarknebulaeinsteadofthestars.[53]
TheEmuintheskyaconstellationdefinedbydarkcloudsratherthanbystars.Theheadof
theemuistheCoalsackwiththeSouthernCrossdirectlyabove.Scorpiusistotheleft.

Seealso
88modernconstellations(byareaandlanguage)
ConstellationslistedbyPtolemy
ConstellationslistedbyPetrusPlancius(Dutchconstellations)
ConstellationslistedbyJohannesHevelius
ConstellationslistedbyLacaille
Listofconstellationsbyarea
Listofconstellationsindifferentlanguages
Listsofstarsbyconstellation
Constellationfamily
Historyoftheconstellations
Formerconstellations
Chineseconstellations

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30.Saliba(1999).
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Razaullah,HistoryofOrientalAstronomy,SpringerScience+BusinessMedia,pp.1932,ISBN1402006578
32.Medupe,RodneyThebeWarner,BrianJeppie,ShamilSanogo,SalikouMaiga,MohammedMaiga,AhmedDembele,
MamadouDiakite,DrissaTembely,LayaKanoute,MamadouTraore,SibiriSodio,BernardHawkes,Sharron(2008).
"TheTimbuktuAstronomyProject".InHolbrook,JaritaMedupe,RodneyUrama,Johnson.AfricanCultural
Astronomy.AstrophysicsandSpaceScienceProceedings.London:Springer.pp.179188.
Bibcode:2008ASSP....6..179M.doi:10.1007/9781402066399_13.ISBN9781402066382.
33.ArabicStarNames,IslamicCrescents'ObservationProject,20070501,archivedfromtheoriginalon2February2008,
retrieved20080124
34.Arabicinthesky,www.saudiramcoworld.org
35.Ilyas,Mohammad(1996).Islamicastronomyandsciencedevelopment:gloriouspast,challengingfuture(http://www.wo
rldcat.org/title/islamicastronomyandsciencedevelopmentgloriouspastchallengingfuture/oclc/35042921&referer=brief
_results).Malaysia:PelandukPublications.ISBN9679785491.
36.IanRidpath."Bayer'ssouthernstarchart".
37.IanRidpath."Lacaille'ssouthernplanisphere".
38."TheConstellations".IAUInternationalAstronomicalUnion.Retrieved29August2015.
39.IanRidpath."Constellationnames,abbreviationsandsizes".Retrieved30August2015.
40.IanRidpath."StarTalesTheAlmagest".Retrieved30August2015.
41."AbbNicolasLouisdeLacaille(17131762)".DepartmentofAstronomy.UniversityofWisconsinMadison.Retrieved
1August2016.
42."Theoriginalnamesandabbreviationsforconstellationsfrom1922".Retrieved20100131.
43.MarcLachizeReyJeanPierreLuminetBibliothqueNationaledeFrance.Paris(16July2001).CelestialTreasury:
FromtheMusicoftheSpherestotheConquestofSpace.CambridgeUniversityPress.p.80.ISBN9780521800402.
44."Constellationboundaries.".Retrieved20110524.
45.A.C.Davenhall&S.K.Leggett,"ACatalogueofConstellationBoundaryData"(http://cdsarc.ustrasbg.fr/ftp/cats/VI/49/
constell.pdf),(CentredeDonnesastronomiquesdeStrasbourg,February1990).
46.TheBrightStarCataloguelists9,110objectsofthenightskywhicharevisibletothenakedeye(apparentmagnitudeof
6.5orbrighter).9,096ofthesearestars,allofthemwellwithinourgalaxy.
47.InVedicSanskrit,thetermnkatramayrefertoanyheavenlybody,orto"thestars"collectively.Theclassicalsenseof
"lunarmansion"isfirstfoundintheAtharvaveda,andbecomestheprimarymeaningoftheterminClassicalSanskrit.
Theverbalrootnkmeans"toapproach,comenear".
48.TheAstrologicalMagazine.RamanPublications.2003.p.36.
49.Abbhyankar,Abbhyankar(1999).AstrophysicsoftheSolarSystem.UniversitiesPress.p.242.ISBN9788173711244.
50.Lal,Mohan(1992).EncyclopaediaofIndianLiterature:SasaytoZorgot.SahityaAkademi.p.4520.ISBN97881260
12213.
51.Rao,Joe."AGreatWeektoSeetheMilkyWay".Space.Retrieved5January2016.
52.TheIncanViewoftheNightSky(http://www.astronomy.pomona.edu/archeo/andes/inca.nightsky.html)
53.Bordeleau,AndrG.(22October2013).FlagsoftheNightSky:WhenAstronomyMeetsNationalPride.Springer
Science&BusinessMedia.pp.124.ISBN9781461409298.

Furtherreading
Mythology,lore,history,andarchaeoastronomy

Allen,RichardHinckley.(1899)StarNamesAndTheirMeanings,G.E.Stechert,NewYork,NewYork,
U.S.A.,hardcoverreprint1963asStarNames:TheirLoreandMeaning,DoverPublications,Inc.,Mineola,
NewYork,U.S.A.,ISBN9780486210797softcover.
Olcott,WilliamTyler.(1911)StarLoreofAllAges,G.P.Putnam'sSons,NewYork,NewYork,U.S.A.,
hardcoverreprint2004asStarLore:Myths,Legends,andFacts,DoverPublications,Inc.,Mineola,New
York,U.S.A.,ISBN9780486435817softcover.
Kelley,DavidH.andMilone,EugeneF.(2004)ExploringAncientSkies:AnEncyclopedicSurveyof
Archaeoastronomy,Springer,ISBN9780387953106hardcover.
Ridpath,Ian.(1989)StarTales,LutterworthPress,ISBN0718826957hardcover.
Staal,JuliusD.W.(1988)TheNewPatternsintheSky:MythsandLegendsoftheStars,McDonald&
WoodwardPublishingCo.,ISBN0939923106hardcover,ISBN0939923041softcover.
Rogers,JohnH.(1998)."OriginsoftheAncientContellations:I.TheMesopotamianTraditions".Journalof
theBritishAstronomicalAssociation.108:928.Bibcode:1998JBAA..108....9R.
Rogers,JohnH.(1998)."OriginsoftheAncientContellations:II.TheMediterraneanTraditions".Journalof
theBritishAstronomicalAssociation.108:7989.Bibcode:1998JBAA..108...79R.

Atlasesandcelestialmaps

General&NonspecializedEntireCelestialHeavens:

Becvar,Antonin.AtlasCoeli.PublishedasAtlasoftheHeavens,SkyPublishingCorporation,Cambridge,
Massachusetts,U.S.A.withcoordinategridtransparencyoverlay.
Norton,ArthurPhilip.(1910)Norton'sStarAtlas,20thEdition2003asNorton'sStarAtlasandReference
Handbook,editedbyRidpath,Ian,PiPress,ISBN9780131451643,hardcover.
NationalGeographicSociety.(1957,1970,2001,2007)TheHeavens(1970),CartographicDivisionofthe
NationalGeographicSociety(NGS),Washington,D.C.,U.S.A.,twosidedlargemapchartdepictingthe
constellationsoftheheavensasspecialsupplementtotheAugust1970issueofNationalGeographic.
ForerunnermapasAMapofTheHeavens,asspecialsupplementtotheDecember1957issue.Current
version2001(Tirion),with2007reprint.
Sinnott,RogerW.andPerryman,MichaelA.C.(1997)MillenniumStarAtlas,Epoch2000.0,SkyPublishing
Corporation,Cambridge,Massachusetts,U.S.A.,andEuropeanSpaceAgency(ESA),ESTEC,Noordwijk,
TheNetherlands.Subtitle:"AnAllSkyAtlasComprisingOneMillionStarstoVisualMagnitudeEleven
fromtheHipparcosandTychoCataloguesandTenThousandNonstellarObjects".3volumes,hardcover,in

hardcoverslipcase,setISBN0933346840.Vol.1,08Hours
hardcoverslipcase,setISBN0933346840.Vol.1,08Hours
(RightAscension),ISBN0933346816hardcoverVol.2,816
Hours,ISBN0933346824hardcoverVol.3,1624Hours,ISBN
0933346832hardcover.Softcoverversionavailable.Supplemental
separatepurchasablecoordinategridtransparentoverlays.
Tirion,Wiletal.(1987)Uranometria2000.0,WillmannBell,Inc.,
Richmond,Virginia,U.S.A.,3volumes,hardcover.Vol.1(1987):
"TheNorthernHemisphereto6",byWilTirion,BarryRappaport,
andGeorgeLovi,ISBN094339614Xhardcover,printedboards
(blue).Vol.2(1988):"TheSouthernHemisphereto+6",byWil
Tirion,BarryRappaportandGeorgeLovi,ISBN0943396158
hardcover,printedboards(red).Vol.3(1993)asaseparateadded
work:TheDeepSkyFieldGuidetoUranometria2000.0,byMurray
Cragin,JamesLucyk,andBarryRappaport,ISBN0943396387 Celestialmap,signsoftheZodiacand
hardcover,printedboards(gray).2ndEdition2001(blackordark lunarmansions.
background)ascollectivesetof3volumesVol.1:Uranometria
2000.0DeepSkyAtlas,byWilTirion,BarryRappaport,andWill
Remaklus,ISBN9780943396712hardcover,printedboards(blueedging)Vol.2:Uranometria2000.0
DeepSkyAtlas,byWilTirion,BarryRappaport,andWillRemaklus,ISBN9780943396729hardcover,
printedboards(greenedging)Vol.3:Uranometria2000.0DeepSkyFieldGuidebyMurrayCraginand
EmilBonanno,ISBN9780943396736,hardcover,printedboards(tealgreen).
Tirion,WilandSinnott,RogerW.(1998)SkyAtlas2000.0,variouseditions.2ndDeluxeEdition,Cambridge
UniversityPress,Cambridge,England(UK).

NorthernCelestialHemisphere&NorthCircumpolarRegion:

Becvar,Antonin.(1962)AtlasBorealis1950.0,CzechoslovakAcademyofSciences(Ceskoslovenske
AkademieVed),Praha,Czechoslovakia,1stEdition,elephantfoliohardcover,withsmalltransparency
overlaycoordinategridsquareandseparatepapermagnitudelegendruler.2ndEdition1972and1978
reprint,CzechoslovakAcademyofSciences(CeskoslovenskeAkademieVed),Prague,Czechoslovakia,and
SkyPublishingCorporation,Cambridge,Massachusetts,U.S.A.,ISBN0933346018oversizefolio
softcoverspiralbound,withtransparencyoverlaycoordinategridruler.

Equatorial,Ecliptic,&ZodiacalCelestialSky:

Becvar,Antonin.(1958)AtlasEclipticalis1950.0,CzechoslovakAcademyofSciences(Ceskoslovenske
AkademieVed),Praha,Czechoslovakia,1stEdition,elephantfoliohardcover,withsmalltransparency
overlaycoordinategridsquareandseparatepapermagnitudelegendruler.2ndEdition1974,Czechoslovak
AcademyofSciences(CeskoslovenskeAkademieVed),Prague,Czechoslovakia,andSkyPublishing
Corporation,Cambridge,Massachusetts,U.S.A.,oversizefoliosoftcoverspiralbound,withtransparency
overlaycoordinategridruler.

SouthernCelestialHemisphere&SouthCircumpolarRegion:

Becvar,Antonin.AtlasAustralis1950.0,CzechoslovakAcademyofSciences(CeskoslovenskeAkademie
Ved),Praha,Czechoslovakia,1stEdition,elephantfoliohardcover,withsmalltransparencyoverlay
coordinategridsquareandseparatepapermagnitudelegendruler.2ndEdition,CzechoslovakAcademyof
Sciences(CeskoslovenskeAkademieVed),Prague,Czechoslovakia,andSkyPublishingCorporation,
Cambridge,Massachusetts,U.S.A.,oversizefoliosoftcoverspiralbound,withtransparencyoverlay
coordinategridruler.

Catalogs
Becvar,Antonin.(1959)AtlasCoeliIIKatalog1950.0,Praha,1960Prague.Published1964asAtlasofthe
HeavensIICatalogue1950.0,SkyPublishingCorporation,Cambridge,Massachusetts,U.S.A.
Hirshfeld,AlanandSinnott,RogerW.(1982)SkyCatalogue2000.0,CambridgeUniversityPressandSky
PublishingCorporation,1stEdition,2volumes.LCCN81017975bothvols.,andLCCN83240310vol.1.
"Volume1:StarstoMagnitude8.0",ISBN0521247101(Cambridge)and0933346352(Sky)hardcover,
ISBN0933346344(Sky)softcover.Vol.2(1985)"Volume2:DoubleStars,VariableStars,and
NonstellarObjects",ISBN0521258189(Cambridge)hardcover,ISBN0521277213(Cambridge)
softcover.2ndEdition(1991)withadditionalthirdauthorFrangoisOchsenbein,2volumes,LCCN
91026764.Vol.1:ISBN0521417430(Cambridge)hardcover(blackbinding)ISBN0521427363
(Cambridge)softcover(redletteringwithHansVehrenbergastrophoto).Vol.2(1999):ISBN0521277213
(Cambridge)softcoverand0933346387(Sky)softcoverreprintof1985edition(blueletteringwithHans
Vehrenbergastrophoto).
YaleUniversityObservatory.(1908,etal.)CatalogueofBrightStars,NewHaven,Connecticut,U.S.A.
Referredtocommonlyas"BrightStarCatalogue".Variouseditionswithvariousauthorshistorically,the
longesttermrevisingauthoras(Ellen)DorritHoffleit.1stEdition1908.2ndEdition1940byFrank
SchlesingerandLouiseF.Jenkins.3rdEdition(1964),4thEdition,5thEdition(1991),and6thEdition
(pendingposthumous)byHoffleit.

Externallinks
IAU:TheConstellations(http://www.iau.org/public/constellations/),includinghighqualitymaps.
Atlascoelestis(http://www.atlascoelestis.com),diFeliceStoppa.
StarTales(http://www.ianridpath.com/startales/contents.htm)originsandmythologyoftheconstellations
(IanRidpath)
Celestia(http://celestia.sourceforge.net)free3Drealtimespacesimulation(OpenGL)
Stellarium(http://stellarium.free.fr/)realtimeskyrenderingprogram(OpenGL)
StrasbourgAstronomicalDataCenterFilesonofficialIAUconstellationboundaries(http://cdsweb.ustrasb
g.fr/vizbin/Cat?VI/49)
InteractiveSkyCharts(http://www.astro.wisc.edu/~dolan/constellations/)(Javaappletsallowingnavigation
throughtheentireskywithvariablestardetail,optionalconstellationlines)
StudiesofOccidentalConstellationsandStarNamestotheClassicalPeriod:AnAnnotatedBibliography(ht
tp://members.westnet.com.au/GaryDavidThompson/)
TableofConstellations(http://www.ianridpath.com/constellations1.htm)
OnlineText:Hyginus,AstronomicatranslatedbyMaryGrant(http://www.theoi.com/Text/HyginusAstronom
ica.html)GrecoRomanconstellationmyths
NeavePlanetarium(http://www.neave.com/planetarium/)AdobeFlashinteractivewebbrowserplanetarium
andstardomewithrealisticmovementofstarsandtheplanets.
AudioCain/Gay(2009)AstronomyCast(http://www.astronomycast.com/amateurastronomy/observing/ep
157constellations/)Constellations
ConstellationGuide(http://www.constellationguide.com/)Constellationfacts,myths,starsanddeepsky
objects.
TheGreekStarMap(http://solariapublications.com/2015/04/13/thegreekstarmap/)shortessaybyGavin
White

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