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# MTG 3212

January 29, 2009

Keep in mind that you are allowed to use any theorem from the book that was listed before
the problem. For instance, you can use Theorem 3.3.1 to prove Theorem 3.3.2 (and you
should).

3.2-3) An equilateral triangle is defined as a triangle where all three sides are congruent.
Show that an equilateral triangle is also equiangular (i.e., all three angles are congruent).
Ans: Let ABC be an equilateral triangle. Since AB = BC, the Isosceles Triangle Theorem
says that 6 A
= 6 C. Similarly, since AB = AC, the Isosceles Triangle Theorem says that
6 B = 6 C. Putting it together, 6 A
=6 C
= 6 B.

3.3-1) Prove Theorem 3.3.2, The Converse of the Isosceles Triangle Theorem. This states
that if two angles of a triangle are congruent, then the sides opposite of those angles are
congruent.
Ans: Let ABC be our triangle with 6 B = 6 C. Then we can say 6 ABC = 6 ACB,

BC = CB, and ACB = ABC. This gives us ASA, and so ABC = ACB (note that
6 6
the order of the letters matter: we have shown that the triangle is congruent to itself, only
with the vertices agreeing in a different order). Since the triangles are congruent, we may
conclude that AB = AC, which is exactly what we wanted to prove.

3.3-5) Prove Theorem 3.3.6: If two angles of a triangle are not congruent, then the sides
opposite of them are not congruent, and the larger side is opposite the larger angle.
Ans: Take the contrapositive of the first part of what I want you to prove: If two sides
are congruent, then the opposite angles are congruent. That is just the Isosceles Triangle
Theorem, (which is true), and so the first part of the theorem is true. Now the Inverse of
the Isosceles Triangle Theorem says: if AB < AC, then 6 C < 6 B. The contrapositive of
this is: if 6 C 6 B, then AB AC. If we replace 6 C 6 B with 6 C > 6 B, then we have
just shown that the other equality goes away also, and we are left with: if 6 C > 6 B, then
AB > AC. This is exactly what we wanted to prove.

3.3-6) Prove SSS (Theorem 3.3.9): If two triangles have congruent sides, then the two trian-
gles are congruent. The Hinge Theorem is your friend.
Ans: Let ABC and DEF have congruent sides. Assume that 6 A is not congruent to
6 D, say 6 A > 6 D. Then by the Hinge theorem, since AB = DE and AC = DF , we know
that BC > EF . This contradicts our original assumptions, and so 6 A
= 6 D. We now have
SAS, and so the two triangles are congruent.
3.3-10) Prove that two right triangles are congruent if the hypotenuse and a leg of one are
congruent, respectively, to the hypotenuse and the leg of the other. No, you may not use
SSA. A clever use of the Isosceles Triangle Theorem would do you well.
Ans: Let ABC and DEF be our two triangles with 6 C = 6 F = 90 , BC = EF and

AB = DE. We want to stick the two triangles together and make an isosceles triangle.
Officially, this is a bit of work: Extend out the segment DF , and then draw a line out from
E such that the angle this line makes with EF is congruent to 6 ABC. This line will intersect
DE at some point, which we will call G. By ASA, we can say that GEF = ABC. By

transitivity, all we need to show now is that GEF = DEF .
So, lets do that. Since GE = DE, we know E is on the perpendicular bisector of GD. Since
EF is perpendicular to GD, this means that F is the midpoint of GD, and so GF = DF .
We now have SSS for triangles GEF and DEF , which is all we need to say they are
congruent.
E

G F D