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ASME Definitions, Consumables, Welding Positions

ASME P Material Numbers Explained

ASME has adopted their own designation for welding processes, which are
very different from the ISO definitions adopted by EN24063.

Designation Description
OFW Oxyfuel Gas Welding
SMAW Shielded Metal Arc Welding (MMA)
SAW Submerged Arc Welding
GMAW Gas Metal Arc Welding (MIG/MAG)
FCAW Flux Cored Wire
GTAW Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (TIG)
PAW Plasma Arc Welding

Straight polarity = Electrode -ve

Reverse polarity = Electrode +ve

ASME F Numbers

General Description
1 Heavy rutile coated iron powder electrodes :- A5.1 : E7024
2 Most Rutile consumables such as :- A5.1 : E6013
3 Cellulosic electrodes such as :- A5.1 : E6011
4 Basic coated electrodes such as : A5.1 : E7016 and E7018
5 High alloy austenitic stainless steel and duplex :- A5.4 : E316L-16
6 Any steel solid or cored wire (with flux or metal)
2X Aluminium and its alloys
3X Copper and its alloys
4X Nickel alloys
5X Titanium
6X Zirconium
7X Hard Facing Overlay

Note:- X represents any number 0 to 9

ASME A Numbers
These refer to the chemical analysis of the deposited weld and not the parent
material. They only apply to welding procedures in steel materials.

A1 Plain unalloyed carbon manganese steels.

A2 to A4 Low alloy steels containing Moly and Chrome Moly
A8 Austenitic stainless steels such as type 316.

ASME Welding Positions Graphic Representation

Note the welding progression, (vertically upwards or downwards), must

always be stated and it is an essential variable for both procedures and
performance qualifications.

Welding Positions For Groove welds:-

Welding Position Test Position ISO and EN

Flat 1G PA
Horizontal 2G PC
Vertical Upwards Progression 3G PF
Vertical Downwards Progression 3G PG
Overhead 4G PE
Pipe Fixed Horizontal 5G PF
Pipe Fixed @ 45 degrees Upwards 6G HL045
Pipe Fixed @ 45 degrees Downwards 6G JL045

Welding Positions For Fillet welds:-

Welding Position Test Position ISO and EN

Flat (Weld flat joint at 45 degrees) 1F PA
Horizontal 2F PB
Horizontal Rotated 2FR PB
Vertical Upwards Progression 3F PF
Vertical Downwards Progression 3F PG
Overhead 4F PD
Pipe Fixed Horizontal 5F PF

Welding Positions QW431.1 and QW461.2

Basically there are three inclinations involved.

Flat, which includes from 0 to 15 degrees inclination

15 - 80 degrees inclination

Vertical, 80 - 90 degrees

For each of these inclinations the weld can be rotated from the flat position to
Horizontal to overhead.


C Carbon Most effective hardening element in steel
Mn Manganese Hardening element second to carbon
Si Silicon Deoxidizer, moderate strengthener
P Phosphorus Causes cracking if too high
S Sulfur Aids in machining - Cracking problems like
Cr Chromium Hardness (low) - corrosion resistance
Ni Nickel Hardening element - better cold toughness
Mo Molybdenum Hardenability - high temp tensile -
creep strength
B Boron Very small amounts increase hardness
Cu Copper Corrosion resistance (low) - cracking
Al Aluminum Deoxidizer - improves mechanical
Ti Titanium Removes: Oxygen, S, N, and C
N Nitrogen Improves strength - lowers toughness
Cb Columbium Hardness - Improves mechanical
V Vanadium Hardness - Improves mechanical

ASME P-Numbers

To reduce the number of welding and brazing procedure qualifications required base metals
have been assigned P-Numbers by the ASME BPVC. Ferrous metals which have specified
impact test requirements have been assigned Group Numbers within P-Numbers.

These assignments have been based on comparable base metal characteristics, such as:



Mechanical Properties

Indiscriminant substitution of materials in a set of P-Numbers or Group Numbers may lead to

problems or potentially failures. Engineering assessment is necessary prior to a change in

When a base metal with a UNS number Designation is assigned a P-Number, then a base
metal listed in a different ASME material specification with the same UNS number shall be
considered that P-Number.

The table below is a guide and is for instructive purposes only. Anyone specifying materials
or requirements should refer directly to the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code to specify
materials, P-Numbers, procedures, or other requirements and not rely on the table below.
The table below is only a rather incomplete and approximate summary of ASME data.

P-Numbers Base Metal (Typical or Example)

1 Carbon Manganese Steels (four Group Numbers)

2 Not Used

3 Half Molybdenum or half Chromium, half Molybdenum (three Group Num

4 One and a quarter Chromium, half Molybdenum (two Group Numbers)

5A Two and a quarter Chromium, one Molybdenum

5B Five Chromium, half Molybdenum or nine Chromium, one Molybdenum (

5C Chromium, Molybdenum, Vanadium (five Group Numbers)

6 Martensitic Stainless Steels (Grade 410, 415, 429) (six Group Numbers)

7 Ferritic Stainless Steels (Grade 409, 430)

Austenitic Stainless Steels

Group 1 - Grades 304, 316, 317, 347

8 Group 2 - Grades 309, 310

Group 3 - High Manganese Grades

Group 4 - High Molybdenum Grades

9A, B, C Two to four Nickel Steels

10A, B, C, F Various low alloy steels

10H Duplex and Super Duplex Stainless Steel (Grades 31803, 32750)

10I High Chromium Stainless Steel

10J High Chromium, Molybdenum Stainless Steel

10K High Chromium, Molybdenum, Nickel Stainless Steel

11A Various high strength low alloy steels (six Group Numbers)

11B Various high strength low alloy steels (ten Group Numbers)

12 to 20 Not Used

21 High Aluminum content (1000 and 3000 series)

22 Aluminum (5000 series - 5052, 5454)

23 Aluminum (6000 series 6061, 6063)

24 Not Used

25 Aluminum (5000 series - 5083, 5086, 5456)

26 to 30 Not used

31 High Copper content

32 Brass

33 Copper Silicone

34 Copper Nickel

35 Copper Aluminum

36 to 40 Not Used

41 High Nickel content

42 Nickel, Copper - (Monel 500)

43 Nickel, Chromium, Iron - (Inconel)

44 Nickel, Molybdenum (Hastelloy B2, C22, C276, X)

45 Nickel, Chromium
46 Nickel, Chromium, Silicone

47 Nickel, Chromium, Tungsten

47 to 50 Not Used

51, 52, 53 Titanium Alloys

61, 62 Zirconium Alloys

Identification of weld metal chemical composition designated on the PQR and
WPS shall be as given in QW-404.5.
Table QW-442
Classification of Ferrous Weld Metal Analysis for Procedure Qualification
ANo. Types of Weld Deposit
Analysis, % [Note (1)] and [Note (2)]
C Cr Mo Ni Mn Si
1 Mild Steel 0.20 0.20 0.30 0.50 1.60 1.00
2 CarbonMolybdenum 0.15 0.50 0.400.65 0.50 1.60 1.00
3 Chrome (0.4% to 2%)Molybdenum 0.15 0.402.00 0.400.65 0.50
1.60 1.00
4 Chrome (2% to 4%)Molybdenum 0.15 2.004.00 0.401.50 0.50
1.60 2.00
5 Chrome (4% to 10.5%)Molybdenum 0.15 4.0010.50 0.401.50 0.80
1.20 2.00
6 ChromeMartensitic 0.15 11.0015.00 0.70 0.80 2.00 1.00
7 ChromeFerritic 0.15 11.0030.00 1.00 0.80 1.00 3.00
8 ChromiumNickel 0.15 14.5030.00 4.00 7.5015.00 2.50 1.00
9 ChromiumNickel 0.30 19.0030.00 6.00 15.0037.00 2.50 1.00
10 Nickel to 4% 0.15 0.50 0.55 0.804.00 1.70 1.00
11 ManganeseMolybdenum 0.17 0.50 0.250.75 0.85 1.252.25 1.00
12 NickelChromeMolybdenum 0.15 1.50 0.250.80 1.252.80 0.75
2.25 1.00
(1) Single values shown above are maximum.
(2) Only listed elements are used to determine A-numbers.

Test Method Illustration

Brinell Hardness Testing

D = Ball diameter
d = impression diameter
F = load
HB = Brinell result